WorldWideScience

Sample records for china policy program

  1. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1983-01-01

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  2. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  3. A model based on stochastic dynamic programming for determining China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Fan Ying; Wei Yiming

    2009-01-01

    China's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is currently being prepared. But how large the optimal stockpile size for China should be, what the best acquisition strategies are, how to release the reserve if a disruption occurs, and other related issues still need to be studied in detail. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model based on a total potential cost function of establishing SPRs to evaluate the optimal SPR policy for China. Using this model, empirical results are presented for the optimal size of China's SPR and the best acquisition and drawdown strategies for a few specific cases. The results show that with comprehensive consideration, the optimal SPR size for China is around 320 million barrels. This size is equivalent to about 90 days of net oil import amount in 2006 and should be reached in the year 2017, three years earlier than the national goal, which implies that the need for China to fill the SPR is probably more pressing; the best stockpile release action in a disruption is related to the disruption levels and expected continuation probabilities. The information provided by the results will be useful for decision makers.

  4. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  5. Using stockpile delegation to improve China's strategic oil policy: A multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Mu, Hailin; Li, Huanan; Gui, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    There has been much attention paid to oil security in China in recent years. Although China has begun to establish its own strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) to prevent potential losses caused by oil supply interruptions, the system aiming to ensure China's oil security is still incomplete. This paper describes and provides evidence for the benefits of an auxiliary strategic oil policy choice, which aims to strengthen China's oil supply security and offer a solution for strategic oil operations with different holding costs. In this paper, we develop a multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming model to analyze the oil stockpile delegation policy, which is an intermediate policy between public and private oil stockpiles and is appropriate for the Chinese immature private oil stockpile sector. The model examines the effects of the oil stockpile delegation policy in the context of several distinct situations, including normal world oil market conditions, slight oil supply interruption, and serious oil supply interruption. Operating strategies that respond to different oil supply situations for both the SPR and the delegated oil stockpile were obtained. Different time horizons, interruption times and holding costs of delegated oil stockpiles were examined. The construction process of China's SPR was also taken into account. - Highlights: • We provided an auxiliary strategic oil policy rooted in Chinese local conditions. • The policy strengthen China's capability for preventing oil supply interruption. • We model to obtain the managing strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve. • Both of the public and delegated oil stockpile were taken into consideration. • The three phase's construction process of China's SPR was taken into account

  6. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  7. What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student Nutrition Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…

  8. Progress and policy implication of the Insurance Programs for Catastrophic Diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenhui; Zhang, Luying; Chen, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The State Council encouraged the involvement of commercial insurance companies (CICs) in the development of the Insurance Program for Catastrophic Diseases (IPCD), yet its implementation has rarely been reported. We collected literature and policy documentation and conducted interviews in 10 cities with innovative IPCD policies to understand the details of the implementation of IPCD. IPCDs are operated at the prefectural level in 14 provinces, while in 4 municipalities and 6 provinces, unified IPCDs have been implemented at higher levels. The contribution level varied from 5% to 10% of total Basic Medical Insurance (BMI) funds or CNY10-35 per beneficiary in 2015. IPCD provides an additional 50% to 70% reimbursement rate for the expenses not covered by BMI with various settings in different locations. Two models of CIC operation of IPCD have been identified according to the financial risks shared by CICs. Either the local department of Human Resources and Social Security or a third party performs assessments of the IPCD operation, service quality, and patients' satisfaction. A number of IPCDs have been observed to use 1% to 5% of the funds as a performance-based payment to the CIC(s). CIC involvement in operating the IPCD raises concerns regarding the security of the information of beneficiaries. Developing appropriate data sharing mechanisms between the local department of Human Resources and Social Security and CICs is still in progress. In conclusion, the IPCD relieves the financial burden on patients by providing further reimbursement, but its benefit package remains limited to the BMI reimbursable list. CICs play an important role in monitoring and supervising health service provision, yet their capacity for actuarial services or risk control is underdeveloped. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. China and the United States - A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    impact on the development and adoption of clean energy technologies. Most of the large industries in China (such as steel, petrochemicals, and...the following universal energy conservation technologies: (1) promote the wide use of cogeneration of heat and power and district heating, increase...projects from collectives can operate cogeneration facilities providing thermal energy for heating or hot water. Biomass-fueled electricity is

  10. An Assessment of China’s Anti-Satellite and Space Warfare Programs, Policies and Doctrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-19

    Zhu Rinzhong, “The Theory of GPS and Methods of Countering It,” Junshi xueshu, May 1999, pp. 5859, in Dean Cheng, “The Chinese Space Program: A 21st...Haijun Xueshu Yanjiu 海军学术研究 Military Economics Research Junshi Jingji Yanjiu 军事经济研究 Modern Military Branches Xiandai Bingzhong 现代兵种 Air Force Logistics

  11. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and

  12. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  13. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  14. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  15. The One-Child Policy and Privatization of Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guangyu

    2012-01-01

    China's one-child policy is one of the most significant, yet controversial, programs of planned fertility. While the focus of the controversy is on the nature of the policy (for example, whether the policy is humane, or whether it violates the basic human rights of individual freedom), the impact of such population control program on China's…

  16. Energy conservation policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T; Roland, K [ECON-Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (NO)

    1992-02-01

    Energy market developments and the state of the environment will be decisive for economic growth and modernization of Chinese society. Lack of adequate energy supplies could in the future seriously impair the growth potential of the economy, as it has partly done during the 1980s. Environmental damage creates major health problems for the population and hamper the productive capacity of Chinese agriculture and industry. One obvious and effective measure to meet these challenges is a policy that pursues more efficient use of energy supplies. China achieved impressive results in energy efficiency improvements during the 1980s, largely on the back of the cheapest and most obvious conservation opportunities. These are now exhausted. Further improvements will require stronger measures. It is difficult to see how the current rate of economic growth (above 6 per cent) and energy efficiency improvements can be sustained without comprehensive market reforms. Economic growth and development is however, in Chinese policy, subordinate to political stability and continuity. The disruption of the political and economic reform processes in 1988-9 was largely motivated by a perceived fear of political instability and disintegration of the state. Thus, there may exist some degree of conflict between the objective of strong economic growth and the existing 'social order and stability'. To balance the potential conflict inherent in this development process is the big challenge facing Chinese society for the coming decades. (author).

  17. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  18. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  19. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  1. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  2. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  3. Effective policies for renewable energy - the example of China's wind power - lessons for China's photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO 2 , needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were adopted. In this paper, I review the main renewable energy policies regarding to China's wind power, including the Wind Power Concession Program, Renewable Energy Law, and a couple of additional laws and regulations. Such policies have effectively reduced the cost of wind power installed capacity, stimulated the localization of wind power manufacture, and driven the company investment in wind power. China is success in wind power installed capacity, however, success in wind-generated electricity has yet achieved, mainly due to the backward grid system and lack of quota system. The paper ends with the recommended best practice of the China's wind power installed capacity might be transferable to China's photovoltaic power generation. (author)

  4. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  5. On China's Education Marketization Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Ning

    2005-01-01

    The education market emerged in China since 1990s, which triggered heated debate among education circle. This paper explores the development forms which education market took on, analyses its pros and cons and investigates the measures should be adopted to revamp the holes of the unripe education market. (Contains 6 footnotes.)

  6. Factoring Central Asia into China's Afghanistan policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Dhaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China's footprints in Afghanistan are vied by many, both, friends and rivals as it cautiously reveals its geostrategic goals. It would like to emulate the African and Central Asian success story in Afghanistan as well, which is not terra incognito. Afghanistan has been the fulcrum of geopolitical balance of power during the Cold war days. China's Afghanistan policy (CAP is marked by its insecurities of terrorism, extremism and separatism in Xinjiang province. It has heavily invested in procuring Central Asian energy resources. Both, the concerns go well in formulation of CAP. However, the presence of the US and Russia make the scenario competitive, where its ‘Peaceful Rise’ may be contested. Besides, China sees South Asian Region as its new Geoeconomic Frontier. All these concerns get factored into CAP. It remains to be seen what options partake in CAP, as China prepares for durable presence in Afghanistan in the long run.

  7. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  8. Electric mobility in China. A policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagscherer, Ulrike

    2012-02-15

    In 2009, the annual car production in China was 13.8 million cars, a year-on-year increase of more than 48% (Sun 2010: 3). In 2010, automobile production reached 18,264,700 units, an increase of 32.4% compared with 2009. China's share of the global market for car sales amounts to 20%, up from 13% (Sun 2010: 4). China became the biggest car market in the world in 2010 (China Association of Automobile Manufacturers CAAM 2011). Considering the car ownership per capita, there is still a huge development potential for the Chinese car market. And it is exactly this huge development potential which makes analysts believe that China will become the largest market for electric vehicles in the future. This belief is shared by the Chinese government, and the government has implemented or drafted several different policies and rules to support and speed up the development of electric vehicles. At the highest policy-making level, the Chinese government adopted the development of electric vehicles in its highest priority national plan, the 12{sup th} Five-Year Plan (12 FYP 2011-2015). At the same time, the electric vehicle industry has been selected as one of the seven strategic emerging industries by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). This again has also been manifested in the 12 FYP. The overall goals foresee a rapid development of electrification of cars in China and by 2015 the number of electric cars on Chinese streets should reach 1 million. The following analysis will take a deeper look into the different policies that are behind these developments in order to increase the understanding of the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Hence, contributing to an evaluation of the current development in this field is one of the major goals of this working paper. As in all other countries, there is no single policy dedicated to electric mobility in China today. Yet there are many different policies from different ministries and agencies with

  9. Food security policies in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...

  10. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  11. Energy efficiency policies in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappoz, Loic; Laponche, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Most papers dealing with energy efficiency policies focus on the policies and measures implemented in OECD countries and this may lead one to think that only the 'rich' countries are developing efforts in this field. International experience shows that emerging countries and even poor developing countries understand that energy efficiency is a prerequisite for their economic and environmentally friendly development. Among these countries, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam have implemented particularly interesting policies, some of which were launched several decades ago. Moreover the Agence Francaise de developpement (AFD) has active cooperation programs in these five countries. This study describes the current situation and recent trends in final energy demand in these countries as well as the policies and measures they are implementing in the field of end-use energy efficiency. (authors)

  12. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  13. China's Population Policy at the Crossroads: Social Impacts and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    China's total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China's population policy evolve in the future? This paper first reviews the history of China's population policy since 1970 in terms of three stages: 1970-1979; ...

  14. Correlates of Smoke-Free Home Policies in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 63.7% of nonsmokers in China are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS in their homes. The current study documents the prevalence and correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, as well as reasons for implementing such a policy and places where smoking is most commonly allowed. Methods. We conducted in-person surveys of 500 participants using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district. Results. Overall, 35.3% had a smoke-free home policy. In the logistic regression, having higher income, not having smokers in the home, having children in the home, having fewer friends/relatives who permit smoking at home, and not being a current smoker were correlates of having a smoke-free home policy P<0.05. Concern about the health impact of SHS was reportedly the most important reason for establishing a smoke-free home. Among participants with no or partial bans, the most common places where smoking was allowed included the living room (64.2%, kitchen (46.1%, and bathroom (33.8%. Conclusions. Smoke-free home policies were in place for a minority of households surveyed. Establishing such a policy was influenced by personal smoking behavior and social factors. These findings suggest an urgent need to promote smoke-free home policies through tobacco control programs.

  15. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram

    2017-12-07

    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  16. China's Indigenous IP Policies -- Here to Stay?

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, foreign businesses and governments welcomed measures believed to dramatically reform a highly controversial branch of China’s indigenous innovation policy which provided government procurement preferences to applicants who can meet restrictive indigenous intellectual property (IP) rights requirements. However, this article describes specific examples of (what can be labeled) China’s “indigenous IP policy” that are still very much in force, in particular several programs link...

  17. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars Network - Phase II. This project builds on an earlier phase, Poverty and Inequality Research Network for China ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans ...

  18. English in China's Language Policies for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Taking ecological language planning and policy as its conceptual orientation and interpretive policy analysis as its methodological framework, and following an embedded single-case study design, this study explores the role of English, as compared with the role of Chinese, in China's educational language planning and policy for higher education.…

  19. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars Network - Phase II ... and the social dimensions of the crisis and post-crisis policy; rural economic ... at fostering effective, long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, ...

  20. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  1. The effectiveness of China's wind power policy: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Li, Shujie; Zhang, Sufang; Yang, Rui; Liu, Suwei

    2016-01-01

    Along with China's rapid industrialization and urbanization, challenges in reducing pollution and CO_2 emissions are increasing. One of the major approaches to coordinate economic growth and environmental protection is to substitute coal-fired power with renewable energy. Since 2003, in order to promote wind power development, China has put in place many support policies which fall into either price policy category or non-price policy category. By using a variable intercept and mixed regression model with provincial panel data during 2001–2013, we analyzed the impacts of both categories on the increase of installed capacity in areas with different wind resources. We found that price policy and two non-price policies had positive impacts on the increase of wind power installation, price policy played a greater role than non-price policy did in promoting wind power development, and price policy was more effective in areas with poor wind resources, whilst non- price policy was more effective in areas with rich wind resources. Built on these findings, conclusions and policy recommendations are provided at the end of the paper. - Highlights: •We study the impact of price policy on China's new wind power capacity. •Four non-price policies impact on China's new wind power capacity is studied. •Price policy is more effective in wind power increase than non-price policy. •Price policy is more effective than non-price policy in wind non-rich areas. •Non-price policy is more effective than price policy in wind rich areas.

  2. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  3. Policies for Industrial Learning in China and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin P. Gallagher; Mehdi Shafaeddin

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the results of both China and Mexicos export-led market reforms over the past quarter century have been strikingly different. In contrast to China, Mexico has not managed to increase the value added of its exports of manufactured goods and has subsequently had a difficult time competing with China in world markets. Building on this previous work, in this paper we conduct a comparative analysis of the role of government policies in industrial learning and the devel...

  4. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  5. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...

  6. The One-Child Policy and School Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…

  7. EU'S ANTIDUMPING POLICIES TOWARDS CHINA AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CLINCI, Ionut Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper first tries to describe the antidumping measures and to explain how they work in the trade relations between EU and China. Then it tries to explain the implications of the antidumping measures from an economic perspective. Finally, the paper tries to answer the question whether the EU discriminates China in its antidumping policies.

  8. The development of alcohol policy in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, an increase in alcohol-related problems has been noted in China. Taking effective measures against the problem requires clear reviewing and understanding of the evolution of the Chinese alcohol policy. This study is aimed to evaluate the alcohol policy with special focus on reviewing the alcohol production and consumption situation in China and assessing the changes in Chinese alcohol policy along with other related fields. This article finishes with a set of recommended policy changes that could help solve the recent alcohol-related problems and analyze the major impediments.

  9. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  10. Liquidity Constraints and the Centralized Home Mortgage Policy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates China's centralized mortgage policy in general, and evaluates the policy change in 2011: the minimum down payment was dramatically raised to 60% of the home price. Using our previously developed structural model, we recover the unobserved liquidity wealth levels of individ......This paper investigates China's centralized mortgage policy in general, and evaluates the policy change in 2011: the minimum down payment was dramatically raised to 60% of the home price. Using our previously developed structural model, we recover the unobserved liquidity wealth levels...

  11. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... of which support the policy intention of central government according to our own understanding, whereas the effects differ depending on the group, region and period. This research provides a detailed understanding of the treatment effects of the SLCP and thus, contributes to the on-going political debate...

  12. Barriers and enablers of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS program in China: a systematic review and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxin Peng

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: Experience in China suggests that the government’s role in coordination and the acceptability and accessibility of the service should be the primary concerns in regard to the PMTCT project.

  13. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xianqiang, E-mail: maoxq@bnu.edu.cn [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: songpeng_ee@163.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, B1-04, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Corsetti, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.corsetti@gmail.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  14. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  15. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  16. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China. (author)

  17. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  18. United States policy initiatives in promoting the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.

    1996-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been successful in furthering efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate highly enriched uranium (HEU) from international commerce. Three key policy initiatives are underway to further promote the RERTR program. The first initiative is implementation of a new nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Under this policy, the United States will accept over the next 13 years research reactor spent fuel from 41 countries that have converted or plan to convert to use LEU fuels. The second initiative is to pursue cooperative efforts to expand the RERTR program to new regions of the globe, including Russia and China. The third initiative is to restart the advanced LEU fuels development program at the Argonne National Laboratory in order to increase the number of reactors that can convert to use LEU without significant detriment to their performance

  19. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  20. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  1. An Evaluation of Urban Renewal Policies of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwen Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal is a pragmatic approach in the sustainable urban development of urban areas, and has now become an essential strategy for most metropolises in China. The question of how urban renewal can best be realized has gained the attention of urban planning researchers looking to formulate practical evidence-based urban renewal policies through policy instruments. This paper analyzes the urban renewal policies of Shenzhen, a pioneer city in China in the promulgation of urban renewal legislation. In doing so, an analytical framework is established by focusing on three main policy instruments, along with several sub-instruments within them. Shenzhen’s five main urban renewal policies, issued between 2009 and 2016, are analyzed through this framework. Content analysis and pattern-matching is used in the review and analysis of the data. The results show that “Environment” side policies tend to be the most widely applied by the Shenzhen municipal government. Additionally, “Regulation Control” and “Goal-planning” policies are the two instruments most frequently adopted as sub-instruments. Moreover, it is found that the application of “Supply” side polices and “Demand” side polices needs be strengthened. These findings identify the types of urban renewal policies currently employed in China and provide a clear understanding of the current policy priorities, with suggestions and insight into further urban renewal policy initiatives for Shenzhen and beyond.

  2. Policy Recommendations for Developing Foreign-invested Enterprise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原磊

    2008-01-01

    China has undergone the three major stages in its development of foreign-invested enterprise: exploratory development, accelerated development and innovative development. This harnessing of foreign investment has resulted in tremendous success for China, including making up for the funds shortage for economic construction, promoting corporate technological progress and management expertise, easing employment pressure, increasing fiscal revenue and boosting trade. At the same time, there have been problems, including questions of economic security, environment and energy issues, unequal competition and problems with the management of foreign-invested enterprises. To promote the development of foreign-invested enterprises in both a healthy and rapid fashion, China should look toward "maintaining policy continuity, promoting the forward-looking nature of policy, strengthening policy guidance and highlighting policy innovativeness."

  3. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) Duri...

  4. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM 2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  5. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    global issues on which the Obama Administration has sought to work with China are the international financial crisis, climate change, and nuclear non-proliferation. In remarks in July 2009, President Obama declared that partnership between the United States and China was a prerequisite for progress on many of the most pressing global challenges. Continuing major bilateral issues in the relationship include trade and...into the Obama Administration, U.S. officials point to some successes in their efforts to work with China on global issues , including

  6. Testimony before the US-China Economic Security Review Commission: China's Agriculture Policy and US Access to China's Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot J. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission on April 25, 2013, by Dermot Hayes, professor of Economics and Finance, Iowa State University. Testimony covers impacts on food demand from China's rising incomes and urbanization; the viability of China's attempt to remain self-sufficient in meat and key staple crop production under inherent supply constraints, and the possible technological- and policy-based measures they may pursue in regard of such constraints; and, the...

  7. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. An Analysis of China's Fertilizer Policies: Impacts on the Industry, Food Security, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Lin; Huang, Gaoqiang; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2013-07-01

    China has made remarkable strides in recent decades to grow enough food to feed 20% of the world's population with only 9% of the world's arable land. Meanwhile, the nation is experiencing exacerbated air and water pollution problems. Agricultural growth and the pollution aggravation are closely linked with policies affecting fertilizer production and use. Essentially nonexistent in 1950, China's fertilizer industry is now a robust conglomerate producing fertilizers in amounts that not only meet domestic demand but also contribute to international trade. The industry's growth stemmed from a series of policy progressions, featuring (i) a total control system with state ownership and central planning (1949-1984), (ii) a dual system of central planning and market adjustment (1985-1997), (iii) a market-driven system with government-mandated price caps (1998-2009), and (iv) a complete market-oriented system (since 2009). In conjunction with the policy changes were massive subsidy programs totaling more than $18 billion in 2010. The support policies and subsidies helped grow the industry and safeguard an adequate supply of fertilizers at affordable costs to farmers, but the artificially low-priced fertilizers also contributed to a nationwide trend of fertilizer overuse, leading to nutrient pollution. China needs innovative policies and programs to address food security and sustainability challenges. In this study, we review and analyze policies and programs related to China's fertilizer production and use in a 60-yr span (1950-2010) and discuss its impact on the development of the industry, food security, and pressing environmental issues. Finally, our study analyzes long-term trends in fertilizer use in China and offers some key viewpoints to stimulate debates among all stakeholders. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Comparing climate policies to reduce carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter mainly due to growing consumption of fossil fuels. In 2009, the Chinese government committed itself to reducing domestic carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. Therefore, it is a top priority for the Chinese government to adopt efficient policy instruments to reduce its carbon intensity. Against this background, this paper develops a general equilibrium model and seeks to provide empirical contributions by comparing the potential impacts of several different policy options to reduce China's carbon emissions. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, these climate policies would affect the structure of economy and contribute to carbon emissions reduction and carbon intensity reduction. Secondly, there would be significant differences in the economic and environmental effects among different climate policies and hence, the government would trade-off among different economic objectives to overcome any potential resistances. Thirdly, there would be considerable differences in the emissions effects of absolute and intensity-based carbon emissions controls, implying that the government might adopt different climate policies for absolute or intensity-based carbon emissions controls. Looking ahead, the government should trade-off among different objectives when designing climate reforms. - Highlights: • We develop a static general equilibrium model to simulate the impacts of climate policies. • We compare the potential impacts of various climate policies in China. • We discuss how to design these policies to make them more effective

  10. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  11. Mobile telecom policy and business development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Congliang; Teng, Yong; Sun, Jinjun

    2001-10-01

    It is an interesting that you research on mobile telecom policy and business development in China. China is a developing country, and she is one of the biggest countries in the world. There has a potential advantage in increasing mobile users in China. The wireless communication business developed fast and stable in the last 10 years, and it caused special concern in the world. So the question is why it does and how to do? You will be clear to know these after some researched results as follows: Do not forget the backward history in telecom technology; Pull competition mechanism into telecom business; Cooperation and some limited principles; China user group and characters; The condition of China telecom manufacture industry; Telecom business development strategy and policy dynamic adjusted. Focusing our attention on mobile telecom policy and business development in China, there will have great interest reliability for every one invested telecom business in the world. There is an important thing to find one good method to control market with competition in developing country.

  12. China's Biotech Policies and Their Impacts on U.S. Agricultural Exports to China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baohui; Marchant, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    China is a key player in global agricultural markets, and the number one importer of U.S. soybeans and cotton, whereby soybeans and cotton are two of the main biotech commodities commercialized in the United States. As of 2005, 87% of soybeans and 79% of cotton planted in the U.S. were biotech. Thus, changes in China's biotech policies may have a significant impact on U.S. biotech commodity exports to China. An understanding of the evolution of China's biotech regulations and factors that may...

  13. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    Both the EU and China are among the largest CO2 emitters in the world; their climate actions and policies have profound impacts on global climate change and may influence the activities in other countries. Evidence of climate change has been observed across Europe and China. Despite the many differences between the two regions, the European Commission and Chinese government support climate change actions. The EU has three priority areas in climate change: 1) understanding, monitoring and predicting climate change and its impact; 2) providing tools to analyse the effectiveness, cost and benefits of different policy options for mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts; 3) improving, demonstrating and deploying existing climate friendly technologies and developing the technologies of the future. China is very vulnerable to climate change, because of its vast population, fast economic development, and fragile ecological environment. The priority policies in China are: 1) Carbon Trading Policy; 2) Financing Loan Policy (Special Funds for Renewable Energy Development); 3) Energy Efficiency Labelling Policy; 4) Subsidy Policy. In addition, China has formulated the "Energy Conservation Law", "Renewable Energy Law", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" and "Circular Economy Promotion Law". Under the present EU Framework Programme FP7 there is a large number of funded research activities linked to climate change research. Current climate change research projects concentrate on the carbon cycle, water quality and availability, climate change predictors, predicting future climate and understanding past climates. Climate change-related scientific and technological projects in China are mostly carried out through national scientific and technological research programs. Areas under investigation include projections and impact of global climate change, the future trends of living environment change in China, countermeasures and supporting technologies of global

  14. Exchange rate policy, growth, and foreign trade in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a hot topic: the influence of an undervalued currency on macroeconomic variables - primarily on the economic growth and trade balance of a country, but also on employment, foreign exchange reserves, competition, and living standards. It also reviews and explains the consequences of yuan undervaluation, points out the need for its appreciation, and states the negative effects that stem from this measure. Special attention is given to the problematic bilateral relations between China and the USA and the reasons why Americans are worried about the exchange rate policy that China implements. Although yuan appreciation would decrease the American foreign trade deficit, it also raises the question of further financing of the American deficit. There are also other problems that the possible appreciation would cause for the American economy, due to the effect of J-curve, passthrough, larger costs of input imported from China, etc. Therefore, Chinese foreign exchange policy is an important subject, but it is not the solution to the problems of the global economy - which have deeper roots than that. However, there is no excuse for China implementing unfair exchange rate policies, or replacing such policies with controversial protectionist policies (as some authors have suggested.

  15. China's policy in the Arctic: tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery N. Konyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article describes the features of China's policy in the Arctic region, taking into account their relationship with the political and cultural traditions, which have a long history. Ambiguities in the assessments of intentions and prospects of China's policy in the Arctic is largely due underestimation of ties by the Western experts. The authors believe that the current China's foreign policy in general and toward the Arctic, in particular, is formed under the infl uence of such factors as the combination of «soft» and «hard» methods of management, existing sharp contradictions between the elites in the political leadership of the state, and the tradition of long-term planning in strategy. In accordance with this, the Arctic dimension of modern China foreign policy, seeks to achieve the strategic goal of access to the resources of the region in many directions simultaneously. The most important instruments include the revision of the legal status of the Arctic, an active part in the work of international organizations and active bilateral inter-state cooperation, avoiding open confrontation, “waiting” policy and incremental measures aimed at the gradual squeezing of competitors.

  16. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  17. The economic policy as factor of competitiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article consists of establishing the relation between competitiveness and economic policy in the case of the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1948 to 2008. The hypothesis that is demonstrated throughout the presentation maintains that more than the macroeconomic stability, the economic growth is directly related to the type of economic policy that applies a nation, as it is the case of China. The historical antecedents (1948-1978, the economic policy in the days of the reform of the economy (1978-1998 and the present time in which the past and the present are crossed, constitute the huge landmarks of the work. The economic policy is analyzes in “sub political” such as the agriculturist, industrialist, prices, foreign trade, foreign affairs, fiscal, monetary, exchange and investment, competitiveness etc., taking the work to planes of better concretion.

  18. Acquisition Policy and Procedures Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This Instruction establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the procurement of goods and services to include supplies, equipment, publications, furniture, and information technology...

  19. Optical Storage In China: A Study in Strategic Industrial Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Linden

    2003-01-01

    China’s industrial policy for high-technology industries combines key features of the policies adopted elsewhere in East Asia: judicious opening to foreign investors and support for local firms. However, unlike the developing economies of East Asia, China is a transition economy that already had a relatively well-developed, if somewhat dated, technology base of its own before its opening to outside investors at the end of the 1970s. Although the initial technology level of indiv...

  20. Monetary Policy Instruments and Bank Risks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyuan Geng; Xue Zhai

    2013-01-01

    The authors use a panel data regression model to examine the effects of main monetary policy instruments on commercial bank risks in China from 1998 to 2011. The interest rate has a positive effect on bank risk while the interest rate margin, the reserve requirement ratio and open market operation have a negative effect. Among the three monetary policy instruments, the reserve requirement ratio has the greatest effect on bank risk, the interest rate (the interest rate margin) the second large...

