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Sample records for china nine-province survey

  1. [Sampling and measurement methods of the protocol design of the China Nine-Province Survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-liang; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng; Ellwein, Leon B; Liu, Hu

    2011-09-01

    To design the protocol of the China nine-province survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery. The protocol design was began after accepting the task for the national survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery from the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China, in November, 2005. The protocol in Beijing Shunyi Eye Study in 1996 and Guangdong Doumen County Eye Study in 1997, both supported by World Health Organization, was taken as the basis for the protocol design. The relative experts were invited to discuss and prove the draft protocol. An international advisor committee was established to examine and approve the draft protocol. Finally, the survey protocol was checked and approved by the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China and Prevention Program of Blindness and Deafness, WHO. The survey protocol was designed according to the characteristics and the scale of the survey. The contents of the protocol included determination of target population and survey sites, calculation of the sample size, design of the random sampling, composition and organization of the survey teams, determination of the examinee, the flowchart of the field work, survey items and methods, diagnostic criteria of blindness and moderate and sever visual impairment, the measures of the quality control, the methods of the data management. The designed protocol became the standard and practical protocol for the survey to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery.

  2. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    visual impairment in Shuangcheng City is relatively higher in China Nine Province Survey. Cataract, retinal diseases and un-corrected refractive error are the main causes of the blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment.

  3. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  4. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    visual impairment is relatively lower among China Nine Province Survey. The first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment is still cataract.

  5. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  6. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng-qin; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Ping-hua; Ellwein, Leon b; Song, Sheng-fang; Li, Fu-liang; Wang, Ting-gang; Ren, Yi-ming; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5663 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Yongchuan District. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands six hundreds and sixty-three individuals were enumerated and 5390 persons were examined, the response rate was 95.18%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.12% (114/5390) and 5.40% (291/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.49% (134/5390) and 10.71% (577/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 951.32, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 33.35, P = 0.000) and illiterate (trend χ(2) equals; 141.32, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence

  7. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  8. [A study on the epidemic characteristics of dyslipidemia in adults of nine provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J; Min, J Q; Yang, Y J

    2018-02-24

    Objective: To explore the current prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult population of 9 provinces of China and the epidemic characteristics of this disease. The potential influence of social economic development on dyslipidemia was also observed. Methods: Present research data are derived from the result of the investigation about survey on health and nutrition in China in 2011, in which multistage stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted to investigate the 24 345 individuals in 216 communities from 9 provinces in China and 10 242 blood samples were collected. In this research, 8 669 blood samples of people over 18 years old were selected for final analysis. After adjustment of age, the percentage of dyslipidemia patients in Chinese adults was calculated. Results: The percentage of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults is 39.91% (3 460/8 669). The percentage of dyslipidemia at the age of 18-24, 35-44, 45-59 and over 60 years old were 30.25% (373/1 233),37.19% (774/2 081), 44.22% (1 304/2 949) and 41.94%(1 009/2 406),respectively (χ(2)=333.02, Pdyslipidemia in male and female population was 51.11% (1 956/3 827) and 31.06%(1 504/4 842), respectively (χ(2)=60.35, Pdyslipidemia in urban residents and rural residents was 42.56% (1 144/2 687) and 38.72%(2 316/5 982), respectively (χ(2)=11.72, Pdyslipidemia in high-GDP regions and low-GDP regions was 43.04% (1 567/3 641) and 37.65% (1 893/5 028), respectively (χ(2)=25.57, Pdyslipidemia in Chinese adults is high and the prevalence increases in a fast pace. The current situation of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults is critical and targeted strategies should be applied to control the dyslipidemia in adult Chinese population.

  9. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  10. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  11. Regional anesthesia practice in China: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey; Gao, Huan

    2016-11-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia has been widely used in China. Recently, Chinese anesthesiologists have applied nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. Nationwide surveys about regional anesthesia practices in China are lacking. We surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about regional anesthesia techniques, preference, drug selections, complications, and treatments. A survey was sent to all anesthesiologist members by WeChat. The respondents can choose mobile device or desktop to complete the survey. Each IP address is allowed to complete the survey once. A total of 6589 members read invitations. A total of 2654 responses were received with fully completed questionnaires, which represented an overall response rate of 40%. Forty-one percent of the respondents reported that more than 50% of surgeries in their hospitals were done under regional anesthesia. Most of the participants used test dose after epidural catheter insertion. The most common drug for test dose was 3-mL 1.5% lidocaine; 2.6% of the participants reported that they had treated a patient with epidural hematoma after neuraxial anesthesia. Most anesthesiologists (68.2%) performed peripheral nerve blocks as blind procedures based on the knowledge of anatomical landmarks. A majority of hospitals (80%) did not stock Intralipid; 61% of the respondents did not receive peripheral nerve block training. The current survey can serve as a benchmark for future comparisons and evaluation of regional anesthesia practices in China. This survey revealed potential regional anesthesia safety issues in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anesthesia Quality and Patient Safety in China: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Gao, Huan; Zhou, Xiangyong; Huang, Jeffrey

    There has been no nationwide investigation into anesthesia quality and patient safety in China. The authors surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about anesthesia quality by sending a survey to all anesthesiologist members of the New Youth Anesthesia Forum via WeChat. The respondents could choose to use a mobile device or desktop to complete the survey. The overall response rate was 43%. Intraoperative monitoring: 77.9% of respondents reported that electrocardiogram monitoring was routinely applied for all patients; only 55% of the respondents reported that they routinely used end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring for their patients under general anesthesia. 10.3% of respondents admitted that they had at least one wrong medicine administration in the past 3 months; 12.4% reported that they had at least one case of cardiac arrest in the past year. This is the first anesthesia quality survey in China. The findings revealed potential anesthesia safety issues in China.

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Schizophrenia in China: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Su, Yun-Ai; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shu, Liang; Yu, Xin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Seiner, Stephen J; Chiu, Helen F K; Ning, Yu-Ping; Wang, Gao-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Li, Tao; Sun, Li-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xian-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Yi; Li, Ke-Qing; Si, Tian-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in the treatment of schizophrenia in China. This study examined the frequency of ECT use, its trend between 2006 and 2012, and its independent demographic and clinical correlates in a nationwide survey in China. A total of 5162 inpatients in 45 Chinese psychiatric hospitals/centers were interviewed (2696 in 2006 and 2466 in 2012). Patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Electroconvulsive therapy was used in 6.1% of the whole sample; 4.7% in 2006 and 7.7% in 2012 (P Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia has increased between 2006 and 2012 in China. Its percentage was higher than the figures reported in most other countries. Reasons for the substantial variations in the frequency of ECT across different provinces in China require further investigations.

  14. The reverse environmental gender gap in China: evidence from "The China Survey".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Todd; Zeng, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This article explores gender differences in attitudes about the seriousness of the environment as a problem in China using the “2008 China Survey.” Methods We use generalized ordered logit models to analyze survey respondents’ environmental attitudes. Results Our results indicate that there is indeed a “gender gap” in environmental attitudes in China, but the pattern is reversed from what has been generally found in previous work conducted in the United States and Europe. Chinese men, not women, show a greater concern about environmental problems and the seriousness of the environmental degradation in China. Further, we find that this gender gap is based largely in the substantial economic and educational differences between men and women in contemporary China. Conclusions This study emphasizes the mediating influence of socioeconomic variables in explaining gender attitudes toward the environment in China. Our findings suggest that in different contexts, women may be faced with difficult decisions between immediate economic necessities and long-term environmental concerns. The observed environmental gender gap in China will likely persist unless further economic development results in improved access to education and economic conditions for Chinese women.

  15. Prevalence of e-cigarette in China: preliminary findings from two surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Guoze Feng; Yi Nan; Yuan Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Background China is the world´s largest tobacco producer and consumer, in recent years has become the world´s largest producer of e-cigarette. According to media reports, China-made e-cigarette is mainly exported to foreign countries, and e-cigarette are not popular in China, but such conclusions need support from surveillance data. Methods Data of 2015 China Adult Tobacco Survey (CATS) and International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project China Survey (ITC...

  16. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Mainland China: Evidence Based on Epidemiological Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Wang, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: ED is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increases with age. More high-quality surveys on ED with larger samples throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Who purchases cigarettes from cheaper sources in China? Findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    The availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources constitutes a major challenge to public health throughout the world, including China, because it may counteract price-based tobacco control policies. The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources among adult smokers in China. Data were analysed from Waves 1 to 3 of the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in 2006-2009 among adult smokers in six cities in China (N=7980). One survey question asked, "In the last 6 months, have you purchased cheaper cigarettes than you can get from local stores for economic reasons?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors and smoking intensity were associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources using the general estimating equations model. Sociodemographic factors considered were gender, age, marital status, monthly household income, education, employment status and city of residence. 15.6% of smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources. After controlling for other covariates, the associations of the behaviour of purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources with age (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.49, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.92 for age 18-24 compared with age 55+) and with income (AOR=2.93, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.79 for low income compared with high income) were statistically significant, but there was no statistically significant relationship with smoking intensity. Our findings indicate that young and low-income smokers are more likely than older and high-income smokers to purchase cigarettes from cheaper sources in China. Tobacco control policies that reduce the availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources could have an impact on reducing cigarette consumption among young and low-income smokers in China.

  19. Ecological surveys of the Cryptococcus species complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Sheng; Pan, Wei-Hua; Wu, Shao-Xi; Hideaki, Taguchi; Guo, Ning-Ru; Shen, Yong-Nian; Lu, Gui-Xia; Pan, Ru-Gui; Zhu, Miao-Chang; Chen, Min; Shi, Wei-Ming; Liao, Wan-Qing

    2012-02-01

    Despite recent reports on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcal infections in China, clinical isolates have been mostly reported from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients, and environmental isolates from China have rarely been included. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological profile of Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans and C. gattii in China. A survey was performed in 10 cities from 20°N (North latitude) to 50°N and in a Eucalyptus (E.) camaldulensis forestry farm at the Guixi forestry center, China. Six hundred and twenty samples of pigeon droppings from 10 cities and 819 E. camaldulensis tree samples were collected and inoculated on caffeic acid cornmeal agar (CACA). The brown-colored colonies were recultured to observe their morphology, growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol-blue (CGB) medium, phenol oxidase and urease activities, serotype and mating type. There were obvious differences in the positive sample rates of C. neoformans in pigeon droppings collected from the different cities, ranging from 50% in the cities located at latitudes from 30°N - 40°N, 29% at 20°N - 30°N and 13% at 40°N - 50°N. There were no differences in positive bevy rates (approximately 80%) among the three grouped cities. Mycological tests of 101 isolates purified from pigeon droppings revealed that they were C. neoformans var. grubii. We also observed variable capsular size around the C. neoformans cells in colonies with variable melanin production and the bio-adhesion of the natural C. neoformans cells with other microorganisms. One urease-negative C. neoformans isolate was isolated from pigeon droppings in Jinan city. No C. gattii was isolated in this study.

  20. The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, oral English teaching and learning has been the top in English teaching and learning in china. This paper reports a survey conducted at North China Electric Power University on the barriers for learners of oral English learning in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed…

  1. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  3. Survey of photovoltaic industry and policy in Germany and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, Thilo; Huo, Molin; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have demonstrated significant price reductions, but large-scale global application of PV requires further technology improvements and cost reductions along the value chain. We survey policies in Germany and China and the industrial actors they can encourage to pursue innovation, including deployment support, investment support for manufacturing plants and R and D support measures. While deployment support has been successful, investment support for manufacturing in these nations has not been sufficiently tied to innovation incentives, and R and D support has been comparatively weak. The paper concludes with a discussion of the opportunities for global policy coordination. - Highlights: ► Describes policies applied to support PV technology and characterizes the technical potential and industry structure in Germany and China. ► Identifies opportunities to enhance innovation incentives—to contribute to 50% further cost reductions required for large scale application. ► Discusses synergies of technology policy in both countries by identifying and pursuing shared environmental and technology objectives.

  4. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge qu...

  5. Fifth nationwide survey on radiation oncology of China in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Weibo; Yuyun; Chen Bo; Tian Fenghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In order to find out the present status of Chinese Radiation Oncology, the Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology did the fifth nationwide survey on Radiation Oncology in China. Methods: Questionnaire forms had been sent through the board member of Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology to each center throughout the country. The forms, after filing, were returned for analysis. Results: On September 30th, 2006, there were 952 radiation oncology centers. They possess personnel: 5247 doctors including 2 110 residents, 1181 physicists, 6864 nurses, 4559 technicians and 1141 engineers. For equipment: There were 918 linear accelerators, 472 telecobalt units, 146 deep X-ray machine, 827 simulators, 214 CT simulators, 400 brachytherapy units, 400 treatment planning system, 796 dosimeters, 467 X-knife, 149 γ-knife (74 for head only, 75 for the head and body). Treatment: 35 503 beds (35 centers did not report the number of beds), 42 109 patients treated per day, 409 440 new patients were treated per year (no report from 45 centers). Conclusion: Radiation oncology has been developing rapidly in the last 5 years either in quantity or in quality. They are still being considered insufficient in proportion to our population. Training programs and development of QA and QC system ate needed. (authors)

  6. [Review of occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys in sixty years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Chao-lin; Wang, Huan-qiang

    2010-11-01

    To compare and analyze the all previous censuses and large-scale surveys on occupational hazard in China, draw lessons from the past, and try to provide references for the development of census or surveys on the occupational hazard in the new period. A literature retrieval had been performed mainly on the occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys since the founding of People's Republic of China. Only the survey items carried on a national scale were selected. Some keywords were drawn from these items such as survey time, survey scope, industries, occupational diseases and the rate of examination, organization and technical director, methods and so on. The outcomes and experiences were summarized. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there were seven occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys carried in China, three of them were about silicosis or pneumoconiosis, two of them were about poison and carcinogens, one was about noise, another one was about the township industrial enterprises. Leadership attention was the fundamental guarantee of the success of the survey, sound occupational health management organizations were the base, collaborative relationship with each other was an import factor, and only the interdisciplinary team, scientific design, quality control and incentive mechanism could assure the quality of the survey. The survey should be designed and carried out according to industries.

  7. [Epidemiological survey of childhood asthma in Kunming City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi-Ye; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Cao, Zhi-Lan; Dai, Mei; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Mo, Ya-Xiong; Lu, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of childhood asthma, and to find the distribution characteristics, precipitating factors, diagnosis and treatment status, and to provide scientific data for improving the prevention and management of asthma in children in Kunming City, China. Children were selected by random cluster sampling. A standardized preliminary questionnaire was used for screening out possible patients in the survey. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by diagnostic criteria in suspected asthmatic children. Asthmatic children were further asked for past diagnosis and treatment with the questionnaire of asthma in children. The total asthma incidence rate was 1.40%. The prevalence of asthma in male and female children was 1.89% and 0.88% respectively (Pasthma (1.69%) than that of school-age children (6-14 years old, 1.21%). In all asthmatic children, 51.3% were previously diagnosed with classical asthma or cough variant asthma, 26.0% were suffered attacks from December to February, and 54.0% were suffered attacks at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection (87.3%) was the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation. Antibiotics were used in 80.0%, bronchodilators in 66.0%, inhaled corticosteroid in 64.0%. A peak flow meter for monitoring lung function was used in 17% of asthmatic children over 5 years old. The prevalence of asthma is associated with age and gender in children aged 0-14 years old in Kunming City. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly in winter and at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection is the most common trigger of asthma exacerbation. Nearly a half of patients with asthma had not been diagnosed with asthma in the early stage. Most asthmatic children use antibiotics and only two-thirds use bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroid in the treatment. The treatment and management of asthma in children awaits improvement as well.

  8. Managing urban wastewater in China: a survey of build-operate-transfer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, O.D.; Zhang, M.S.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a nationwide field survey of wastewater plants under build-operate-transfer ( BOT) contracts in China. The survey yielded information on contracting parties, size, duration and location of 37 BOT contracts. The key findings are that municipal governments feature as first

  9. Consumer satisfaction with tertiary healthcare in China: findings from the 2015 China National Patient Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Guangyu; Ma, Jing; Chen, Yin; Wu, Laiyang; Liu, Qiannan; Hu, Jia; Livoti, Christine; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop understanding of Chinese patient satisfaction with tertiary hospitals. The study draws on data collected from the 2015 China National Patient Survey. A Likert five-point scale was used to formulate the questionnaires. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted. A structured questionnaire was used by 1432 interviewers to interview 27 475 outpatients and 19 938 inpatients in 136 tertiary hospitals from 31 provinces. Outpatients in the dispensing area and inpatients in the discharging area were randomly interviewed. Key domains of the questionnaire include the layout of service functions, environment maintenance, process management, quality of care, humane care and the patient-doctor relationship. Within each domain, several indicators were set, and each indicator was given a statement. The overall satisfaction scores are 4.42 ± 0.68 and 4.67 ± 0.62 for outpatient and inpatient, respectively. The domains with highest satisfaction are 'diagnosis and treatment' for outpatient and 'nursing care' for inpatient. Outpatients were least satisfied with long waiting time, while inpatients were least satisfied with the food. The strongest predictor of overall satisfaction appears to be 'patient-doctor relationship' for both outpatients (OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 3.17-3.92) and inpatients (OR = 7.34, 95% CI: 5.55-9.70). Chinese hospitals need to pay more attention to offering more humane care to patients, hospital environment and process management improvement, reducing waiting times for seeing doctors and outpatient testing, and improving amenity services such as better food in the wards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. China's Mission in Surveying, Mapping and Geographic Information during Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Xue, C.; Chen, X.

    2018-04-01

    In the new era, it is proposed that China should be transformed from a participant and a cooperator into a designer, an impeller and a leader, continue taking an effect of responsible great power, increase public product supply, perfect a global governance system and contribute to China's wisdom and China's schemes during global governance, thus surveying and mapping geographic information takes on great mission. On the one hand, we have to timely grasp global geographic information data resources to provide an important scientific data support for China's wisdom and China's schemes. On the other hand, we have to provide surveying and mapping geographic information infrastructure construction and public products for developing countries, support location services within a global territorial scope, and realize the smoothness of talent flow, material flow and information flow between China and countries in the world. Meanwhile, external assistance and international communication and cooperation of surveying and mapping geographic information are also enhanced, and popularization and application of a geographic information technology in underdeveloped countries and regions are promoted.

  11. The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses' work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. THE OPINION OF CROWD PARTICIPATORY FOR OPENSTREETMAP: A SURVEY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present, OpenStreetMap (OSM is considered as one of the most successful and popular VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information projects. It provides a platform that all the registered members coming from different areas in the world can cooperate with each other to mapping our world. Besides, OSM attracts more and more people, companies and even the governmental agencies because of its free and open source. Studies have proofed that both the quantity and quality of OSM data in several western countries, i.e. Germany, France and the Netherland are even better than the authority data. In recent years, the quantity of the OSM data and the number of contributors in China increased rapidly, but the overall distribution of OSM data is very fit with the distribution of population and the economic development and it displays an uneven development in different provinces and cities in China. Besides, the state of the OSM in China is just similar to that in Germany in 2010 in terms of data quantity and quality, although China is about 25 times to Germany regarding land area and the smartphone penetration in China and Germany does not have a large distance (51.7 % to 68.8 %. Why is the development of OSM in China so poor and backward when comparing that with western countries, although the environment in hardware and software in China are similar to the western countries? Attempting to answer this question, this paper presents a user survey in China. Mainly, knowledges and experiences about OSM and OSM contribution were asked in the user survey. The user survey was conducted both by paper and pen and by using online platform. Totally, over 1200 participants with the age range from 15 to 80 and a huge diverse of background took part in the user survey. In this paper, we would like to describe the design of the questions for the user survey at first. Then we will demonstrate the results of the user survey, as well as the analysis and conclusions

  13. The Opinion of Crowd Participatory for Openstreetmap: a Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J.; Yang, S.; Zang, K.; Zhou, J.; Fan, H.; Mao, B.

    2018-04-01

    At the present, OpenStreetMap (OSM) is considered as one of the most successful and popular VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) projects. It provides a platform that all the registered members coming from different areas in the world can cooperate with each other to mapping our world. Besides, OSM attracts more and more people, companies and even the governmental agencies because of its free and open source. Studies have proofed that both the quantity and quality of OSM data in several western countries, i.e. Germany, France and the Netherland are even better than the authority data. In recent years, the quantity of the OSM data and the number of contributors in China increased rapidly, but the overall distribution of OSM data is very fit with the distribution of population and the economic development and it displays an uneven development in different provinces and cities in China. Besides, the state of the OSM in China is just similar to that in Germany in 2010 in terms of data quantity and quality, although China is about 25 times to Germany regarding land area and the smartphone penetration in China and Germany does not have a large distance (51.7 % to 68.8 %). Why is the development of OSM in China so poor and backward when comparing that with western countries, although the environment in hardware and software in China are similar to the western countries? Attempting to answer this question, this paper presents a user survey in China. Mainly, knowledges and experiences about OSM and OSM contribution were asked in the user survey. The user survey was conducted both by paper and pen and by using online platform. Totally, over 1200 participants with the age range from 15 to 80 and a huge diverse of background took part in the user survey. In this paper, we would like to describe the design of the questions for the user survey at first. Then we will demonstrate the results of the user survey, as well as the analysis and conclusions, which can be drawn from

  14. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods: The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant worker...

  15. Internet Hospitals in China: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Weimin; Lin, Lingyan; Fan, Si; Lin, Fen; Wang, Long; Guo, Tongjun; Ma, Chuyang; Zhang, Jingkun; He, Yuan; Chen, Yixin

    2017-07-04

    The Internet hospital, an innovative approach to providing health care, is rapidly developing in China because it has the potential to provide widely accessible outpatient service delivery via Internet technologies. To date, China's Internet hospitals have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of China's Internet hospitals, and to assess their health service capacity. We searched Baidu, the popular Chinese search engine, to identify Internet hospitals, using search terms such as "Internet hospital," "web hospital," or "cloud hospital." All Internet hospitals in mainland China were eligible for inclusion if they were officially registered. Our search was carried out until March 31, 2017. We identified 68 Internet hospitals, of which 43 have been put into use and 25 were under construction. Of the 43 established Internet hospitals, 13 (30%) were in the hospital informatization stage, 24 (56%) were in the Web ward stage, and 6 (14%) were in full Internet hospital stage. Patients accessed outpatient service delivery via website (74%, 32/43), app (42%, 18/43), or offline medical consultation facility (37%, 16/43) from the Internet hospital. Furthermore, 25 (58%) of the Internet hospitals asked doctors to deliver health services at a specific Web clinic, whereas 18 (42%) did not. The consulting methods included video chat (60%, 26/43), telephone (19%, 8/43), and graphic message (28%, 12/43); 13 (30%) Internet hospitals cannot be consulted online any more. Only 6 Internet hospitals were included in the coverage of health insurance. The median number of doctors available online was zero (interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 5; max 16,492). The median consultation fee per time was ¥20 (approximately US $2.90, IQR ¥0 to ¥200). Internet hospitals provide convenient outpatient service delivery. However, many of the Internet hospitals are not yet mature and are faced with various issues such as online doctor scarcity and

  16. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced.

  18. A Survey of the Current Situation of Clinical Biobanks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Ni, Mingyu; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    The development of biomedical research urgently needs the support of a large number of high-quality clinical biospecimens. Therefore, human biobanks at different levels have been established successively in China and other countries at a significantly increasing pace in recent years. To better understand the general current state of clinical biobanks in China, we surveyed 42 clinical biobanks based in hospitals and collected information involving their management systems, sharing mechanisms, quality control systems, and informational management systems using closed questionnaire methods. Based on our current information, there has not been such a large-scale survey in China. An understanding of the status and challenges current clinical biobanks face will provide valuable insights for the construction and sustainable development of higher quality clinical biobanks.

  19. Village-level supply reliability of surface water irrigation in rural China: effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Wang, Jinxia

    2018-06-01

    Surface water, as the largest part of water resources, plays an important role on China's agricultural production and food security. And surface water is vulnerable to climate change. This paper aims to examine the status of the supply reliability of surface water irrigation, and discusses how it is affected by climate change in rural China. The field data we used in this study was collected from a nine-province field survey during 2012 and 2013. Climate data are offered by China's National Meteorological Information Center which contains temperature and precipitation in the past 30 years. A Tobit model (or censored regression model) was used to estimate the influence of climate change on supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Descriptive results showed that, surface water supply reliability was 74 % in the past 3 years. Econometric results revealed that climate variables significantly influenced the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Specifically, temperature is negatively related with the supply reliability of surface water irrigation; but precipitation positively influences the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Besides, climate influence differs by seasons. In a word, this paper improves our understanding of the impact of climate change on agriculture irrigation and water supply reliability in the micro scale, and provides a scientific basis for relevant policy making.

  20. Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Z Zhang; J.L. Hanula; J. Sun

    2008-01-01

    A systematic survey of Chinese privet foliage, stems, seeds, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted in China during 2005 and 2006 in order to establish basic information about the insect communities that Chinese privet harbors and to evaluate the abundance and damage caused by these insects. A total of 170...

  1. Workplace Victimization and Discrimination in China: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    Workplace victimization and discrimination have been intensively studied in the West, especially on the antecedents and consequences of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, little is known about the incidence and associated health problems of workplace victimization and discrimination in contemporary China. Using a representative nationwide sample of 1,138 Chinese employees conducted in 2015, this study attempted to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of workplace victimization and discrimination in China. It is found that the prevalence rate of preceding 5-year workplace discrimination and victimization was 33% and 12.9%, respectively. Male employees who perceived higher work gains were less likely to experience workplace victimization and those who had higher career efficacy and unemployment anxiety were more likely to experience job discrimination or victimization. Female employees who received tertiary education were less likely to experience job discrimination and being married tended not to experience workplace victimization. Perceived job discrimination had negative impact on male employees' job satisfaction as well as on female employees' happiness. The implications of these findings are finally discussed in the Chinese context.

  2. PARENTAL AND SIBLING MIGRATION AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG RURAL CHILDREN IN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental and sibling rural-to-urban migration and blood pressure (BP) of rural left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Analysis was based on the 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 waves of longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is an ongoing prospective survey covering nine provinces with an individual-level response rate of 88%. Blood pressure levels were measured by trained examiners at three consecutive times on the same visit and the means of three measurements were used as the final BP values. An ordinal BP measure was then created using a recently validated age-sex-specified distribution for Chinese children and adolescents, distinguishing normal BP, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Random effect modelling was performed. Different migration circumstances play different roles in LBC's BP with mother-only and both-parent migration being particularly detrimental and father-only and sibling-only migration either having no association or a negative association with LBC's BP levels or odds of high BP. In conclusion, the link between family migration and left-behind children's blood pressure is complex, and depends on who is the person out-migrating.

  3. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  4. Mortality of Stroke and Its Subtypes in China: Results from a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghong; Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Haixin; Sun, Dongling; Liu, Xiangtong; Li, Yichong; Li, Di; Guo, Xiuhua; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    In China, stroke is the leading cause of death and contributes to a heavy disease burden. However, a nationwide population-based survey of the mortality of stroke and its subtypes is lacking for this country. Data derived from the National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China, which was a multistage, stratified clustering sampling-designed, cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Mortality rate analyses were performed for 476,156 participants ≥20 years old from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. Of the 476,156 participants in the investigated population, 364 died of ischemic stroke, 373 of hemorrhagic stroke, and 21 of stroke of undetermined pathological type. The age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years among those aged ≥20 years were 114.8 for total stroke, 56.5 for ischemic stroke, and 55.8 for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-standardized mortality rates of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were all higher in rural areas than those in urban areas. The stroke mortality rate was higher in the northern regions than in the south. An estimated 1.12 million people aged ≥20 years in China died of stroke during the period from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. The burden of stroke in China is still heavy. Greater attention should be paid to improve strategies for preventing stroke. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Elton-Marshall, Tara

    2010-10-01

    The existence of less expensive cigarettes in China may undermine public health. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China. Data was from the baseline wave of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey of 4815 adult urban smokers in 6 cities, conducted between April and August 2006. The percentage of smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes (the lowest pricing tertile within each city) at last purchase was computed. Complex sample multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with use of less expensive cigarettes. The association between the use of less expensive cigarettes and intention to quit smoking was also examined. Smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes at last purchase tended to be older, heavier smokers, to have lower education and income, and to think more about the money spent on smoking in the last month. Smokers who bought less expensive cigarettes at the last purchase and who were less knowledgeable about the health harm of smoking were less likely to intend to quit smoking. Measures need to be taken to minimise the price differential among cigarette brands and to increase smokers' health knowledge, which may in turn increase their intentions to quit.