  1. Coal production forecast and low carbon policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Dong Yao; Wu Jie; Mu Ren; Jiang He

    2011-01-01

    With rapid economic growth and industrial expansion, China consumes more coal than any other nation. Therefore, it is particularly crucial to forecast China's coal production to help managers make strategic decisions concerning China's policies intended to reduce carbon emissions and concerning the country's future needs for domestic and imported coal. Such decisions, which must consider results from forecasts, will have important national and international effects. This article proposes three improved forecasting models based on grey systems theory: the Discrete Grey Model (DGM), the Rolling DGM (RDGM), and the p value RDGM. We use the statistical data of coal production in China from 1949 to 2005 to validate the effectiveness of these improved models to forecast the data from 2006 to 2010. The performance of the models demonstrates that the p value RDGM has the best forecasting behaviour over this historical time period. Furthermore, this paper forecasts coal production from 2011 to 2015 and suggests some policies for reducing carbon and other emissions that accompany the rise in forecasted coal production. - Highlights: → Improved forecasting models make full use of the advantages of individual model. → Proposed models create commendable improvements for current research. → Proposed models do not make complicated decisions about the explicit form. → We forecast coal production of China from 2011 to 2015. → We suggest some policies for reducing carbon emissions.

  2. Coal production forecast and low carbon policies in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianzhou [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong Yao, E-mail: dongyao20051987@yahoo.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wu Jie; Mu Ren; Jiang He [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-15

    With rapid economic growth and industrial expansion, China consumes more coal than any other nation. Therefore, it is particularly crucial to forecast China's coal production to help managers make strategic decisions concerning China's policies intended to reduce carbon emissions and concerning the country's future needs for domestic and imported coal. Such decisions, which must consider results from forecasts, will have important national and international effects. This article proposes three improved forecasting models based on grey systems theory: the Discrete Grey Model (DGM), the Rolling DGM (RDGM), and the p value RDGM. We use the statistical data of coal production in China from 1949 to 2005 to validate the effectiveness of these improved models to forecast the data from 2006 to 2010. The performance of the models demonstrates that the p value RDGM has the best forecasting behaviour over this historical time period. Furthermore, this paper forecasts coal production from 2011 to 2015 and suggests some policies for reducing carbon and other emissions that accompany the rise in forecasted coal production. - Highlights: > Improved forecasting models make full use of the advantages of individual model. > Proposed models create commendable improvements for current research. > Proposed models do not make complicated decisions about the explicit form. > We forecast coal production of China from 2011 to 2015. > We suggest some policies for reducing carbon emissions.

  3. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  4. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  5. Forging Consensus for Implementing Youth Socialization Policy in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development,…

  6. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    and through which a major portion of world’s trade passes by sea. Territory claimed by China is also claimed in part by Brunei, Malaysia , the...comprises 10 Southeast Asian nations: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia , Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam. 30 U.S...media continues to be subject to Communist Party censorship . Against this evolving backdrop, the human rights question remains one of the thorniest in

  7. Diffusion of solar water heaters in regional China: Economic feasibility and policy effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ben; Song, Guojun; Smardon, Richard C.; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the technical feasibility of solar water heaters (SWHs) has long been established, the economic feasibility of SWHs in regional China remains to be examined. This paper constructs cost models to calculate costs per unit energy saving of SWHs in 27 Chinese provincial capital cities. The cost effectiveness of SWHs is examined at the national level. At a micro level, we analyze the financial attractiveness of consumers’ investment in SWHs. A panel data model is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a subsidy program in rural China. The results show that SWH costs, ranging from 0.305 to 0.744 CNY/kW h, are much lower than those of other major renewable energies across China. This finding indicates that the diffusion of SWHs is a cost-effective way to reach China’s renewable energy target. For consumers, incentive programs for SWHs are needed to improve the financial attractiveness of the devices in China. Existing subsidy policies for rural China have failed to significantly enhance the deployment of SWHs. The causes of the failure are examined and a new incentive program is suggested for rural areas of the country. - Highlights: • We examine the economic feasibility of solar water heaters in 27 Chinese cities. • We evaluate policy effectiveness of solar water heaters (SWHs) using panel data. • Diffusion of SWHs is cost effective in fulfilling China’s renewable energy target. • Financial attractiveness of SWHs is limited without incentive programs. • The existing subsidy policy is proved to be a failure and a new program is suggested

  8. Unilateral or Reciprocal Climate Policy? Experimental Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bernauer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional political economy account of global climate change governance directs our attention to fundamental collective action problems associated with global public goods provision, resulting from positive or negative externalities as well as freeriding. The governance architecture of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol uses the traditional approaches of international diplomacy for addressing such challenges: legally binding commitments based on principles of reciprocity and (fair cost/burden sharing via formalized carbon-budgeting. Yet, the 2015 Paris Agreement has essentially abandoned this approach, as it now operates on the basis of internationally coordinated and monitored unilateralism. On the presumption that public opinion matters for government policy, we examine how citizens view this shift in climate policy from reciprocity to unilateralism, after many years of exposure to strong reciprocity rhetoric by governments and stakeholders. To that end, we fielded a survey experiment in China, the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG emitter. The results show that there is, perhaps surprisingly, strong and robust public support for unilateral, non-reciprocal climate policy. To the extent China is interested in pushing ahead with ambitious and thus costly GHG reduction policies, our results suggest that China can leverage segments of public support in order to overcome domestic obstacles to GHG mitigation policies.

  9. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  10. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  11. [China's population policies: attempting to "resolve the wrong problem"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J W

    1989-03-01

    This work argues that international efforts to resolve the population problem have failed primarily because they have been based on misconceptions concerning the definition of the problem and the relationship between population growth and development. The demographic experience of the People's Republic of China since the Revolution is used to illustrate these commonly shared misconceptions. The difficulty of defining the population problem results from differing interpretations of the basic fact that poor population groups tend to have higher fertility rates and faster growth than wealthier population groups. The Western industrial nations maintain that peoples or countries are poor because they have many children; the solution to the problem would require that they be provided access to modern contraception and associated services such as population and family planning education. Many Third World countries argue on the other hand that people have many children because they are poor, a view implying that greater social and economic development will provide the solution. The disagreement as to whether rapid population growth is a cause or a consequence of underdevelopment results in part from viewing overpopulation and underdevelopment as separate and distinct problems. Results of several carefully conducted evaluation studies have demonstrated that very little of the world fertility decline in the late 1960s and early 1970s was attributable to national family planning programs. Research has shown that equitable division of national wealth, education--especially of women, some employment factors such as a lack of opportunities for children, and a reliable social security system are the most powerful determinants of fertility. The studies indicate that fertility declines are induced by models of development that stress widespread social progress rather than provision of contraceptives and associated services. Examination of the Chinese demographic experience suggests

  12. Free Teacher Education Policy Implementation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagin, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Chinese central government implemented the Free Teacher Education Policy (FTEP), which offered qualifying students admission to prestigious national universities, four years of free tuition, room and board, and a stipend in exchange for a commitment to teach in their home province for ten years; the first two of those years in a rural…

  13. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  14. Energy policy in China: implications for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZhongXiang Zhang [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    This is the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy. It evaluates the economics of climate change and provides national, cost-effective policies for climate change. The book consists of three main parts, firstly, an analysis of the Chinese energy system to increase awareness of the implications of this sector for China`s future carbon dioxide emissions, secondly, a macroeconomic analysis of carbon dioxide emissions limits using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and finally, a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model.

  15. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  16. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  18. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  19. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  20. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R Y

    1987-10-01

    The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.

  1. Electricity and climate change policy in China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vlasblom, J. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kroeze, C. [Environmental systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    What are the feasible policy and technological options to modernise the electricity sector in China and India? This question was examined in a major research project. In answering it, the supply of and demand for electricity was taken into account, as was the conflict between the need for economic growth and the need to anticipate future developments in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this article we highlight some results. 2 refs.

  2. China's "missing girls": prospects and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, N E

    1996-02-01

    Women's conditions in China are viewed as deteriorating. The reduction in government control over urban factories and other places of employment has resulted in fewer women being hired. This leaves women in positions with low wages, poor working conditions, and discrimination based on sex, age, and marital status. The shift from rural state-controlled agricultural collectives to patriarchal family controls resulted in land distribution that gave men preference. The rapid growth in the economy and higher standards of living placed women at risk. Although the pressures to kill girl babies have relaxed, there is growing interest in making money from abducting and selling women for prostitution, marriage, and slavery. Women gained in recent decades greater participation in the labor force and higher educational levels. Women's access to health care is better. Female life expectancy is 72 years compared to 69 years for men. Maternal mortality is 95 deaths per 100,000 live births. Yet women hold subordinate positions to men in their jobs, and women are segregated in the textile and service industries. Women in rural areas have primarily access to agricultural jobs, which can be combined with child care. Women are less likely to be promoted and are retired 5 years earlier than men. Women carry a double burden of domestic labor and paid or unpaid labor. Women still have higher illiteracy rates than men, and the gender gap in higher education has remained stable since the 1970s. The imbalanced sex ratio is increasing. In some provinces it is 114 males for every 100 females, when the normal ratio is 105-106 males per 100 females. An estimated 12% of females are unaccounted for each year. The reasons for the missing children are identified as sex-selective abortion, infanticide, or underreporting. The next five-year plan holds the hope for improvement in women's status and an end to abuses against women and children.

  3. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  4. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  5. A study on the migration policy in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y

    1995-01-01

    During the Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang, neighboring minority groups were forced to migrate to less settled areas of China. During the Song dynasty (960-1279) the Han government lost control of neighboring ethnic groups. Ethnically dominated states on their own expanded to the hinterlands, formed the national governments of Yuan and Qing, and established the local power of Liao and Jin in Han-dominated areas. During the Han dynasty the movement of minorities fulfilled the purpose of helping cultivate undeveloped land. The Han governments of feudal China held compulsory migration policies and policies encouraging minorities to move to less inhabited places. Han governments prior to the Tang and Song dynasties held policies favorable to minority settlements. During the Tang dynasty land was given to minority settlers. During the Song dynasty the Han government held a policy which prohibited taxation and harassment of new minority settlers. Minorities gained improved living conditions and the government achieved pacification. Resettlement of minorities either from forced or voluntary migration facilitated communication with the Han and promoted the exchange of culture, but also intensified ethnic conflict. The reason for the ethnic conflict was a question of control. Ethnic governments encouraged in-migration and adopted policies of compulsory and voluntary migration. Ethnic minorities in the north and west practiced mainly compulsory migration. Ethnic conflict in the Qin and Han dynasties occurred between the Han and the Huns. During the Eastern Jin and Northern dynasties minority governments captured Han and other ethnic groups. The rule of minority government was strengthened by voluntary migration. The frequent power shifts in ancient China contributed to the blending of Chinese nationalities.

  6. Lessons from photovoltaic policies in China for future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Mo-lin; Zhang, Dan-wei

    2012-01-01

    The paper first provides an overview of the current status of PV industry development in China, including the penetration speed, the market segments and the value chain. Further, it reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market incentives and manufacturing policies for lessons learning. After the Renewable Energy Law took effect in 2006, PV penetration was accelerated. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, which were still in a trial stage, public bidding and the cooperation among relevant Ministries played important roles. A series of public R and D projects provided elemental technologies and meanwhile the preferential tax policies encouraged PV R and D nationwide. Then the paper looks into the future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national indicative targets in 2020, and the energy planning considering the governmental targets of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. Consequently we analyze problems impeding the future development based on evidences. For instance, there was no predetermined degression of the capital subsidy to push cost reduction; the budget and the organization of public PV R and D were insufficient. Finally, we propose some recommendations on improving policy interventions. - Highlights: ► Surveys the current status of PV industry in China, including the market trend, the installation distribution and the value chain. ► Reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market policies and manufacturing policies. ► Looks into future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national targets of 2020, policies of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. ► Analyzes barriers of future development, and proposes some recommendations on improving policy interventions.

  7. China's coal policy since 1979: A brief overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Lei; Gao Tianming; Cheng Xin

    2012-01-01

    Since reform and opening-up in 1978, the coal industry in China has been developing rapidly. This article identified major factors affecting the growth of China's coal industry, immediate targets, economic policies, as well as structural reforms of the sector. Authors have divided its developing process into three stages: rapid growth of coal industry (1979–1992); close-down of small-scale coal mines (SCMs) (1993–2001); resource consolidation (2002–present). At the first stage, led by the ‘two-leg walking’ strategy, SCMs grew significantly, which eased the pressure of energy shortage. From the transition of planned economy to market economy, major state-owned coal mines (MSCs), which were not consistently profitable, would have to learn how to withstand severe competitions and survive. As a result, the central government took several measures to try to keep them alive. This situation was not changed until 2001. Large-scaled coal mine groups were then established by the government when China entered the WTO. MSCs were encouraged to merge with others to form a certain scale, as a way to compete with giant overseas. So a trial was firstly implemented in Shanxi province. - Highlights: ► Authors have divided the China coal developing process since 1979 into three stages. ► Some polices solve main problems in that stage, but it also lead to another matters in following stage. ► China coal industry need to establish large coal mine groups to compete with overseas coal giants. ► Environmental and safe policy will significantly affect coal industrial development in the future.

  8. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  9. Survey of photovoltaic industry and policy in Germany and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, Thilo; Huo, Molin; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have demonstrated significant price reductions, but large-scale global application of PV requires further technology improvements and cost reductions along the value chain. We survey policies in Germany and China and the industrial actors they can encourage to pursue innovation, including deployment support, investment support for manufacturing plants and R and D support measures. While deployment support has been successful, investment support for manufacturing in these nations has not been sufficiently tied to innovation incentives, and R and D support has been comparatively weak. The paper concludes with a discussion of the opportunities for global policy coordination. - Highlights: ► Describes policies applied to support PV technology and characterizes the technical potential and industry structure in Germany and China. ► Identifies opportunities to enhance innovation incentives—to contribute to 50% further cost reductions required for large scale application. ► Discusses synergies of technology policy in both countries by identifying and pursuing shared environmental and technology objectives.

  10. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: China 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Although coal is the dominant energy source in China, accounting for some 70% of the country's Total Energy Consumption (TEC) in 2009, oil and gas are also essential energy sources. Despite strong growth in consumption of oil, its share of TEC fell from 22% in 2000 to 18% in 2009, as coal use rose even faster to meet burgeoning demand for electricity. A strong policy push boosted natural gas supplies, particularly to residential customers, so that the share of natural gas doubled from 2% in 2000 to 4% in 2009. China is one of the important oil and natural gas producing counties in the world. In 2010, China's crude oil production exceeded 4 million barrels per day (mb/d). However, with strong and sustained economic growth, its demand for oil has also increased, from 4.6 mb/d in 2000 to over 8 mb/d in 2009. In the New Policy Scenario (NPS) of the IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2011, China's primary oil demand rises to 12.2 mb/d in 2020. Although China is now the world's fifth largest oil producer, the country has been a net oil importer since 1993. In 2011, China imported over 5 mb/d of crude oil, accounting for about 54% of its total demand. More than 50% of the total crude oil imports came from counties of the Middle East. To prevent a potential shock to the economy caused by an oil supply disruption, the Chinese government has been steadily pushing building an oil stock reserve system. China has completed four stockpiling facilities with a capacity of around 103 mb in the first phase of its Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) plan, and has begun construction of its second phase, which comprises eight storage sites that will reportedly have a combined capacity of around 207 mb. Among them, two sites were completed in the second half of 2011 and the Tianjin site is reportedly set to be completed in 2012. According to unofficial reports, the remaining four SPR-II sites are expected to become operational by 2013. The third phase is expected to boost

  12. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  13. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, the number of studies examining the impact of a tobacco tax and price policies in China are few. Given China's current low and inefficient cigarette excise tax, and high cigarette affordability, there is ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  14. Review of wind power tariff policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng; Wang, Jianhui; Byrne, John; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has paid significant attention to wind power. Onshore wind power in China has experienced tremendous growth since 2005, and offshore wind power development has been on-going since 2009. In 2010, with a total installed wind power capacity of 41.8 GW, China surpassed the U.S. as the country with the biggest wind power capacity in the world. By comparing the wind power situations of three typical countries, Germany, Spain, and Denmark, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation and insights into the prospects of China’s wind power development. The analysis is carried out in four aspects including technology, wind resources, administration and time/space frame. We conclude that both German and Spanish have been growing rapidly in onshore capacity since policy improvements were made. In Denmark, large financial subsidies flow to foreign markets with power exports, creating inverse cost-benefit ratios. Incentives are in place for German and Danish offshore wind power, while China will have to remove institutional barriers to enable a leap in wind power development. In China, cross-subsidies are provided from thermal power (coal-fired power generation) in order to limit thermal power while encouraging wind power. However, the mass installation of wind power capacity completely relies on power subsidies. Furthermore, our study illustrates that capacity growth should not be the only consideration for wind power development. It is more important to do a comprehensive evaluation of multi-sectorial efforts in order to achieve long-term development. - Highlights: ► Key components to exam China’s wind power. ► Evaluation of Europe could be helpful. ► China has to remove institutional barrier.

  15. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  16. Essential medicine policy in China: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the achievements, issues and policy recommendations for implementing essential medicine system in China after a 3-year effort. Policy documents analysis and Literature reviews are conducted. From 2009-2011, a series of national essential medicine (EM) policies has been established which contain EM list, organizing production, quality assurance, pricing, tendering and procurement, distribution, rational use, monitoring and evaluation, etc. About 98.8% government-run primary healthcare institutions and 41.5% village health posts are conducting zero-mark-up policy while buying EMs. The average cost per visit, per admission, and per description in outpatient and inpatient departments has declined. The issues with the national EM list cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice at the local level, all provinces have to increase additional 64-455 EMs in their local supplementary list; the limitation of EML in primary healthcare institutions causes patients to transfer directly to secondary or tertiary hospitals to search appropriate treatment; there is no defined regulation or legislation regarding the responsibility and accountability of government to compensate for the financial loss after implementing a zero mark-up policy in primary healthcare institutions. In the future, some innovative reform should be taken into account, such as revising EML, quality assurance, control margins within the distribution system, differential pricing and internal reference-based pricing, waive taxes and import duties of EMs, and separation between prescribing and dispensing in public hospital reform. Establishing a national essential medicine system is a difficult task to accomplish. The role of the zero-mark-up policy of EMs is to cut off the economic profit chain among different stakeholders. Using pharmaceutical profit to subsidize hospital revenue will be gradually eliminated in China.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Land Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, as one of the main driving forces promoting sustainable economic growth, has increased the area of industrial land use significantly. Industrial land use manifests that the competition between it and other kinds of land use is growing. During the last decade in China, many targeted industrial land use policies have been enacted to stimulate appropriate industrial land use and to promote healthy economic development. However, it is difficult for scholars and governments of rapidly developing countries to judge and evaluate the performance of such policies. Based on statistical data gathered over almost 10 years and an idea called “industrial land equivalent” (ILE, this paper analyzes the contribution made by the implementation of industrial land use policy to economic development, using a Cobb-Douglas production function by which to quantify the influence of land institutions and land regulation systems. The result of the study shows that factors, such as industrial land, labor and capital, all play an important role in GDP growth. Additionally, it is found that industrial land institutions and regulation systems have a strongly positive influence on economic development. It was also found that the influence of policy in eastern China is greater than that in the west and that repeated, short-term land regulation has a negative effect on the economy. Therefore, it is profoundly important for the Chinese economy that a stable and durable industrial land use policy be maintained as the industrial center migrates to the Midwest. The research philosophy and method offered by this paper have great significance for the quantitative evaluation of policy performance.

  18. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  19. Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhai, F

    2013-11-01

    By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. China Public Budget Reform Program (CPBR) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Government of China has adopted a national reform program aimed at making budgeting more transparent and accountable through public involvement and enhanced oversight. Building on work carried out under Phase I (102965), the China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) will analyze China's current ...

  1. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  2. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  3. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  4. Strategies and Policies in Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Amie

    This document describes and examines effective policies that companies have adopted in developing Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) to address personal problems of employees, with a specific focus on substance abuse. Chapter 1 introduces the topic, states the problem, indicates the purpose of the study, denotes the limitations, defines important…

  5. Special Report on China and Chinese Provinces. Policy and Regulatory Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, A.; Hinostroza Parades, J.A.; O'Leary, M.; Owen, G.

    2010-06-01

    This review outlines the legislation and policies and roles of institutions involved in sustainable energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in China at Central and Provincial Government level.

  6. Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, L; Erkal, N; Gangadharan, L; Meng, X

    2013-02-22

    We document that China's One-Child Policy (OCP), one of the most radical approaches to limiting population growth, has produced significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals. Our data were collected from economics experiments conducted with 421 individuals born just before and just after the OCP's introduction in 1979. Surveys to elicit personality traits were also used. We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society.

  7. Images of China in U.S. Foreign Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    leads to a deeply imbedded negative U.S image, and the Chinese America watchers are “ blinded ” by these very images.5 Various events and factors are...Chinese intervention, China had been described as a helpless nation deceived by the Soviets and ignorant of its actions. After months of war, Acheson...Jia Qingguo, “ Learning to Live with the Hegemon: Evolution of China’s Policy toward the U.S. Since the End of the Cold War,” Journal of Contemporary

  8. Contrasting perspectives on China's rare earths policies: Reframing the debate through a stakeholder lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Labruto, Leslie; Schillebeeckx, Simon J.D.; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This article critically compares China's rare earth policy with perspectives upheld in the rest of the world (ROW). We introduce rare earth elements and their importance for energy and present how China and the ROW are framing the policy debate. We find strongly dissonant views with regards to motives for foreign direct investment, China's two-tiered pricing structure and its questionable innovation potential. Using the metaphor of “China Inc.”, we compare the Chinese government to a socially responsible corporation that aims to balance the needs of its internal stakeholders with the demands from a resource-dependent world. We find that China's internal stakeholders have more power and legitimacy in the REE debate than the ROW and reconceptualise various possible mitigation strategies that could change current international policy and market dynamics. As such, we aim to reframe the perspectives that seem to govern the West and argue in favor of policy formation that explicitly acknowledges China's triple bottom line ambitions and encourages the ROW to engage with China in a more nuanced manner. - Highlights: • Very different perspectives persist regarding China's rare earth policies. • Scarcity, substitutability and uncertainty drive the divergent perspectives. • We compare China to a socially responsible corporation, “China Inc.”. • China's internal stakeholders have higher salience than ROW. • We propose and reframe policy mitigation strategies

  9. The «Special» Relationship between Germany and China in the Context of Germany’s China Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Tsvyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China are both economic powers in Asia and Europe with a shared international responsibility in many international fields. Germany is China's number-one trade partner in the EU and China is the top foreign investment destination for German companies. This article highlights the relationship between Germany and China since the beginning of Gerhard Schroeder's «Wandel dutch Handel» policy in 1998. Germany's policy toward China was based on the idea that economic exchange and increase in trade between both countries would lead to political and societal change in China. In the author's point of view Germany's China policy shifted significantly to one which focused more heavily on human rights at the beginning of the first term under Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2005. The author argues that Germany's China policy at present time is motivated first of all by economic interests and the needs of its exporters. In recent years, there have been efforts to extend cooperation to other fields like security and world order. The author comes to the conclusion that both Germany and China increasingly consider a strategic partnership within mutual interest.

  10. Continuing nursing education policy in China and its impact on health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandatory continuing nursing education (MCNE) policy in China and to examine whether or not the policy addresses health equity. MCNE was instituted in 1996 in China to support healthcare reform was to include producing greater equity in health-care. However, the literature increasingly reports inequity in participation in MCNE, which is likely to have had a detrimental effect on the pre-existing discrepancies of education in the nursing workforce, and thereby failing to really address health equity. Despite a growing appeal for change, there is lack of critical reflection on the issues of MCNE policy. Critical ethnography underpinned by Habermas' Communicative Action Theory and Giddens' Structuration Theory were used to guide this study. Findings are presented in four themes: (i) inaccessibility of learning programs for nurses; (ii) undervaluation of workplace-based learning; (iii) inequality of the allocation of resources; and (iv) demands for additional support in MCNE from non-tertiary hospitals. The findings strongly suggest the need for an MCNE policy review based on rational consensus with stakeholders while reflecting the principles of health equity.

  11. 75 FR 25883 - China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... of reported IPR infringement in China on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs and on the potential effects..., potential, and reported effects of China's indigenous innovation policies on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-514] China: Intellectual Property...

  12. Implications of China's Open-Door Policy for Families: A Family Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Andrew S.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2008-01-01

    China's open-door policy (ODP) was created in 1978 as a response to the severe economic depression affecting the country after the Cultural Revolution. The policy was designed to restore China's financial status and lift the nation out of destitution. By all accounts, the ODP has been successful in improving the country's monetary condition.…

  13. Education Policy Borrowing in China: Has the West Wind Overpowered the East Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent education reform in China reflects the global trend of education policy borrowing from Anglophone countries such as the USA. The reform in China essentially advocates shifting from knowledge reproduction and didacticism to knowledge construction by students through a learner-centredness approach. Aware of the trend of borrowing policy from…

  14. Implementing China's national energy conservation policies at state-owned electric power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofan; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Guideline identified energy conservation as one of the country's fundamental policies and established a mandatory target: 20% reduction in national average energy intensity by 2010. Despite the various policies, laws, and administrative reforms to support energy conservation, China fell behind schedule for meeting its conservation targets in 2006 and 2007. Using a combination of available literature and an interview-based case study, this paper examines the implementation of energy conservation and investigates impediments to achieving China's conservation goal in the electric power generation sector. Three key impediments are detailed: (1) municipal governments' incentives to overlook conservation-related central directives primarily because of budget pressures linked to financial decentralization, (2) procedural obstacles in the form of time required to obtain project approvals for high-efficiency power generation units, and (3) financial obstacles making it difficult for power generation enterprises to raise capital for energy conservation projects. An interview-based case study of a state-owned coal-fired electric power generation company demonstrates the influence of the aforementioned obstacles. While procedural obstacles are notable, they can be managed. However, electricity pricing reforms and/or stronger subsidy programs will be needed to address the financial obstacles facing Chinese power generation companies.

  15. Gas to Power in China. Gas-fired Power in China. Clearing the policy bottleneck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Policy for gas-fired power is the single most serious and common issue that needs urgent resolution for all China's current and future gas projects, including LNG projects. This was the main conclusion of a national seminar on gas industry development policy that was held in July 2004. At the time of writing this paper, such a policy is still missing. In order to reduce pollution, improve energy security and meet the needs of the ever-growing economy for high-quality energies, the Chinese government has declared its firm intention to develop a natural gas market. The official target is to develop a gas market of 200 bcm/a by 2020, five times of the current size of around 40 bcm/a. Domestic supply is expected to provide 120 bcm/a, with the rest (80 bcm/a) by gas imports either in the form of piped gas or LNG. Gas-fired power generation plays a critical role in developing a sizeable gas market, especially for large-scale pipeline and LNG projects. Similar to the Guangdong and Fujian LNG projects where gas-fired power accounts for approximately 60% and 70% respectively of the first phase gas volume, each of the proposed LNG projects has allocated a large portion of the gas off-take volume to the power sector. In addition to the first two commercial CCGT plants that were commissioned in 2005, there are over 20 projects totalling 18 GW of capacity under construction. By 2020, China's planners foresee a total gas-fired power capacity of 60 GW, accounting for around 6% of the total installed capacity in the country. Despite these impressive projections, gas-fired power faces significant uncertainties in China: (1) there is an ongoing debate on whether China should develop gas-fired power, given the relative scarcity and higher cost of gas; (2) high gas prices and imported equipment limit the competitiveness of gas-fired power relative to a coal-fired one; (3) it lacks policy support. For the moment, gas-fired power plants are required to participate in a yet

  16. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jien Zhang

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05. The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  17. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  18. Urban policies and sustainability in China / Políticas Urbanas y sostenibilidad en China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Anguiano de Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available I mean to analyze the reciprocity between urban policies and economic growth; and the role of agents and estate developers in China. Emergent economy with high inequality rates. The roles of capitalist corporations and the Government in the construction and reconstruction of cities, Examine the infrastructures, business and commerce developers, sport and leisure areas, academic and cultural centers, and housing in the Chinese metropolis. The Asian country has become one of the most polluting ones as result of the fast urbanization, and the rapid growth of industry and infrastructures. Teams of architects have planned sustainable building but megalopoleis make eco-cities necessary.

  19. China's one-child policy, a policy without a future. Pitfalls of the “common good” argument and the authoritarian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China--one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale--is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power.

  20. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang; Victor, David G.