  6. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  7. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  8. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  9. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiqi; Bai, Yu; Xie, Pei; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Xiaohua; Tian, Dean; Wang, Chengdang; Liu, Yandi; Sha, Weihong; Wang, Bangmao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Li, Youming; Huang, Minghe; Han, Shengxi; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xu; Xie, Pengyan; Wang, Zhangliu; Cui, Lihong; Sheng, Jianqiu; Luo, Hesheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zou, Yiyou; Xia, Bing; Fan, Zhining; Chen, Zhitan; Lin, Sanren; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-02-07

    Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy.

  10. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423

  11. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  12. Top five medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution [1911]: results of AME survey-002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Xiao, Fan

    2015-06-01

    This survey aims to scrutinize important medical innovations in Chinese mainland since Xinhai (Hsin-hai) revolution in 1911, which marked the end of Manchurian imperial rule and the beginning of China's republican era. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of Dec 29, 2014 to Feb 5, 2015, totaling 37 days. The survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China. An email was sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate in a 5-minute survey. The participants were asked to nominate up to four important medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution. The participant could select 'zero' which means he/she felt there was no important medical innovations, or he/she did not know important medical innovations. It was noted that important medical innovations refer to (I) those with practical and almost immediate significance to improve healthcare; (II) should not only be introducing western technique to China, but those involve major improvement of existing western techniques count; (III) should not be those with important theoretical discovery but did not have almost immediate significance to improve healthcare. In total 1,513 DXY users participated in the voting. Totally 489 (32.3%), 441 (29.1%), 342 (22.6%), 150 (9.9%), 91 (6.0%) participants provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 nominations respectively. (I) Artemisine (Qinghaosu) for malaria treatment (Project 523 team, 1972); (II) arsenic Trioxide (As2O3) for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment (ZHANG Ting-Dong and colleagues, 1970s); (III) limb re-plantation (CHEN Zhong-Wei and colleagues, 1963); (IV) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for APL treatment (WANG Zhen-Yi and colleagues, 1988); and (V) Wu's mask for plague prevention (WU Lien-The, 1910), were voted as the top five innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution, with 375, 96, 91, 53, and 8 votes respectively. In

  13. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinan; Shi, Lizheng; Meng, Qingyue; Khan, M Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data ...

  14. [Epidemiological survey of childhood asthma in Hefei City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mei; Ni, Chen; Pan, Jia-Hua; Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Li-Lin

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the cumulative prevalence rate, distribution characteristics, epidemic seasons, predisposing factors and current treatment situation of childhood asthma in Hefei City, China. In the investigation, stratified cluster random sampling as well as centralized access and separate home visits were applied, and primary screening forms were filled out. Further confirmation was sought in the primary positive cases, according to the diagnostic criteria for asthma. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cumulative prevalence rate, current treatment situation and predisposing factors for childhood asthma as well as the distribution characteristics of asthma in children of different ages and sexes. The cumulative prevalence rate of childhood asthma was 5.92%, and there was no significant difference between males and females (6.33% vs 5.42%; P>0.05). The cumulative prevalence rate was highest (8.25%) in children aged 3-6 years. Of the children with acute asthma attack, 42.0% suffered attacks during periods of seasonal transition, and 34.4% suffered attacks at midnight. Among the 552 children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, 533 (96.6%) developed asthma due to respiratory tract infection and 312 (56.5%) due to weather change. Most asthmatic children (513/552, 92.9%) received treatment with antibiotics, and 492 asthmatic children (89.1%) were treated with systemic hormones. The cumulative prevalence rate of childhood asthma is 5.92% in Hefei, and the peak age of onset is 3-6 years. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly during periods of seasonal transition and at midnight. Respiratory tract infection and weather change are the main predisposing factors for childhood asthma. Antibiotics and systemic hormones are still widely used in the treatment of asthma.

  15. Planning of an Integrated Acidification Study and Survey on Acid Rain Impacts in China. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, Espen; Angell, Valter; Eilertsen, Odd; Muniz, Ivar P. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway); Larssen, Thorbjoern; Seip, Hans Martin; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D. [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Mulder, Jan

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report from the PIAC project, which was a multidisciplinary survey on acid rain in China. One goal was to document effects of airborne acidifying compounds on vegetation, soil, soil- and surface-water and aquatic biota. Other goals were to exchange knowledge between Chinese and Norwegian scientists, and to visit research sites in highly polluted areas in China and evaluate their need of support in a future collaborative monitoring and research programme. Samples have been collected from over 20 sites in three areas. Negative effects of air pollution are found on all ecosystem levels investigated. The concentration of sulfur in the air in urban and near-urban areas is very high. The concentration of volatile organic compounds is generally high, which means that increased NOx emissions in coming years may increase the ozone problems. Reduced photosynthesis activities were found in some plants and acidification observed in soil and surface water. Aquatic biota also reflect the acidification status of the surface waters investigated. However, it is difficult to assess the degree of damage in these regions because the survey includes too few sites. Surface water acidification is currently not a major environmental problem in China and is unlikely to be one during the next decades. The report includes a status report on acidification in China and a proposed framework for a monitoring programme based on Norwegian experiences. 139 refs., 16 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes,

  17. Survey of IUD replacing status in Sichuan, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Chen; Li, Xie; Xiaoping, Pan; Chuanrong, Zhang; Shiyuan, Luo

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the status of copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD) replacing inert IUD in Sichuan Province, cluster random sampling method was adopted for the survey. Questionnaires were completed and IUD were inspected through ultrasound among 12,804 subjects of 15 counties, who were inserted an IUD from 1994 to 1998. The insertion rate of copper-bearing IUD was 42.1%, in a gradually increasing trend; it was lower in mountain areas than in plain and hilly areas and increased after induced abortion and previous IUD failure. Some factors, such as lower pregnancy rate, lower expulsion rate and easy removal, etc., contributed to copper-bearing IUD use. On the other hand, other factors like longer contraception period, lower side effects and lower cost contributed to inert IUD use. The results show that the adoption of copper-bearing IUD is increasing, but those factors influencing copper-bearing IUD replacement should not be neglected.

  18. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  19. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  20. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-09-23

    No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  1. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  2. Evaluating the public perceptions of nuclear power in China: Evidence from a contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Zhu, Xiting

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, more and more attention has been paid to the safety issues of nuclear power in China, even though it is a clean and necessary substitution to coal power. Due to the consideration about the uncertainty of nuclear safety, the local citizens may resist the nuclear power programs in their neighborhood, as indicated by the anti-nuclear movement in Jiangmen 2013. This phenomenon is often related to the public perceptions of “not-in-my-back-yard” (NIMABY). The explosion of anti-nuclear movements will impose adverse effects on the nuclear power decision-making in China. Based on the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), we evaluate the public Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for avoiding the construction of nuclear power plants in their neighborhood. Moreover, we analyze whether more information about nuclear energy could improve the public acceptance. Our results show that the comprehensive information will decrease the public risk perception of nuclear power and increase the public support for nuclear power policy. This paper further suggests that China's decision makers should improve policy transparency and encourage the public involvement of nuclear energy decision making. - Highlights: • We firstly evaluate the WTP for avoiding nuclear construction in China. • The study is based on the CV survey data after the Fukushima accident. • More understanding of nuclear energy could improve public acceptance. • Decision-makers should improve policy transparency and public involvement

  3. Equity and the utilization of health services: report of an eight-province survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Akin, J; Zhiming, L; Jin, S; Ma, H; Ge, K

    1994-09-01

    This paper investigates equity with respect to one component of welfare in China--the provision and use of health services. Based upon a large-scale survey of almost 16,000 individuals in eight provinces in China, we examine a sub-sample of working-age adults who have identified themselves as injured or ill during the four weeks prior to being interviewed. We found that, beyond the level of severity of the reported condition, very few individual-level factors are related to the use of services when ill or injured. Only gender (female) and employment in state-run enterprises are associated with higher patterns of use. These results suggest that China has achieved a very wide distribution of clinics and other services at the local level, and that they are widely used by those who identify need for them. It is rare to be over half an hour away by bike from some form of care and the majority of care appears to be reasonably inexpensive. This broad availability of services contrasts with recent reports from China stressing declining accessibility, and paints a picture of relatively equal access to health care.

  4. Systematic investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in China (SILC): validation of survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Yanfang; Ma, Xiuqiang; Fang, Jiqian; Yan, Hong; Kang, Xiaoping; Yin, Ping; Hao, Yuantao; Li, Qiang; Dent, John; Sung, Joseph; Zou, Duowu; Johansson, Saga; Halling, Katarina; Liu, Wenbin; He, Jia

    2009-11-19

    Symptom-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases is lower in China than in Western countries. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for the epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China. A randomized, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select 18,000 adults aged 18-80 years from Shanghai, Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan and Guangzhou. Participants from Shanghai were invited to provide blood samples and undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All participants completed Chinese versions of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were also invited to complete the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were evaluated statistically. The study was completed by 16,091 individuals (response rate: 89.4%), with 3219 (89.4% of those invited) completing the SF-36 and ESS. All 3153 participants in Shanghai provided blood samples and 1030 (32.7%) underwent endoscopy. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.89, 0.89, 0.80 and 0.91, respectively, for the RDQ, modified Rome II questionnaire, ESS and SF-36, supporting internal consistency. Factor analysis supported construct validity of all questionnaire dimensions except SF-36 psychosocial dimensions. This population-based study has great potential to characterize the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China.

  5. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  6. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Li, Yan; Wang, May C

    2014-03-06

    Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world's developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight. The prevalence of

  7. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Zhu, Yueji

    2016-06-01

    Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, "Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China" [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  8. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  9. Emergence of Wealth Inequality in China: Evidence from Rural Household Survey, 1986 -2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on relatively recent household survey data (1986 2000 in rural China, this paper analyzes the composition and inequality in non-land wealth. We first document the evolution of rural households wealth during the sample period. Our results show that the housing assets have played a dominant role in their wealth composition although the share of the assets tends to decrease during the period. We also observe that financial and fixed assets have become relatively important in their wealth composition. Based on various inequality measures we are able to provide consistent evidence that the inequality of wealth distribution has worsened in rural China. We find that financial asset holdings appear to have significant unequalizing effect on the total non-land wealth distribution, mostly due to the growing differential in rural non-farm opportunities.

  10. Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate and Complementary Feeding Indicators in China: A National Representative Survey in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381 and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071, 69.8% (7027/10,071, and 27.4% (2764/10,071 among children aged 6–23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice.

  11. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xue

    Full Text Available Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data.Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI z-score.Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China.The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively.FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6-18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13-17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75.FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004-2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity.

  12. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Wu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6-18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13-17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004-2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity.

  13. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Setting Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). Subjects The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). Results FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6–18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13–17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004–2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. PMID:26974536

  14. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  15. Partner violence and sexual jealousy in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfu; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O; Luo, Ye

    2009-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey in China, this article examines the prevalence and risk factors for partner violence with a special focus on the important role of sexual jealousy. Among women aged 20 to 49, 7.2% reported that they were hit by their partners in the past year. Comparison shows that the Chinese prevalence is modestly below the overall median for other societies. Net of other factors, jealousy exacerbates hitting for both men and women in a reactive pattern, with the jealous partner getting hit. This suggests a rethinking of the role of sexual jealousy in spousal violence in some social settings.

  16. AME survey-003 A1-part 2: the motivation factors of medical doctors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Káplár, Zoltán; L, Yáo T

    2015-12-01

    The professional moral and job satisfaction of medical profession remain highly disputed in media in China. On the other hand, there is wide disaffection of patients toward doctors in China. This survey aims to obtain a better understanding of the motivation of Chinese medical professionals. An anonymous online cross-sectional survey, AME survey III, was conducted using the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn) during the period of September 10-23, 2015. In total 2,356 DXY users completed the survey, including 1,740 males and 617 females, with a mean age of 31.96±7.03 yrs. The reasons (multiple choices) for career disaffection included poor patient/doctor relationship (88.6%), imbalance between workload and pay (79.5%), could not enter the preferred specialty (14.14%), and working in small clinics with no career progress (11.17%). If given the choice to enter the specialty as well as the hospital grade of their choice, 73.8% dissatisfied respondents replied they would like to be a doctor. For the dis-satisfied respondents, university teacher appeared to be the most popular career choice. The cited high workload was considered to be due to (I) imbalance in geographical allocation of doctors and insufficient training of doctors; (II) many red-tapism formalities; (III) Chinese patients often have unreasonable requests; (IV) over-examination and over-treatment; (V) high pressure to publish papers. One hundred and twelve respondents have their child/children attending university or graduated from university, 25.0% of them are pursuing a career in medicine. Nine hundred and ninety respondents have child/children while did not reach university age yet, among them 23.62% would like their child/children to study medicine. 64.87% of the 2,356 participants favor China to open up medical market to qualified foreign medical organizations to take part in fair competition, and 57.91% favor the government supporting regulated private hospitals. The moral and motivation of medical

  17. Depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in western china: An epidemiological survey of prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifei; Feng, Zhengzhi; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Kaifa; Dai, Qin; Zhao, Mengxue; Hu, Chaobing; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Keyu; Guang, Yu; Xia, Fan

    2016-12-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in a school-based sample of 7-17-year-old children and adolescents in west-central China. A large cross-sectional sample survey of 10657 children and adolescents was conducted in Chongqing, a municipality in west-central China. Data were collected from the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) and social-demographic variables which were evaluated with a structured scale. The total prevalence of depression risk was 23.9%. The risk factors for depressive symptoms included age older than 12 years, grade lower than 10, having unmarried parents, being taken care of by people other than two parents (single parent, grandparent(s), other relatives, or others), and living in a low-income family. The pressures of health and adaptation, interpersonal relationship, and study were also strong predictors of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in Chongqing of China is relatively high compared with most figures reported in other cities. There is an urgent need to develop efficacious interventions aimed at the prevention and early recognition of childhood and adolescent depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey on changes of breast cancer radiotherapy in four hospitals within southeast coastal region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yongling; Liu Jingjie; Tian Ye; Li Xianming; Zhu Yaqun; Yu De; Du Xianghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to explore the changes and the tendency of breast cancer radiotherapy in China within the past decade. Methods: A survey on breast cancer radiotherapy in 1999 and 2006 was conducted in 4 hospitals located within the southeast coastal region of China, including patients' clinical characteristics, the purpose of radiotherapy and its techniques. Results: The percentage of breast conservative treatment (BCT) increased from 3% in 1999 to 13% in 2006. For radiotherapy techniques in 2066 compared with 1999, the growth trend was found in use of breast immobilization devices (80% vs. 46%), treatment planning system (70% vs. 23%), and CT simulation (14% vs. 0). The frequency was increased in the chest wall irradiation after mastectomy (90% vs. 67%), but decreased in internal mammary region (30% vs. 76%) and axilla (37% vs. 69%) treatment. There were no differences in total dose and fractionation prescription. Conclusions: BCT was performed more frequently, but post-mastectomy radiotherapy was still essential option in China at present. Although some advanced techniques were applied frequently in clinical practice. Simulation, treatment planning, and irradiation target design were urgent for improvement and standardization. (authors)

  19. Explaining public satisfaction with health-care systems: findings from a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Neil; Duckett, Jane

    2016-06-01

    To identify factors associated with health-care system satisfaction in China. Recent research suggests that socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health, income and insurance, ideological beliefs, health-care utilization, media use and perceptions of services may affect health-care system satisfaction, but the relative importance of these factors is poorly understood. New data from China offer the opportunity to test theories about the sources of health-care system satisfaction. Stratified nationwide survey sample analysed using multilevel logistic regression. 3680 Chinese adults residing in family dwellings between 1 November 2012 and 17 January 2013. Satisfaction with the way the health-care system in China is run. We find only weak associations between satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health and income. We do, however, find that satisfaction is strongly associated with having insurance and belief in personal responsibility for meeting health-care costs. We also find it is negatively associated with utilization, social media use, perceptions of access as unequal and perceptions of service providers as unethical. To improve satisfaction, Chinese policymakers - and their counterparts in countries with similar health-care system characteristics - should improve insurance coverage and the quality of health services, and tackle unethical medical practices. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Survey of large-scale solar water heaters installed in Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Keh-Chin; Lee Tsong-Sheng; Chung Kung-Ming [Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China); Lien Ya-Feng; Lee Chine-An [Cheng Kung Univ. Research and Development Foundation, Tainan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Almost all the solar collectors installed in Taiwan, China were used for production of hot water for homeowners (residential systems), in which the area of solar collectors is less than 10 square meters. From 2001 to 2006, there were only 39 large-scale systems (defined as the area of solar collectors being over 100 m{sup 2}) installed. Their utilization purposes are for rooming house (dormitory), swimming pool, restaurant, and manufacturing process. A comprehensive survey of those large-scale solar water heaters was conducted in 2006. The objectives of the survey were to asses the systems' performance and to have the feedback from the individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors for reliable operation of a system. For further promotion of large-scale solar water heaters in Taiwan, a more compressive program on a system design for manufacturing process should be conducted. (orig.)

  1. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. Results A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). Conclusions The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse’s knowledge level on phlebotomy. PMID:29187796

  2. Nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2018-02-15

    In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse's knowledge level on phlebotomy.

  3. Selection of nursing teaching strategies in mainland China: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HouXiu; Liu, MengJie; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, JingCi

    2016-04-01

    In nursing education, the traditional lecture and direct demonstration teaching method cannot cultivate the various skills that nursing students need. How to choose a more scientific and rational teaching method is a common concern for nursing educators worldwide. To investigate the basis for selecting teaching methods among nursing teachers in mainland China, the factors affecting the selection of different teaching methods, and the application of different teaching methods in theoretical and skill-based nursing courses. Questionnaire survey. Seventy one nursing colleges from 28 provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China. Following the principle of voluntary informed consent, 262 nursing teachers were randomly selected through a nursing education network platform and a conference platform. The questionnaire contents included the basis for and the factors influencing the selection of nursing teaching methods, the participants' common teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the surveyed nursing teachers. The questionnaires were distributed through the network or conference platform, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The surveyed nursing teachers selected teaching methods mainly based on the characteristics of the teaching content, the characteristics of the students, and their previous teaching experiences. The factors affecting the selection of teaching methods mainly included large class sizes, limited class time, and limited examination formats. The surveyed nursing teachers primarily used lectures to teach theory courses and the direct demonstration method to teach skills courses, and the application frequencies of these two teaching methods were significantly higher than those of other teaching methods (P=0.000). More attention should be paid to the selection of nursing teaching methods. Every teacher should strategically choose teaching methods before each lesson, and nursing education training focused on selecting

  4. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In previous studies, people’s knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women’s psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for canine obesity surveyed in veterinary practices in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfu; Xia, Zhaofei; Chen, Jiangnan; Yu, Jinhai

    2013-11-01

    An epidemiological survey of canine obesity was carried out in Beijing, China. Cases (n=2391, 7 districts) were collected at 14 animal hospitals between April 2008 and April 2011. The body condition score (scales of 1-5) was used to assess obesity of the dogs (Burkholder and Toll, 2000; Laflamme, 1997). Obesity rates were analyzed with respect to breed, age, sex, neutering, food control, feeding frequency, reproduction status, food type, nutritional supplements, living environment, feeding time, number of pets per household, feeding purpose, activity control, exercise duration, exercise status and exercise type. The overall canine obesity rate was 44.4% in this survey. The risk factors for dog obesity were food type (non-commercial food, OR=1.377, pobesity was high in pugs (70.7%), Cocker Spaniel (69.4%), Pekingese (51.9%), Pomeranian (54.6%) and Golden Retriever (51.9%). This is the first report of the epidemiology of canine obesity in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  7. Health insurance coverage and impact: a survey in three cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    China has one of the world's largest health insurance systems, composed of government-run basic health insurance and commercial health insurance. The basic health insurance has undergone system-wide reform in recent years. Meanwhile, there is also significant development in the commercial health insurance sector. A phone call survey was conducted in three major cities in China in July and August, 2011. The goal was to provide an updated description of the effect of health insurance on the population covered. Of special interest were insurance coverage, gross and out-of-pocket medical cost and coping strategies. Records on 5,097 households were collected. Analysis showed that smaller households, higher income, lower expense, presence of at least one inpatient treatment and living in rural areas were significantly associated with a lower overall coverage rate. In the separate analysis of basic and commercial health insurance, similar factors were found to have significant associations. Higher income, presence of chronic disease, presence of inpatient treatment, higher coverage rates and living in urban areas were significantly associated with higher gross medical cost. A similar set of factors were significantly associated with higher out-of-pocket cost. Households with lower income, inpatient treatment, higher commercial insurance coverage, and living in rural areas were significantly more likely to pursue coping strategies other than salary. The surveyed cities and surrounding rural areas had socioeconomic status far above China's average. However, there was still a need to further improve coverage. Even for households with coverage, there was considerable out-of-pocket medical cost, particularly for households with inpatient treatments and/or chronic diseases. A small percentage of households were unable to self-finance out-of-pocket medical cost. Such observations suggest possible targets for further improving the health insurance system.

  8. of health facilities in the nine provinces of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 606. 66. Military. 1 020. 1 072. -52. -5. In the light of these ratios, an appropriate ratio of referral beds to general beds is 0,08. Although this ratio cannot be used indiscriminately, its value is that it provides an indicator of the appropriate ...

  9. [Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Lin, J T; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

  10. Cancer pain management in China: current status and practice implications based on the ACHEON survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Z

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjun Xia Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, ChinaPurpose: Cancer pain can seriously impact the quality of life (QoL of patients, and optimal management practices are therefore of paramount importance. The ACHEON survey queried physicians and patients from 10 Asian countries/regions to assess current clinical practices in cancer pain management in Asia. This study presents the data obtained for cancer pain management in mainland China, with an emphasis on practices related to opioid drugs.Materials and methods: In several tertiary hospitals across China, 250 patients experiencing cancer pain and 100 physicians were surveyed on questions designed to assess current cancer pain management practices and cancer pain impact on QoL.Results: The patient survey showed that 88% of patients reported moderate-to-severe cancer pain, with a median duration of 6 months. The physician survey showed that medical school/residency training with regard to cancer pain management was inadequate in ~80% of physicians. A total of 80% of physicians and 67.2% of patients reported that pain scale was used during pain assessment; 84% of physicians expressed that physician-perceived pain severity was not completely consistent with actual pain the patient experienced. Of the 147 patients who recalled the medication received, 83.7% were administered opioid prescriptions. Of the 240 patients who received treatment, 43.8% perceived the inadequacy of controlling pain. The primary barriers from physicians perceived to optimal pain management included patients’ fear of side effects (58%, patients’ fear of addiction (53%, patients’ reluctance to report pain (43%, physicians’ reluctance to prescribe (29%, physicians’ inadequacy of pain assessment (27% and excessive regulation of opioid analgesics (47%.Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer pain management should be strengthened among physicians. Quantitative pain assessment and principle-based pain

  11. Help-seeking behavior for erectile dysfunction: a clinic-based survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Chinese patients seeking help for erectile dysfunction (ED has not been described in detail. This was an observational study conducted using an outpatient clinic-based questionnaire survey of ED patients. From 2008 to 2009, physicians in 10 medical centers in China enrolled 2693 men (aged 25-70 years diagnosed with ED. The diagnosis was based on the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 Questionnaire. The men completed a survey that asked questions about demographics, marital status, education level and household income as well as help-seeking behavior and awareness of medical therapy. The mean age of the 2693 men was 43.4 ± 5.3 years; 73% were <50-years-old and 49% had a high household income. The mean time between noticing ED and taking the first treatment was 4.3 ± 2.1 months. Of the 2577 respondents, physicians (54% and the internet (52% were most frequently consulted sources for information about ED. Young ED patients preferred using the internet and older patients preferred consulting with physicians. Western medicine (19% and traditional Chinese medicine (16% were most frequently used for treatment. Young ED patients preferred to first search the internet for information, whereas older patients first asked physicians for help. Side effects of treatment were the greatest concern, especially for older patients. Physicians and the internet are frequently consulted for ED information and therapy. On the basis of these survey results, we believe that physicians in China should enhance health education about ED, especially via the internet.

  12. Burden of heart failure on patients from China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson JDS

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available James DS Jackson,1 Sarah E Cotton,1 Sara Bruce Wirta,2 Catia C Proenca,3 Milun Zhang,4 Raquel Lahoz,5 Frederico J Calado5 1Real World Research, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 2Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Wellmera AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research and Access Strategy, Novartis Pharma China, Beijing, China; 5Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Purpose: Little evidence exists on the burden that chronic heart failure (HF poses specifically to patients in China. The objective of this study, therefore, was to describe the burden of HF on patients in China.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of cardiologists and their patients with HF was conducted. Patient record forms were completed by 150 cardiologists for 10 consecutive patients. Patients for whom a patient record form was completed were invited to complete a patient questionnaire.Results: Most of the 933 patients (mean [SD] age 65.8 [10.2] years; 55% male; 80% retired included in the study received care in tier 2 and 3 hospitals in large cities. Patients gave a median score of 4 on a scale from 1 (no disruption to 10 (severe disruption to describe how much HF disrupts their everyday life. Patients in paid employment (8% missed 10% of work time and experienced 29% impairment in their ability to work due to HF in the previous week. All aspects of patients’ health-related quality of life (QoL were negatively affected by their condition. Mean ± SD utility calculated by the 3-level 5-dimension EuroQol questionnaire was 0.8±0.2, and patients rated their health at 70.3 (11.5 on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Patients incurred costs associated with HF treatment, travel, and professional caregiving services.Conclusion: HF is associated with poor health-related QoL and considerable disruption in patients’ lives. Novel and improved therapies

  13. The economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations in China: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Jit, Mark; Leung, Kathy S; Zheng, Ya-Ming; Feng, Lu-Zhao; Wang, Li-Ping; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T; Yu, Hong-Jie

    2015-10-06

    The seasonal influenza vaccine coverage rate in China is only 1.9 %. There is no information available on the economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations at the national level, even though this kind of information is important for informing national-level immunization policy decision-making. A retrospective telephone survey was conducted in 2013/14 to estimate the direct and indirect costs of seasonal influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations from a societal perspective. Study participants were laboratory-confirmed cases registered in the National Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network and Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance Network in China in 2013. Patient-reported costs from the survey were validated by a review of hospital accounts for a small sample of the inpatients. The study enrolled 529 outpatients (median age: eight years; interquartile range [IQR]: five to 20 years) and 254 inpatients (median age: four years; IQR: two to seven years). Among the outpatients, 22.1 % (117/529) had underlying diseases and among the inpatients, 52.8 % (134/254) had underlying diseases. The average total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient visits and inpatient visits were US$ 155 (standard deviation, SD US$ 122) and US$ 1,511 (SD US$ 1,465), respectively. Direct medical costs accounted for 45 and 69 % of the total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient and inpatient visits, respectively. For influenza outpatients, the mean cost per episode in children aged below five years (US$ 196) was higher than that in other age groups (US$ 129-153). For influenza inpatients, the mean cost per episode in adults aged over 60 years (US$ 2,735) was much higher than that in those aged below 60 years (US$ 1,417-1,621). Patients with underlying medical conditions had higher costs per episode than patients without underlying medical conditions (outpatients: US$ 186 vs. US$ 146; inpatients: US$ 1

  14. Factors influencing blood donation: a cross-sectional survey in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H; He, B; Rong, X