    2011-01-01

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  1. Comparative Policy Study for Green Buildings in U.S. and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina; Romankiewicz, John; Feng, Wei; Zhou, Nan; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Prominent barriers facing the U.S. green building industry include the fact that government bodies that supervise health, fire safety, land, and other public operations are slow to revise codes to accommodate green building (regulatory barrier). In China, the lack of a green building professional accreditation process similar to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) AP process limits the green building workforce capacity development (informational barrier). The main policies highlighted in this report to tackle these barriers are 1) comprehensive codes and labeling plan (informational, institutional), 2) government-led targets and demonstrations (risk), 3) education and awareness programs (informational), 4) fiscal policy that supports green building investment (financial), and 5) integrated design promotion (institutional, financial).

  2. What China can learn from international policy experiences to improve industrial energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    China’s industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption and energy efficiency in the industry sector is crucial to help China reach its energy and CO2 emissions reduction goals. There are many energy efficiency policies in China, but the motivation and willingness of enterprises to improve energy efficiency has weakened. This report first identifies barriers that enterprises face to be self-motivated to implement energy efficiency measures. Then, this report reviews international policies and programs to improve energy efficiency and evaluates how these policies helped to address the identified barriers. Lastly, this report draws conclusions and provides recommendations to China in developing policies and programs to motivate enterprises to improve energy efficiency.

  3. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of

  4. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  5. An investigation of women's attitudes towards fertility and China's family planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Tian, Tao; Qi, Fan; Ma, Li; Wang, Guosheng

    2010-05-01

    Reducing China's population has formerly been considered a good thing because of the perceived environmental and social risks of overpopulation, but it has recently become apparent that the resulting population decline may create problems that will become increasingly serious in the future. The results of a survey of 4600 women in nineteen Chinese provinces in 2005 indicated that young age, high income, high education level, urban location and good employment all decreased a woman's willingness to bear children. The risks created by declining fertility in these groups have been intensified by China's 'one child' family planning policy. However, as a result of current trends and China's policies, the country's population will continue to age, leading to social problems and difficulties for sustainable development both in China and around the world. Therefore, China's policy-makers must begin planning to adjust their policy by encouraging women to give birth to more than one child.

  6. A predictive analysis of CO2 emissions, environmental policy stringency, and economic growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ahmed, Sidrah

    2018-03-28

    This study takes environmental policy stringency and economic activity as the controlling variables and forecasts the CO 2 emissions in China up to 2022. In doing so, an application of corrected grey model with convolution is used over the annual time series data between 1990 and 2012. The simulation results show that (1) between 2012 and 2022, CO 2 emissions in China is expected to increase at an average rate of 17.46% annually, raising the emissions intensity from 7.04 in 2012 to 25.461 metric tons per capita by 2022; (2) stringent environmental policies reduce CO 2 emissions-whereas, GDP tends to increase the emissions intensity in China; (3) stringent environmental policies are found to have a negative impact on GDP in China. Based on the empirical findings, the study also provides some policy suggestions to reduce emissions intensity in China.

  7. China's Nuclear Power Program: Options for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The issue of American nuclear cooperation with the People's Republic of China is examined with regards to political relations, commercial benefits to the United States, and nonproliferation. China's interest in nuclear power is examined, and its nuclear program is briefly reviewed from the 1950's to present. China's international nuclear relations with other countries are discussed, and implications for the United States examined, particularly with regards to China's intentions toward nuclear proliferation, danger of diversion of material for nuclear weapons, use of pressurized water reactor technology for Chinese naval reactors, and the terms of the nuclear cooperation agreement

  8. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  9. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  10. The Realization Mechanism of China's Monetary Policy Objectives: 2001-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guogang

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the realization mechanism for the final and interim targets of China's monetary policy from 2001 to 2010.It finds that the three significant price surges in the ten years were not the results of loose monetary policy While maintaining rapid economic growth,China avoided the inflation linked with excess monetary supply.The introduction of total new lending in the interim targets also showed the maturing of China's monetary policy target system.To improve China's monetary operation,three measures need to te taken:firstly,basing stabilizing monetary policy on the trend of the non-food price index within the CPI;secondly,readjusting the definition of money according the different characteristics of transaction money and reserve money;and thirdly,including yuan exchange rates into the intermediate objectives of monetary policy.

  11. Mainland China: a national one-child program does not exist (part two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, A J

    1989-10-01

    This is part 2 of a 2-part paper discussing mainland China's 1-child policy. In part 1, Jowett argues that a national 1-child program does not exist in China. Instead, China has a series of regional policies which vary between and within provinces. Part 2 discusses these variations in childbearing policy. 1 table contrasts the developed coastal province of Liaoning and the underdeveloped interior province of Guizhou. In Liaoning, more than 75% of the women are literate, and infant mortality is less that 20/1000. In Guizhou, fewer than 33% of the women are literate, and infant mortality is over 60/1000. The per capital gross national product is 4.5 times higher in Liaoning. The birth rate is almost 10 points higher and the fertility rate almost 2.5 times greater in Guizhou than in Liaoning. The defiance of the 1-child policy is partially linked to the shift in social values taking place in mainland China. A trend toward earlier marriage and earlier childbearing has contributed to the rising birth rates in the 1980s. Unlike the outcome of the student protests in Tiananmen Square, conflict over family size has generally been resolved in favor of individual wished rather than government objectives.

  12. The choice of strategic trade policy in China under the WTO frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆长春; 唐丹; 王新辉; 张德晖

    2007-01-01

    This text first elaborated the core thought and apply condition of the strategic trade policy first;secondly Put the strategic trade policy and WTO rule together to carry on analysis;finally,Combine the concrete circumstance of China,Put forward several suggestions on carrying out a strategic trade policy under the WTO frame。

  13. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  14. Myanmar’s China Policy since 2011: Determinants and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Aung Myoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a key factor in Myanmar’s new approach towards China since 2011 has been the Myanmar government’s foreign policy goal to reintegrate itself into the international community. The success of this approach is dependent on Myanmar’s rapprochement with the United States, which requires both domestic political reforms and a foreign policy realignment – a need to reduce Myanmar’s dependence on China, particularly in the context of US–China strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific region. In the context of China–Myanmar relations, the factors that have influenced Myanmar’s China policy since 2011 are growing anti-China sentiment in Myanmar, growing concern over China’s interference in Myanmar affairs, and the rapprochement with the United States. Myanmar’s China policy shift, in terms of direction, is by no means to seek to be independent of China, but rather for there to be an increased interdependence between the two countries.

  15. Global warming and options for China: energy and environmental policy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Gan.

    1990-09-01

    This report attempts to give a comprehensive review of current perspectives on energy/environmental problems and policies in China during the last ten years. The second chapter serves as a starting point by giving a general background of the characteristics of economic development and major policy changes in China during the last ten years (1979-89). The third chapter analyzes the characteristics and problems of energy demand and supply in China by breaking down different economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transportation and residential/commercial sectors). The fourth chapter focuses on the problems of CO 2 emissions by giving a historical review of CO 2 emissions by linking up the impact of economic policies and political development in the country during 1950-89. The fifth chapter is mostly devoted to describing policy performance within government environmental policy-making and implementation in the last ten years. Finally, the report concludes by giving several policy recommendations. (Quittner)

  16. Policies for Industrial Learning in China and Mexico: Neo-developmental vs. Neo-liberal approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi; Gallaher, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous work has shown that the results of both China and Mexico’s export-led market reforms over the past quarter century have been strikingly different. In contrast to China, Mexico has not managed to increase the value added of its exports of manufactured goods and has subsequently had a difficult time competing with China in world markets. Building on this previous work, in this paper we conduct a comparative analysis of the role of government policies in industrial learnin...

  17. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  18. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This documented briefing is intended to provide options for U.S. policy that will enhance China's participation in the control of international transfers of destabilizing military or dual use technology...

  19. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  20. Renewable energy development in China: policies, practices and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi

    2009-01-01

    Energy demand in China has risen rapidly, driven by its massive economic growth. Meanwhile, the energy system in China heavily depends on fossil fuels, which causes serious problems of climate change and air pollution. China started to develop renewable energy about 30 years ago, aiming to alleviate

  1. China's climate-change policy 1988-2011: From zero to hero?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the evolution of China's domestic climate-change policy over the period 1988-2011, using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to explore the policy change. Policy development has been gradual, with the most notable change occurring in 2007, when the National Climate Change Programme elevated climate change to a national policy issue. Within the climate-change policy subsystem there emerged an advocacy coalition - the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition - urging that climate change should be taken into consideration in relevant policies. The ACF points to socioeconomic development and the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition's policy-oriented learning as explanations for the development of climate-change policy in China.(auth)

  2. 75 FR 30060 - China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... IPR infringement in China on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs, including on a sectoral basis, as well as... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-519] China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U.S. Economy AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  3. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  4. China's Exchange Rate Policy : The Case Against Abandoning the Dollar PEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurenceson, J.; Qin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the policy literature surrounding China's exchange rate regime.It first discusses several popularly raised contentions in relation to the dollar peg employed by China, which in fact are poorly grounded in evidence.These include notions that the RMB is clearly

  5. Policy uncertainty and corporate performance in government-sponsored voluntary environmental programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Zhan, Xueyong; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2018-08-01

    This study combines insights from the policy uncertainty literature and neo-institutional theory to examine corporate performance in implementing a government-sponsored voluntary environmental program (VEP) during 2004-2012 in Guangzhou, China. In this regulatory context, characterized by rapid policy changes, corporate performance in VEPs is affected by government surveillance, policy uncertainty, and peer pressures. Specifically, if VEP participants have experienced more government surveillance, they tend to perform better in program implementation. Such positive influence of government surveillance is particularly evident among those joining under high and low, rather than moderate uncertainty. Participants also perform better if they belong to an industry with more certified VEP firms, but worse if they are located in a regulatory jurisdiction with more certified VEP firms. At a moderate level of policy uncertainty, within-industry imitation is most likely to occur but within-jurisdiction imitation is least likely to occur. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Vol. 77 Monday, No. 151 August 6, 2012 Part II Small Business Administration 13 CFR Chapter I Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive; Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology...

  7. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  8. Seasonal influenza vaccination in China: Landscape of diverse regional reimbursement policy, and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Atkins, Katherine E; Feng, Luzhao; Pang, Mingfan; Zheng, Yaming; Liu, Xinxin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-11-11

    To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures. Regular reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination are available in 61 mutually exclusive regions, comprising 8 provinces, 45 prefectures, and 8 counties, which were reimbursed by the local Government Financial Department or Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). Finance-reimbursed vaccination was offered mainly for the elderly, and school children for free in Beijing, Dongli district in Tianjin, Karamay, Shenzhen and Xinxiang cities. BSMI-reimbursement policies were limited to specific medical insurance beneficiaries with distinct differences in the reimbursement fractions. The average national vaccination coverage was just 1.5-2.2% between 2004 and 2014. A free national vaccination program for priority populations (n=416million), would cost government US$ 757million (95% CI 726-789) annually (uptake rate=20%). An increasing number of regional governments have begun to pay, partially or fully, for influenza vaccination for selected groups. However, this small-scale policy approach has failed to increase national uptake. A free, nationwide vaccination program would require a substantial annual investment. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to identify the most efficient methods to improve coverage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Prioritizing congenital syphilis control in south China: a decision analytic model to inform policy implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan.Our model incorporated data on age-stratified fertility, female adult syphilis cases, and empirical syphilis transmission rates to estimate the number of CS cases associated with prenatal syphilis infection on a yearly basis. Guangdong Province was the focus of this analysis because of the availability of high-quality demographic and public health data. Each model outcome was simulated 1,000 times to incorporate uncertainty in model inputs. The model was validated using data from a CS intervention program among 477,656 women in China. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify which variables are likely to be most influential in achieving Chinese and international policy goals. Increasing prenatal screening coverage was the single most effective strategy for reducing CS cases. An incremental increase in prenatal screening from the base case of 57% coverage to 95% coverage was associated with 106 (95% CI: 101, 111 CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (58% decrease. The policy strategies laid out in the national plan led to an outcome that fell short of the target, while a four-pronged comprehensive syphilis control strategy consisting of increased prenatal screening coverage, increased treatment completion, earlier prenatal screening, and improved syphilis test characteristics was associated with 157 (95% CI: 154, 160 CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (85% decrease.The Chinese national plan provides a strong foundation for syphilis control, but more comprehensive measures that include earlier and more

  10. Stockpile strategy for China's emergency oil reserve: A dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Dahl, C.A.; Zhou, D.Q.; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    China is currently accelerating construction of its strategic petroleum reserves. How should China fill the SPR in a cost-effective manner in the short-run? How might this affect world oil prices? Using a dynamic programming model to answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to minimize the stockpiling costs, including consumer surplus as well as crude acquisition and holding costs. The crude oil acquisition price in the model is determined by global equilibrium between supply and demand. Demand, in turn, depends on world market conditions including China's stockpile filling rate. Our empirical study under different market conditions shows that China's optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month, and the optimal stockpiling drives up the world oil price by 3–7%. The endogenous price increase accounts for 52% of total stockpiling costs in the base case. When the market is tighter or the demand function is more inelastic, the stockpiling affects the market more significantly and pushes prices even higher. Alternatively, in a disruption, drawdown from the stockpile can effectively dampen soaring prices, though the shortage is likely to leave the price higher than before the disruption. - Highlights: • China's SPR policies are examined by dynamic programming. • The optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month. • The optimal stockpiling drives up world oil price by 3–7%

  11. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...

  12. Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment and Health in Africa. It is obvious that in many African countries, no linkages are being made between health policy and environment policy. In 2005, the global network Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA-TM) francophone ...

  13. 75 FR 54076 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... line with the format of the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... correction to the FEMA, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy...

  14. 76 FR 7508 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the coverage. On October 12...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy regulations. In order to increase...

  15. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  16. Policy recommendations to promote shale gas development in China based on a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiehui; Luo, Dongkun; Xia, Liangyu; Feng, Lianyong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its resource potential and clean burning advantages, the development of shale gas can significantly increase the supply of cleaner energy while offering the associated benefits. To foster shale gas development, many policy incentives have been introduced in China. However, the current incentives have not been sufficiently aggressive, and the shale gas industry has been slow to develop. Existing policies thus need to be further improved. To provide effective support for decision makers in China, a technical and economic evaluation is performed in this study to explore the profitability of shale gas production in pilot zones. The results show that shale gas production is subeconomic under the current technical and economic conditions. Based on this evaluation, a policy analysis is conducted to investigate the profitability improvement offered by the major policies available in China to elucidate a path toward improving incentive policies. The results indicate that policy instruments related to gas prices, financial subsidies, corporate income taxes or combinations thereof could be used as priority options to improve policy incentives. Based on these results, recommendations are presented to improve the current incentive polices aimed at accelerating shale gas development. -- Highlights: •We explore the economic feasibility of shale gas development in China. •Current incentive policies cannot render shale gas development economically viable. •These incentives must be improved to effectively promote shale gas development. •We investigate the effect of the major policies available in China to light a path. •Recommendations are proposed to continually improve the incentive polices in China

  17. Urban Housing Policy Review of China : From Economic Growth to Social Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  18. Fighting against Academic Corruption: A Critique of Recent Policy Developments in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Academic corruption in China's higher education institutions has become a serious issue in the last decade. This paper provides a critical discussion of the Chinese Ministry of Education's policy developments aimed to strengthen academic ethics and control academic corruption. It suggests that while the reactions of policy-makers to the apparent…

  19. A Review and Analysis of the Current Policy on Early Childhood Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…

  20. Urban housing policy review of China : From economic growth to social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  1. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  2. Evolution of Government Policies on Guiding Corporate Social Responsibility in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to unearth the ways in which the Chinese government uses policies to guide corporate social responsibility (CSR development in China. Co-word analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis were conducted on the relevant policy documents from 2005 to 2013 from the Chinese government. This paper illustrates the evolution of industry involvement in metagovernance of CSR, the evolution of intergovernmental relations in CSR policy formulation, and the evolution of policy relations on guiding CSR. The quantitative text analysis on policy documents reveals policy intentions and maps policy process, advancing understanding of policy orientation and evolution. The CSR reports of the same period of the State Grid in China are used as empirical evidence to validate the policy evolution. This work presents the overall evolution of the ways in which the Chinese government deployed its guiding strategy on CSR, and empirically demonstrates the organization of metagovernance maneuvered by China’s government to promote CSR development in China. It provides perspective and methods to analyze China’s networked government policies, and empirically answers the central question of metagovernance about the ways in which the organization of metagovernance is carried out.

  3. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  4. A lost chance? Birth control policies in the Mao's China (1949-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the birth control policies in China during the Maoist era (1949- 1976. Considering Chinese and foreign sources, it is explained how the different campaigns of family planning took place and how these campaigns were subjected positively and negatively to the policies of the supreme leader Mao Zedong. Although only the last one had a real impact on the fight against overpopulation, all campaigns helped to promote the necessity of confronting this phenomenon. More importantly, they laid the foundations of the birth control policies that currently take place in China.

  5. Thomas Scharping, Birth Control in China, 1949-2000. Population policy and demographic development

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Family policy and the growth of the population in China have been the subject of continuous attention for many years, but there was no research which provided an overall view of the policies and outcomes for these areas. This remarkable work by the German demographer Thomas Scharping, on birth control and demography in China from 1949 to 2000, fills this gap. It recounts and analyses demographic growth, the policies of the Chinese state in this field and the reactions of the population over t...

  6. Comparisons of different monetary policies in China with yield curve information

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Iris Ai Jao

    2010-01-01

    This work compares the effectiveness of quantity-based and price-based monetary policies in China using FAVAR. This essay is the pioneer to identify the 1-year lending rate and deposit rate as the policy rates, and includes yield curve information in the analysis. It is found that effects of tightening monetary policies in China follow largely the stylized facts of long run neutrality of money on real activities, a long term fall in inflation and a short term rise in interest rates.

  7. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  8. Policy incentives and grid-connected photovoltaics system development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jing; Xu Yugao

    2007-07-01

    China has made considerable progress in solar PV generation technology. However, compared with conventional generation technologies or even other renewables such as wind and biomass, grid-connected PV technology is in its early stage and has not reached an adequate level of economic performance. Therefore, policy incentives will play important roles in attracting more social investments to facilitate the development of grid-connected PV generation. This paper is focused on analyzing the role of incentive policies in enhancing the market competitiveness of grid-connected solar PV systems in the context of China with an economic model and some policy suggestions are given based on simulation modeling efforts. (auth)

  9. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  10. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  11. Strengthening Equity in China through Policy Evaluations and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under "Healthy China 2020," universal basic healthcare coverage will be provided to all Chinese by 2020. To realize the reform's goals, the Chinese government's 2011-2015 five-year plan builds on previous efforts. One of the key objectives is to improve equity in health care. China's 18th Communist Party Congress has ...

  12. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  13. Shifting policy priorities in EU-China energy relations: Implications for Chinese energy investments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, Olivia; Torney, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU (European Union) have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy – and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability, efficiency, affordability and environmental stewardship. Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in 2015–2016, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability, China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship. This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK. - Highlights: • Compares dominant frames of energy policy in China and the European Union in the period 2005–2015. • Shows that there has been a convergence of policy frames between China and the EU. • Convergence on environmental stewardship is necessary but not sufficient for FDI in clean energy.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a national enterovirus 71 vaccination program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Song, Jianwen; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Yaping; Deng, Huiling; Li, Mei; Gao, Ning; Zhai, Song; Dang, Shuangsuo; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Xiaoli

    2017-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused great morbidity, mortality, and use of health service in children younger than five years in China. Vaccines against EV71 have been proved effective and safe by recent phase 3 trials and are now available in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact and cost-effectiveness of a national EV71 vaccination program in China. Using Microsoft Excel, a decision model was built to calculate the net clinical and economic outcomes of EV71 vaccination compared with no EV71 vaccination in a birth cohort of 1,000,000 Chinese children followed for five years. Model parameters came from published epidemiology, clinical and cost data. In the base-case, vaccination would annually avert 37,872 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), 2,629 herpangina cases, 72,900 outpatient visits, 6,363 admissions to hospital, 29 deaths, and 945 disability adjusted life years. The break-even price of the vaccine was $5.2/dose. When the price was less than $8.3 or $14.6/dose, the vaccination program would be highly cost-effective or cost-effective, respectively (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio less than or between one to three times China GDP per capita, respectively). In one-way sensitivity analyses, the HFMD incidence was the only influential parameter at the price of $5/dose. Within the price range of current routine vaccines paid by the government, a national EV71 vaccination program would be cost-saving or highly cost-effective to prevent EV71 related morbidity, mortality, and use of health service among children younger than five years in China. Policy makers should consider including EV71 vaccination as part of China's routine childhood immunization schedule.

  15. "Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E Muggli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, 540 million Chinese are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS, resulting in more than 100,000 deaths. Smoke-free policies have been demonstrated to decrease overall cigarette consumption, encourage smokers to quit, and protect the health of nonsmokers. However, restrictions on smoking in China remain limited and ineffective. Internal tobacco industry documents show that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs have pursued a multifaceted strategy for undermining the adoption of restrictions on smoking in many countries.To understand company activities in China related to SHS, we analyzed British American Tobacco's (BAT's internal corporate documents produced in response to litigation against the major cigarette manufacturers to understand company activities in China related to SHS. BAT has carried out an extensive strategy to undermine the health policy agenda on SHS in China by attempting to divert public attention from SHS issues towards liver disease prevention, pushing the so-called "resocialisation of smoking" accommodation principles, and providing "training" for industry, public officials, and the media based on BAT's corporate agenda that SHS is an insignificant contributor to the larger issue of air pollution.The public health community in China should be aware of the tactics previously used by TTCs, including efforts by the tobacco industry to co-opt prominent Chinese benevolent organizations, when seeking to enact stronger restrictions on smoking in public places.

  16. "Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lee, Kelley; Gan, Quan; Ebbert, Jon O; Hurt, Richard D

    2008-12-23

    Each year, 540 million Chinese are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), resulting in more than 100,000 deaths. Smoke-free policies have been demonstrated to decrease overall cigarette consumption, encourage smokers to quit, and protect the health of nonsmokers. However, restrictions on smoking in China remain limited and ineffective. Internal tobacco industry documents show that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have pursued a multifaceted strategy for undermining the adoption of restrictions on smoking in many countries. To understand company activities in China related to SHS, we analyzed British American Tobacco's (BAT's) internal corporate documents produced in response to litigation against the major cigarette manufacturers to understand company activities in China related to SHS. BAT has carried out an extensive strategy to undermine the health policy agenda on SHS in China by attempting to divert public attention from SHS issues towards liver disease prevention, pushing the so-called "resocialisation of smoking" accommodation principles, and providing "training" for industry, public officials, and the media based on BAT's corporate agenda that SHS is an insignificant contributor to the larger issue of air pollution. The public health community in China should be aware of the tactics previously used by TTCs, including efforts by the tobacco industry to co-opt prominent Chinese benevolent organizations, when seeking to enact stronger restrictions on smoking in public places.

  17. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program... and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Interior and the... designed to enable Indian tribes to participate in all contractible IRR and BIA Road Maintenance programs...

  18. Lessons from international experience for China's microgrid demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romankiewicz, John; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan; Qu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Microgrids can provide an avenue for increasing the amount of distributed generation (DG) and delivery of electricity, where control is more dispersed and quality of service is locally tailored to end-use requirements, with applications from military bases to campuses to commercial office buildings. Many studies have been done to date on microgrid technology and operations, but fewer studies exist on demonstration programs and commercial microgrid development. As China prepares to launch the largest microgrid demonstration program in the world, we review progress made by demonstration programs across Europe, Asia, and the Americas as well as microgrid benefits and barriers. Through case studies, we highlight the difference in experience for microgrids developed under the auspices of a government-sponsored demonstration program versus those that were commercially developed. Lastly, we provide recommendations oriented towards creating a successful microgrid demonstration program. - Highlights: • We discuss major microgrid demonstration programs in the U.S., E.U., and Asia. • We identify barriers faced by microgrids to date and propose policy solutions. • Two detailed case studies of government sponsored microgrid demonstrations are provided. • We outline eight recommendations for microgrid demonstration programs, with a focus on China's upcoming program

  19. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the same time, wage and income inequalities have grown significantly and wages have fallen. ... wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. ... Impact of minimum wage on gender wage gaps in urban China.

  20. Son Preference in China and India : Policy Interventions to address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... form, at its most extreme shifting from female infanticide to sex-selective abortion. Both countries have enacted laws to combat gender-based discrimination in ... in China and India that have attempted to address discrimination against girls.

  1. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  2. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  3. China's nuclear power policy and the present development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingfan, L.

    1998-01-01

    Experience acquired in China 's nuclear power development has proven that it is very important to strengthen exchange in nuclear science and technology, and further to share and to introduce techniques, funds, management experience and experts from abroad. China will continue to keep and to extend international cooperation in the nuclear field on basis of equality and mutual benefit to make a great contribution to the world's peace and economic prosperity. (N.C.)

  4. Growth and Development of Distance Education in India and China: A Study on Policy Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Gaba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available India and China are two fast growing economies of the world and need large skill based manpower to sustain the economic growth. The existing formal higher educational system in these countries will not be able to meet the demand of the economy. The paper will try (i to compare the development of economy and distance education in India and China with reference to policy perspectives; (ii to examine the course design, development and delivery of distance education programmes in national open universities of India and China i.e. Indira Gandhi National Open University of India (IGNOU and Open University of China (OUC; (iii to analyze the trend of enrollment in IGNOU and OUC; and (iv to compare the recognition /accreditation and quality control process of distance learning in both these countries. The paper highlights the policy strategies of two countries towards quality control mechanism as par with conventional system.

  5. Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.

  6. Study on Enhanceing Mechanisim and Policy on Energy Efficiency of Electrical Motor System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Lili; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Motor is a kind of terminal energy-consumption equipment with the maximum power consumption in China every year; compared with international advanced level, the technical innovation of motor equipment, speed regulating system, drive system and automatic intelligent control technique in China still lag behind relatively; the standard technical service support system of motor system is not complete, the energy conserving transformation mode needs to be innovated, and the market development mechanism of motor industry is not perfect, etc. This paper analyzes the promotion mechanism and policy on energy efficiency of the motor system in China in recent years, studies the demonstration cases of successful promotion of high-efficiency motor, standard labeling, financial finance and tax policy, and puts forward suggestions on promotion of high-efficiency motor in China.

  7. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  8. Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Quan; Hammond, S Katharine; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2008-05-01

    To examine the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure. Survey of smoking policies and measurement of SHS level in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China. Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly after the policy was enacted. Enactment of a smoking policy was effective in reducing SHS exposure in the buildings. Nonsmoking office workers in China were exposed to significant levels of SHS at work; both the central and local governments should realize the need to legislate against workplace smoking.

  9. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  10. Grid-connected renewable energy in China: Policies and institutions under gradualism, developmentalism, and socialism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Clara

    2011-01-01

    This communication displays some of our on-going research on the incompleteness of China's advances toward “best practice” in policy-making and institution-building for renewables. In particular, this paper: (1) summarizes how Chinese policies and institutions for the deployment of renewable electricity are only partially compliant with what is internationally recognized as “best practice”; and (2) contextualizes Chinese policies and institutions for renewables in the broader picture of China's political economy. Much as a political economy perspective has aided the understanding of why Chinese economic reforms were partial and unique, the said contextualization might help explain why China's policies and institutions for renewables diverge from “best practice”. Further, given that China proved successful in promoting its economic growth with partial and unique reforms, the partiality and uniqueness of its renewables policies and institutions need not impede the rapid development of renewable electricity. This on-going research has so far combined a review of specialized literature and the business press with semi-structured interviews held with relevant actors in policy, business, and research related to renewable energies.

  11. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    results show that the SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention to increase rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the implementation of the SLCP has had heterogeneous effects on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  12. The necessity of and policy suggestions for implementing a limited number of large scale, fully integrated CCS demonstrations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; West, Logan; Ni Weidou

    2011-01-01

    CCS is seen as an important and strategic technology option for China to reduce its CO 2 emission, and has received tremendous attention both around the world and in China. Scholars are divided on the role CCS should play, making the future of CCS in China highly uncertain. This paper presents the overall circumstances for CCS development in China, including the threats and opportunities for large scale deployment of CCS, the initial barriers and advantages that China currently possesses, as well as the current progress of CCS demonstration in China. The paper proposes the implementation of a limited number of larger scale, fully integrated CCS demonstration projects and explains the potential benefits that could be garnered. The problems with China's current CCS demonstration work are analyzed, and some targeted policies are proposed based on those observations. These policy suggestions can effectively solve these problems, help China gain the benefits with CCS demonstration soon, and make great contributions to China's big CO 2 reduction mission. - Highlights: → We analyze the overall circumstances for CCS development in China in detail. → China can garner multiple benefits by conducting several large, integrated CCS demos. → We present the current progress in CCS demonstration in China in detail. → Some problems exist with China's current CCS demonstration work. → Some focused policies are suggested to improve CCS demonstration in China.

  13. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jiang; Yalin Lei; Li Li; Jianping Ge

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the...

  14. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477

  15. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  16. 1946: The Transition of the Kuomintang Government’s Policies towards Korean Immigrants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China, which witnessed many controversial incidents, was the arena of Korea, China and Japan in the modern history. Meanwhile, Korean immigrants in Northeast China were the target to be won over by various political powers during the twentieth century. When the World War Ⅱended, nearly five-sixths of Korean immigrants lived in the liberated areas (the Communist Party of China- controlled areas. Some young Korean immigrants were mobilized by the CPC to join the Chinese civil war. To strengthen its reign and gain support, KMT government changed the policies of settling Korean on June 10th of 1946 and established the Northeast Korean Immigrants Department to address the problems in the fields of education, welfare and repatriation in 1947.This paper, with careful analysis of the historical documents, aims to build the ground for future research on the Korean immigrants in Northeast China.

  17. Air Quality Co-benefits of Energy Policy in China: Evidence from Iron & Steel and Cement Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M.; Weng, Y.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has calculated large air quality co-benefits from policies that reduce CO2 emissions and increase energy efficiency. These (often prospective) studies rely on assumptions about how air pollutant emissions respond to energy use changes. Using a unique firm-level data set from China, we examine how a real-world energy efficiency policy affected SO2 emissions, estimate its actual effects on atmospheric PM2.5, and compare to ex ante theoretical estimates. During the 11th Five-year plan (2006-2010), the Chinese government implemented policies directing large energy-consuming firms to reduce their energy consumption per unit of economic output. The Top 1000 Enterprises Program (T1000P) set binding energy intensity targets for China's 1000 highest energy-consuming firms. This program is widely considered a policy success, as 92% of firms met their energy intensity target. Focusing on the cement and iron and steel industry, we examine how T1000P (and related provincial policies) affected firms' SO2 emissions and coal consumption from 2005 to 2008. By comparing T1000P firms with similar firms not subject to the policy, we find that T1000P had a very limited incremental effect on energy use or on air quality co-benefits. Compared to firms not subject to the policy, T1000P firms had 14.7% (cement) and 24.0% (iron & steel) lower reductions in SO2 emission per unit energy use. We also observe large, heterogeneous changes in emission factors (defined as SO2 emissions per unit of coal consumption) among all firms during this period. In comparison to co-benefits estimates that assume constant emission factors, SO2 emissions from T1000P firms in the post-policy period are 23.2% (iron and steel) and 40.2% (cement) lower, but spatially heterogeneous, with some regions experiencing increases. Using the GEOS-Chem model, we estimate the air quality co-benefits of the T1000P policy with realized SO2 emissions changes and compare them with two theoretical estimations

  18. Universal neonatal hearing screening program in Shanghai, China: An inter-regional and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xingang; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Jin; Sun, Mei; Chang, Fengshui; Lü, Jun; Chen, Gang

    2016-11-01

    By comparing the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) program as implemented in Shanghai and other regions in China and countries around the world, this study makes an assessment of the Shanghai model and summarizes the experiences implementing the UNHS program, so as to provide a valuable reference for other countries or regions to carry out UNHS more effectively. Since Shanghai is one of the most developed regions in China, we also examined the relationship between economic development and the UNHS starting year and coverage rate. The study conducted a systematic review of published studies in Chinese and English on the program status of neonatal hearing screening to compare and analyze the implementation of the UNHS program in 20 cities or provinces in China and 24 regions or countries around the world. The literature search in Chinese was conducted in the three most authoritative publication databases, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), WANFANGDATA, and CQVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/). We searched all publications in those databases with the keywords "neonatal hearing screening" (in Chinese) between 2005 and 2014. English literature was searched using the same keywords (in English). The publication database included Medline and Web of Science, and the search time period was 2000-2014. Shanghai was one of the first regions in China to implement UNHS, and its coverage rate was among the top regions by international comparison. The starting time of the UNHS program had no relationship with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the same year. Economic level serves as a threshold for carrying out UNHS but is not a linear contributor to the exact starting time of such a program. The screening coverage rate generally showed a rising trend with the increasing GDP per capita in China, but it had no relationship with the area's GDP per capita in selected regions and countries around the world. The system design of UNHS is the key factor

  19. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  20. The Role of Government Policies in the Adoption of Conservation Tillage in China: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ya

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many areas of China have been facing increasing problems of soil erosion and land degradation. Conservation tillage, with both economic and ecological benefits, provides a good avenue for Chinese farmers to conserve land as well as secure food production. However, the adoption rate of conservation tillage systems is very low in China. In this paper, the author constructs a theoretical model to explain a farmer’s adoption decision of conservation tillage. The goal is to investigate potential reasons behind the low adoption rate and explores alternative policy tools that can help improve a farmer’s incentive to adopt conservation tillage in China.

  1. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in local governments. This represents the largest ever central government-led effort addressing transit metropolis development in the world. How has the program been implemented locally? Have the selected demonstration cities followed the same principle or taken comparable measures to implement their version of the transit metropolis? What is their performance? These questions remain unknown in the current literature. This article answers the above questions through a literature review, interviews and comparative case studies in Shenyang and Dalian, two large cities in Liaoning Province. It shows that both cities have successfully achieved the target levels for building a transit metropolis. Similarities between the two cities can be found their absence of any policies on automobile restriction and the presence of enormous efforts in transit network expansion and optimization. Differences lie in the fact that Shenyang has been more conventional in developing the transit metropolis, while Dalian has been more innovative and flexible in policy implementation. When comparing our empirical findings with the experience of creating transit metropolis elsewhere in China and in foreign countries, we find that policies and regulations restricting car use and calming traffic are not necessary conditions for successful transit metropolises; however, the attractiveness of transit infrastructure, combined with aesthetic and well-decorated street network is essential for a modal shift for transit. We also find that the perception on the transit metropolis in China more emphasizes transit service improvement, while the concept in Western countries more focuses on

  2. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  3. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  4. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  5. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  6. Evidence-based policy versus morality policy: the case of syringe access programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; O'Quinn, Erin; Davis, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) combines proven interventions with clinical experience, ethics, and client preferences to inform treatment and services. Although EBP is integrated into most aspects of social work and public health, at times EBP is at odds with social policy. In this article the authors explore the paradox of evidence-based policy using syringe access programs (SAP) as a case example, and review methods of bridging the gap between the emphasis on EBP and lack of evidence informing SAP policy. Analysis includes the overuse of morality policy and examines historical and current theories why this paradox exists. Action steps are highlighted for creating effective policy and opportunities for public health change. Strategies on reframing the problem and shifting target population focus to garner support for evidence-based policy change are included. This interdisciplinary understanding of the way in which these factors converge is a critical first step in moving beyond morality-based policy toward evidence-based policy.

  7. The Foreign Policy of Modern China: from the Utopia of Nonpolar World to Chinese Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К И Аксёнова

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author touches the strategic problem of building China's foreign policy, which in a multipolar world will soon make the country do its significative choice and find an opportunity of modernization. Successful exit strategy from the financial crisis has played a low-down trick with Beijing - the «donor of capital» image raised fears among the leading powers. So, the future of China's foreign policy will depend largely on its ability to transition to a more dynamic and flexible response to rapidly changing trends - the «reset».

  8. DEMO development strategy based on China FPP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong; Feng, K.M.; Wu, W.C.; Liu, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The DEMO in China is to demonstrate the safety, reliability and environment feasibility of the fusion power plants, while to demonstrate the prospective economic feasibility of the commercial fusion power plants. Considering that there is still a long way to go towards an economically competitive commercial power plant, DEMO in China should be an indispensable step prior to the commercial one. Two options of breeding blanket with ceramic and lead lithium breeders might be chosen as DEMO concepts under the conditions of meeting the requirement of the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and mechanics aspects. The DEMO development strategy, related R and D activities, based on China fusion power plant (FPP) program are presented. (orig.)

  9. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Lihua; Hauger, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES), will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  10. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  11. China's optimal stockpiling policies in the context of new oil price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Nan; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the size of oil stockpiling plays a fundamental role in the process of making national strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) policies. There have been extensive studies on the operating strategies of SPR. However, previous literatures have paid more attention to a booming or stable international oil market, while few studies analyzed the impact of a long-term low oil price on SPR policy. As a supplement, this paper extends a static model to study China's optimal stockpiling policy under different oil price trends, and in response to different current oil prices. A new variable “FC”, which demonstrates the appreciation and depreciation of the reserved oil economic value, has been taken into account to assess the optimal size of SPR. In this paper, a more multi-perspective of view is provided to consider the policies of China's SPR, especially under the different trend of international oil price fluctuations. - Highlights: • We extended a static model to study optimal stockpiling size of China's SPR. • A new variable “FC” was applied to illustrate the shifting financial value of SPR. • We analyzed how current oil price and varied prediction influence optimal size. • Operational measures could be adjusted at the end of each decision-making period. • A more multifaceted of view might be provided for China's SPR policy-making.

  12. Policy redesign for solving the financial bottleneck in demand side management (DSM) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yongzhen

    2010-01-01

    DSM is one of the best and most practical policy tools for China to balance environmental protection and economic growth. However, the bottleneck lies in the lack of long-term, stable, sufficient and gradually increasing funds to flow into DSM projects. The author redesigns the practical 'system benefit charge (SBC)' policy, which will provide long-term and stable funding for DSM, the policy to facilitate the financial support from banking sector and capital market, and investigates the possibility of DSM funding from CDM projects. SBC is the best way to boost long-term stable and sufficient funding for DSM at present in China. The current low inflation rate and natural resource price are favored to expedite the implementation of SBC and DSM developments. With regard to the uneven development, China needs to design relative policies to offset the impact in different areas, such as tax reduction and fiscal subsides. It is time for China to develop a definite and clear target and timetable to implement DSM, which will give the public and enterprises a definite and clear expectation for the future. The government should publicize a clear and integrated DSM development plan and relative policy outline in the near, medium, and long term. (author)

  13. The Dragon Eyes the Top of the World: Arctic Policy Debate and Discussion in China (China Maritime Study, Number 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    and the formulation of state policy on the other are usually only translucent , if not opaque, to outsiders, the presence and apparent tolera- tion of...Arctic geopolitical affairs but give no concrete specifics. One basic position seems to inform Li’s many articles: China wants and deserves a piece...is no way for them to be transformed into concrete restrictive directives. Further, the Arctic Council established by AEPS as the largest inter

  14. Educational Policy Development in China for the 21st Century: Rationality and Challenges in a Globalizing Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Policies are in the epicenter of, if not in the driving seat for, educational development in any societal context. Since the turn of the 21st century alongside China's re-emergence as a global superpower, educational policies in China have witnessed fundamental transformations as they have been maneuvered with ambitious plans for national,…

  15. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  16. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Amendments to Policy Directive. SUMMARY: This document announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR...

  17. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  18. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  19. Programs and Policies for Reducing Maternal Mortality in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study is aimed to document policies and programs that are directed towards addressing maternal health issues in Kano state of Nigeria. Relevant data was obtained from the state hospital management board, NDHS 2008, and national ...

  20. Evaluating forest management policies by parametric linear programing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon; Richard J. McConnen

    1967-01-01

    An analytical and simulation technique, parametric linear programing explores alternative conditions and devises an optimal management plan for each condition. Its application in solving policy-decision problems in the management of forest lands is illustrated in an example.

  1. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  2. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  3. Low Carbon-Economy Development: China's Pattern and Policy Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    For a developing country such as China, it is important to select a fair pattern that is suitable for China's national conditions for low carbon-economy development, as it has a direct impact on the success (or not) of low carbon-economy development. This research shows that, under the real-life conditions of China's development, different development patterns should be practised depending on specific socioeconomic conditions. Among them, one of the most critical issues is how to make full use of natural forces, and thus the nature-oriented development pattern should be practised in full. At the same time, China should still practise either the single regional differential or the multi-regional linkage development pattern under different conditions and either the imposed or the induced development pattern at the different stages of development. - Highlights: • It is particularly important to select a suitable development pattern. • Nature-oriented development pattern should be selected. • Single regional differentiation-typed or multi-regional linkage-typed pattern should be selected. • Either the imposed pattern or the induced pattern of development will be selected

  4. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  5. Water Price Reforms in China: Policy-Making and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the conviction that economic and pricing approaches are an essential addition to conventional command-and-control environmental regulation, China has gradually increased attention to, research on and experiments with the application of economic instruments in urban water management over

  6. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Framework for monitoring and evaluation of the health sector reform in China ... Le Conseil des gouverneurs félicite Jean Lebel pour son nouveau mandat au poste ... CDRI est heureux d'annoncer que le premier appel à candidatures pour les ...

  7. The Equity Challenge in China's Higher Education Finance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengshou; Barrientos, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Sustaining China's rapid economic growth in the future will come to depend in large part on the quantity and quality of the human resources it can mobilize. The paper considers the prospects for higher education financing, and highlights the importance of improving equity in access to higher education as a precondition for a sustainable expansion…

  8. 9. Implikasi Kebijakan One China Policy Terhadap Keamanan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Di Taiwan Periode Tahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Leprilian, Yang; Windiani, Reni; Puspapertiwi, Sheiffi

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan holds a significance position for Indonesian economy, one of which can be seenfrom the large number of Indonesian Migrant Workers who work in the country. On theother hand, due to the One China Policy, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations withTaiwan because Indonesia prefers to recognize the sovereignty of the People's Republic ofChina. Related to these facts, this research aims to determine and analyze the implicationsof the One China Policy toward the protection of Indonesian...

  9. Climate change and energy policies, coal and coalmine methane in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ming [3E and T International, Suite 1506, Building No. 10, Luo Ma Shi Street, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100052 (China)], E-mail: ming.yang7@gmail.com

    2009-08-15

    The Chinese government has made many energy policies on coal, and coalmine methane (CMM) use. However, not all of these policies have effects or positive impacts. For example, it has been quite a few years since the national government made policies to encourage coalmine methane power to be sold to the grid. Practice showed that not any kilowatt of electricity was sold from a coalmine methane power plant to the grid in Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces as of December 2008. The objectives of this paper are to review and evaluate the Chinese government energy and climate policies that are related to coal and coalmine methane, analyze relevant policy barriers, and make recommendations to overcome these barriers and avoid policy failures. This paper provides the literature review, challenges, resources, policies and other updated information on China's CMM recovery and utilization. The paper concludes that China needs to further reform its energy and environment management system, engage provincial governments in CMM capture and use activities, and provide incentives to qualified engineers and skilled workers to work in remote coal mining areas. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for them to make better CMM capture and use policies.

  10. Climate change and energy policies, coal and coalmine methane in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [3E& amp; T International, Beijing (China)

    2009-08-15

    The Chinese government has made many energy policies on coal, and coalmine methane (CMM) use. However, not all of these policies have effects or positive impacts. For example, it has been quite a few years since the national government made policies to encourage coalmine methane power to be sold to the grid. Practice showed that not one kilowatt of electricity was sold from a coalmine methane power plant to the grid in Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces as of December 2008. This paper reviews and evaluates the Chinese government energy and climate policies that are related to coal and coalmine methane, analyzes relevant policy barriers, and makes recommendations to overcome these barriers and avoid policy failures. The paper provides a literature review, challenges, resources, policies and other updated information on China's CMM recovery and utilization. The paper concludes that China needs to further reform its energy and environment management system, engage provincial governments in CMM capture and use activities, and provide incentives to qualified engineers and skilled workers to work in remote coal mining areas. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for them to make better CMM capture and use policies. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Climate change and energy policies, coal and coalmine methane in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [3E and T International, Suite 1506, Building No. 10, Luo Ma Shi Street, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100052 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The Chinese government has made many energy policies on coal, and coalmine methane (CMM) use. However, not all of these policies have effects or positive impacts. For example, it has been quite a few years since the national government made policies to encourage coalmine methane power to be sold to the grid. Practice showed that not any kilowatt of electricity was sold from a coalmine methane power plant to the grid in Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces as of December 2008. The objectives of this paper are to review and evaluate the Chinese government energy and climate policies that are related to coal and coalmine methane, analyze relevant policy barriers, and make recommendations to overcome these barriers and avoid policy failures. This paper provides the literature review, challenges, resources, policies and other updated information on China's CMM recovery and utilization. The paper concludes that China needs to further reform its energy and environment management system, engage provincial governments in CMM capture and use activities, and provide incentives to qualified engineers and skilled workers to work in remote coal mining areas. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for them to make better CMM capture and use policies. (author)

  12. Climate change and energy policies, coal and coalmine methane in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese government has made many energy policies on coal, and coalmine methane (CMM) use. However, not all of these policies have effects or positive impacts. For example, it has been quite a few years since the national government made policies to encourage coalmine methane power to be sold to the grid. Practice showed that not any kilowatt of electricity was sold from a coalmine methane power plant to the grid in Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces as of December 2008. The objectives of this paper are to review and evaluate the Chinese government energy and climate policies that are related to coal and coalmine methane, analyze relevant policy barriers, and make recommendations to overcome these barriers and avoid policy failures. This paper provides the literature review, challenges, resources, policies and other updated information on China's CMM recovery and utilization. The paper concludes that China needs to further reform its energy and environment management system, engage provincial governments in CMM capture and use activities, and provide incentives to qualified engineers and skilled workers to work in remote coal mining areas. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for them to make better CMM capture and use policies.

  13. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  14. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  15. A multidisciplinary Earth science research program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Li, Tingdong; Gao, Rui; Hou, Hesheng; Li, Yingkang; Zhang, Shihong; Keller, G. Randy; Liu, Mian

    2011-09-01

    Because China occupies a large and geologically complex region of central and eastern Asia, the country may hold the keys to resolving many basic problems in the Earth sciences, such as how continental collision with India produced China's interconnected array of large intraplate structures, and what links exist between these structures and natural resources. To learn more, the Chinese government has launched SinoProbe, a major research initiative focusing on multidisciplinary imaging of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure and composition of the Chinese continental lithosphere and its evolution through geologic history. This effort is also motivated by China's need for a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and a better understanding of potential geohazards. SinoProbe is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Finance, managed by the Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources, and organized by the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. More than 960 investigators and engineers are currently involved with the program, not counting international collaborators. Most of them are affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Education (i.e., universities), and the China Earthquake Administration. The initial phase of the program (2008-2012), with funding equivalent to about US$164 million, is testing the feasibility of new technologies in geophysical and geochemical exploration and deep continental drilling by focusing on a series of profiles (Figure 1).

  16. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  17. How certain indigenous innovation and other patent policies hamper innovation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2012-01-01

    China has a wide-range of patent-specific and other patent-related policies in-place, many of which are at least partially meant to stimulate patents and “indigenous innovation.” However, the analysis in this paper discusses how some of these policies in effect can actually discourage quality patents, and highest-quality patents in particular, and related innovation.

  18. Prioritizing Congenital Syphilis Control in South China: A Decision Analytic Model to Inform Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nicholas X.; Rydzak, Chara; Yang, Li-Gang; Vickerman, Peter; Yang, Bin; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Hawkes, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS) cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan. Methods and Findings Our model incorporated data on age-stratified fertility, female adult syphilis cases, and empirical syphilis transmission rates to estimate the number of CS cases associated with prenatal syphilis infection on a yearly basis. Guangdong Province was the focus of this analysis because of the availability of high-quality demographic and public health data. Each model outcome was simulated 1,000 times to incorporate uncertainty in model inputs. The model was validated using data from a CS intervention program among 477,656 women in China. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify which variables are likely to be most influential in achieving Chinese and international policy goals. Increasing prenatal screening coverage was the single most effective strategy for reducing CS cases. An incremental increase in prenatal screening from the base case of 57% coverage to 95% coverage was associated with 106 (95% CI: 101, 111) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (58% decrease). The policy strategies laid out in the national plan led to an outcome that fell short of the target, while a four-pronged comprehensive syphilis control strategy consisting of increased prenatal screening coverage, increased treatment completion, earlier prenatal screening, and improved syphilis test characteristics was associated with 157 (95% CI: 154, 160) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (85% decrease). Conclusions The Chinese national plan provides a strong foundation for syphilis control, but more comprehensive measures

  19. China's wind power industry: Policy support, technological achievements, and emerging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhongying; Qin, Haiyan; Lewis, Joanna I.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the Chinese wind power technology industry has developed rapidly, with China becoming the largest installer of wind power capacity in the world in 2010. This paper reviews the policy system implemented in China to support the wind power industry, centered on China's 2005 Renewable Energy Law. It examines the industry's achievements over the past two decades, including the development of wind power technology and equipment, the utilization of China's wind power resources, and the cost reductions achieved. It then explores the obstacles affecting the ongoing sustainability of the Chinese wind industry, including regulatory barriers, grid integration challenges, and challenges to continued technological innovation. It recommends that integration challenges be addressed through policy reforms, establishing interconnection standards, and creating predictability with forecasting and storage; that market signals be established with long-term development goals and pricing reforms; and that industry limitations be addressed with targeted R and D, improved wind resource assessment and transparency, domestic and international collaborations, and the cultivation of a skilled workforce. - Highlights: ► Review the policy system and the achievements of Chinese wind industry. ► Analyze the obstacles affecting the sustainability of the industry. ► Provide recommendations for how China can address these obstacles.

  20. Re-thinking china's densified biomass fuel policies: Large or small scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Ming; Li, Dingkai; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Current policies and strategies related to the utilization of densified biomass fuel (DBF) in China are mainly focused on medium- or large-scale manufacturing modes, which cannot provide feasible solutions to solve the household energy problems in China's rural areas. To simplify commercial processes related to the collection of DBF feedstock and the production and utilization of fuel, a novel village-scale DBF approach is proposed. Pilot demonstration projects have shown the feasibility and flexibility of this new approach in realizing sustainable development in rural China. Effective utilization of DBF in rural China will lead to gains for global, regional, and local energy savings, environmental protection, sustainable development, and related social benefits. It could also benefit other developing countries for better utilization of biomass as a viable household energy source. This proposal therefore delivers the possibility of reciprocal gains, and as such deserves the attention of policy makers and various stakeholders. - Highlights: •A field survey of Chinese densified biomass fuel (DBF) development is conducted. •The current situation and problems related to China's DBF industry are analyzed. •A novel and viable village-scale DBF utilization mode is proposed. •Further actions are suggested to boost the utilization of DBF in rural China.

  1. From government to market and from producer to consumer: Transition of policy mix towards clean mobility in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lei; Su, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new typology that classifies innovation policy instruments into two dimensions: government-selection versus market-selection, and producer-orientation versus consumer-orientation. Such a typology articulates the importance of consumer behavior in the policy design for a transition, and the relevance for the market to select target subjects of policy during the deployment stage of clean technology innovation. We apply this typology to policy instruments of China's new energy vehicle (NEV) industry between 1991 and 2015 in order to explain the industry's rapid growth. The focus of China's policy mix has transited from government-selection to market-selection, and from producer-orientation to consumer-orientation. Other than the new typology, this paper traces the entire history of policy transition within China's NEV industry, and finds the transition to be a result of policy learning, thus contributing to future empirical studies of this industry. - Highlights: •This paper shows the change of China's innovation policy mix for the new energy vehicle industry. •We design a new typology of innovation policy instruments. •China's policy mix has undergone a transition according to the new typology. •The transition explains why new energy vehicles have recently diffused quickly in China. •Rationale and background of such a transition is provided.

  2. Transcending the Nature of Refinement: The Policy Development on Liberal Arts Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, You Guo; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Liberal arts education is based on a philosophy that uses an interdisciplinary curriculum to cultivate critical thinking, creativity, moral reasoning, analytical skills, and a sense of social responsibility. As China continues to invest in higher education, faculty, administrators and policy makers are aware that a narrow focus on professional and…

  3. Revisiting Educational Equity and Quality in China through Confucianism, Policy, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Zheng, Xinrong; Jia, Ning; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Shaoyi; Chen, Yanchuan; He, Ying; May, Lyn; Carter, Merilyn; Dooley, Karen; Berwick, Adon; Sobyra, Angela; Diezmann, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of educational equity and improvement of educational quality in China are contextualised in tenets of Confucianism and policy directives, inspiring educational research and practice. In this paper, we first explore the historical and cultural roots of educational equity and quality through Confucianism and elaborate on the current…

  4. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  5. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  6. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important...

  7. China’s Rare Earth Policies: Economic Statecraft or Interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    to China.112 In September 2011, Toyota announced that it was planning to manufacture components (such as electric motors and batteries) for its...Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States,” Congressional Research Service, April 30, 2012, 19. 113 BBC, “ Toyota to...SOEs to influence rare earth prices and affect the position of its competitors including the small domestic mining firms. Under this new consolidation

  8. Applying market-based instruments to environmental policies in China and OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth since the late 1970s has been a remarkable achievement, and is projected to continue. However, this prospect could be compromised by pollution of air, water, and land, the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, and the environmental impacts on public health. Air pollution associated with the use of coal for energy and industrial purposes is a particularly serious challenge in China, with important domestic and transboundary implications. This book presents papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and China's National Environmental Protection Agency on the application of economic instruments to control air pollution in China and OECD countries. It presents the state-of-the-air in this field, based upon contributions from Chinese and OECD country policy makers and experts

  9. Best Management Practices, Policies and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  10. China’s Exchange Rate Policy: A Double Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    market.10 These four characteristics allowed the East Asian countries of Japan, Taiwan , and South Korea to develop at exponential rates for decades. This...EXCHANGE RATE POLICY Chapter II provides background on important factors affecting China’s exchange rate policy, as well as an overview of its...include telecommunications, tourism , hospitality, 51 World’s Richest Countries, “Top Ten Chinese

  11. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China's Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, III, James A

    2008-01-01

    China's central government's response to the current challenge of consumer product safety in the food and drug arena could be a determining factor in its ability to sustain robust economic growth over the next decade...

  12. Sulfur dioxide control in China: policy evolution during the 10th and 11th Five-year Plans and lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreifels, Jeremy J.; Fu, Yale; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    China's Central government established national goals to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by 10% in both the 10th and 11th Five-year Plan periods, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010, respectively. But the early policies were unsuccessful at reducing emissions—emissions increased 28% during the 10th Five-year Plan. After adapting a number of policies and introducing new instruments during the 11th Five-year Plan, SO 2 emissions declined by 14%. We examine the evolution of these policies, their interplay with technical and institutional factors, and capture lessons from the 11th Five-year Plan to guide future pollution control programs. We find that several factors contributed to achievement of the 11th Five-year Plan SO 2 reduction goal: (1) instrument choice, (2) political accountability, (3) emission verification, (4) political support, (5) streamlined targets, and (6) political and financial incentives. The approach integrated multiple policy instruments—market-based, command-and-control, and administrative instruments specific to the Chinese context. The evolution of SO 2 reduction policies and programs has implications for further SO 2 reductions from power plants and other sources, as well as control of other atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in China. - Highlights: ► This paper assesses China's SO 2 reduction policies between 2000 and 2010. ► Government used a variety of policy instruments to achieve emission targets. ► Experience shows that accountability, incentives, and political support were key. ► The policy lessons can aid future policies for SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 reductions.