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine major factors that influence blood donation in China. Factors affecting blood donation often vary in various populations. This cross-sectional study used self-administered, standardised, structured questionnaires to survey selected donors and non-donors in Guangzhou, China between 10 December 2013 and 25 June 2014. Among the 1080 questionnaires collected, 1034 (95·7%) questionnaires were valid for this analysis, including 602 donors and 432 non-donors. Results revealed that helping patients (n = 405, 68·2%) was the main objective of blood donation, and self-perception of poor health (n = 138, 33·1%) was the main reason for not donating. Responses to questions raised by donors and inquiring about a donor's physical condition were thought to be the most important blood donation routines (n = 302, 65·5%). For non-donors, 90·3% (n = 390) expressed their intention to donate blood in the future, and usage of blood (n = 182, 46·7%) was the most asked question. Prepaid cellular phone cards were the most popular incentives. Raising the awareness of blood donation was the most effective way of enhancing blood donation programmes, and television ads and the internet were the most effective means. Helping patients was the main objective of blood donation in China. However, self-perception of poor health was a major barrier to donating blood. Raising the awareness of blood donation in combination with multiple aspects of campaigns that target different populations with potential blood donors is critical. Television and the internet are the most effective tools for promotion of and recruitment for blood donation. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Workplace smoking restrictions in China: results from a six county survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiemin; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Yang, Gonghuan; Ma, Shaojun; Samet, Jonathan M; Stillman, Frances A

    2010-10-01

    To determine the coverage of smoking restriction policies in indoor workplaces in China and to assess the relationships between these restrictive policies and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking behaviours. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in six counties in Sichuan, Jiangxi and Henan provinces in 2004. Using a standardised questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to smoking and SHS exposure was collected through face-to-face interviews by trained local investigators among 12 036 respondents. Of respondents, 2698 individuals worked mainly indoors and were included in data analysis. Only 28.5% of respondents reported that indoor workplaces had a smoke-free policy. Even when respondents reported smoke-free policies, 41.1% smokers reported that they were non-compliant with policies and smoked at work. In addition, 32.0% of non-smokers reported being exposed to SHS at work despite smoke-free policies. Non-smokers who reported no smoking restriction policies were 3.7 times more likely to be exposed to SHS than those working in smoke-free workplaces (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 10.1). On average, respondents complying with smoke-free policies smoked 3.8 fewer cigarettes than those reporting no policies in their workplaces at a marginally non-significant level (p=0.06) (adjusted mean difference -3.8, 95% CI -8.0 to 0.5). In China, few workplaces have implemented policies to restrict smoking, and, even in workplaces that have policies, workers report exposure to SHS while at their places of employment. Many workers report a lack of compliance with smoke-free policies. China needs better implementation of SHS policies to promote compliance. Working to improve implementation of smoke-free policies would promote cessation since Chinese smokers who were compliant with these efforts reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day.

  16. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Ye; Gong, Xiang-Yao; Zheng, Chen; Song, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Deng, Hong-Kuan; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. Several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in China, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern China. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from Xuzhou, a 11258km 2 region in eastern China. In the present study, ticks were collected from domestic goats and grasses in urban districts of Xuzhou region from June 2015 to July 2016. After tick species identification, the presence of tick-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Theileria sp., was established via conventional or nested polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. Finally, a total of 500 questing adult ticks, identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, were investigated. Among them, 28/500 tick samples (5.6%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum, and 23/500 (4.6%) with Theileria luwenshuni, whereas co-infection with these pathogens was detected in only 1/51 (2%) of all infected ticks. In conclusion, H. longicornis is the dominant tick species in the Xuzhou region and plays an important role in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Both local residents and animals are at a significant risk of exposure to anaplasmosis and theileriosis, due to the high rates of A. phagocytophilum and T. luwenshuni tick infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Xuefei; Liu, Shunqing; Zhao, Mingyu; Tian, Zhanjun; Miao, Yuhu; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Jing; Su, Baoyu; Lu, Yongyin; Li, Xiaobo; Song, Qiwu

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For very-high-resolution solar observations, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau. The project of solar site survey for the next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been launched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard instruments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We introduce the fresh site survey results in this report.

  18. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Individuals’ Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV, carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals’ acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals’ acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11–20 km; most participants (47.1% were willing to pay 1–2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China.

  20. Individuals' Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Xue, Qingwan; Sun, Li

    2017-05-02

    Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals' acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR) method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals' acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11-20 km; most participants (47.1%) were willing to pay 1-2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP) was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL) was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China.

  1. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  2. Citizen Complaints about Environmental Pollution: A Survey Study in Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses environmental complaints made by citizens living close to industrial polluters in China. Data collected from a questionnaire survey in Suzhou City is used for the analysis. The results confirm a marginal level of citizen environmental complaints in the study area at present. Meaningful findings include the fact that citizens have a tendency to complain collectively, and that perception of the level of environmental information provided by companies significantly determines a citizen’s likelihood of lodging environmental complaints. Therefore, the disclosure of corporate environmental information must be emphasized continuously; citizens must be encouraged to correctly understand the environmental performance of companies so that they might make appropriate complaints. Governments need to show their support for citizen-led environmental complaint initiatives. The successful cases would convince them to keep a closer eye on their neighbouring polluters.

  3. Prospect and current situation survey of nuclear agricultural research in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Lihong; Ye Qingfu; Hua Yuejin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the survey result, which investigated 22 related institutes and universities in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences in China in Sep. 2007, this paper introduces the current status of research conditions, existing facilities and research progress on isotope tracing technology, new biological resources creation, research of nuclear irradiation and irradiation processing technology form 1996 to 2006. Due to not enough financial supports on this field, the development of nuclear agricultural sciences was slow down. However, the solid basis set up during last several decades, and the great efforts made by all the researchers, significant social and economic achievements were gained. Some of the researches have already taken the leading position in the world. (authors)

  4. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina...

  5. National survey on turnaround time of clinical biochemistry tests in 738 laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fei, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Minqi; Chen, Bingquan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-02-01

    This survey was initiated to estimate the current status of turnaround time (TAT) monitoring of clinical biochemistry in China, provide baseline data for establishment of quality specifications and analyze the impact factors of TAT. 738 laboratories were included. Questionnaires involved general information and data of related indicators of TAT during 1 week were provided to participating laboratories. Nine quality indicators were covered, which were medians, 90th and outlier rates of pre-examination, examination, and post-examination TAT. The 25th percentile, median, and 75th percentile of TATs were calculated as optimum, desirable, and minimum quality specifications. Percentages and sigma values were used to describe the outlier rates. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to identify the potential impacts of TAT. Response rate of this survey was 46.44%. More than 50% of the laboratories indicated they had set up target TATs in three time intervals and monitored TATs generally. The post-examination TAT of most laboratories was 0min, while the pre-examination and examination TAT varied. Sigma values of outlier rates for 45%~60% of laboratories were above 4, while 15%~20% of labs whose sigma values were below 3. Group comparisons suggested nurse or mechanical pipeline transportation, link laboratory information system with hospital information system, and using computer reporting instead of printing report were related to shorter TATs. Despite of the remarkable progresses of TATs in China, there was also room to improve. Laboratories should strengthen the construction of information systems, identify reasons for TAT delay to improve the service quality continuously. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  7. Student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Tian, Yan; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2015-07-01

    The world's population is aging, and the need for nurses is increasing. Working with older adults, however, has always been an unpopular career choice among student nurses. It is important to understand student nurses' motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career and to identify the associated factors among student nurses. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were last-semester student nurses from 7 universities offering nursing undergraduate programs in Shandong, China. Of the 1290 student nurses, 916 completed the survey (a response rate of 71.0%). The outcome variable was the motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career. This was measured using a motivation questionnaire that included expectancy and value subscales. Other instruments included the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz I, the Geriatrics Attitudes Scale, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, a clinical practice environment questionnaire and a self-administered general information questionnaire. Student nurses' expectancy and value aspects of motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career were both at a moderate level; the highest value they held was of personal interest. Clinical practice environment, anxiety about aging and the attitudes about geriatrics were the main factors influencing student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China. It is imperative for nurse educators to improve the gerontological nursing clinical practice environment for student nurses. Moreover, cultivating student nurses' positive attitudes about geriatrics and relieving anxiety about aging could be beneficial. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Survey on child leprosy patients and problems resulted from the disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liangbin; Shen, Jianping; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Guocheng

    2015-03-01

    To understand the situation of child leprosy patients in the low prevalence situation pertaining in China. A retrospective survey by questionnaire was carried out in all 32 provinces of mainland of China in 2011. All data concerning child cases detected from January 2005 to December 2009 were collected by professional health workers working at county level. During the study, only 165 questionnaires were collected for analysis. Among 165 child cases, 96 were boys, 69 were girls with an average age of 11-7 years old. 80% of child cases were members of families with other leprosy affected people. 145 (85%) child cases took their MDT secretly (nobody outside the family knew the child suffered from leprosy), and three (1.8%) children died, one each from dapsone syndrome, suicide and severe pneumonia. During follow-up, four child cases developed new disability increasing the Grade 2 disability rate to 13.3% (22/165). At end of the study, 8.2% of children had discontinued their study at school, and 7.5% had moved to a remote place to do casual work, while 6.3% stayed at home. 31% of child patients thought that leprosy caused a negative impact on their daily life. Two children had a hostile attitude toward society due to the stigma caused by leprosy. In both high and low endemic areas, as long as there is an infectious source of leprosy in the family, there is a possibility for children to develop leprosy. Contact surveys should be done to detect early disease, especially when there are children in the household.

  9. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health

  10. Community-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Wang, Jinwei; Su, Tao; Qu, Zhen; Zhao, Minghui; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) in China based on a nationwide survey about AKI. Cross-sectional and retrospective study. A national sample of 2,223,230 hospitalized adult patients from 44 academic/local hospitals in Mainland China was used. AKI was defined according to the 2012 KDIGO AKI creatinine criteria or an increase or decrease in serum creatinine level of 50% during the hospital stay. Community-acquired AKI was identified when a patient had AKI that could be defined at hospital admission. The rate, cause, recognition, and treatment of community-acquired AKI were stratified according to hospital type, latitude, and economic development of the regions in which the patients were admitted. All-cause in-hospital mortality and recovery of kidney function at hospital discharge. 4,136 patients with community-acquired AKI were identified during the 2 single-month snapshots (January 2013 and July 2013). Of these, 2,020 (48.8%) had cases related to decreased kidney perfusion; 1,111 (26.9%), to intrinsic kidney disease; and 499 (12.1%), to urinary tract obstruction. In the north versus the south, more patients were exposed to nephrotoxins or had urinary tract obstructions. 536 (13.0%) patients with community-acquired AKI had indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT), but only 347 (64.7%) of them received RRT. Rates of timely diagnosis and appropriate use of RRT were higher in regions with higher per capita gross domestic product. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 7.3% (295 of 4,068). Delayed AKI recognition and being located in northern China were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality, and referral to nephrology providers was an independent protective factor. Possible misclassification of AKI and community-acquired AKI due to nonstandard definitions and missing data for serum creatinine. The features of community-acquired AKI varied substantially in different regions of China and were closely

  11. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  12. Tracking rural-to-urban migration in China: Lessons from the 2005 inter-census population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Avraham; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examined migration in China using the 2005 inter-census population survey, in which migrants were registered at both their place of original (hukou) residence and at their destination. We find evidence that the estimated number of internal migrants in China is extremely sensitive to the enumeration method. We estimate that the traditional destination-based survey method fails to account for more than a third of migrants found using comparable origin-based methods. The 'missing' migrants are disproportionately young, male, and holders of rural hukou. We find that origin-based methods are more effective at capturing migrants who travel short distances for short periods, whereas destination-based methods are more effective when entire households have migrated and no remaining family members are located at the hukou location. We conclude with a set of policy recommendations for the design of population surveys in countries with large migrant populations.

  13. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  14. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  15. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. English language usage pattern in China mainland doctors: AME survey-001 initial analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J

    2015-02-01

    English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least one paper in English

  17. Benzene exposure in the shoemaking industry in China, a literature survey, 1978-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laiming; Zhou, Yimei; Liang, Youxin; Wong, Otto; Armstrong, Thomas; Schnatter, A Robert; Wu, Qiangen; Fang, Jinbin; Ye, Xibiao; Fu, Hua; Irons, Richard D

    2006-11-01

    This article presents a summary of benzene exposure levels in the shoemaking industry in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1978 and 2004. A comprehensive search identified 182 papers reporting such exposure data. These papers could be classified into two categories: benzene poisoning case reports and industrial hygiene surveys. From each paper, the following information was abstracted whenever available: location and year of occurrence, occupation and/or task involved, benzene content in adhesives/solvents, work environment, working conditions, working hours, diagnosis, and air monitoring data of benzene. A total of 333 benzene measurements (88 averages, 116 minimums, 129 maximums) in the shoemaking industry were reported in the 182 papers identified. The data were analyzed in terms of geographical location, time period, type of ownership (state, township, or foreign), type of report (benzene poisoning reports vs. industrial hygiene surveys), and job title (work activity) or process. The reported data covered a wide range; some measurements were in excess of 4500 mg/m(3). Thirty-five percent of the reported benzene concentrations were below 40 mg/m(3), which was the national occupational exposure limit (OEL) for benzene between 1979 and 2001. The remaining 65% measurements, which exceeded the national OEL in effect at the time, and were distributed as follows: 40-100 mg/m(3), 11%; 100-300 mg/m(3), 21%; 300-500 mg/m(3), 13%; and 500+ mg/m(3), 20%. However, only 24% of the reported measurements after 2002 were below 6 mg/m(3), i.e., Permissible Concentration-Time Weighted Average (PC-TWA) and 10 mg/m(3), i.e., Permissible Concentration-Short Term Exposure Limit (PC-STEL), the newly amended benzene OELs in effect after May 2002. The data demonstrated that the majority of the facilities in the shoemaking industry reported in the literature were not in compliance of the OEL for benzene in effect at the time. Overall, the data show a clear downward

  18. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant workers into a general cardinal ill-health score. Determinants associated with migrant worker health included but were not limited to age, marital status, income, and education, among other factors. Concentration index, concentration curve, and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in migrant workers' health. Prorich inequality was found in the health of migrant workers. The concentration index was -0.0866, as a score indicator of ill health. Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that the factors most contributing to the observed inequality were income, followed by gender, age, marital status, and smoking history. It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  19. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  20. Inequalities in health status among rural residents: EQ-5D findings from household survey China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y

    2014-05-19

    This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.