  13. 'Social evils' and harm reduction: the evolving policy environment for human immunodeficiency virus prevention among injection drug users in China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Wu, Zunyou; Duc, Tran Tien; Stephens, David; Sullivan, Sheena; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Ngu, Doan; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of government policies in China and Vietnam regarding harm reduction interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, such as needle/syringe provision and opioid substitution treatment. The work is based upon the authors' experiences in and observations of these policy developments, as well as relevant government policy documents and legislation. Both countries are experiencing HIV epidemics driven by injection drug use and have maintained generally severe policies towards injection drug users (IDUs). In recent years, however, they have also officially endorsed harm reduction. We sought to understand how and why this apparently surprising policy evolution took place. Factors associated with growing support for harm reduction were similar but not identical in China and Vietnam. These included the emergence of effective 'champions' for such policies, an ethos of pragmatism and receptivity to evidence, growing collaboration across public health, police and other sectors, the influence of contingent events such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic and pressure from donors and international organizations to adopt best practice in HIV prevention. Ongoing challenges and lessons learned include the persistence of tensions between drug control and harm reduction that may have negative effects on programs until a fully harmonized policy environment is established. Excessive reliance on law enforcement and forced detoxification will not solve the problems of substance abuse or of HIV among drug users. Ongoing evaluation of harm reduction programs, as well as increased levels of multi-sectoral training, collaboration and support are also needed.

  14. With Strings Attached: Chinas Economic Policy in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    10 million toward the relief efforts. The Swedish corporation Ikea even pledged $2.7 million through a customer-match campaign.140 China’s initial...142 Associated Press, “Typhoon Haiyan: China Gives Less Aid to Philippines than Ikea ,” The Guardian, November 14, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com...world/2013/nov/14/typhoon-haiyan-china- aid-philippines- ikea . 143 Daniel Baltrusaitis, “China’s Revealing Typhoon Haiyan Response,” The Diplomat

  15. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  16. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  17. Communication of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China providing a White Paper on the nuclear non-proliferation policy and measures of the People's Republic of China. In light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the letter and the White Paper are attached hereto

  18. Communication of 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China regarding China's nuclear policies and practices. In the light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the Note Verbale is attached hereto

  19. Regionalized Techno-Economic Assessment and Policy Analysis for Biomass Molded Fuel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a relatively mature technology, biomass molded fuel (BMF is widely used in distributed and centralized heating in China and has received considerable government attention. Although many BFM incentive policies have been developed, decreased domestic traditional fuel prices in China have caused BMF to lose its economic viability and new policy recommendations are needed to stimulate this industry. The present study built a regionalized net present value (NPV model based on real production process simulation to test the impacts of each policy factor. The calculations showed that BMF production costs vary remarkably between regions, with the cost of agricultural briquette fuel (ABF ranging from 86 US dollar per metric ton (USD/t to 110 (USD/t, while that of woody pellet fuel (WPF varies from 122 USD/t to 154 USD/t. The largest part of BMF’s cost composition is feedstock, which accounts for up 50%–60% of the total; accordingly a feedstock subsidy is the most effective policy factor, but in consideration of policy implementation, it would be better to use a production subsidy. For ABF, the optimal product subsidy varies from 26 USD/t to 57 USD/t among different regions of China, while for WPF, the range is 36 USD/t to 75 USD/t. Based on the data, a regional BMF development strategy is also proposed in this study.

  20. Marine renewable energy policy in China and recommendations for improving implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Ji; Liu, Yuxin; Chen, Libo

    2018-02-01

    Renewable energy is the effective solution for the harmonious coexistence of human and environment as well as for the sustainable development. Marine renewable energy as one of the renewable energies, potentially offer fewer environmental risks and thus community acceptance than other renewable energy developments. Government support is the key and initial power for developing marine renewable energy. To promote the development and utilization of marine renewable energy, the Chinese government has established the special funding plan for marine renewable energy, and released “the 13th Five-years Plan (2016-2020) for marine renewable energy”. This paper describes the mechanisms established by the marine renewable Energy policy in China, and provides a comparative analysis of the Chinese marine renewable energy policy framework. We provides some policy recommendations for future development of marine renewable energy in China.

  1. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal. In order to prevent different kinds of radwaste from polluting environment, ensure public health, and simultaneously promote the development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, a set of environmental policies on radwaste management and disposal has been established. The major policy are as follows: (1) Solidifying the temporarily-stored radioactive liquid waste as early as possible. (2) Limiting the temporarily-stored time for intermediate-and low-level solidified radwaste, and solid radwaste. (3) Constructing regional disposal repository for Low and Intermediate level radwaste (L/ILW) (4) The radwaste and spent radiation sources arising from nuclear technology application shall be sent to the provincial waste repositories that are named City Radwaste Repository. (5) The radwaste coming from the development and application of inter-grown radioactive mineral resources should be stored in the dams which have to be provided

  3. The impact of government policy on preference for NEVs: The evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian; Wang, Ke; Hao, Yu; Fan, Jing-Li; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To reduce gasoline consumption and emissions, the Chinese government has introduced a series of preferential policies to encourage the purchase of new energy vehicles (NEVs). However, enthusiasm for the private purchase of NEVs appears to be very low. This timely paper addresses the need for an empirical study to explore this phenomenon by identifying purchase motivations of potential NEV consumers and examining the impact of government policies introduced to promote NEVs in China. A questionnaire survey was carried out. The acceptance of NEVs is measured in three different logistic models: the willingness of consumers to purchase NEVs, the purchasing time, and the acceptable price. The results showed that financial benefits, performance attributes, environmental awareness and psychological needs are the four most important factors influencing consumers’ acceptance of NEVs. Among these, performance attributes rather than financial benefits are the most important indicator. The moderating effect of government policies to relations between purchasing intention, time and price is not strong as respected while the policy implications are clear that the ‘public awareness of government policy’ functions as a moderator in the process of acceptance. These findings could give some hints to the government to make better NEV industry policy. - Highlights: • This paper timely studies the private purchasing behaviors of NEVs in China. • Purchase motivations of NEVs and the impact of government policies are examined. • Performance attribute is the most important indicator to acceptance of NEVs. • The moderating effect of government policies is not strong as respected

  4. 33 CFR 273.13 - Program policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... project. (iii) Analysis based on sound economic principles clearly demonstrates that the project will... Program is designed to deal primarily with weed infestations of major economic significance including... infestation should constitute a known problem of economic importance in the area involved. Initial planning...

  5. Employee Assistance: Policies and Programs. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Approximately six to eight percent of the nation's workers have problems which affect their job performance; without assistance, these problems become worse, affect others, and may have serious consequences to the employer as well. The Employee Assistance Program (EAP) is a pragmatic but compassionate attempt to improve performance by constructing…

  6. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  7. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  8. Diplomatic strategies around FOCALAE: emerging platform for Latin American policy of China Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ren-rang Chyou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The People's Republic of China has always followed a policy of no alignment, even with its neighbors of the Southeast Asian region. But since every rule has an exception, the People's Republic of China changed its position in 1990, by joining the core of the Asian Region, in an action interpreted as remuneration for the support received in favor of its legal status, and for the political support to the principle of the "One China" In time, the financial Asian crisis has created a bi-polar development, with the Southern countries still under the influence of the financial sequels of the crisis, and the Northern ones, as the People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong attaining evident economic achievements. With the financial crisis, Beijing was invited to participate in the Asian Forum of BOAO, under the political clout of the "ASEAN+3" group. The People's Republic of China also actively cooperates in the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC, in order to project a "southern political sphere", able to act as a fence around the Capitalist World Axis, under the leadership of USA. The People's Republic of China, after gaining the desired success in the BOAO by projecting the image of "a China in peaceful emergence", has been able to come out as the leader of the Southeast Asian region, and also has managed to focus the international attention in the FEALAC. Nowadays, everybody tries to understand the real intentions of China in this forum. Does China look at it as a mere negotiation forum for South to South relations or it wants to turn it into a replica of the BOAO, to use it as a tool to influence Latin America?

  9. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  10. Status policy and criteria for the remediation of sites with radioactive residues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the status policy and criteria for remediation of sites with radioactive residues in China. We deal with the sites in difference patterns according to their circumstances. For the sites related with the decommissioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the programs for environmental restoration must be reviewed and approved by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA). And the radioactive waste resulting from these facilities should be collected and eventually disposed of at the regional disposal repositories built by the country. For the sites related with use of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry, as well as the small scale extraction and processing of materials containing natural radionuclides, the provincial environmental authority is responsible for approving the restoration projects. These radioactive wastes should finally be sent to the special radioactive waste repositories built by the provincial environmental authorities. So far 21 waste repositories have been built in some provinces. More then 10 sites with radioactive residues have been restored. The standards for general public dose limit and soil residual radionuclides content have been established. (author)

  11. Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2014-05-01

    China has had the one-child policy for more than 30 years. It reduced China's population growth within a short period of time and promoted economic development. However, it has also led to difficulties, and this paper focuses on those which pertain to ageing and losing one's only child. Approximately one million families have lost their only child in China. They suffer mentally and physically, and sometimes face social stigma and economic loss. What worries them most, however, is elderly care, which has become a severe crisis for the families who have lost their only children. This article draws upon several qualitative studies and 12 cases reported by the Chinese media in 2012 and 2013, and existing laws and policies for supporting those who have lost only children. It also analyses the current elderly care situation facing these families. The Chinese government has recognized the predicament and provides some help, which is increasing but is still not always adequate. To both sustain China's economic development and limit population growth, it is essential for the government to reform the one-child policy and provide a comprehensive support system for the families who have lost their only children, including financial relief and elderly care, and work to reduce stigma against these families. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. China on the Mekong: Legitimacy Imperatives and Policy Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    David Kang proposes that conventional theories might prove insufficient for analyzing China’s rise due to its unique cultural and historical...modernization targets. The first, cautious reforms reversed Mao’s collectivist policies to enliven agricultural and basic industrial sectors.36...discussion is heavily one-sided.70 Second, Southeast Asian countries often prioritize sovereignty, autonomy , and economic engagement with larger

  13. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  14. Introduction to the outlines of radwaste administration policy of the Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Tsai, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Radwaste Administration Policy (ORAP) which first drafted by the Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subordinate organization of the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of the Republic of China, and was approved by the Executive Yuan (Cabinet) on September 16, 1988. ORAP has laid down the guidelines for both radwaste administration by RWA and radwaste management by Taiwan Power Company (TPC or Taipower) and other radwaste producers. ORAP will govern radwaste-related activities in the Republic of China in the foreseeable future. The text of ORAP is shown in the Appendix of this paper

  15. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  16. Patenting and Innovation in China: Incentives, Policy, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    limited at 30,000 yuan. See: Kriegel,  J. (2012). Strategies to leverage Chinese patent subsidies Intellectual Property  Magazine .   26 A patent claim...2012). Strategies to leverage Chinese patent subsidies Intellectual Property  Magazine .  Kumar, N. (2003). "Intellectual property rights, technology and...innovation in China: the role of patents in  biotechnology  and  pharmaceutical industries, Edward Elgar.  Liang, M. (2011). "Chinese Patent Quality: Running

  17. Study of China green supply chain management policies and standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Huang, Jin; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    With the highlight of the environment issues, manufacturing industry needs to be environmentally managed with integrated methods in system aspect. Green supply chain management, integrating the environment aspect into each step of the implement of supply chain management, is the key measure to improve the efficiency of environmental management and to remit the pollution. It also helps to make best use and configuration of the resources and has been attracting much attention from our government, enterprises and academia in recent years. This paper introduced the definition and content of green supply chain management, concluded the research progress of green supply chain management by domestic scholars, stated the characteristic and achievement of the implement of green supply chain management in China as well as analyzed the current existing problems and suggestions in the future.

  18. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  19. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ...dynamics of migration.”22 Whether migration during these times was pushed by the regime for increased industrialization or an increase in food ...to ensure there was enough food to feed the growing industrial centers and urban population.49 It was during the first five-year plan that this policy

  20. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  1. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hadzikadunic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  2. Are single children more likely to be overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China's one-child policy on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Wang, Vivian H C; Li, Miao; Wang, Youfa

    2017-10-01

    China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models. From 2000 to 2011, the rates about doubled for being a single-child (30.1% to 57.0%) and being overweight or obese (OWB, 6.6% to 16.5%) along with urbanization (27.5% to 37.1%). Single-child families had higher levels of parental education, household income and urban residence than families with ≥ two children (pchildren with siblings, single children were more likely to be OWB; the association became stronger over time (OR=4.5 (1.7-12.4) in 2011 and 1.7 (1.0-2.8) in 2000). Also, single children had less recreational screen time, but similar physical activity levels; however single urban children were more likely to have excess total energy intake (OR=5.70 (1.58-20.60)) than those with siblings. Being single-child is about four times more likely to be overweight/obesity than those having siblings, and the association became stronger over time in China. China's one-child policy might have contributed to its rising childhood obesity rates. Obesity intervention programs may need to account for the influence of the one-child policy in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Wasteland Auction Policy in Northwest China: Solving Environmental Degradation and Rural Poverty? / Rural Development in Transitional China: A Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to relieve rural poverty and solve the problem of soil and water erosion on marginal land, various provinces and regions throughout China proclaimed a new policy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This 'Four Wastelands Auction Policy' attempts to boost the development of land of low

  4. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  5. Embodied energy use in China's infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007: calculation and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Ren, Bingqun; Zhou, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China's embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China's total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China's economy.

  6. Communication Received from China Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 21 December 2010 from the Permanent Mission of China to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of China, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available information on its annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium as of 31 December 2008 and as of 31 December 2009. In light of the request expressed by China in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the note verbale of 21 December 2010 are attached for the information of all Member States [es

  7. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... development, and highlight not only disparity, but also inequity exists. It is concluded that, there is a larger unequal distribution of GDP per unit of air pollutants and CO2 emission between eastern and western regions, reveals that less developed western and central regions suffer from the emission leakage...... on the regional features of industrial emissions is critical to better decision makings. While to date, related studies have been rather few. This paper applies a spatial analysis on regional features of China's industrial emissions (SO2, NOx and PM2.5 and CO2 emission) in 31 provinces. Spatial autocorrelation...

  8. The New Rich and Their Unplanned Births: Stratified Reproduction under China's Birth-planning Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2017-12-01

    This article explores the creation and ramifications of a stratified reproductive system under China's state control of reproduction. Within this system, an emerging group of "new rich" are able to circumvent birth regulations and have unplanned births because of their financial capabilities and social networks. While China's birth-planning policy is meant to be enforced equally for all couples, the unequal access to wealth and bureaucratic power as a result of China's widening social polarization has created disparate reproductive rights and experiences. This article identifies three ways in which reproductive privileges are created. It further explores how a stratified reproductive system under state population control reinforces social polarization. While many socially marginalized couples are unable to register their unplanned children for citizenship status and social benefits, the new rich are able to legitimate their births and transfer their privilege and status to their children, thus reproducing a new generation of elites. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  9. Communication Received from China Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 21 December 2010 from the Permanent Mission of China to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of China, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available information on its annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium as of 31 December 2008 and as of 31 December 2009. In light of the request expressed by China in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the note verbale of 21 December 2010 are attached for the information of all Member States [fr

  10. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Trappel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  11. Performance and prospects of payments for ecosystem services programs: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Liu, Wei; Viña, Andrés; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-09-30

    Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental effects of the NFCP were evaluated through a historical trend (1965-2001) analysis of forest cover to estimate a counter-factual (i.e., without-PES) forest cover baseline for 2007. The socioeconomic effects of the NFCP were evaluated using data collected through household interviews carried out before and after NFCP implementation in 2001. Our results suggest that the NFCP was not only significantly associated with increases in forest cover, but also had both positive (e.g., labor reduction for fuelwood collection) and negative (e.g., economic losses due to crop raiding by wildlife) effects on local households. Results from this study emphasize the importance of integrating local conditions and understanding underlying mechanisms to enhance the performance of PES programs. Our findings are useful for the design and implementation of successful conservation policies not only in our study area but also in similar places around the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public policy and the people’s perception. Analyzing the relation between the shift in government policies and individual perceptions of the role of the government in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Reeskens, T.

    2012-01-01

    A perennial issue in political science is the relation between public policy and public opinion. While the research on this relation has mainly focused on advanced liberal democracies, this paper will analyze it in a quite different setting. Public policies in the People’s Republic of China have

  13. Does economic incentive matter for rational use of medicine? China's experience from the essential medicines program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Luying; Jiang, Hongli; Mao, Wenhui

    2014-03-01

    Before the new round of healthcare reform in China, primary healthcare providers could obtain a fixed 15 % or greater mark-up of profits by prescribing and selling medicines. There were concerns that this perverse incentive was a key cause of irrational medicine use. China's new Essential Medicines Program (EMP) was launched in 2009 as part of the national health sector reform initiatives. One of its core policies was to eliminate primary care providers' economic incentives to overprescribe or prescribe unnecessarily expensive drugs, which were regarded as consequences of China's traditional financing system for health institutions. The objective of the study was to measure changes in prescribing patterns in primary healthcare facilities after the removal of the economic incentives for physicians to overprescribe as a result of the implementation of the EMP. A comparison design was applied to 8,258 prescriptions in 2007 and 8,278 prescriptions in 2010, from 83 primary healthcare facilities nationwide. Indicators were adopted to evaluate medicine utilization, which included overall number of medicines, average number of Western and traditional Chinese medicines, pharmaceutical expenditure per outpatient prescription, and proportion of prescriptions that contained two or more antibiotics. We further assessed the use of medicines (antibiotics, infusion, hormones, and intravenous injection) per disease-specific prescription for hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery heart disease, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and gastritis. A difference-in-difference analysis was employed to evaluate the net policy effect. Overall changes in indicators were not found to be statistically significant between the 2 years. The results varied for different diseases. The number of Western drugs per outpatient prescription decreased while that of traditional Chinese medicines increased. Overuse of antibiotics remained an extensive problem in the treatment of many diseases

  14. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Bingzhen; Zhen, Lin; Yan, Huimin; Groot, de Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998) a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  16. White paper: China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The document contains the following sections: Foreword; I. Climate Change and China's Situation; II. Impact of Climate Change on China; III. Strategies and Objectives for Addressing Climate Change; IV. Policies and Actions to Decelerate Climate Change; V. Policies and Actions to Adapt to Climate Change; VI. Enhancing Public Awareness in Addressing Climate Change; VII. Enhancing International Cooperation on Climate Change; VIII. Institution and Mechanism Building for Coping with Climate Change; and Conclusion. Measures for control of greenhouse gas emissions include optimizing the energy consumption structure through developing renewable energy, boosting nuclear power plant construction and speeding up the development and utilization of coal-bed gas. The target by 2010 is to raise the proportion of renewable energy (including large-scale hydropower) in the primary energy supply by up to 10 percent, and the extraction of coal-bed gas up to 10 billion cu m. China will push forward the use of clean coal and develop efficient and clean power generating technology, such as large-scale combined cycle units and poly-generation, and promote technology for carbon dioxide sequestration. China has decided to place the emphasis of its research on technologies which include technologies for the clean and efficient exploitation and utilization of coal, petroleum and natural gas; technologies for manufacturing advanced equipment for coal- and nuclear-generated power; technologies for capturing, utilizing and storing carbon dioxide; and technologies that control greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture and how land is used.

  17. Health policy programs realised in Poland in 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowska, Patrycja; Królak, Anna; Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Health Policy Program (Program Polityki Zdrowotnej – PPZ) is a state policy tool for engaging local government units into the mechanism of granting provision of health services. Authors show areas in which self-governments most often took preventive health care actions and describe legislative changes in the Act on provision of health services. The aim of the article is to quantitative and qualitative statement of PPZ prepared in Poland in 2016 and 2017, as well as presenting changing legal situation in the scope of evaluation of these projects. Authors use descriptive method, presenting changes of legal status. The article includes data available in the Bulletin of Public Information by The Agency for Health Technology Assessment. 590 programs were analyzed (239 from 2016 and 351 from 2017). In 2016 – 67% of submitted programs were given a positive opinion and in 2017 – 71%. The most of positively evaluated PPZ submitted by local government units (53% in 2016; 47% in 2017) referred to prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines. On the basis of analyses conducted, significant differences were observed in the implementation of the PPZ in various regions of Poland. In the recent years a big improvement in the quality of planned self-government health programs is observed. It is suggested that due to the regulation defining the model of the health policy program and the model of the final report, this trend will continue.

  18. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  19. Educational Policy Borrowing in China: Looking West or Looking East? Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, Mainland China has been embarking on an ambitious nation-wide education reform ("New Curriculum Reform") for its basic education. The reform reflects China's propensity to borrow selected educational policies from elsewhere, particularly North America and Europe. Chinese scholars have used a local proverb "the…

  20. Regional disparities and carbon “outsourcing”: The political economy of China's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huimin; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Xiaofan; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, gross domestic product (GDP) growth in China's inland provinces has exceeded that of the affluent coastal provinces. Concurrently, they have also been given more lenient energy intensity reduction targets to provide latitude for continued growth. The regional unevenness of economic development and energy policy has implications for the ability of the country to achieve its energy savings target – an objective that has become the key part of China's climate change mitigation strategy. This study shows that there is an explicit trend in which changes in regional economic structure is moving towards increasing national energy intensity. This is due, in large part, to carbon leakage between provinces. Changes in regional economic structure increased national energy intensity by 0.13% during the 11th five-year plans (FYP) period, and is on track to cause a further increase of 1.35% during the 12th FYP period. In formulating national energy policy, the existing “Target Responsibility System” (TRS) of policy implementation may need to be improved. Regional economic disparities must be taken directly into account in policymaking, as inland provinces should be assigned higher, not lower, energy intensity reduction targets. This will increase the likelihood that national targets, and hence China's broader climate change mitigation goals, will be met. - Highlights: • Regional economic disparities are increasing China's national energy intensity. • Regional carbon “outsourcing” is a leading cause of rising energy intensity. • To meet future targets, the “Target Responsibility System” (TRS) needs to be improved. • Regional economic structure should be directly accounted for in energy policy. • Particularly, inland provinces should be assigned higher energy savings targets

  1. Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics.

  2. To support growth, to limit emissions: is China a model in terms of climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voita, Thibault

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss how China has been able to adapt its economic policy to the challenges of climate change without forgetting its final objective of economic growth for the country. The author first describes some characteristics of the Chinese decision political system in the field of industrial and energy policy towards a low carbon economy: articulation between central power and local authorities, and complexity of decision processes at the central level. The author then shows how this system has changed to integrate policies of struggle against climate change, used them as an opportunity towards a low carbon economy, and put them at the service of the national industrial policy. Then, based on several case studies of actual projects (electric vehicles, gas liquefaction, local energy policies), the author proposes an assessment of the system efficiency, and tries to see whether one can talk of a Chinese political model regarding the policy of struggle against climate change. He notably discusses the efficiency of these policies in terms of relationship between industrial independence and climate policy

  3. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  4. Day Care: A Program in Search of a Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikales, Gerda

    This report examines current issues relating to day care and challenges many of the policy assumptions that underlie a major public program of subsidized day care for children. A historical perspective of day care is presented and various types of day care are described. The costs and benefits of day care are examined and the relation of day care…

  5. 77 FR 5155 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... directors and management; appropriate IRR measurement and monitoring systems; good internal controls; and... Systems B. Risk Measurement Methods C. Components of IRR Measurement Methods V. Internal Controls VI... risk management and a program to effectively implement that policy, as part of their asset liability...

  6. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make the following corrections: 1. On page 5157, in the second column, in the first line...

  7. Analysis of distributed-generation photovoltaic deployment, installation time and cost, market barriers, and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Deng, Hao; Margolis, Robert; Su, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, China's photovoltaic (PV) market-development strategy witnessed a series of policy changes aimed at making distributed-generation PV (DG PV) development an equal priority with large-scale PV development. This article reviews the DG PV policy changes since 2013 and examines their effect on China's domestic DG PV market. Based on a 2014 survey of DG PV market and policy participants, we present cost and time breakdowns for installing DG PV projects in China, and we identify the main barriers to DG PV installation. We also use a cash flow model to determine the relative economic attractiveness of DG PV in several eastern provinces in China. The main factors constraining DG PV deployment in China include financial barriers resulting from the structure of the self-consumption feed-in tariff (FIT), ambivalence about DG PV within grid companies, complicated ownership structures for buildings/rooftops/businesses, and the inherent time lag in policy implementation from the central government to provincial and local governments. We conclude with policy implications and suggestions in the context of DG PV policy changes the Chinese government implemented in September 2014. -- Highlights: •We review China's distributed PV market development and policy changes since 2013. •We present cost and time requirements for installing distributed PV in China. •We conduct IRR analysis of distributed PV under different policy frameworks. •We identify barriers to China's distributed PV, especially feed-in tariff barriers

  8. Transition to low carbon energy policies in China-from the Five-Year Plan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy plays a critical role not only in the energy development, but also in the social and environmental aspects of a nation. Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development is one of the most important government plans, which documents the national strategy during that period. This study presents a critical review of 12 Five-Year Plans that have been released by the Chinese central government in last 58 years. In particular, the recently released Twelfth Five-Year Plan is reviewed. The results clearly show a pattern of increasingly level of attention of Chinese government to energy efficiency improvement, air pollutant emission reduction, new and renewable energy development, carbon dioxide emission and climate change. - Highlights: → Critical review of the energy related contents in the 12 Five-Year Plans. → Energy policy of China is focusing on energy efficiency, new and renewable energy. → China is improving the capability of dealing with CO 2 emission and climate change. → China is on transition to low carbon energy policies for a sustainable development.

  9. Spatial Policy оf Exporting Direct Investments: Features оf China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nikolaevna Novopashina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China has shown rapid growth in volumes of foreign direct investment (FDI, which is the consequence of implementing policy. However, the structure of FDI does not correspond to the government-supported areas. Existing theoretical and empirical studies don’t reveal the causes of China’s FDI. Results of the regression analysis (based on panel data for 2003-2010 prove that the most attractive for Chinese investors were countries with following features: 1 rich in mineral resources, 2 possessing advanced technologies, 3 higher than in China income levels, 4 geographic proximity to China and 5 foreign trade openness. Furthermore, features of the current institutional environment in China affect the directions of foreign direct investment. Investors from PRC direct FDI in developing countries which have low quality of institutions as well as China. Investing in these countries is primarily aimed at getting access to their mineral resources and consumer markets. As for investing in developed countries, the reason is acquisition of advanced technologies which they possess. Directions of FDI in these countries, on the contrary, are determined by the high quality of institutions

  10. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, G H

    1995-06-01

    A survey was undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1986 to explore the composition and patterns of rural population movements. 230 villages were selected from 84 townships in 59 counties scattered across 11 regions. Because of incomplete information, only data for 222 villages were used. Population flows were classified into: 1) intramigration or intraflow within the boundaries of their own townships; 2) out-migration, emigration, or outflow involving those who left the townships; and 3) in-migration, immigration, or inflow that affected those who moved into the 222 villages from outside. Age, sex, education, postmigration occupation, and duration of stay details were obtained for every migrant. Some 43,223 persons were involved in intraflows and 26,993 emigrated from the surveyed townships in 1986. The volume of internal migration in China seemed to be related to the distance between the origins and destinations of migrants. Among 70,216 migrants, about 74% were males and only 26% were females. Over 57.38% of the migrants from 222 villages shifted into industrial (34.31%) and construction (23.07%) activities. The service sector (food providers, stall holders, door-to-door retailers, barbers, and small shops) attracted 9.73%. Only 565 were engaged in cropping and 1614 in forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, and fishery. As to age groups, 1688 (2.4%) were aged 17 years or under, 61,530 (88%) were aged 18-45, and 6999 (9.9%) were 46 years old or older. In 1986 seasonal migrants accounted for some 80% of all emigrants from the surveyed villages. Education did not play a significant role in promoting migration in the mid-1980s. 39% of the labor force had received primary education and the same percentage of out-migrants had acquired primary school education. The younger the age group, the more of them tended to move away from home: for those aged 17 or under if 100 persons migrated within the township, 113 moved out of town. A nationwide network

  11. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  12. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  13. A comparison of innovation policy in the smart grid industry across the pacific: China and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Yang, Chia-Han; Shyua, Joseph Z.