  1. A hospital-based survey of patients with severe valvular heart disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po; Liu, Xian-Bao; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Pu, Chao-Xia; Tang, Meng-Yao; Wang, Jian-An

    2017-03-15

    Due to increasing aging, the epidemiology of VHD may have changed in China. This study aimed to provide contemporary information on the prevalence, distribution patterns, and etiology of severe VHD in China. This was a retrospective survey at Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, which included all consecutive patients between 2010 and 2015. In all, 139,496 patients were enrolled. Among severe valve diseases, MR was the most frequent (n=946, 0.68%) followed by MS (n=524, 0.38%), AS (n=392, 0.28%), and AR (n=371, 0.27%). Severe MR and AS prevalence rates increased strikingly with age. Rheumatic heart disease had an prevalence of 1.56% (n=2179), and remained one of the most common causes of severe VHD in patients younger than 65years old (99.5% of MS with rheumatic; 27.6% of MR with rheumatic; 25.7% of AS with rheumatic; 31.6% of AR with rheumatic). Aortic valve calcification was the predominant AS etiology, and its prevalence greatly increased with age. In severe AR, rheumatic fever was the most common etiology in patients below 65; in those above 65, etiology was mostly degenerative. In severe primary MR, mitral valve prolapse was the most common cause. Prevalence of secondary MR increased with age, from 16.4% in 18-44years old to 51.7% in individuals ≥75. Severe valvular diseases are very common; rheumatic fever and degenerative valvular changes remain predominant causes in patients below 65 and older ones, respectively. Young adults present mainly with primary MR, while secondary MR is more common in elderly ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  3. A national survey of clinical pharmacy services in county hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dongning; Xi, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yuankai; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao; Yao, Wenbing

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy is not only a medical science but also an elaborate public health care system firmly related to its subsystems of education, training, qualification authentication, scientific research, management, and human resources. China is a developing country with a tremendous need for improvements in the public health system, including the clinical pharmacy service system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the infrastructure and personnel qualities of clinical pharmacy services in China. Public county hospitals in China. A national survey of clinical pharmacists in county hospitals was conducted. It was sampled through a stratified sampling strategy. Responses were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The main outcome measures include the coverage of clinical pharmacy services, the overall staffing of clinical pharmacists, the software and hardware of clinical pharmacy services, the charge mode of clinical pharmacy services, and the educational background, professional training acquisition, practical experience, and entry path of clinical pharmacists. The overall coverage of clinical pharmacy services on both the department scale (median = 18.25%) and the patient scale (median = 15.38%) does not meet the 100% coverage that is required by the government. In 57.73% of the sample hospitals, the staffing does not meet the requirement, and the size of the clinical pharmacist group is smaller in larger hospitals. In addition, 23.4% of the sample hospitals do not have management rules for the clinical pharmacists, and 43.1% do not have rational drug use software, both of which are required by the government. In terms of fees, 89.9% of the sample hospitals do not charge for the services. With regard to education, 8.5% of respondents are with unqualified degree, and among respondents with qualified degree, 37.31% are unqualified in the major; 43% of respondents lack the clinical pharmacist training required by the government. Most

  4. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  5. National Survey on Internal Quality Control for HbA(1c) Analytical Instruments in 331 Hospital Laboratories of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Fei, Yang; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The narrow gap of HbA1 value of mass fraction between "normal" (control of inter-assay standardization, assay precision, and trueness. This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge of the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for HbA(1c) in China and find out the most appropriate quality specifications. Data of IQC for HbA(1c) in 331 institutions participating in the national proficiency testing (PT) programs in China were evaluated using four levels of quality specifications, and the percentages of laboratories meeting the quality requirement were calculated to find out the most appropriate quality specifications for control materials of HbA(1c) in China. The IQC data varied vastly among 331 clinical laboratories in China. The measurement of control materials covered a wide range from 4.52% to 12.24% (inter-quartile range) and there were significant differences among the CVs of different methods, including LPLC, CE-HPLC, AC-HPLC, immunoturbidimetry, and others. Among the four main methods, CE-HPLC and AC-HPLC achieved a better precision. As we can see, the performance of laboratories for HbA(1c) has yet to be improved. Clinical laboratories in China should improve their performance with a stricter imprecision criteria.

  6. Factors related to burnout among Chinese female hospital nurses: cross-sectional survey in Liaoning Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Liu, Li; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2014-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with burnout among female hospital nurses in China. Burnout has been a major concern in the field of occupational health, and yet there has been little research exploring the factors related to burnout among Chinese nurses. Exploring the factors associated with burnout is important in improving nurses' health and the quality of health care services in China. The study population consisted of 1845 female hospital nurses in the Liaoning Province of China. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey; occupational stress was measured using the Chinese versions of the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. A general linear regression model was applied to analyse the factors associated with burnout. Mean scores (±SD) were 11.74 (7.14) for emotional exhaustion, 7.12 (5.67) for cynicism and 23.34 (9.60) for self-efficacy. Strong extrinsic effort was the most powerful predictor of emotional exhaustion and cynicism; strong psychological job demands were the most robust predictor of low self-efficacy. The findings suggest that occupational stress was strongly related to burnout among female hospital nurses in China. Occupational stress was identified as the most robust predictor of burnout among Chinese female hospital nurses. Reducing burnout among nurses working in China may require health education, health promotion and occupational training programmes aimed at improving work situations and reducing occupational stress. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Survey of Current and Future Perceived Multi-National Corporation Manufacturing Training Needs in Tianjin, (T.E.D.A.) China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Will

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that surveyed current and perceived future employer-provided training practices among multinational corporations manufacturing companies in the Tianjin Economic Development Area (T.E.D.A.) of China. Highlights include labor market; human resources management in China; workforce productivity; and return on investment. (Author/LRW)

  8. A bulletin on survey findings of China's national population and reproductive health in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1998-08-01

    This article presents findings from the 1997 State Family Planning Commission's KAP survey in China. The aim was to assess reproductive health and contraception and the future needs for family planning management. The national sample included 1041 sampling points in 337 counties among 186,089 registered persons in the first demographic stage and 15,213 persons in the second in-depth KAP stage of the survey. The average age at first marriage of women was 1.5 years higher in 1997 than in 1990. The birthrate declined, and fertility remained stable at below replacement levels. Contraceptive usage among women of childbearing ages was 83.4%. 9.2% relied on male sterilization, 40% relied on female sterilization, 43.4% used IUDs, and 4.1% used condoms. 25.5% of married reproductive age women had an unwanted pregnancy due to contraceptive failure. 62.5% of women of childbearing age received contraceptives free of charge. 28.6% received contraceptive supplies from retail shops. 39.1% who had a contraceptive operation had access to pre-operative counseling, and 50.9% received post-operative counseling. 23.5% had follow-up visits. The average age of menarche was 15.2 years. The average age of menopause was 44.8 years. Gynecological discomfort increased with age. 63% consulted doctors. 58.5% fully breast-fed for over 6 months. 57.3% had knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and 63.5% had heard of AIDS. 75% were happy with their sexual lives. 7.8% nationally had received at least one kind of economic assistance or skill training, of whom 50.6% had access to loans or poverty alleviation funds.

  9. Patients' views toward knee osteoarthritis exercise therapy and factors influencing adherence - a survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Hou, Yunfei; Lin, Jianhao; Wang, Kai; Liu, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    To understand the views toward exercise therapy for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in China and to analyze factors affecting treatment adherence. A survey-based study, which included multiple choice and open-ended questions on knee OA exercise therapy was conducted in a Chinese population. The content included the respondents' attitudes and beliefs, willingness to receive treatment, and reasons why they could or could not adhere to the treatment. We used Chi-squared tests to compare cognitive differences between the patients and non-patient groups. A total of 1,069 people responded to the questionnaire, and the response rate was 81.8%. A total of 93.6% of the patients thought that they could adhere to the exercise treatment if they received professional advice and prescriptions. The following questionnaire items achieved consensus: 'Increasing the strength of the muscles around the knee stops the knee pain from getting worse,' 'It is the person's own responsibility to continue doing their exercise program,' 'How helpful the exercise program will be determines how well a person sticks to it,' 'Health professionals should educate patients with knee pain about how to change their lifestyle for the better,' and 'Exercise for knee pain is most helpful when it is designed for each person, to suit their own particular needs.' Patient adherence was affected by multiple factors, and some negative factors included 'forgetfulness,' 'getting joint symptoms improved after therapy,' 'professional guidance, subsequent monitoring and supervision,' 'willing to enhance overall health and quality of life,' 'having no time,' 'occupational factors,' 'considering that the pain would worsen while/after exercise,' and 'family factors.' A general Chinese population accepted exercise therapy for treating KOA in our survey. Education is necessary because patients were uncertain and had misunderstandings regarding the potential benefits of exercise therapy. Some factors related to treatment

  10. A survey of 16 rare Earth elements in the major foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ding Guo; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Da Jin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities, during 2009-2010. 1 231 samples were analyzed and 19 121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected. The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly. The concentrations of cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high, while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels. The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals, fresh vegetables, fresh aquatic products, fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg. 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nurse burnout in China: a questionnaire survey on staffing, job satisfaction, and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minmin; Ruan, Hui; Xing, Weijie; Hu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The investigators examined how nurse staffing affects nurse job satisfaction and quality of care. Inadequate nurse staffing is a worldwide issue with profound effects on nurse job satisfaction and quality of care. Few studies have examined the relationship between nurse staffing and job satisfaction and quality of care in China. A cross-sectional design was adopted, wherein 873 nurses were surveyed on demographics, nurse staffing, job-related burnout, job dissatisfaction, intent to leave, and quality of care. The median patient-nurse ratio was five; 45.1% nurses reported high levels of job-related burnout, and 55.6%, job dissatisfaction. In adjusted regression models, patient-nurse ratios of four or less were related to a decrease in the odds of job dissatisfaction (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.85) and increase in the odds of quality of care (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.82). Nurse staffing is associated with job dissatisfaction and quality of care. Nurse managers should maintain an adequate level of nurse staffing, referring to the patient-nurse ratio. They should create new initiatives to increase job satisfaction among nurses and to evaluate their effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nurse teachers' working lives: a questionnaire survey of nursing schools in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, L; While, A E; Chen, G; Barriball, K L; Gu, S

    2011-12-01

    The study aimed to explore Chinese nurse teachers' views and experience regarding different components of their working lives. A cross-sectional survey of 18 schools of nursing offering nationally accredited baccalaureate nursing programmes across Mainland China was conducted. A total of 227 nurse teachers completed questionnaires yielding a response rate of 72%. The sample comprised mainly female, married lecturers younger than 44 years with an average teaching experience of about 10 years. The respondents were satisfied with their overall job, work, supervision and co-workers, but dissatisfied with their pay and promotion opportunities. There were statistically significant differences in several facets of job satisfaction across the respondents of different age groups, education levels, job titles and those working in the schools of different sizes. The respondents perceived their work environment to be only somewhat empowering. Their average level of professional identification was relatively high, but their overall role conflict, role ambiguity and sense of coherence were relatively low. Chinese nurse teachers had a positive feeling towards their working lives, but strategies should be developed to enhance their sense of coherence and professional commitment. It is worth noting that there is still much adjustment to be made towards the new higher education roles, but the findings may only be generalizable to similar settings. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Application of Hymap image in the environmental survey in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Yang, Xiaomao; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral HyMap image with synchronous in-situ spectral data were used to survey the environmental condition in Shenzhen of South China. HyMap image was measured with 3.5m spatial resolution and 15nm spectral resolution from 0.44μm-2.5μm and corrected with Modtran5 model and synchronous solar illuminance and atmospheric visibility to the ground. The spectra of rocks, soils, water and vegetation were obtained by ASD spectrometer in reflectance. Both the fresh granite and eroded sandy soil was found with absorption at 2200nm+/-in-situ spectra, but the weathered granite and sandy soil have another absorption at 880nm 940 nm. Polluted water with high ammonia nitrogen and phosphorous and BOD5 get the strongest reflectance at 550 570nm, while polluted water of high CODcr and heavy metal ions content get the peak reflectance at 450 490nm. The in-situ spectra was resampled in wavelength range and spectral resolution to that of Hymap sensor for image classification with SAM algorithm, the unpaved granite among cement the paved mine pits , the newly excavated land surface and the eroded soil was mapped out with the accuracy over 95%. We also discriminate the artificial forest from the natural with the spectral endmember extracted from the image.

  14. Use of Chinese Herb Medicine in Cancer Patients: A Survey in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Guo Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herb medicine (CHM is the most commonly reported traditional Chinese medicine (TCM modality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CHM use in cancer patients in southwestern China. Cancer patients from eleven comprehensive cancer centers were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Of 587 available replies, 53.0% used CHM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that educational level, stage of disease, duration of cancer since diagnosis, marital status, and previous use of CHM were strongly associated with CHM use after cancer diagnosis. The source of information about CHM was mainly from media and friends/family. CHM products were used without any consultation with a TCM practitioner by 67.5% of users. The majority used CHM to improve their physical and emotional well-beings and to reduce cancer therapy-induced toxicities. About 4.5% patients reported side effects of CHM. This survey revealed a high prevalence of CHM use among cancer patients. However, these patients did not get sufficient consultation about the indications and contradictions of these drugs. It is imperative for oncologists to communicate with their cancer patients about the usage of CHM so as to avoid the potential side effects.

  15. Clinic characteristics of psoriasis in China: a nationwide survey in over 12000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Wang, Gang; Jin, Hongzhong; Xu, Jinhua; Zhu, Xuejun; Zheng, Min; Gu, Heng

    2017-07-11

    Psoriasis is a worldwide chronic inflammatory disease, involving both skin and joints. In order to characterize psoriasis in Han Chinese population, we conducted this nationwide prospective and hospital based survey, in which 56 hospitals with departments of dermatology participated, located in 33 cities across China. A total of 12,031 outpatients with psoriasis were registered during 2009 to 2010, which the data was collected by standard questionnaires. The main data acquisition included demographics, family history, disease status and other comorbidities. Physical and dermatological examination, including body surface area (BSA) and psoriasis area severity index (PASI) were applied to evaluate the disease severity. Descriptive statistics, 2 tailed t-test and chi-square test were used appropriately for the statistical analysis. From the study, we found that the male and female ratio of the patients was 1.49:1. Mean age of onset was 30.2 ± 14.5 years for males and 27.1 ± 15.6 years for females (P psoriasis and the majority was psoriasis vulgaris (96.5%). Among 12,031 patients, 23.1% had a family history of psoriasis,16.1% had comorbidities, and 29.9% had nail changes. The most important aggravation factor was season change (60.2%), followed by psychological stress (34.5%), and there significant differences between genders on trigger factors. In conclusion, this study characterizing psoriasis in Han Chinese population, could be used as basic data for future study.