    2013-01-01

    Utilities are increasing their investment in smart grid technologies because of the rising demand for electricity, the aging transmission and distribution infrastructure in developed countries and the need for real-time visibility of energy supply and demand to optimize service reliability and cost. Government policies are contributing to this rising investment in the smart grid in many countries around the globe. Using Rothwell and Zegveld's innovation policy framework as a starting point, this paper compares innovation policy in smart grids across the Pacific; specifically, China and the USA. This research describes the policy tools used by both countries and presents results that indicate national preferences for innovation policy that differ in the ways in which they are linked with the state of the power system. China has preferred to use “supply-side policy,” which focuses on “public enterprise, scientific and technical development and legal regulation.” The USA has preferred to use “environmental-side policy,” which focuses on “scientific and technical development, financial, political and public enterprise.” This paper also describes in detail a number of innovation policies being pursued in the smart grid industry in both China and the USA. - Highlights: ► This research describes the policy tools used by China and USA and presents results that indicate national preferences for innovation policy that differ in the ways in which they are linked with the state of the power system. ► China has preferred to use “supply-side policy,” which focuses on “public enterprise, scientific and technical development and legal regulation.” ► The USA has preferred to use “environmental-side,” policy, which focuses on “scientific and technical development, financial, political and public enterprise.”

  14. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Michael [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Economics and World Trade; Loeschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  15. Perspective on China's one-child family policy: spoiled children? Questions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, N B

    1987-01-01

    China's 1-child policy has been effective in its objective of limiting population growth, yet the policy never has been imposed rigidly. For example, the policy is less restrictive in rural areas where 80% of the population live. It is argued the workers in the countryside need larger families for production. Between 1986-87, China's birthrate increased from 18/1000 - 21/1000, suggesting an easing of policy restrictions. Some population experts maintain that population increase is not a major problem as long as gross income figures continue to exceed the growth of population. Others indicate that a renewed emphasis on small families may be necessary. Some planners have observed developmental dynamics that have serious implications for traditional social and family values. 1 mental health expert has identified the "spoiled child syndrome," noting that the child in the 1- child family seems to be more dependent, less able to take care of himself/herself, more self-centered yet has a higher intelligence quotient. Parent training classes are now being developed.

  16. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.

  17. Why did China's energy intensity increase during 1998-2006. Decomposition and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Chunbo; Hong, Dongyue

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that China's energy intensity has continuously decreased during the 1980s and mostly 1990s, the decreasing trend has reversed since 1998 and the past few years have witnessed rapid increase in China's energy intensity. We firstly conduct an index decomposition analysis to identify the key forces behind the increase. It is found that: (1) the high energy demand in industrial sectors is mainly attributed to expansion of production scale, especially in energy-intensive industries; (2) energy saving mainly comes from efficiency improvement, with energy-intensive sectors making the largest contribution; and (3) a heavier industrial structure also contributes to the increase. This study also makes the first attempt to bridge the quantitative decomposition analysis with qualitative policy analyses and fill the gap between decomposition results and policy relevance in previous work. We argue that: (1) energy efficiency improvement in energy-intensive sectors is mainly due to the industrial policies that have been implemented in the past few years; (2) low energy prices have directly contributed to high industrial energy consumption and indirectly to the heavy industrial structure. We provide policy suggestions in the end. (author)

  18. Model projections and policy reviews for energy saving in China's service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency of buildings in the service sector is becoming increasingly important in China due to the structural shift of the economy from industry to services. This paper employs a bottom-up cohort model to simulate current energy saving policies and to make projections for future energy use and CO 2 emissions for the period 2000–2030 in the Chinese service sector. The analysis shows that energy demand in the service sector will approximately triple in 2030, far beyond the target of quadrupling GDP while only doubling energy use. However, it is feasible to achieve the target of emission reduction by 40% in 2020 even under the poor state of compliance rate of building standard. This paper also highlights four crucial aspects of designing optimal energy saving policies for China's service sector based on the model results. - Highlights: • Government energy saving target cannot realize with current policies in services. • Energy savings policies for new buildings are crucial than building retrofitting. • Cooling energy use increases significantly to reach equal weight as heating. • CO 2 tax can contribute to change in fuel mix, and thus emission reductions. • Low compliance rate limits further energy saving, hence green fund is required

  19. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  20. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Nina Zheng; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  1. Prevention and Care Programs Addressing the Growing Prevalence of Diabetes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Kong, Alice P S; Chan, Juliana C N

    2016-12-01

    According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality. Rising to meet these public health challenges, researchers in China have conducted randomized studies to demonstrate the benefits of lifestyle modification in preventing diabetes (the Da Qing Study), as well as that of team-based integrated care, using multiple strategies including peer support and information technology, in order to reduce hospitalizations, cardiovascular-renal complications, and premature deaths. With growing evidence supporting the benefits of these diabetes prevention and management programs, the next challenge is to use policies and systems to scale up the implementation of these programs through raising awareness, building capacity, and providing resources to reduce the human and socioeconomic burden of diabetes.

  2. Learning from the Field: Innovating China's Higher Education System

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Apr 15, 2008 ... Learning from the Field: Innovating China's Higher Education System ... to translating China's higher education policy reforms into practice. The editors. Ronnie Vernooy is Senior Program Specialist, International Development ...

  3. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of 15 curriculum projects is the result of a summer seminar in China for teachers and scholars. Projects in the collection are: (1) "Perspectives on Modern Political/Social Issues in China" (Sandy Conlon); (2) "Ancient History X Projects/China" (Michael Corey); (3) "Education and Development: China, a Case…

  4. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  5. The evolution of China's National Energy RD and D Programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Qiang; Su, Jun; Ru, Peng; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, when China launched its “opening up” reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. In this paper we have analyzed the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector we examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists. We found that the changes in strategic priorities set by China's high level political leaders were implemented and then transformed into outputs by using scientists as inputs or policy tools. The decreased role of scientists has been driven by two forces: (1) periodic changes in national strategy emphasizing technology commercialization; and (2) changes in the management structure involving low tolerance of risk. We suggest four ways that the government's efforts to turn China into an innovation oriented country. - Highlights: • New data was provided for the energy sector of China's three largest RD and D programs. • Transitions of goals, priorities, management, and impact over time of the programs were reviewed. • We found the role of scientists has been reduced in the decision making process. • Two forces are identified as the shaping factors

  6. The evolving policy regime for pumped storage hydroelectricity in China: A key support for low-carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Perera, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highlights the role of pumped storage hydroelectricity in renewable energy integration. • Examines the development of pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Reviews the regulatory policies on pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Analyzes the operation and pricing regime for pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Makes policy recommendations for promoting pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. - Abstract: As part of its energy transition strategy, China has set ambitious targets for increasing the contribution of renewable energy and, in particular, of wind power. However, the Chinese power sector has not undergone the necessary reforms to facilitate the integration and absorption of a larger share of variable renewable energy. This is evident from the difficulties in absorbing wind power from already commissioned wind farms and the resultant curtailment of wind power. Pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is a flexible power source that can facilitate higher penetration levels of wind power as well as complement China’s growing nuclear power capacity. However, regulatory policy constraints have restricted the effective utilization of existing PSH capacity and discouraged investment in new PSH capacity. This paper examines these constraints and assesses the likely impact of new policies designed to address them. Finally, policy recommendations and concluding remarks are provided. This paper contributes to the literature on renewable energy integration from a new perspective. The lessons from China are relevant to other countries going through the energy transition

  7. The chinese space program as the image instrument of the great China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Chinese space program and how the bureaucratic elite acts to convert China as a leading nation in international arena. This article assumes that, beyond the scientific advances that space exploration has in multiple fields of knowledge, the support to the space program depicts a way to project a positive image of China. This image is a China rising in the international community. The author discusses how space missions and the discourse around the space program strengthen national pride. Thus, China’s space program projects the image of a Greater China. The article concludes that the space program shows that China is modernizing rapidly and is able to be a world power.

  8. Impacts of low-carbon power policy on carbon mitigation in Guangdong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Beibei; Dai, Hancheng; Wang, Peng; Xie, Yang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Daiqing; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impacts of the low-carbon policy in the power sector of Guangdong Province in China on its energy and carbon emission targets by 2020, as well as their costs and co-benefits, using a regional CGE model with seven scenarios: business as usual (BaU), renewable energy (RE), renewable energy and natural gas (RE–NG), CAP only (CAP), CAP and RE–NG (CAP–RE–NG), carbon emission trading (ETS), and ETS with RE–NG (ETS–RE–NG). Analysis results reveal that provincial energy and carbon intensity targets can be achieved in the assumed carbon mitigation scenarios with carbon cap, ETS, and clean energy development policies. While the carbon constraint exerts negative impacts on the economy, GDP loss could be lowered by the ETS and RE policies. The RE scenario is more economically efficient than the ETS scenario, and coupling the RE and ETS scenarios appears to be the most economically efficient scenario to achieve the desired carbon and energy intensity targets. One of the benefits of the low-carbon policy is its improvement of the energy security of Guangdong in terms of reduced reliance on external coal and oil; in particular, Guangdong coal consumption could peak in 2017–2019. - Highlights: • This study analyzes the low carbon policy in the power sector in Guangdong of China. • The role of power sector in achieving carbon and energy intensity target is shown. • Renewable energy and natural gas are very important for Guangdong Province. • Additional efforts in other sectors are needed to achieve the intensity targets. • The mitigation cost and economic impacts are assessed under various policy settings.

  9. Role of Evidence in Maternal Health Policy Processes in Vietnam, India and China: Findings from the HEPVIC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Green, Andrew; Gerein, Nancy; Pearson, Stephen; Bird, Philippa; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Ramani, Karaikurichi; Qian, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Soors, Werner

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of evidence in maternal health policy processes in Vietnam, India and China. Both formal and informal types of evidence were used; and differences were found between the stages of policy processes. Evidence used mostly covered easily quantifiable issues and clearly identifiable technical solutions. Different policy…

  10. Bounded Rationality in the Developmental Trajectory of Environmental Target Policy in China, 1972–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the theoretical notion of “bounded rationality” to understand and to explain the updates of the Environmental Target Policy (ETP in China during 1972–2016. An analytical framework is built up by combining the phase model and the stream model in policy science in order to trace the longitudinal transformation of the ETP. In addition, the article adopts the “event sequence method” to discover the dynamics of the problem, politics, and policy streams of the target policy and to identify the evolving coupling between the different streams. It shows that China’s ETP has experienced five phases of development. For each phase the central government had its specific bounded rationality to make the crucial decision on the ETP. The decisions on the ETP in different phases were made when policy windows were open with the coupling of the problem, politics, and policy streams. As for the updates of the ETP, we find that the rationalities of the central governments in the five phases were limited by the emergent practices during the ETP implementation, which gave momentum to the central government to seek new solutions and to revise and adapt the ETP.

  11. System Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Generation System for Designing Wind Power Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impacts of renewable energy policy on a large-scale power generation system, including thermal power, hydropower, and wind power generation. As one of the most important clean energy, wind energy has been rapidly developed in the world. But in recent years there is a serious waste of wind power equipment and investment in China leading to many problems in the industry from wind power planning to its integration. One way overcoming the difficulty is to analyze the influence of wind power policy on a generation system. This paper builds a system dynamics (SD model of energy generation to simulate the results of wind energy generation policies based on a complex system. And scenario analysis method is used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. The case study shows that the combinations of lower portfolio goal and higher benchmark price and those of higher portfolio goal and lower benchmark price have large differences in both effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, the combinations of uniformly lower or higher portfolio goal and benchmark price have similar efficiency, but different effectiveness. Finally, an optimal policy combination can be chosen on the basis of policy analysis in the large-scale power system.

  12. Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenqiang Liu; Xiliang Zhang; Lin Gan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of wind farm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power development should be subject to rational policy change and institutional adjustment. It discusses the incentive mechanisms and institutional frameworks for future development. Particular importance is attributed to market incentives for wind power to reach the objectives of industrialization and commercialization. A number of cost-competitive incentive measures and policies are recommended: (i) introducing market based mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) establishing effective investment policies and regulations to attract private investment; (iii) promoting localization of wind turbine production; (iv) adjusting tax and subsidy policies; and (v) reforming governmental institutions to make clear rules and responsibilities for policymaking, and enhancing communication/coordination between relevant government agencies in order to formulate uniform and effective policies. (Author)

  13. Optimization of China's generating portfolio and policy implications based on portfolio theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Fan, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies portfolio theory to evaluate China's 2020-medium-term plans for generating technologies and its generating portfolio. With reference to the risk of relevant generating-cost streams, the paper discusses China's future development of efficient (Pareto optimal) generating portfolios that enhance energy security in different scenarios, including CO 2 -emission-constrained scenarios. This research has found that the future adjustment of China's planned 2020 generating portfolio can reduce the portfolio's cost risk through appropriate diversification of generating technologies, but a price will be paid in the form of increased generating cost. In the CO 2 -emission-constrained scenarios, the generating-cost risk of China's planned 2020 portfolio is even greater than that of the 2005 portfolio, but increasing the proportion of nuclear power in the generating portfolio can reduce the cost risk effectively. For renewable-power generation, because of relatively high generating costs, it will be necessary to obtain stronger policy support to promote renewable-power development.

  14. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  15. Fiscal and tax policy support for energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongyan

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings (EERERB) in China's northern heating region is an important component of the national energy strategy. The main content and related subject in EERERB performance is the basis of understanding and developing targeted policies. So, this paper designed the content system of EERERB. And then, provided a cost-benefit analysis on related subjects, assessed the government's function in EERERB, and come to the conclusion that the Chinese government should increase fiscal fund investment and implement more fiscal and tax incentive policies. Moreover, in view of China's current policy, which lacks long-term mechanism and flexibility, this paper proposed specific policy recommendations, including clarifying the government's corresponding responsibilities at all levels and increasing the intensity of the central government's transfer payments. It further proposed targeted financial and tax policies for supporting and encouraging heating enterprises and owners, as well as policies to cultivate energy-saving service markets and to support the ESCO.

  16. Expanding Energy Performance Contracting in china: policy solutions and market mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Meng, Lu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shi, Wenjing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roshchanka, Volha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Energy performance contracting is an important market mechanism that uses energy savings to pay over time for the upfront costs of energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. Through energy performance contracts (EPCs), Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) play an important role in implementing energy efficiency retrofits. Both China and the United States have large markets for EPCs and significant opportunities for growth. The Chinese government has made great efforts in promoting the country’s ESCO business and expanding its EPC markets. This paper makes a series of recommendations for China to adopt more ambitious policy measures to encourage deep energy savings projects via EPCs. These recommendations are built on initial insights from a white paper developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the assistance from the ESCO Committee of China’s Energy Conservation Association (EMCA). Key recommendations are listed below.

  17. The second great wall of China: evolution of a successful policy of population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1989-10-01

    In 1949, Mao Tse-tung professed that overpopulation could not occur under communism and more people and socialist organization leads only to more wealth and power. Yet 3 decades later communist China has adopted Malthusian population policies claiming them as socialist with a Chinese approach. This shift is ideology came about due to rapid population growth, concomitant food shortages, and insufficient economic growth. Since 1982 China has added 13 million persons/year to its population of 1 billion. In 1963, urban fertility began to decline from 6 children/woman to 3 at the end of the decade. The early 1970s marked the beginning of the politicization of birth control. Unlike Western nations and other developing countries that emphasize the health of mothers and children in their family planning campaigns, China emphasizes political goals. For example, the Chinese purports that family planning can speed world revolution by reducing family size. The Chinese prefer to persuade others to use contraceptives rather than coercing them to do so. Actually Chinese prefer very small families (2 in urban areas and 2 in rural areas). This persuasion and the introduction of oral contraceptives (OCs) and a simpler technique for female sterilization (minilaparotomy) contributed to the high contraceptive usage of 70% for couples of childbearing age and a high abortion rate of 318/1000 live birth by the end of the 1970s. The Chinese constitution states that family planning is the duty of each couple rather than a right. Further, the government has a 1 child/couple population policy. Even though China has had many successes, it has not reached a below replacement level (1989 total fertility rate=2.4), however.

  18. PM2.5 mitigation in China: Socioeconomic determinants of concentrations and differential control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kui; Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Sun, Siao

    2018-05-01

    Elucidating the key impact factors on PM 2.5 concentrations is crucial to formulate effective mitigation policies. In this study, we employed an extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model to identify the socioeconomic determinants of PM 2.5 concentrations for 12 different regions and across China. The evaluation was based on a balanced panel dataset integrating long-term satellite-derived PM 2.5 concentrations and socio-economic data in China from 1999 to 2011. Empirical results indicate that the influencing factors can be ranked in descending order of importance as: proportion of secondary sector of the economy, GDP per capita, urbanization, population, energy intensity, and proportion of tertiary sector. Proportion of secondary sector is the greatest contribution to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations, especially for heavily polluted regions. GDP per capita is secondary in importance, and its impact is weakened by the existence of an EKC relationship between GDP per capita and PM 2.5 concentrations. Therefore, PM 2.5 pollution is an economic development mode problem, rather than a general economic development problem. The impact of urbanization varies across regions; while promoting urbanization will be conducive to decreased PM 2.5 concentrations in Northwest China and Northeast China, it will contribute to increased PM 2.5 concentrations in other regions. Population and energy intensity are significant in most regions, but neither are decisive factors because of the small absolute value of their coefficients. Finally, different combinations of mitigation policies are proposed for different regions in this study to meet the mitigation targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Impacts of China’s New Commercial Harvest Exclusion Policy on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in the Temperate Forests of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperate forests in Northeast China have been severely exploited by timber harvesting in the last century. To reverse this trend, China implemented the Classified Forest Management policy in the Natural Forest Conservation Program in 1998 to protect forests from excessive harvesting. However, the policy was unable to meet the 2020 commitment of increasing growing stock (set in the Kyoto Protocol because of high-intensity harvesting. Accordingly, China banned all commercial harvesting in Northeast China in 2014. In this study, we investigated the long-term impacts of the no commercial harvest (NCH policy on ecosystem services and biodiversity using a forest landscape model, LANDIS PRO 7.0, in the temperate forests of the Small Khingan Mountains, Northeast China. We designed three management scenarios: The H scenario (the Classified Forest Management policy used in the past, the NCH scenario (the current Commercial Harvest Exclusion policy, and the LT scenario (mitigation management, i.e., light thinning. We compared total aboveground forest biomass, biomass by tree species, abundance of old-growth forests, and diversity of tree species and age class in three scenarios from 2010 to 2100. We found that compared with the H scenario, the NCH scenario increased aboveground forest biomass, abundance of old-growth forests, and biomass of most timber species over time; however, it decreased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity. We found that the LT scenario increased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity in comparison with the NCH scenario, while it maintained aboveground forest biomass and abundance of old-growth forests at a high level (slightly less than the NCH scenario. We concluded there was trade-off between carbon storage and biodiversity. We also concluded that light thinning treatment was able to regulate the trade-off and alleviate the negative effects associated with the NCH policy. Our

  20. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  1. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  2. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  3. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  4. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  5. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  6. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  7. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  8. Energy and climate policy in China's twelfth five-year plan: A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    The twelfth five-year plan (FYP) endorsed by the People's National Congress in March 2011 plays a crucial role in shaping China's development trajectory over the next decades , and especially for the fulfillment of the 40–45 carbon intensity reduction target by 2020. The plan will condition both the medium and long term perspectives of economic restructuring, rebalance between the inclusive economic growth and environmental objectives, which are compounded by multiple constraints faced by China such as aging population, natural resources depletion, energy supply security and environmental deterioration. This article investigates the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the 12th FYP to gain insights into the nature and magnitude of challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run economic and environmental policies. It points out that China should articulate sectoral policies with the global climate mitigation targets to avoid long term carbon lock-in. Based on an in-depth analysis of the objectives in the plan, it is argued that the implementation should include mainstreaming developments of appropriate instruments to support cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and carbon intensity reduction in the next five years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the Chinese 12th FYP. ► It points out FYP's implications for energy policy and global climate stabilisation. ► Challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run climate strategies. ► Shift from investment and export-led to consumption led sustainable and inclusive growth model.

  9. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Overview of State Policies Supporting Worksite Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVeur, Jennifer; Gilchrist, Siobhan; Matson-Koffman, Dyann

    2017-05-01

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) programs can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. State law can encourage employers and employer-provided insurance companies to offer comprehensive WHP programs. This research examines state law authorizing WHP programs. Quantitative content analysis. Worksites or workplaces. United States (and the District of Columbia). State law in effect in 2013 authorizing WHP programs. Frequency and distribution of states with WHP laws. To determine the content of the laws for analysis and coding, we identified 18 policy elements, 12 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC) and 6 additional supportive WHP strategies. We used these strategies as key words to search for laws authorizing WHP programs or select WHP elements. We calculated the number and type of WHP elements for each state with WHP laws and selected two case examples from states with comprehensive WHP laws. Twenty-four states authorized onsite WHP programs, 29 authorized WHP through employer-provided insurance plans, and 18 authorized both. Seven states had a comprehensive WHP strategy, addressing 8 or more of 12 HSC elements. The most common HSC elements were weight management, tobacco cessation, and physical activity. Most states had laws encouraging the adoption of WHP programs. Massachusetts and Maine are implementing comprehensive WHP laws but studies evaluating their health impact are needed.

  11. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  12. A Pivot of Their Own: China Reassesses the Rebalance to Asia Policy, and What that Means for the Trump Administrations Asia Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-21

    views expressed in their essays truly reflect the views of their institutions. Third, an article that purports to take a sample of Chinese academic ...this essay had more of a theoretical approach to studying this problem than a policy maker’s approach. Another academic journal, China...examines the Chinese academic assessment of the Rebalance to Asia policy. The author reviewed the writings of five Chinese intellectuals known for

  13. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing Smog Crisis: New Thinking for Energy Policy-Making in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    environmental-friendly guidance, financial support and drafted strict regulations to guide the recycling of straw. However, many farmers in China still chose the cheapest and crudest way to dispose of straw, burning it rather than recycling for sustainable use, e.g. power generation, bioethanol production...... and biogas production, because compared with burning, straw recycling is more expensive and labour intensive. Subsidies from the local governments exist, but they far from sufficient, even if the bioenergy companies are ready to purchase agricultural waste. It is also difficult for the local governments...... to give enough financial support to the farmers for straw recycling due to the limited fiscal budget. What is more, the farmers will also suffer from declining soil fertility without burning straw. Therefore, the policies for promoting biomass to energy face a bottleneck and innovative policies design...

  15. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  16. Bioenergy transition in rural China: Policy options and co-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin; Yu Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of bioenergy development in China, particularly on its relationship to sustainable rural development. It argues that the current government strategy, investment policy and industrial interest are over-emphasized on biomass-burning power generation as part of the clean energy development trajectories, which may not lead to the most cost-effective outcomes in terms of investments, resource use and social development objectives. It points out that there are large potentials in developing and disseminating household-based biomass technologies in rural areas, especially with energy-efficient modern biomass stoves, which can produce far more economic, social and environmental benefits than biomass power plants. It is a decentralized solution to use renewable energy resources for meeting multi-objectives. It is suggested that key incentive policies be provided by the government to encourage this technological transition, or the leapfrogging from using traditional household stoves towards modern biomass stoves, which will lead to a win-win situation in global, regional and local environmental protection, sustainable resource management and related social benefits, particularly for the poor in remote communities. Six policy recommendations are made: (1) financial schemes development; (2) preferable tax and carbon tax; (3) regulatory policy reform; (4) service industry support; (5) market research, training and capacity building for key stakeholders; (6) development of methodologies and standards for CDM projects. The potential co-benefits brought up by this massive biomass technology transition will bring new perspectives to realizing Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and global CO 2 emissions reduction targets in China, and also set an example to other developing countries

  17. Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, China: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Yao, Xiaoxun; Gu, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Mondelēz Hope Kitchen is a community program initiated jointly in 2009 by Mondelēz International and the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF). In response to the urgent needs of students, parents, and teachers at primary and middle schools in poverty-stricken rural areas of China, the program addresses the complex and intertwined issues of undernutrition and obesity. By funding both kitchen equipment and teacher training in health and nutrition, the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program improves the capacity of schools to supply healthy meals, helping students to access safe and nutritious foods and, ultimately, to improve their nutritional status and health. In 2011, the Mondelēz International Foundation awarded CYDF a grant to formally assess the impact of the original program design. The Mondelēz International Foundation encouraged CYDF and six other healthy lifestyles-focused community partners around the world to participate in this program evaluation workshop. The goals of this study were to describe the logic model of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, summarize a recent evaluation of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, and conduct a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of impact indicators. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The authors developed the program's PIP diagram based on deliberations involving the program managers and Director and consulting the "Hope Kitchen Management Rules "and "Hope Kitchen Inspection and Acceptance Report". The PIP analyses identified three CCPs: buy-in from schools, kitchen infrastructure, and changes in teachers' knowledge of nutrition after training. In addition, changes in children's knowledge of nutrition will be added to the core suite of impact evaluation indicators that also includes children

  18. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liabil...

  19. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Lingfeng Kong; Min Du; Chenhui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short). For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas productio...

  20. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  1. A policy study on energy supply and demand of several countries (China, Indonesia, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ryeal [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Korea is depending 97% of primary energy consumption on imports. To have a stable supply of energy required for a continuous growth, it is recommended to utilize international energy market actively for short-term while it is required to reinforce resources diplomacy with other countries with full of resources for mid- and long-term. This study reviewed energy supply and demand and major policies of China, Indonesia and Mexico, which give direct or indirect influence on energy supply and demand of Korea. With the geographical adjacency, Korea imports coal from China and exports petroleum products to China. Furthermore, it is very likely to have a trade related to nuclear power plant and natural gas. Indonesia exports coal, crude oil, and LNG to Korea. Especially LNG is occupied 60% of total amount of imports. It is expected to get help from Mexico because there are many similar aspects between Mexico and Korea such as GNP or a conservative idea on energy industry. (author). 49 refs., 6 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciwei, Gao; Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. (author)

  3. Are Fruits of Free Normal Education Policy Real or Mythical? "A Critical Appraisal of the Free Teacher Education Policy Meant to Promote Rural Education in China"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zubing; Mkandawire, Matthews Tiwaone

    2015-01-01

    Since September 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been implementing a policy called "Free Normal Education" (FNE) for college students majoring in education in normal universities. The central goal for FNE is to promote quality of education by providing rural areas with high quality teachers who are bonded through their…

  4. The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Luling; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper systematically introduces recycling system of WEEE management in China. • The paper introduces the new policy about WEEE management in China. • This paper analyzes the results of its implementation. • This paper evaluates the effectiveness to WEEE management in China. - Abstract: The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is surging, so is the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to the large quantity, high potential risk and valuable capacity of WEEE, many countries are taking measures to regulate the management of WEEE. The environmental pollution and human health-harming problems caused by irregular treatment of WEEE in China make the government pay more and more attention to its management. This paper reviews the development of WEEE management in China, introduces the new policy which is established for WEEE recycling and especially analyzes the effectiveness of the policy, including huge recovery, formation of new recycling system, strict supervision to related enterprises, and the stimulation to public awareness. Based on the current achievement, some recommendations are given to optimize the WEEE management in China

  5. The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Luling; He, Wenzhi, E-mail: hithwz@163.com; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The paper systematically introduces recycling system of WEEE management in China. • The paper introduces the new policy about WEEE management in China. • This paper analyzes the results of its implementation. • This paper evaluates the effectiveness to WEEE management in China. - Abstract: The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is surging, so is the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to the large quantity, high potential risk and valuable capacity of WEEE, many countries are taking measures to regulate the management of WEEE. The environmental pollution and human health-harming problems caused by irregular treatment of WEEE in China make the government pay more and more attention to its management. This paper reviews the development of WEEE management in China, introduces the new policy which is established for WEEE recycling and especially analyzes the effectiveness of the policy, including huge recovery, formation of new recycling system, strict supervision to related enterprises, and the stimulation to public awareness. Based on the current achievement, some recommendations are given to optimize the WEEE management in China.

  6. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  7. Net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners and subsidization policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Junxiu; Yin, Haitao; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Built on a data set of 527 air conditioner models collected from an online retailer, this study investigates whether the savings that consumers realize on their private electricity bills from purchasing energy-efficient appliances compensate for the additional cost of the appliances on the market, and if not, the size of the gap between the savings and the cost. Our findings show that, except for the most energy-efficient category, the cost savings from using energy-efficient air conditioners does compensate for their higher price. Therefore, any government subsidy should be reserved for the most efficient products. For less energy-efficient appliances, the best policy may be to provide more effective information instead of a subsidy because the subsidy might attract consumers away from more energy-efficient air conditioners and result in an unwanted effect. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners in China. • There is no need to subsidize less energy-efficient air conditioners. • The most recently proposed policy development in China is a reform headed in the right direction

  8. Trends in road freight transportation carbon dioxide emissions and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongqi; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Tianyi

    2013-01-01

    We adopted the simple average Divisia index approach to explore the impacts of factors on the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from road freight transportation in China from 1985 to 2007. CO 2 emissions were investigated using the following as influencing factors: the emission coefficient, vehicle fuel intensity, working vehicle stock per freight transport operator, market concentration level, freight transportation distance, market share of road freight transportation, ton-kilometer per value added of industry, industrialization level and economic growth. Building on the results, we suggest that economic growth is the most important factor in increasing CO 2 emissions, whereas the ton-kilometer per value added of industry and the market concentration level contribute significantly to decreasing CO 2 emissions. We also discussed some recent important policies concerning factors contained in the decomposition model. - Highlights: ► We estimated road freight fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Factors implying features of road freight were considered in decomposition model. ► Some policies were discussed to affect CO 2 emissions from road freight

  9. Lessons from an evaluation of a provincial-level smoking control policy in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y; Berg, Carla J

    2013-01-01

    The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that "legislation is enforced most of the time". The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future.

  10. China's experiment on the differential electricity pricing policy and the struggle for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Differential electricity pricing was promulgated by China's central government to guide the development of high energy-consuming industries, which are significant for energy conservation. This paper examines the twists and turns of the policy implementation at the provincial level, and seeks to elucidate the difficulties in its implementation. Local governments, concerned that following the central directives would hurt local interests, have tried to deviate from the central orders while the central revises the policy from time to time to ensure local compliance. Three difficulties are analyzed: (1) the current relations between the central and local energy regulatory institutions make these local institutions difficult to perform their duties, and affect incentives for local governments to respond to central directives; (2) financial reform puts a great burden on local governments to raise revenues to cover expenditures, making local governments focus mainly on economic development rather than serving merely as political agents of the central government; (3) the aggressive attitude of local governments in pursuing GDP growth is not necessarily driven by the central government, but by pressure from competition among localities and the need to win local support. Solving these difficulties is important for making national energy conservation polices effective and efficient. - Highlights: → Adopt the differential electricity pricing policy to achieve energy conservation. → The implementation of the differential electricity pricing policy is far from smooth. → Current relations between the central and local energy regulatory institutions. → Financial burden on local governments. → Pressure from competition among localities and the need to win local support.

  11. Thirty Years of Education in China: Between Change and No Change--A Comparative Analysis of Four Key Documents on Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenbin, Hu

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the education reform and development footprints in China by analyzing four key education policy documents in the past three decades. The conclusion is that the reform and development of China's educational establishment have provided excellent support for the operations of China's political and economic systems. The reality is…

  12. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  13. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Li, Huimin; Wu, Liang; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  14. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program. (Contains 3 tables, 1 figure, and 2…

  15. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Current State and Development Trends of Education Policy Research in China in the Last Decade (2004-2013): A Statistical Analysis of Papers from Eight Core Chinese Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guo

    2017-01-01

    The author conducted sampling and statistical analysis of papers on education policy research collected by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure in the period from the years 2004--2013. Under the current state of education policy research in China, the number of papers correlates positively with the year; the papers are concentrated in…

  17. Poor program's progress: the unanticipated politics of Medicaid policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence D; Sparer, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of U.S. national health insurance tend to share an image that highlights universal standards of coverage, social insurance financing, and national administration--in short, the basic features of Medicare. Such an approach is said to be good (equitable and efficient) policy and equally good politics. Medicaid, by contrast, is often taken to exemplify poor policy and poorer politics: means-tested eligibility, general revenue financing, and federal/state administration, which encourage inequities and disparities of care. This stark juxtaposition fails, however, to address important counterintuitive elements in the political evolution of these programs. Medicare's benefits and beneficiaries have stayed disturbingly stable, but Medicaid's relatively broad benefits have held firm, and its categories of beneficiaries have expanded. Repeated alarms about "bankruptcy" have undermined confidence in Medicare's trust funding, while Medicaid's claims on the taxpayer's dollar have worn well. Medicare's national administration has avoided disparities, but at the price of sacrificing state and local flexibility that can ease such "reforms" as the introduction of managed care. That Medicaid has fared better than a "poor people's program" supposedly could has provocative implications for health reform debates.

  18. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing...

  19. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  20. 25 CFR 170.101 - What is the IRR Program consultation and coordination policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility... activities: (1) Identifying high-accident locations and locations for improving both vehicle and pedestrian safety; (2) Developing State, metropolitan, regional, IRR, and tribal transportation improvement programs...

  1. 78 FR 50118 - Policy Statement on Adequacy and Compatibility of Agreement State Programs; Statement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0081] Policy Statement on Adequacy and Compatibility of Agreement State Programs; Statement of Principles and Policy for the Agreement State Program AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statements; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  2. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  3. Meeting the Demand for Accountability: Case Study of a Teacher Education Program in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Cheung CHAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for accountability, a teacher education program in a university located in South China has established processes at the college, the program, and the faculty levels to assure its program quality. Highlights of the processes are: involvement of stakeholders and the examination of program effectiveness. Although much has been done to help program candidates succeed, more effort is needed in the areas of program assessment and continuous improvement to assure program quality. An accountability implementation plan, a beginning teacher mentoring program, and a comparative study of beginning teacher performance were recommended to further enforce its strategies toward program accountability.

  4. Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yong; Li Jing; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Government policy continues to play a crucial role in the development of wind power industry in China. The 2005 “Renewable Energy Law” and related policies have driven the rapid increase in wind power installed capacity in China over the past half-decade, with capacity doubling annually since 2005. However, a large number of wind farms generate electricity well below their installed capacity, resulting in considerable wastage of resources. Non-grid-connected wind power theory proposes that large-scale wind power output does not necessarily have to be fed into the grid, but can be used directly in industrial production. Thus, the use of the theory can promote the sustainable development of the wind power industry by obviating the need for power grid. In this paper we analyze the influence of government policy on wind power industry from the perspective of institutional change, by employing the basic theories of new institutional economics. A development model for non-grid-connected wind power is proposed in order to implement institutional change in accordance with the specific characteristics of wind power industry in China. This model requires the government to play an active role in institutional development by increasing economic efficiency in order to promote the sustainable development of wind power. - Highlights: ► New institutional economics-based analysis paradigm for wind power policy proposed. ► Policies for China's wind power industry analyzed according to the paradigm. ► Hybrid development mode of institutional change is the best pathway for wind power. ► Potential development policy for China's wind power industry recommended.

  5. China's approach to nuclear safety — From the perspective of policy and institutional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Ruimin; Zuo, Jian; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the energy sector in the world. It has achieved a rapid development during the past six decades and contributes to over 11% of the world's electricity supply. On the other side, nuclear accidents have triggered substantial debates with a growing public concern on nuclear facilities. Followed by the Fukushima nuclear accident, some developed countries decided to shut down the existing nuclear power plants or to abandon plans to build new ones. Given this background, accelerating the development of nuclear power on the basis of safety in China will make it a bellwether for other countries. China assigns the top priority to the nuclear safety in nuclear energy development and has maintained a good record in this field. The policy and institutional system provide the necessary guarantee for the nuclear energy development and safety management. Furthermore, China's approach to nuclear safety provides a benchmark for the safe development and utilization of nuclear power. This research draws an overall picture of the nuclear energy development and nuclear safety in China from the policy and institutional perspective. - Highlights: • China's Approach to Nuclear Safety. • Policy and Institutional System for Nuclear Energy Development. • A Benchmark for the Peaceful and Safe Utilization of Nuclear Power. • Further Efforts for Specific Laws and Administrative System

  6. Effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to promote mental health among employees in privately owned enterprises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.

  7. Impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure in western rural China: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Shen, Qian; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Li, Zongjie; Wu, Lina; Fang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    To assess the long-term effects of the introduction of China's zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditures after reimbursement. An interrupted time series was used to evaluate the impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement at primary health institutions in Fufeng County of Shaanxi Province, western China. Two regression models were developed. Monthly average hospitalisation expenditure and monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement in primary health institutions were analysed covering the period 2009 through to 2013. For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -16.49, P = 0.009). For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -10.84, P = 0.064), and a significant decrease in the intercept was noted after the second intervention of changes in reimbursement schemes of the new rural cooperative medical insurance (coefficient = -220.64, P markup drug policy in western China. However, hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement were still increasing. More effective policies are needed to prevent these costs from continuing to rise. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rural Household Preferences for Active Participation in "Payment for Ecosystem Service" Programs: A Case in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Many payment for ecosystem services (PES programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP, are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of "active and incomplete" participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation. As such, this paper uses the Choice Experiment (CE method to explore ways for inducing effective program participation, by analyzing the effects of different regime attributes. The case study used to analyze participation utility was the Jing-Ji Afforestation Program for Ecological and Water Protection (JAPEWP, a typical active-participation forestry PES program, and a key source of water near Beijing in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment (MRC. Analyzing rural household survey data indicated that the program faces a variety of challenges, including long-term maintenance, implementation performance, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring approaches. There are also challenges with one-size-fits-all payment strategies, due to ineffective program participation or imperfect implementation regimes. In response, this study proposes several policies, including providing secure and complete land tenure to the participants, creating more local off-farm employment opportunities, designing performance-based monitoring systems that are integrated with financial incentives, applying differentiated payment strategies, providing capacity building to support forestation activities, and establishing a comprehensive implementation regime that would address these challenges. These policy conclusions provide valuable lessons for other active-participation PES programs as well.

  9. Farmers' adoption of maize (Zea mays L.). Hybrids and persistence of landraces in Southwest China: implications for policy and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Jiggins, Janice; Leeuwis, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the distribution of maize hybrids and landraces in the mountainous areas of southwest China over 1998–2008, farmers’ reasons for cultivar adoption and the implications for national policies in relation to seed production and breeding, based on baseline data and a

  10. Mind the gap! Barriers and implementation deficiencies of energy policies at the local scale in urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jing; Zuidema, Christian; Gugerell, Katharina; de Roo, Gert

    Environmental concerns and potential social-economic impacts associated with fossil fuels have turned cities into indispensable entities for supporting energy transitions in China. Pursuing a transition towards a sustainable energy system has become a major policy concern for the Chinese central

  11. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the

  12. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  13. 5G Development in China: From Policy Strategy to User-Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5G encompasses the development of various key wireless communication technology standards. The development entails both technological advancement and social interaction. This paper analyzes 5G development and its significant shift from a strategy policy to a user-oriented development showing the coplay of technology and society in China. Based on this theory, relevant proposals are recommended for future technical development and industrial regulation. Also, to increase the throughput and spectrum efficiency, channel assignment and load balance are considered. A hybrid routing protocol TOHRP (tree-based and on-demand hybrid routing protocol and a distributed channel assignment algorithm LBCA (Load Based Channel Assignment in the multichannel environment are proposed and they solve the traditional problem of (1 waste of spectrum and (2 self-interference. The computer-simulated experiment shows that the algorithm improves the performance.

  14. The Evolution of Environmental Policy in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Louis Edmonds

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how the evolution of China’s policy and study of the environment are reflected in the scholarly literature, paying special attention to the impact of the country’s environmental developments on international relations. In particular, it examines accounts of how China has moved from an isolated national scientific and environmental control infrastructure into the centre of international environmental debates as its society has opened and the geographical scale of ecological problems has expanded. The paper also identifies the continuing inhibitors to China’s ability to control environmental degradation – including lack of transparency, elite manipulation, and bureaucratic weaknesses – despite the opening of China’s system to limited participation of civil society in its environmental debates.

  15. Migration and Development: The Policies of China and India with regard to their Overseas Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Elie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanFocusing on India and China, two countries with high levels of emigration that have developed policies aimed at promoting ties with their nationals who live abroad, this article contributes to the academic and political debate about the relationships between the phenomenon of migration and the development of migrants’ countries of origin. In light of the measures that both these countries have amassed for the benefit of their overseas communities, one can identify the need to create one or more institutional structures to promote individual initiatives. The importance of reciprocity is emphasised, which is an essential aspect of relations between the government of the country of origin and its migrants.

  16. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  17. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  18. Coal consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in China: Empirical evidence and policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Harry; Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa; Salim, Ruhul

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between coal consumption and income in China using both supply-side and demand-side frameworks. Cointegration and vector error correction modeling show that there is a unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to output in both the short and long run under the supply-side analysis, while there is also a unidirectional causality running from income to coal consumption in the short and long run under the demand-side analysis. The results also reveal that there is bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission both in the short and long run. Hence, it is very difficult for China to pursue a greenhouse gas abatement policy through reducing coal consumption. Switching to greener energy sources might be a possible alternative in the long run. - Highlights: ► Both supply-side and demand-side frameworks are used. ► Unidirectional causality from coal consumption to output in supply-side analysis. ► Unidirectional causality from income to coal consumption in demand-side analysis. ► Bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission.

  19. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO_2 emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO_2e. A CO_2 tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO_2) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO_2 emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO_2. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO_2 emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO_2-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO_2 emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO_2 tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  20. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan, E-mail: taoyuan.wei@cicero.uio.no; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-10-15

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO{sub 2} emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO{sub 2}e. A CO{sub 2} tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO{sub 2}. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO{sub 2} emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO{sub 2}-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO{sub 2} tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  1. Lessons from an evaluation of a provincial-level smoking control policy in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS, respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. RESULTS: Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that "legislation is enforced most of the time". The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%, with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%. Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10% and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above. The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. CONCLUSIONS: Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future.

  2. Lessons from an Evaluation of a Provincial-Level Smoking Control Policy in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Berg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. Objective To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that “legislation is enforced most of the time”. The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Conclusions Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future. PMID:24058544

  3. To Strengthen Policy Guiding Regionalization of Occupational Programs in New Jersey County Community Colleges. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, S. V.; And Others

    In 1985 a project was developed to strengthen policy guiding regionalization of occupational programs in New Jersey county community colleges. The project had three major goals: to establish a policy for the regionalization of selected occupational programs offered by the colleges; to describe ways that programs could be identified for regional…

  4. The impact of women's education, workforce experience, and the One Child Policy on fertility in China: a census study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Manyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    The impact of women's education on fertility is of interest to researchers, particularly in China. However, few studies have provided well-founded assessments of how women's education, workforce experience, and birth control policy jointly affect fertility in China. This study, conducted in Guangdong Province, aimed to analyze how these three factors influenced the timing of births and affected women at different stages of their reproductive lives. We used census data for Guangdong Province (1990, 2000, and 2010) to make cross-sectional age-specific comparisons to examine the effects of women's education and workforce participation on fertility outcomes under China's One Child Policy. We found that: (1) under circumstances of low fertility, women tend to have more children with greater educational attainment; (2) the impact of women's education and workforce experience on fertility varied across age groups, with the effect of education showing a bimodal curve peaking at 25-29 years and 40-44 years, and a workforce experience effect at 25-34 years; and (3) the fertility time-squeeze effect by educational attainment was relatively small, the effect by workforce participation was larger, and the most important effect was birth control policy and its implementation. These results suggest that educational attainment and workforce experience have a substantial effect on women's fertility, and a tradeoff between them is unavoidable. China's 2015 birth control policy adjustment should be considered in planning future services to accommodate anticipated increases in the birth rate. More attention should be directed to the causal mechanism (women's preference and selection effects) behind the factors analyzed in this study.

  5. Energy policy framework developments in industrialised countries. Some observations on the relevancy for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Boots, M.G.; Van den Heuij, H.J.F.P.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Wals, A.F.

    2001-03-01

    Since more than two decades, the Chinese government is guiding a process of gradually introducing more market-oriented policies. China's imminent accession to the World Trade Organisation has speeded up this process. During the preparation of the 10th Five-Year Development Plan for the energy sector, the question arose as to whether recent developments in the energy sector in the industrialised countries, especially in Europe, may provide useful insights into the future policy options for the Chinese energy sector for further consideration. Therefore, ECN has been requested to provide a broad overview of recent major developments in the energy sectors of industrialised countries based on some specific questions outlined by the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of the State Development Planning Commission (SDPC). This report compiles contributions prepared by ECN - presented at a workshop on 10 November, 2000, in Beijing, hosted by ERI - and provides further references. China's impending accession to the WTO will further highlight the urgency of both long-term cost competitiveness of energy services and energy supply security. Social sustainability raises the issue that with phasing out less competitive or environmentally harmful sources of energy supply, many jobs in the affected energy subsectors -especially in China's coal industry - may hang in the balance. The challenge is how the macroeconomic benefits of rationalising the energy industries can be channelled into boosting alternative economic activities in adversely affected areas and how to raise the qualifications of the labour force that has become idle as a result of the energy supply transition. Environmental sustainability issues relate to ways to internalise local (and regional), and global external environmental costs and benefits into the decision-making processes in China. This might be achieved by market-oriented (pricing) or by command and control instruments (e.g. mandatory energy efficiency and

  6. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  7. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in

  8. Comparative study of commercial building energy-efficiency retrofit policies in four pilot cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jing; Liu, Yisheng; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of existing commercial buildings is more challenging to regulate and improve than the energy efficiency of new constructions. In 2011 and 2012, the Chinese Government selected four cities- Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Chongqing- to implement pilot commercial building energy efficiency retrofit program. Based on site surveys and expert interviews in these pilot cities, this research conducted a comparative analysis on incentive policies of local city level. The analysis results show that policy designs of existing commercial buildings should be further improved. The aspects that influence the implementation effect in the future, such as subsidy level, installments, and business model promotion, should be specified in the policy clauses. Referring to the technical solution and cost-benefit in Chongqing, we found that lighting system is the most common retrofit objects while envelope system is the least common one. And the subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings, followed by office buildings. In the end, we further discussed the problems and obstacles in commercial building retrofit market, and provided a series of recommendations. - Highlights: • Data and information were collected through site surveys to the four pilot cities. • Policy design and effectiveness in four cities were comparatively analyzed. • Well-designed policy increases market response, energy savings and EMC adoption. • Lighting is the most common retrofit while envelope is the least common one. • Subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings due to the utility tariff.

  9. Energy program and policy about nuclear industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, M.

    1985-01-01

    As for the various problems on energy, Japan and France have taken the similar strategy and development program. Both Japan and France lack mineral energy resources, but have the industrial technical ability to make up for this shortage by substitute resources and to limit the dependence on import. Similarly to France, Japan has attained 3 tons in terms of petroleum per 1000 dollars of gross national product, which is about a half of the rate of energy consumption in the U.S., and became one of the advanced countries saving energy most. The consumption of petroleum decreased by 23 % in Japan and 30 % in France from 1973 to 1983. Nuclear power increased to 20 % of the generated output in Japan and to 50 % of that in France. The dependence on imported energy decreased to 80 % in Japan and 60 % in France. The energy policy taken by France was to satisfy demand, to diversity supply sources, to reduce energy cost, and to strengthen stable supply. The total demond of primary energy in 1984 was 191.6 million tons in terms of petroleum. Nuclear power stations generated 182 billion kWh in 1984. The nuclear power program in France, nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel cycle are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  11. The benchmarks of carbon emissions and policy implications for China's cities: Case of Nanjing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jun; Zhang Rongrong; Wang Haikun; Liu Miaomiao; Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    The development of urbanization is accelerating in China, and there are great pressures and opportunities in cities to reduce carbon emissions. An emissions inventory is a basic requirement for analyzing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), their potential reduction and to realize low-carbon development of cities. This study describes a method to establish a GHGs emissions inventory in Chinese cities for 6 emission sources including industrial energy consumption, transportation, household energy consumption, commercial energy consumption, industrial processes and waste. Nanjing city was selected as a representative case to analyze the characteristics of carbon emissions in Chinese cities. The results show that carbon emissions in Nanjing have increased nearly 50% during the last decade. The three largest GHGs contributors were industrial energy consumption, industrial processes and transportation, which contributed 37-44%, 35-40% and 6-10%, respectively, to the total GHGs emissions. Per GDP carbon emissions decreased by 55% from 2002 to 2009, and the per capita and per GDP carbon emissions were comparable or even lower than the world average levels. These results have important policy implications for Chinese cities to control their carbon emissions. - Highlights: → Carbon emissions inventory using bottom-up methodology was firstly reported for a Chinese city. → Emission characteristics of Nanjing city were compared with other international cities. → Low carbon policies for Chinese cities were recommended based on the results of this research.

  12. Family control, institutional environment and cash dividend policy: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004–2008, this study empirically tests the impact of family control, institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies. Our results indicate that (1 family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms; (2 a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies; and (3 the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem I (the owner–manager conflict rather than Agency Problem II (the controlling shareholder–minority shareholder conflict, and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy. In contrast, a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem I and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  13. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  14. Trends in CO2 Emissions from China-Oriented International Marine Transportation Activities and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for marine transportation and its associated CO2 emissions are growing rapidly as a result of increasing international trade and economic growth. An activity-based approach is developed for forecasting CO2 emissions from the China-oriented international seaborne trade sector. To accurately estimate the aggregated emissions, CO2 emissions are calculated individually for five categories of vessels: crude oil tanker, product tanker, chemical tanker, bulk carrier, and container. A business-as-usual (BAU scenario was developed to describe the current situation without additional mitigation policies, whilst three alternative scenarios were developed to describe scenarios with various accelerated improvements of the key factors. The aggregated CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 419.97 Mt under the BAU scenario, and 258.47 Mt under the optimal case, AD3. These predictions are 4.5 times and 2.8 times that of the aggregated emissions in 2007. Our analysis suggests that regulations for monitoring, reporting, and verifying the activities of vessels should be proposed, in order to quantify the CO2 emissions of marine transportation activities in Chinese territorial waters. In the long-term future, mitigation policies should be employed to reduce CO2 emissions from the marine trade sector and to address the climatic impact of shipping.

  15. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    disparities in China. The data showed a significant digital divide in China, especially in the older population. Internet access is still limited to people with higher SES; however, the mobile phone has been adopted by the general population. The digital divide is associated with not only individual SES but also community resources. Future electronic health (eHealth) programs need to consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for various social groups. ©Y Alicia Hong, Zi Zhou, Ya Fang, Leiyu Shi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.09.2017.

  16. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... discuss National [[Page 12624

  17. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  18. The impacts of implementation of National Essential Medicines Policies on primary healthcare institutions: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhigang; Guan, Xiaodong; Shi, Luwen

    2017-11-13

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010. A questionnaire survey developed by the study team was distributed to all of the primary healthcare institutions. Nine indicators from three dimensions as the outcome variables were used and calculated to evaluate the impacts of implementation of policies. All of the outcome variables were tested using independent-samples T test between the treatment group (with the NEMPs implemented) and the control group (without the NEMPs implemented). The ratio of drug sales and institution revenues at primary healthcare institutions was 42.99% in the treatment group, which was significantly lower than the control group (53.90%, p financial subsidies of the treatment group was shown to be higher (30.78% VS 20.82%, p institutions, the improvement of the mechanisms for government investment, and the healthcare pricing system. Meanwhile, the gaps between urban and rural areas need to be addressed. In conclusion, the NEMPs of China are instrumental to the aim of providing basic healthcare services to every citizen.

  19. China-Vietnam: Notes on Population and the Development of School Programs for Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stewart E.

    China and Vietnam currently face excessively high population growth rates. Both countries have recently introduced population education programs, but, for a variety of internal reasons, they are at different stages of development. Since 1980, the Chinese have made progress in experimenting with and implementing new programs, but the Vietnamese are…

  20. Neoliberal Global Assemblages: The Emergence of "Public" International High-School Curriculum Programs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning

    2018-01-01

    Since 2010, the number of urban Chinese high-school students applying to US universities has rapidly grown. Many of these students have chosen emerging international curriculum programs established by elite public high schools in China. These programs prepare wealthy Chinese students for the US college application process by exposing them to an…

  1. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianqiang; Guo Xiurui; Chang Yongguan; Peng Yingdeng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental-economic-technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally

  2. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianqiang Mao; Yingdeng Peng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental - economic - technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally. (author)

  3. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies; L'approvisionnement energetique de la Chine. Marches et politiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P. [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France); Meidan, M. [Inalco, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-15

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  4. Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  5. Determinants of knowledge translation from health technology assessment to policy-making in China: From the perspective of researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W.; Dong, Hengjin; Mao, Yiwei; Tang, Meng; Chen, Yingyao

    2018-01-01

    Background For health technology assessment (HTA) to be more policy relevant and for health technology-related decision-making to be truly evidence-based, promoting knowledge translation (KT) is of vital importance. Although some research has focused on KT of HTA, there is a dearth of literature on KT determinants and the situation in developing countries and transitional societies remains largely unknown. Objective To investigate the determinants of HTA KT from research to health policy-making from the perspective of researchers in China. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods A structured questionnaire which focused on KT was distributed to HTA researchers in China. KT activity levels in various fields of HTA research were compared, using one-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis was performed to provide a basis to combine similar variables. To investigate the determinants of KT level, multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results Based on a survey of 382 HTA researchers, it was found that HTA KT wasn’t widespread in China. Furthermore, results showed that no significant differences existed between the various HTA research fields. Factors, such as attitudes of researchers toward HTA and evidence utilization, academic ranks and linkages between researchers and policy-makers, had significant impact on HTA KT (p-valuespolicy-makers, policy-relevance of HTA research, practicality of HTA outcomes and making HTA reports easier to understand also contributed to predicting KT level. However, academic nature of HTA research was negatively associated with KT level. Conclusion KT from HTA to policy-making was influenced by many factors. Of particular importance were collaborations between researchers and policy-makers, ensuring policy relevance of HTA and making HTA evidence easier to understand by potential users. PMID:29300753

  6. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  7. FY11_EOM_August_Number of Life Insurance Policies by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...

  8. Corporate environmental policy statements in mainland China: to what extent do they conform to ISO 14000 documentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan Shan; Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos W H

    2005-04-01

    For decades, industry has been the main source of pollution in China. Determined to make changes, the mainland Chinese authorities have decided to promote mechanisms that incorporate environmental concerns into the internal management of enterprises. This is manifested in the rapid adoption of the ISO14000 standards, including a significant increase in ISO14001 registrations in China. Thus, this study examined the environmental policy statements of 106 certified facilities in mainland China against a strict interpretation of the mandatory requirements of the ISO 14001:1996 standard and the nonmandatory ISO14004 requirements in order to shed some light on the implementation of environmental management systems in an emerging economic giant. It was decided to analyze the environmental policy statement because such a statement is a core element in the ISO system of environmental management of each facility and there are relatively clear and specific requirements on what an environmental policy statement shall include. An analysis of the contents of the environmental policy statements shows that conformance to the relevant requirements of both the mandatory ISO14001 standard and the nonmandatory ISO14004 standard is far from impressive and that the facilities in our sample seldom went beyond the minimum requirements. By using ISO14001 and ISO14004 conformance scores as the dependent variables, we found that conformity to ISO14001 and overall conformance to ISO14000 series can be explained to some extent by the degree of top management commitment, the experience with informal environmental management systems, and the form of ownership of the facilities.