  16. A survey of senile dementia in the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Su Gasaki, H.; Yang Yuhua

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term low dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposure on the prevalence rate of senile dementia, further assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on central nervous system and study the pathogen of senile dementia, and provide direct observational data of human beings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of senile dementia was carried out in high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in two stages. For the initial screening, Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) was used for all subjects. In the second stage, the stage of diagnosis, special questionnaires of healthy state of old people were sued. The final diagnoses were made according to the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) of American Psychiatric Association. Results: 1018 inhabitants aged 65 years and over, including 513 persons in HBRA and 505 in CA were observed. According to DSM III-R, 61 cases (31 cases in HBRA and 30 cases in CA) of senile dementia were diagnosed. The prevalence rates of senile dementia are 6.04% in HBRA and 5.94% in CA, the total prevalence rate being 5.99%. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference in the prevalence rate of senile dementia between the two areas was found, suggesting that the prevalence rate of senile dementia in these areas is not associated with the high background radiation exposure

  17. Survey on prevalence and related factors of migraine in underwater operation personnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-yan PAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical features and related factors of migraine in underwater operation personnel in China.  Methods A total of 308 underwater operation personnel sampled by a cluster sampling method were visited by door-to-door calling and surveyed using the structured questionnaire including sociodemographic data, diagnostic questions on headache, life quality and sleep quality.  Results Seventy-three (23.70% cases suffered from headache in the past one year, among whom 64 cases presented primary headaches (20.78%, including 19 cases of migraine (6.17% manifesting unilateral pain (14/19, pulsatile pain (15/19 and moderate or severe pain (18/19. Phonophobia (14/19 and photophobia (12/19 were the most common accompanying symptoms. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors including age, education, residence, marital status, length of sevice and identity, had no significant differences from migraine prevalence (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Migraine has a high prevalence in underwater operation personnel and exerts serious impact on their work and life quality. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.013

  18. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on Jinling Petrochemical Corporation, China. Energy conservation project for Nanjing Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, the basic survey was conducted on potential energy conservation at Nanjing Refinery, Jiangsu Nanjing city, China. Investigational studies were made on the repair of the power recovery system in line with the plan to enlarge the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and the power recovery using exhaust gas from the RFCC catalytic regeneration system. Moreover, the energy conservation technology to reduce power loads of the refining system was adopted to this project. As a result, it was found out that this repair plan makes recovery of the power equivalent to 10.6MW possible and produces the effect of reducing the fuel to be used. The realization of this project brings the CO2 reduction amount of approximately 70,000 t/y. It was also found out that this project not only reduces a large amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions, but contributes to profits of the plant concerned and helps improve the environment in the area concerned. For the implementation of this project, the detailed plan is expected to be further discussed. (NEDO)

  19. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  2. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey of prioritized fields in East Asia (China); 1999 nendo Higashi Asia chiiki (Chugoku) juten bun'ya kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For working out and proposing project themes optimum for the popularization of technologies for effectively utilizing energy in China, a basic survey was conducted on China's energy policy, trend of supply and demand, cement making industry, non-ferrous metal industry, chemical industry, and electric power industry. The amount of primary energy produced in China in fiscal 1997 was 1.4-billion tons in terms of standard coal, ranking third in the world. It produced 1.4-billion tons of coke making coal, 160-million tons of oil, and 110-million kWh of electric power. In spite of its continuous efforts to develop oil and in particular natural gas, it has now turned an oil importing country. There was an increase in production in the industries surveyed, but energy efficiency was low because of their small-scale old-fashioned processes. In the cement making industry, 86% of the facilities presented some problems, and the non-ferrous industry was planning to rebuild itself into large-scale advanced-process plants. As for the chemical industry, investigations were conducted into the oil refining, petrochemical, and chemical fertilizer making industries. The electric power industry had facilities for 277GW, 210GW in thermoelectric power generation and 65GW in hydroelectric power generation. The thermoelectric power plants were found to emit great quantities of smoke and sulfuric oxides into the air. (NEDO)

  3. Availability, cost, and prescription patterns of antihypertensive medications in primary health care in China: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Zhang, Qiuli; Bai, Xueke; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Yetong; Mossialos, Elias; Mensah, George A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Lu, Jiapeng; Li, Xi; Salas-Vega, Sebastian; Zhang, Anwen; Lu, Yuan; Nasir, Khurram; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-12-09

    Around 200 million adults in China have hypertension, but few are treated or achieve adequate control of their blood pressure. Available and affordable medications are important for successfully controlling hypertension, but little is known about current patterns of access to, and use of, antihypertensive medications in Chinese primary health care. We used data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey (the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Million Persons Project primary health care survey), which was undertaken between November, 2016 and May, 2017, to assess the availability, cost, and prescription patterns of 62 antihypertensive medications at primary health-care sites across 31 Chinese provinces. We surveyed 203 community health centres, 401 community health stations, 284 township health centres, and 2474 village clinics to assess variation in availability, cost, and prescription by economic region and type of site. We also assessed the use of high-value medications, defined as guideline-recommended and low-cost. We also examined the association of medication cost with availability and prescription patterns. Our study sample included 3362 primary health-care sites and around 1 million people (613 638 people at 2758 rural sites and 478 393 people at 604 urban sites). Of the 3362 sites, 8·1% (95% CI 7·2-9·1) stocked no antihypertensive medications and 33·8% (32·2-35·4) stocked all four classes that were routinely used. Village clinics and sites in the western region of China had the lowest availability. Only 32·7% (32·2-33·3) of all sites stocked high-value medications, and few high-value medications were prescribed (11·2% [10·9-11·6] of all prescription records). High-cost medications were more likely to be prescribed than low-cost alternatives. China has marked deficiencies in the availability, cost, and prescription of antihypertensive medications. High-value medications are not preferentially used. Future efforts to

  4. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim MH; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Background Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. Methods A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. Results In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Conclusions Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. PMID:29748164

  5. Protocol for a nationwide survey of primary health care in China: the China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) MPP (Million Persons Project) Primary Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Zhang, Qiuli; Lu, Jiapeng; Li, Xi; Tian, Na; Wang, Yun; Yip, Winnie; Cheng, Kar Keung; Mensah, George A; Horwitz, Ralph I; Mossialos, Elias; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-08-28

    China has pioneered advances in primary health care (PHC) and public health for a large and diverse population. To date, the current state of PHC in China has not been subjected to systematic assessments. Understanding variations in primary care services could generate opportunities for improving the structure and function of PHC. This paper describes a nationwide PHC study (PEACE MPP Primary Health Care Survey) conducted across 31 provinces in China. The study leverages an ongoing research project, the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) Million Persons Project (MPP). It employs an observational design with document acquisition and abstraction and in-person interviews. The study will collect data and original documents on the structure and financing of PHC institutions and the adequacy of the essential medicines programme; the education, training and retention of the PHC workforce; the quality of care; and patient satisfaction with care. The study will provide a comprehensive assessment of current PHC services and help determine gaps in access and quality of care. All study instruments and documents will be deposited in the Document Bank as an open-access source for other researchers. The central ethics committee at the China National Centre for Cardiovascular Disease (NCCD) approved the study. Written informed consent has been obtained from all patients. Findings will be disseminated in future peer reviewed papers, and will inform strategies aimed at improving the PHC in China. NCT02953926. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. First high-resolution near-seafloor survey of magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Xu, X.; Li, C.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Qiu, N.

    2013-12-01

    We successfully conducted the first high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic survey of the Central, Southwest, and Northern Central Basins of the South China Sea (SCS) during two cruises on board Chinese R/V HaiYangLiuHao in October-November 2012 and March-April 2013, respectively. Measurements of magnetic field were made along four long survey lines, including (1) a NW-SE across-isochron profile transecting the Southwest Basin and covering all ages of the oceanic crust (Line CD); (2) a N-S across-isochron profile transecting the Central Basin (Line AB); and (3) two sub-parallel NE-SW across-isochron profiles transecting the Northern Central Basin of the SCS (Lines D and E). A three-axis magnetometer was mounted on a deep-tow vehicle, flying within 0.6 km above the seafloor. The position of the tow vehicle was provided by an ultra-short baseline navigation system along Lines D and E, while was estimated using shipboard GPS along Lines AB and CD. To investigate crustal magnetization, we first removed the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 2010 from the measured magnetic data, and then downward continued the resultant magnetic field data to a horizontal plane at a water depth of 4.5 km to correct for variation due to the fishing depth of the deep-tow vehicle. Finally, we calculated magnetic anomalies at various water depths after reduction-to-the-pole corrections. We also constructed polarity reversal block (PRB) models of crustal magnetization by matching peaks and troughs of the observed magnetic field anomaly. Our analysis yielded the following results: (1) The near-bottom magnetic anomaly showed peak-to-trough amplitudes of more than 2,500 nT, which are several times of the anomaly amplitudes at the sea surface, illustrating that deep-tow measurements acquired much higher spatial resolutions. (2) The deep-tow data revealed several distinctive magnetic anomalies with wavelengths of 5-15 km and amplitudes of several hundred nT. These short

  7. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Shang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  8. How the public uses social media wechat to obtain health information in china: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingting; Wen, Dong; Liang, Jun; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-07-05

    On average, 570 million users, 93% in China's first-tier cities, log on to WeChat every day. WeChat has become the most widely and frequently used social media in China, and has been profoundly integrated into the daily life of many Chinese people. A variety of health-related information may be found on WeChat. The objective of this study is to understand how the general public views the impact of the rapidly emerging social media on health information acquisition. A self-administered questionnaire was designed, distributed, collected, and analyzed utilizing the online survey tool Sojump. WeChat was adopted to randomly release the questionnaires using convenience sampling and collect the results after a certain amount of time. (1) A total of 1636 questionnaires (WeChat customers) were collected from 32 provinces. (2) The primary means by which respondents received health education was via the Internet (71.79%). Baidu and WeChat were the top 2 search tools utilized (90.71% and 28.30%, respectively). Only 12.41% of respondents were satisfied with their online health information search. (3) Almost all had seen (98.35%) or read (97.68%) health information; however, only 14.43% believed that WeChat health information could improve health. Nearly one-third frequently received and read health information through WeChat. WeChat was selected (63.26%) as the most expected means for obtaining health information. (4) The major concerns regarding health information through WeChat included the following: excessively homogeneous information, the lack of a guarantee of professionalism, and the presence of advertisements. (5) Finally, the general public was most interested in individualized and interactive health information by managing clinicians, they will highly benefit from using social media rather than Internet search tools. The current state of health acquisition proves worrisome. The public has a high chance to access health information via WeChat. The growing popularity of

  9. Differential associations of urbanicity and income with physical activity in adults in urbanizing China: findings from the population-based China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Samantha M; Howard, Annie-Green; Herring, Amy H; Zhang, Bing; Du, Shufa; Aiello, Allison E; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-12-12

    High urbanicity and income are risk factors for cardiovascular-related chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries, perhaps due to low physical activity (PA) in urban, high income areas. Few studies have examined differences in PA over time according to income and urbanicity in a country experiencing rapid urbanization. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort of Chinese adults (n = 20,083; ages 18-75y) seen a maximum of 7 times from 1991-2009. We used sex-stratified, zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine occupational, domestic, leisure, travel, and total PA in Chinese adults according to year, urbanicity, income, and the interactions among urbanicity, income, and year, controlling for age and region of China. We showed larger mean temporal PA declines for individuals living in relatively low urbanicity areas (1991: 500 MET-hours/week; 2009: 300 MET-hours/week) compared to high urbanicity areas (1991: 200 MET-hours/week; 2009: 125 MET-hours/week). In low urbanicity areas, the association between income and total PA went from negative in 1991 (p Leisure PA was the only domain of PA that increased over time, but >95% of individuals in low urbanicity areas reported zero leisure PA at each time point. Our findings show changing associations for income and urbanicity with PA over 18 years of urbanization. Total PA was lower for individuals living in more versus less urban areas at all time points. However, these differences narrowed over time, which may relate to increases in individual-level income in less urban areas of China with urbanization. Low-income individuals in higher urbanicity areas are a particularly critical group to target to increase PA in China.