  9. Checking into China's cow hotels: have policies following the milk scandal changed the structure of the dairy sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, D; Huang, J; Jia, X; Luan, H; Rozelle, S; Swinnen, J

    2012-05-01

    China's milk scandal is well known for causing the nation's largest food safety crisis and for its effect on thousands of children. Less, however, is known about the effect on the other victim: China's small dairy farmers. Although small backyard producers were not the ones that added melamine to the milk supply, the incomes of dairy farmers fell sharply after the crisis. In response, one of the actions taken by the government was to encourage small dairy producers to check into production complexes that were supposed to supply services, new technologies, and provide for easy/bulk procurement of the milk produced by the cows of the farmers. Because both farmers and their cows were living (and working) away from home, in the rest of the paper we call these complexes cow hotels. In this paper we examine the dynamics of China's dairy production structure before and after the milk scandal. In particular, we seek to gain a better understanding about how China's policies have been successful in encouraging farmers to move from the backyard into cow hotels. We also seek to find if larger or smaller farmers respond differently to these policy measures. Using data from a sample of farmers from dairy-producing villages in Greater Beijing, our empirical analysis finds that 1 yr after the milk scandal, the dairy production structure changed substantially. Approximately one quarter (26%) of the sample checked into cow hotels after the milk scandal, increasing from 2% before the crisis. Our results also demonstrate that the increase in cow hotel production can largely be attributed to China's dairy policies. Finally, our results suggest that the effects of government policy differ across farm sizes; China's dairy policies are more likely to persuade larger farms to join cow hotels. Apparently, larger farms benefit more when they join cow hotels. Overall, these results suggest that during the first year after the crisis, the government policies were effective in moving some of

  10. Translating policies into practice: a framework to prevent childhood obesity in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Webster, Collin; Saunders, Ruth; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    Afterschool programs (3-6 p.m.) are positioned to play a critical role in combating childhood obesity. To this end, state and national organizations have developed policies related to promoting physical activity and guiding the nutritional quality of snacks served in afterschool programs. No conceptual frameworks, however, are available that describe the process of how afterschool programs will translate such policies into daily practice to reach eventual outcomes. Drawing from complex systems theory, this article describes the development of a framework that identifies critical modifiable levers within afterschool programs that can be altered and/or strengthened to reach policy goals. These include the policy environment at the national, state, and local levels; individual site, afterschool program leader, staff, and child characteristics; and existing outside organizational partnerships. Use of this framework and recognition of its constituent elements have the potential to lead to the successful and sustainable adoption and implementation of physical activity and nutrition policies in afterschool programs nationwide.

  11. School environment and policies, child eating behavior and overweight/obesity in urban China: the childhood obesity study in China megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Li, M; Xue, H; Lu, L; Xu, F; Wang, Y

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rising rapidly in China, especially in urban areas. Knowledge about how school environment and policies (SEPs) may have contributed to the epidemic remains limited. We examined SEP and their associations with students' eating behaviors and overweight/obesity in urban China. Data were collected from 1648 students (plus their parents and schools) in 16 primary and middle schools (4 schools per city) in four megacities across China: Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Xi'an. We examined nutrition-related SEP such as unhealthy food restriction, healthy food promotion, price control and nutrition guideline in school cafeterias (SCs), campus food stores (CFS), school vicinity food stalls (SVFS); SEP on physical activity, physical education (PE) and physical examination. Cluster robust regression models were fit to assess associations of SEP with child eating behaviors and overweight/obesity (defined based on body mass index, from measured weight and height). All 16 schools had regular PE classes and annual physical examination. Most schools (n=12; 75%) had food policies in SC; few had policies on CFS (n=1; 6.25%) or SVFS (n=4; 25%). Local governments had a major role in regulating food prices, setting nutrition guidelines and regulating SVFS. Policies on CFS and SVFS were associated with less frequent intake of sugary beverage (odds ratio (OR)=0.54 (0.47-0.61); OR=0.70 (0.61-0.80)), snack (OR=0.84 (0.74-0.95); OR=0.78 (0.67-0.92)) and fast food (OR=0.58 (0.42-0.81); OR=0.56 (0.39-0.80)). The associations were stronger for boys. Policies on SC, CFS and SVFS were associated with lower likelihood for overweight/obesity (OR=0.60 (0.46-0.79); OR=0.74 (0.62-0.90); OR=0.51 (0.35-0.73)) and central obesity (OR=0.79 (0.70-0.89); OR=0.67 (0.48-0.92); OR=0.63 (0.48-0.84)) in boys. Policies on SC were associated with lower overweight/obesity odds (OR=0.48 (0.28-0.82)) for girls. SEP are heterogeneous in the four Chinese megacities, high-income areas. They affect

  12. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  13. Design of China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP) for equipment and appliances and comparative study of international experience on super-efficient products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuying; Zhu, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    With rising global emphasizes on climate change and sustainable development, how to accelerate the transformation of energy efficiency has become an important question. Designing and implementing energy-efficiency policies for super-efficient products represents an important direction to achieve breakthroughs in the field of energy conservation. On December 31, 2014, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly six other ministerial agencies launched China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP), which identifies top efficiency models for selected product categories. LEP sets the highest energy efficiency benchmark. Design of LEP took into consideration of how to best motivate manufacturers to accelerate technical innovation, promote high efficiency products. This paper explains core elements of LEP, such as objectives, selection criteria, implementation method and supportive policies. It also proposes recommendations to further improve LEP through international policy comparison with Japan’s Top Runner Program, U.S. Energy Star Most Efficient, and SEAD Global Efficiency Medal.

  14. Communication Received from China Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium; Comunicacion recibida de China en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-13

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 21 December 2010 from the Permanent Mission of China to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of China, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available information on its annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium as of 31 December 2008 and as of 31 December 2009. In light of the request expressed by China in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the note verbale of 21 December 2010 are attached for the information of all Member States [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 21 de diciembre de 2010, de la Mision Permanente de China ante el OIEA en cuyo anexo el Gobierno de China, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/5491 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, ha presentado informacion sobre las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil a 31 de diciembre de 2008 y a 31 de diciembre de 2009. Atendiendo a la peticion formulada por China en su nota verbal de 1 de diciembre de 1997, sobre sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio (INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998), se adjuntan los anexos de la nota verbal de 21 de diciembre de 2010 para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros

  15. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China’s Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    34Food and Agricultural Imports from China," 4. 40 in developing equivalent standards to the United States for the inspection meat and poultry ...interview: “With more than 10,000 athletes and 22,000-plus international journalist in Beijing, China, for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games [food safety...of fruits and vegetables, 130 tons of meat , 82 tons of seafood, 21 tons of cheese and 19 tons of eggs…There [was] great pressure on [the Beijing

  16. Pluri-annual programming of energy (PPE): an escalation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Concerning the pluri-annual programming of energy for the 2018-2023 period, the French government proposes to accelerate the deployment of wind and solar energies in order to reach 43.000 - 49.200 MW globally in 2023. To compare wind and solar energies totaled 16.500 MW in 2015. The 2023 level will represent around 70% of the today's nuclear power production. This energy policy will require a huge investment of 60 billions euros by 2023. It appears that offshore wind energy is not favoured because of its important costs and this acceleration will imply more wind turbines installed on land which can have a negative impact on the environment. Furthermore wind and solar energies will require other sources of energy to compensate seasonal effects, the back-up energy may be nuclear but it would increase the kWh cost because nuclear energy will be under-used. The gain in CO_2 will be null because the electricity production in France is largely de-carbonized thanks to the use of nuclear energy. A more progressive deployment of renewable energies in the French energy mix is recommended. (A.C.)

  17. Understanding Families with Children with Special Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing dialogues and exchanges for special education programs between China and the rest of the world as the development continues in China. Policy makers, administrators, and educators need to keep in mind the historical and cultural backgrounds when working with families with children with special needs in China. Together, this…

  18. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  19. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory... CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting will be held on Wednesday, July 11, 2012 from 10:00 a...

  20. Emergy evaluation of agricultural sustainability of Northwest China before and after the grain-for-green policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiuhong; Shen, Jianxiu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    China’s grain-for-green policy (GFGP) was implemented with the goal of improving ecological security. Consequently, agricultural energy and agrochemical inputs have been significantly increased to improve food security and to increase the income of farmers in the regions where the GFGP was implemented. In analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural system affected by the GFGP, it is essential to consider both economic profitability and environmental sustainability. Using Yanchi County as a case study area, this study used an emergy synthesis to examine the sustainability of the agricultural system before and after the GFGP in Northwest China. We found that the total emergy input and energy output of the agricultural system in the study area increased from 1991 to 2008; however, the sustainability of the system declined, and this decline was especially evident after the GFGP was launched in 2001. Increasing inputs of non-renewable purchased resources will not only reduce the effectiveness of the GFGP in Northwest China, but also hinder the implementation of the energy-saving and emission-reduction policy that China launched in 2005. We suggest that sustainable agricultural development in Northwest China should be based on effective use of renewable resources and development of a low-carbon agricultural economy. - Highlights: • The total emergy input and energy output of the study system increased from 1991 to 2008. • The change of each emergy index was more evident after the GFGP launched in 2001. • The increase in input of non-renewable purchased resources will gradually reduce the function of the GFGP in West China. • Agricultural development in West China should be based on organic agriculture

  1. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Du

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liability of polluting entities; and citizens’ rights in cases of water pollution, the challenges for the rule of environmental law in effectively reducing water pollution accidents and resolving water pollution conflict still exist. There is an urgent need to strengthen compliance and enforcement. This paper discusses the issues of water pollution conflict and the possible resolutions offered through law and policy.

  2. Impact of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xianming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Chinese government has conducted the joint-stock reform of state-owned commercial banks. The joint-stock reform improves the marketization level of the ownership structure of commercial banks and consequently leads to impacts on the effectiveness of monetary policy. This paper first presents the impacting mechanisms of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy and then constructs an empirical model to test those impacts. The empirical results show that the increasing degree of joint-stock reform of commercial banks enhances the effectiveness of expansionary monetary policy but weakens the effectiveness of contractionary monetary policy in China.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  5. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...... is with members from R&D centers, another with leaders of S&T fund management sectors in universities. The results demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of creative climate of university R&D centers. This leads to implications such as to improve a more comprehensive innovation Measurement system and to build...

  6. The effect of the implementation of low price medicine policy on medicine price in China: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaodong; Yang, Mingchun; Man, Chunxia; Tian, Ye; Shi, Luwen

    2018-04-30

    In an effort to relieve the pressure of drug shortages, the Chinese government implemented Low-price Medicines (LPM) policy to raise the price cap in July 2014. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the implementation of this policy on drug price in China. Price data of 491 LPM, including 218 low-price chemical medicines (LPCM) and 273 low-price traditional Chinese medicines (LPTCM), were collected from 699 hospitals. We used interrupted time series design to identify the variation of monthly Laspeyres Indexes (LI) and Paasche Indexes (PI) for LPM, LPCM, and LPTCM. The result demonstrated that although LPM expenditures increased, the proportion of LPM expenditures accounting for all medicine expenditures fell from 3.6% to 3.2%. After the implementation of LPM policy, there was a significant increasing trend in LPM-PI, LPCM-PI, and LPTCM-PI. The trend in LPM-LI and LPCM-LI was found from descending to rising. However, for LPTCM, the trend in the LI remained to decrease after the policy implementation. Despite the LPM policy had an increasing impact on the LPM drug price, the proportion of LPM expenditures accounting for all medicine expenditures did not increase. More efforts are needed in the future to promote the rational drug use in China. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy:The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Qian

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an additional child significantly increased school enrollment of first-born children by approximately 16 percentage-points. The effect is larger for househo...

  8. Mind the gap! Barriers and implementation deficiencies of energy policies at the local scale in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Zuidema, Christian; Gugerell, Katharina; Roo, Gert de

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concerns and potential social-economic impacts associated with fossil fuels have turned cities into indispensable entities for supporting energy transitions in China. Pursuing a transition towards a sustainable energy system has become a major policy concern for the Chinese central government. In response, and on the basis of a top-down and conformance-oriented system of policy implementation and evaluation, the Chinese central government has launched various policies and targets on energy efficiency and production that lower levels of government have to follow. However, the translation of top-down targets and the measurement of conformance-based targets have both proved to be problematic. This paper investigates Chinese state policy on energy efficiency through four empirical case studies. It identifies how policy design of target setting and evaluation is both impacting and driving the implementation of energy efficiency at the local urban scale. We demonstrate how local authorities are faced with constraining barriers that can inhibit the implementation of centrally issued targets and policies. These barriers may even undermine local performance in the pursuit of ambitious energy efficiency goals, resulting in potentially harmful consequences. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency policies are ill-adapted to the diversity of local circumstances. • Predominant focus on conformance in energy policies overlooks local performance. • Pursuing ambitions runs the risk of being undermined by strict measuring systems. • Chinese energy transition needs more flexibility in target setting and evaluation.

  9. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  10. Environmental secondhand smoke exposure and policy assessment at five venues in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, QingQing; Xu, ShuiYang; Xu, JinHang; Wan, Xia; Guo, YuJie

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental secondhand smoke exposure and tobacco control policy at 5 venues. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 134 settings and 2727 adults in Zhejiang, China. The results show that the proportions of venues that had complete smoking ban were as follows: health administrative organizations (71.9%), hospitals (70.0%), schools (66.7%), public transportation vehicles (24.0%), and government agencies (11.8%). The proportions of venues where smoking was noticed were as follows: public transportation vehicles (88.0%), government agencies (47.1%), hospitals (46.7%), health administrative organizations (40.6%), and schools (30.0%). Venues with completely indoor smoking ban were 5 times more likely to be smoke-free at the time of survey than other venues without smoking ban (odds ratio = 5.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.92-15.14). It indicated that implementation of indoor smoking ban can reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. © 2013 APJPH.

  11. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  12. The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90.......Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90....

  13. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  14. A quantile approach to assess the effectiveness of the subsidy policy for energy-efficient home appliances: Evidence from Rizhao, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xi-Long; Liu, Yang; Yan, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A one-year subsidy program for energy-efficient home appliances has been implemented in China. We construct a dataset consisting of participant and non-participant households in both urban and rural areas of Rizhao city. By applying a quantile regression and counterfactual analysis, this study disentangles the impact of this subsidy program and inherent household attributes on per capita residential electricity consumption. First, contrary to the mean regression, the elasticity of electricity consumption to household's income, age, education and energy-saving awareness, varies markedly across the electricity consumption distribution and shows discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Second, while inherent household attributes are identified as a primary determinant to the changes in residential electricity consumption, the effect induced by the subsidy incentive is more significant at the middle of the electricity consumption distribution than at the tails. Third, there are significant rebound effects that lead to overall increase in household electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the disparity between urban and rural regions and targeted consumer behavior changes should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of a future energy-efficient subsidy program. - Highlights: • The effect of the subsidy policy on electricity consumption is assessed with a quantile regression. • Policy induced effect is more significant at the middle of the distribution than at the tails. • The rebound effects lead to overall increase in electricity consumption. • The impact of households attributes varies markedly across electricity consumption distribution

  15. Estimating premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 exposure and benefit of air pollution control policies in China for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Arora, Mohit; Deshpande, Ashok

    2018-01-15

    , even if Chines government fulfills its own target to meet national ambient air quality standard of PM 2.5 (35μg/m 3 ), total premature mortality attributable to PM 2.5 will be 574 thousand across 161 cities. The present methodology will greatly help policy makers and pollution control authorities to further analyze cost and benefits of air pollution management programs in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Policy options for non-grain bioethanol in China: Insights from an economy-energy-environment CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese government has been issuing numerous incentive policies to promote non-grain bioethanol development to address the problem of excessive energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study, we divide the incentive policies into five categories: subsidies on bioethanol production, non-grain feedstocks planting, marginal land reclamation and utilization, bioethanol consumption in more cities, and consumption tax on gasoline use. The objective of the paper is to evaluate and compare the economic, energy, and environmental effects of the incentive policies to help the government choose the optimal policies to promote bioethanol in China. The results show that subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can boost GDP, and simultaneously, decrease crude oil and gasoline consumption, and reduce CO_2 emissions. However, the increase in bioethanol consumption is combined with the rise in coal and electricity consumption. Subsidies on bioethanol production can promote GDP and reduce energy consumption and CO_2 emission but have less effect on bioethanol development than that under the scenario of subsides on bioethanol consumption. On the contrary, although subsidies on non-grain feedstocks planting and marginal land reclamation and utilization can improve macro-economy but have a negative effect on energy saving and CO_2 emission reduction. Therefore, appropriate subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can promote bioethanol consumption with economic, energy and environmental benefits. The Chinese government should further pay more attention to the coordination of different policy options by policy tools and intensities. - Highlights: • Non-grain bioethanol incentive policy is divided into supply and demand perspectives. • China's bioethanol CGE model is constructed. • Demand incentives have largest positive effects on GDP. • Demand incentives have better effects on energy saving and emission reduction. • Subsidies on

  17. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing of natural resources while Chinese ones - in products with high share of added value. The study reveals that among 104 scheduled key Russian projects (at the cost of 47,9 billion USD only 24 projects are under implementation (11,77 billion USD, 8 of which are carried out with the help of Chinese investments (1,77 billion USD. Joint ventures are connected with mining operations, primary processing of wood, construction of houses, manufacturing of building materials, assembly production and trade. Among 111 scheduled Program Chinese projects (at the cost of 9,87 billion USD only 42 projects are under implementation (6,1 billion USD; they are associated with engineering products. There is only one Russian-Chinese joint venture on the territory of China (at the cost of 0,63 billion USD. The author suggests that in the near future 20 additional Program projects can be implemented in Russia (at the cost of more than 20 billion USD and 6 projects (about 0,5 billion USD - in China

  18. The Impact of Ecological Construction Programs on Grassland Conservation in Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Min; Dries, Liesbeth; Heijman, Wim; Huang, Jikun; Zhu, Xueqin; Hu, Yuanning; Chen, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    A series of Ecological Construction Programs have been initiated to protect the condition of grasslands in China during recent decades. However, grassland degradation is still severe, and conditions have not been restored as intended. This paper aims to empirically examine the effectiveness of these

  19. An Innovative Continuing Nursing Education Program Targeting Key Geriatric Conditions for Hospitalized Older People in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Shen, Jun; Wu, Haifeng; Ding, Fu; He, Xizhen; Zhu, Yueping

    2013-01-01

    A lack of knowledge in registered nurses about geriatric conditions is one of the major factors that contribute to these conditions being overlooked in hospitalized older people. In China, an innovative geriatric continuing nursing education program aimed at developing registered nurses' understanding of the complex care needs of hospitalized…

  20. Impact of a new reimbursement program on hepatitis B antiviral medication cost and utilization in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a significant clinical and financial burden for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. In Beijing, China, partial reimbursement on antiviral agents was first implemented for the treatment of CHB patients in July 1, 2011. AIMS: In this study, we describe the medical cost and utilization rates of antiviral therapy for CHB patients to explore the impact of the new partial reimbursement policy on the medical care cost, the composition, and antivirals utilization. METHODS: Clinical and claims data of a retrospective cohort of 92,776 outpatients and 2,774 inpatients with non-cirrhotic CHB were retrieved and analyzed from You'an Hospital, Beijing between February 14, 2008 and December 31, 2012. The propensity score matching was used to adjust factors associated with the annual total cost, including age, gender, medical insurance type and treatment indicator. RESULTS: Compared to patients who paid out-of-pocket, medical cost, especially antiviral costs increased greater among patients with medical insurance after July 1, 2011, the start date of reimbursement policy. Outpatients with medical insurance had 16% more antiviral utilization; usage increased 3% among those who paid out-of-pocket after the new partial reimbursement policy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Direct medical costs and antiviral utilization rates of CHB patients with medical insurance were higher than those from paid out-of-pocket payments, even after adjusting for inflation and other factors. Thus, a new partial reimbursement program may positively optimize the cost and standardization of antiviral treatment.

  1. An overview of a 5-year research program on acid deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; He, K.; Xu, X.; Zhang, P.; Bai, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Duan, L.; Li, W.; Chai, F.

    2011-12-01

    Despite concerted research and regulative control of sulfur dioxide in China, acid rain remained a serious environmental issue, due to a sharp increase in the combustion of fossil fuel in the 2000s. In 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China funded a five-year comprehensive research program on acid deposition. This talk will give an overview of the activities and the key findings from this study, covering emission, atmospheric processes, and deposition, effects on soil and stream waters, and impact on typical trees/plants in China. The main results include (1) China still experiences acidic rainfalls in southern and eastern regions, although the situation has stabilized after 2006 due to stringent control of SO2 by the Chinese Government; (2) Sulfate is the dominant acidic compound, but the contribution of nitrate has increased; (3) cloud-water composition in eastern China is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions; (4) the persistent fall of acid rain in the 30 years has lead to acidification of some streams/rivers and soils in southern China; (5) the studied plants have shown varying response to acid rain; (6) some new insights have been obtained on atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric transport, soil chemistry, and ecological impacts, some of which will be discussed in this talk. Compared to the situation in North America and Europe, China's acid deposition is still serious, and continued control of sulfur and nitrogen emission is required. There is an urgent need to establish a long-term observation network/program to monitor the impact of acid deposition on soil, streams/rivers/lakes, and forests.

  2. Free teacher education in China : a study on free teacher program

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wen

    2009-01-01

    The supply and quality of teachers are the keys to the development of education. Teacher education is an important part of social education system. Chinese government have practiced free teacher education program in 2007 to improve teacher education. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of free teacher education in China. The contents, reasons and goals of free teacher education are illustrated in this study to analyze this new education program. Quantitative research meth...

  3. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator...

  4. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  5. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective. By assessing the root causes for a specific policy's effectiveness it can be determined if those successes could be translated to another country with a different health care system, unique culture and divergent policy ecosystem. Any intervention regarding pharmaceutical disposal would require a multifaceted approach beyond raising awareness and coordinating pharmaceutical disposal on a national level. While consumer participation is important, effective primary prevention would also include research on drug development that is designed to biodegrade in the environment as opposed to medications that persist and accumulate in the natural environment even when properly disposed. Countries that lack a nationalized disposal policy should leverage the resources and infrastructure already in place in the national health care system to implement a unified policy to address medication disposal in the short-term. In tandem, efforts should be made to recruit the biotechnology sector in high-tech and academia to develop new technologies in medication design and water filtration to decrease exposures in the long-term.

  6. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  7. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Trappel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  8. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  9. China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2001-01-01

    .... Some critics opposed satellite exports to China, while others were concerned that the Clinton Administration relaxed export controls and monitoring of commercial satellites in moving the licensing...

  10. Modeling Nutrient Release in the Tai Lake Basin of China: Source Identification and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Because nutrient enrichment has become increasingly severe in the Tai Lake Basin of China, identifying sources and loads is crucial for watershed nutrient management. This paper develops an empirical framework to estimate nutrient release from five major sectors, which requires fewer input parameters and produces acceptable accuracy. Sectors included are industrial manufacturing, livestock breeding (industrial and family scale), crop agriculture, household consumption (urban and rural), and atmospheric deposition. Results show that in the basin (only the five sectors above), total nutrient loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems in 2008 were 33043.2 tons N a-1 and 5254.4 tons P a-1, and annual area-specific nutrient loads were 1.94 tons N km-2 and 0.31 tons P km-2. Household consumption was the major sector having the greatest impact (46 % in N load, 47 % in P load), whereas atmospheric deposition (18 %) and crop agriculture (15 %) sectors represented other significant proportions of N load. The load estimates also indicate that 32 % of total P came from the livestock breeding sector, making it the second largest phosphorus contributor. According to the nutrient pollution sectors, six best management practices are selected for cost-effectiveness analysis, and feasible options are recommended. Overall, biogas digester construction on industrial-scale farms is proven the most cost-effective, whereas the building of rural decentralized facilities is the best alternative under extreme financial constraint. However, the reduction potential, average monetary cost, and other factors such as risk tolerance of policy makers should all be considered in the actual decision-making process.

  11. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  12. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  13. Shiv Nadar University – Program on Water Science and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The teaching program will be supplemented by a rigorous research program ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India. IDRC is ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  14. Predictors of women's attitudes toward world health organization framework convention on tobacco control policies in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu Saleh; Yang, Tingzhong; Beard, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    In 2005 China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and committed to implement tobacco control legislation and policies. Wide variation in smoking prevalence between men and women in China and the high exposure of women to secondhand smoke suggest that each component of the FCTC should be analyzed from a gender perspective. This study describes women's attitudes toward and predictors of support for four key FCTC measures in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,408 women in two urban cities on demographics, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward key tobacco control measures. Seventy percent of the study women (n = 1,408) were exposed to secondhand smoke at home, work, or other public places. Support for the four FCTC measures of interest was as follows: 92.5% supported banning smoking in public places, 79.2% supported increasing the cigarette tax, 92% supported stronger health warnings on cigarette packages, and 87.1% favored banning tobacco advertising. The predictors for supporting each of these measures included socioeconomic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors. Urban Chinese women appear to support implementation of key WHO FCTC measures. Predictors of women's attitudes toward the key FCTC measures varied. The formulation process resulting from the tobacco control policy should consider these women-specific predictors in order to facilitate successful implementation of FCTC.

  15. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.ed [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu Yuanan [Education Program for Gifted Youth, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  16. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefa; Hu Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  17. China’s Evolving Foreign Policy in Africa: A New Direction for China’s Non-Intervention Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Xiaoping instituted economic reforms aimed at opening up China’s economy to international trade and China began on its path towards double- digit growth.99...rebellion by the nomadic Tuaregs in the north paved the way for Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)’s takeover of Northern Mali. The...marginalization through the creation of a formal state with formal, defined borders. The nomadic lifestyle of the Tuaregs was no longer accepted under

  18. Farmers’ Perception of the Decade-Long Grazing Ban Policy in Northern China: A Case Study of Yanchi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes farmers’ perception of grazing restriction policies, grassland environment and ecological management following the implementation of environmental protection policies in northern China. Understanding farmers’ attitudes and their causes will hopefully aid in the creation and execution of future policies. One hundred and thirty-five households were surveyed at three occasions over the course of a decade to explore the causes and processes of farmers’ perception. Farmers’ ecological awareness tends to be short term. In areas with a degraded environment, farmers were eager to implement policies to improve the environment and recognized the positive impact of the grazing ban policy (GBP. However, as conditions improved, farmers’ recognition and acceptance of the GBP became negative. Although farmers recognized the benefits of the GBP, they showed little awareness of the long-term process of environmental governance. As can be seen from the farmers’ ecological awareness and their attitudes toward the GBP, they are more inclined to value short-term economic interest than ecological protection. We suggest that good environmental protection policy must take into account the ecological and economic interests of farmers.

  19. A policy-driven large scale ecological restoration: quantifying ecosystem services changes in the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Chang, Ruiying; Sun, Ge; Wu, Bingfang

    2012-01-01

    As one of the key tools for regulating human-ecosystem relations, environmental conservation policies can promote ecological rehabilitation across a variety of spatiotemporal scales. However, quantifying the ecological effects of such policies at the regional level is difficult. A case study was conducted at the regional level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, China, through the use of several methods including the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), hydrological modeling and multivariate analysis. An assessment of the changes over the period of 2000-2008 in four key ecosystem services was undertaken to determine the effects of the Chinese government's ecological rehabilitation initiatives implemented in 1999. These ecosystem services included water regulation, soil conservation, carbon sequestration and grain production. Significant conversions of farmland to woodland and grassland were found to have resulted in enhanced soil conservation and carbon sequestration, but decreased regional water yield under a warming and drying climate trend. The total grain production increased in spite of a significant decline in farmland acreage. These trends have been attributed to the strong socioeconomic incentives embedded in the ecological rehabilitation policy. Although some positive policy results have been achieved over the last decade, large uncertainty remains regarding long-term policy effects on the sustainability of ecological rehabilitation performance and ecosystem service enhancement. To reduce such uncertainty, this study calls for an adaptive management approach to regional ecological rehabilitation policy to be adopted, with a focus on the dynamic interactions between people and their environments in a changing world.

  20. The free vaccination policy of influenza in Beijing, China: The vaccine coverage and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Fang, Renfei; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Lei, Trudy; Xie, Zheng

    2016-04-19

    In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage, the coverage rate and reasons for non-vaccination need to be determined. In 2007, the Beijing Government published a policy providing free influenza vaccinations to elderly people living in Beijing who are older than 60. This study examines the vaccination coverage after the policy was carried out and factors influencing vaccination among the elderly in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through the use of questionnaires in 2013. A total of 1673 eligible participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Beijing using anonymous questionnaires in-person. They were surveyed to determine vaccination status and social demographic information. The influenza vaccination coverage was 38.7% among elderly people in Beijing in 2012. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was people thinking they did not need to have a flu shot. After controlling for age, gender, income, self-reported health status, and the acceptance of health promotion, the rate in rural areas was 2.566 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.801-3.655, Pvaccination uptake. Those whom received information through television, community boards, or doctors were more likely to get vaccinated compared to those who did not (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.403, Pvaccine coverage in Beijing is much lower than that of developed countries with similar policies. The rural-urban disparity in coverage rate (64.1% versus 33.5%), may be explained by differing health provision systems and personal attitudes toward free services due to socioeconomic factors. Methods for increasing vaccination levels include increasing the focus on primary care and health education programs, particularly recommendations from doctors, to the distinct target populations, especially with a focus on expanding these efforts in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.