  10. Behind the Scenes of Music Education in China: A Survey of Historical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how the government of mainland China values Chinese nationalism as a component of its historical memory and traces its relationship with music education from the twentieth century to the global age within broader social contexts. In a rapidly commercializing and modernizing China, nationalism remains the main driving force…

  11. Field survey for collection of information on the Pacific energy policy (China); Taiheiyo energy seisaku johonado genchi shushu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The field survey for collection of synthetic information on petroleum substitution energy was made mostly in the electric power field in China. The capacity of hydroelectric power that China holds within is approximately 676 million kW, and the annual generated energy is presumed to be 5922.2 billion kWh. China is abundant in hydroelectric power source. Among these, the developmental capacities are 379 million kW and 1923.3 billion kWh, respectively, only about 15% of which has already been developed. The developmental capacity in the southwest area including the Yangtze River is about 60% of all the developmental capacity in China. Especially Sichuan Province is abundant in hydroelectric power. In the future, development is planned of large-scale power plants such as the Sanxia power plant. Further, for electrification of villages, the development of the wind power plant, in particular, out of small-scale hydroelectric power generation and new energy will be positively conducted, and wind power generation of 1 million kW is planned for 2000. With respect to energy conservation, reduction of 170 million ton/year equivalent in coal by 2000 is planned. The coal consumption at the sending end of coal power plant is planned to be reduced to 367g/kWh in 2000 while it was 417g/kWh in 1993. 27 refs., 48 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Correlates of Untreated Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults: A Community-Based Household Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Zaman, M. Justin; Wang, Jingjing; Peacock, Janet L.; Chen, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in older adults and less treated, but little is known about correlates of untreated hypercholesterolemia. Using a standard interview method we examined a random sample of 7,572 participants aged ≥60 years in a community-based household survey across 7 provinces of China during 2007–2012, and documented 328 cases of hypercholesterolemia from self-reported doctor diagnosis. Compared to participants with normal cholesterol, older adults with hypercholesterolemia had higher socioeconomic position and larger body mass index. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, 209 were not treated using lipid-lowering medications (63.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.5%–68.9%). Untreated hypercholesterolemia was significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95%CI 1.17–3.89), current smoking (3.48, 1.44–8.44), heavy alcohol drinking (3.13,1.11–8.84), chronic bronchitis (2.37,1.14–4.90) and high level of meat consumptions (2.85,1.22–6.65). Although having coronary heart disease exposed participants for treatment, half of participants with coronary heart disease did not receive lipid-lowering medications. Among hypercholesterolemia participants with stroke, hypertension or diabetes, more than half of them did not receive lipid-lowering medications. The high proportion of untreated hypercholesterolemia in older, high-risk Chinese adults needs to be mitigated through multi-faceted primary and secondary prevention strategies to increase population opportunities of treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26161751

  13. A socio-ecological survey in Jalantai Area, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Orioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns with new and traditional practises in agriculture in Alxa League in the Inner Mongolia of China. For such a purpose, the DISPAA Department of University of Florence (Italy collaborated with the University of Tuscia (Italy, which has been one of the Italian executives for the Beijing Wind Dust Control Project under the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Programme on Environmental Protection. In the context of ADAM Project, the Inner Mongolia was indicated as a potential hot-spot due to the combination of climatic change, human activities and the general phenomenon of desertification, which is an ongoing process in this area. During the past centuries, arid and semi-arid general environmental characteristics of Inner Mongolia’s landscape have conditioned the main course of economic development in rural areas. Into the Alxa League, a sub-case study situated around Jarantai City in the Alxa Left Banner was selected. During 2005-06, the work analysed the agricultural activities of the local rural population to evaluate if these might be able to cope with desertification and, more in general, with climatic change impacts. In particular, field surveys were implemented among local peasants, which were old herders or new farmers immigrated in the area, following a non-structured interview approach where the length of the interview was calibrated on the characteristics of the single interviewed. The interviews showed that soil fertility and water requirement (e.g. water drawdown and high evaporation rate that cause superficial salt crust formation are yet the main constraints to social and economic development of agriculture.

  14. Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining causes severe adverse effects such as pollution and forced resettlement. Accordingly, it has prompted conflicts that are also evident in China. Our study assesses whether and how rural residents’ engage in environmental activism (EA against mining. This is achieved by constructing a model of EA strategies, coupled to variables that examine respondents’ intentions. The model uses data from a survey (n = 352 covering 37 villages spread over 5 provinces and 1 provincial-level municipality. The model is based on a refinement of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Various findings are reported: (1 a majority of respondents (77% believes that pollution in the mining areas is serious; (2 there is pessimism about the effects of EA with 41% believing it does not improve the environment, and less than one-fifth feeling the government supports EA, contradictorily; (3 well over half has engaged in one or more forms of EA, while (4 dominant EA strategies consist of complaining to local government or village authorities (both over 40%, or open protest (opted for by over 17%; (5 economic dependency and gender affect the intention for EA, as those employed in mining and women are less inclined to participate. Whereas studies pointed to “inclined abstainers” or the “silent majority”, this study ascertains that—with regard to mining—rural residents are not silent. We posit that a threshold of environmental endurance might have been reached. In this context, policymakers need to tackle the adverse effects of mining, as it is likely to generate more violent confrontations that ultimately pose risks to political credibility and social stability.

  15. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  16. Patient satisfaction between primary care providers and hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Wang, Pingping; Kong, Xuan; Liang, Hailun; Zhang, Xiumin; Shi, Leiyu

    2016-06-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care between primary care providers and secondary/tertiary hospitals, and to examine its association with socio-demographic characteristics and type of institution, based on self-reported survey data. Cross-sectional survey. Healthcare facilities within Jilin province, China. In total, 993 outpatients and 925 inpatients aged ≥15 years old were recruited. Patient satisfaction with the care experience. Patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care was significantly associated with type of healthcare delivery setting in Jilin, China. Seeking outpatient care from community health centers (CHCs) was significantly associated with a higher ratio of patient satisfaction. Patients of county and tertiary hospitals complained about long-waiting times, bad attitudes of health workers, high expense of treatment, and their overall satisfaction towards outpatient care was lower. In the terms of inpatient care, patients were more satisfied with treatment expense in CHCs compared with county hospitals. CHCs and hospitals face different challenges regarding patient satisfaction. Further healthcare reform in China need to adopt more measures (e.g. increasing quality of primary care, setting up a referral medical system etc.) to improve patient satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: a large scale school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K

    2008-09-29

    Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  19. "Bare Branches" and the Marriage Market in Rural China: Preliminary Evidence from a village-level survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Liu, Lige; Li, Yan; Feldman, Marcus W; Li, Shuzhuo

    Using data from a village survey in rural China, this study explores the relationships between current prevalence of involuntary bachelorhood and its causes and social consequences at the village level. We find that bachelors, inter-county marriage and marriage fraud exist in all regions, and are expected to become more frequent with the increasing surplus of males born after 1980 entering the marriage market. The marriage squeeze and social problems related to the bachelors are more serious in less-developed western villages, and heterogeneity within central villages is significant. Economic and socio-demographic factors are shown to be the major causes of the prevalence of bachelors at the village level in contemporary rural China. Our findings confirm the negative consequences of the marriage squeeze, and effective policies are urgently needed to respond to and prevent more negative consequences of gender imbalance in the foreseeable future.

  20. How the public uses social media wechat to obtain health information in china: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xingting; Wen, Dong; Liang, Jun; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-01-01

    Background On average, 570 million users, 93% in China?s first-tier cities, log on to WeChat every day. WeChat has become the most widely and frequently used social media in China, and has been profoundly integrated into the daily life of many Chinese people. A variety of health-related information may be found on WeChat. The objective of this study is to understand how the general public views the impact of the rapidly emerging social media on health information acquisition. Methods A self-a...

  1. Factor Structure of Content Preparation for E-Business Web Sites: Results of a Survey of 428 Industrial Employees in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinni; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    To better fulfil customer satisfaction, a study of what content e-business web sites should contain is conducted. Based on background literature, a content preparation survey of 70 items was developed and completed by 428 white collar employees of an electronic company in mainland China. The survey aimed at examining the significant content…

  2. Overview on seagrasses and related research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajun; Fan, Hangqing; Cui, Xiaojian; Pan, Lianghao; Li, Sen; Song, Xiukai

    2010-03-01

    Seagrass research in China is still in its infancy. Even though there has been progress recently, there is still a great deal of research needed to gain a better understanding of seagrass. In this article we review and discuss the advances in seagrass research in China from two aspects: (1) seagrass species and their distribution; (2) seagrass research in China, including studies on their taxonomy, ecology, photosynthesis, applications in aquaculture, salt-tolerance mechanisms and other research topics. A total of 18 seagrass species belonging to 8 genera are distributed in nine provinces and regions in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), as well as the Xisha and Nansha Archipelagos. They can be divided into two groups: a North China Group and a South China Group. Based on the seagrass distribution, the Chinese mainland coast can be divided into three sections: North China Seagrass Coast, Middle China Seagrass Coast, and South China Seagrass Coast. Ecological studies include research on seagrass communities, nutrient cycling in seagrass ecosystems, genetic diversity, pollution ecology and research in the key regions of Shandong, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan. Seagrass species and their locations, community structure, ecological evaluation, epiphytes, ecological functions and threats in the key regions are also summarized. Other studies have focused on remote sensing of seagrass, threatened seagrass species of China, and pollen morphology of Halophila ovalis.

  3. Depression among Congestive Heart Failure Patients: Results of a Survey from Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPMS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabish Hussain, Li Yu Shu, Xiang Cheng, Tumenjavkhlan Sosorburam, A.Seid Adji, Sara Tajammul, Aamra Sartaj (Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China (pages 38-42

  4. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71 and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threatens of the other enteroviruses, our study genetically characterized specimens from different regions of China and yielded novel information concerning the circulating and phylogenetic characteristics of enteroviral strains from HFMD cases. Findings A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4% HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected. Conclusions The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.

  5. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim Mh; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A; Wong, Paul Wc

    2018-05-10

    Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. ©Lucia Lin Liu, Tim MH Li, Alan R Teo, Takahiro A Kato, Paul WC Wong. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 10.05.2018.

  6. Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Han, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Yue; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Liu, Jing-Bo; Yan, Zhi-He; Zheng, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Jia-Kun; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a total of 10,297 healthy people selected from a regional hospital were screened. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, complete blood cell (CBC) count, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, reverse dot-blot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect Hb variants, thalassemias and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH). Two thousand and twenty-one adult subjects were screened for thalassemia, five cases were identified as α-thalassemia (α-thal) carriers including three cases of the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion, one case of the - -(SEA) deletion and one case of β-thal [IVS-II-654 (C>T), (HBB: c.316-197C>T)]. The incidence of Hb variants, thalassemia and HPFH/δβ-thal were 0.136% (14/10,297), 0.25% (5/2021) and 0.0001% (1/10,297), respectively. Eight genotypes of Hb variants were found, including Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp (GGC>GAC); HBB; c.170G>A], Hb G-Coushatta [β22(4)Glu→Ala (GAA>GCA); HBB: c.68A>C], Hb Queens [α34(B15)Leu→Arg (CTG>CGG) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.104T>G (or HBA1)], Hb I [α16(A14)Lys→Glu, AAG>GAG (α1); HBA1: c.49A>G], Hb Beijing [α16(A14)Lys→Asn (AAG>AAC or AAT) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.51G>C (or HBA1) or 51G>T (or HBA1)], Hb Ube-2 [α68(E17)Asn→Asp (AAC>GAC) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.205A>G (or HBA1)] and Hb G-Taipei [β22(B4)Glu→Gly (GAA>GGA); HBB: c.68A>G]. A Sicilian δβ(0)-thal, identified for the first time in Asia, was also found in this survey.

  7. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  8. From student to citizen: a survey of students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M C; Liu, X

    1998-01-01

    "This article is a survey of students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) who arrived in Australia after 1986 and were still there in 1992.... The article provides statistics and analysis on the motivation of these students, their education and family backgrounds and their present conditions and aspirations. The article also addresses issues such as Australia's education export and immigration policies, the dilemma between political and economic refugees in terms of human rights and the impact of the 1989 Tiananmem Square massacre on PRC students in Australia at the time." (EXCERPT)

  9. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  10. Promises and pitfalls in environmentally extended input–output analysis for China: A survey of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Jacob; Ma, Chunbo; Schilizzi, Steven; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    As the world's largest developing economy, China plays a key role in global climate change and other environmental impacts of international concern. Environmentally extended input–output analysis (EE-IOA) is an important and insightful tool seeing widespread use in studying large-scale environmental impacts in China: calculating and analyzing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon and water footprints, pollution, and embodied energy. This paper surveys the published articles regarding EE-IOA for China in peer-reviewed journals and provides a comprehensive and quantitative overview of the body of literature, examining the research impact, environmental issues addressed, and data utilized. The paper further includes a discussion of the shortcomings in official Chinese data and of the potential means to move beyond its inherent limitations. - Highlights: • Articles in 2012–2013 more than doubled that published between 1995 and 2011. • CO 2 and energy are the most common topics, frequently associated with trade. • Data from the National Bureau of Statistics is widely used but seen as flawed. • Climate change, water supply, and food security drive the future of the literature

  11. Job burnout among critical care nurses from 14 adult intensive care units in northeastern China: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Huang, De-Sheng; Guan, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The shortage of qualified nurses is one of the critical challenges in the field of healthcare. Among the contributing factors, job burnout has been indicated as a risk factor for the intention to leave. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the local status and reference data for coping strategies for intensive care unit (ICU)-nurse burnout among Liaoning ICU nurses. Design Observational study. Setting 17 ICUs from 10 tertiary-level hospitals in Liaoning, China. Participants 431 ICU nurses from 14 ICUs nested in 10 tertiary-level hospitals in Liaoning, China, were invited during October and November 2010. Primary measures Burnout was measured using the 22-item Chinese version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Service Survey (MBI-HSS) questionnaires. Results 14 ICUs responded actively and were included; the response rate was 87.7% among the 486 invited participants from these 17 ICUs. The study population was a young population, with the median age 25 years, IQR 23–28 years and female nurses accounted for the major part (88.5%). 68 nurses (16%) were found to have a high degree of burnout, earning high emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores together with a low personal accomplishment score. Conclusions The present study indicated a moderate distribution of burnout among ICU nurses in Liaoning, China. An investigation into the burnout levels of this population could bring more attention to ICU caregivers. PMID:24948747

  12. The Disability Rate of 5-Year Post-Stroke and Its Correlation Factors: A National Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Shuo; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Chun-Xue; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Few studies on long-term functional outcome have been conducted in post-stroke patients in China. The objective of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey in China to investigate the 5-year prevalence of post-stroke disability and its correlation factors. A total of 893 patients with ischemic stroke were included. Demographic, clinical and neuro-imaging information were collected with standardized instruments that assessed stroke severity, depression, cognitive impairment, stroke recurrence and physical disability. Disability was assessed with the modified Ranking Score (mRS), of which a cutoff score ≥2 indicates disability. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, two independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney U test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The frequency of disability in this study population was 45%. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age, lower education level, previous history of stroke, stroke severity at admission, depression, cognitive impairment at 3 months, and stroke recurrence within 5 years follow up were all significantly associated with post-stroke disability. The disability rate in 5-year post-stroke was high in Chinese patients. Treatment of depression, secondary prevention of stroke and rehabilitation may benefit disabled patients with stroke in China.

  13. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingping; Wu Yongning; Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing; Liu Yinping; Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: →Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent.→ Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT.→ Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk.→ The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  14. Chinese companies’ awareness and perceptions of the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Evidence from a national survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Fengyu; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    China announced the launch of a national Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in 2017; however, companies appear show little enthusiasm for participation in the ETS in China. This paper identifies the factors affecting companies’ awareness and perceptions of ETS by conducting a national survey based on an online questionnaire from May to November 2015 in seven carbon trading pilots. The results indicate that companies’ attitudes towards the ETS are positively influenced by government regulations and policy, public relations management and estimated economic benefit. Of these, public relations management is the decisive factor and estimated economic benefit is confirmed to be a relatively weak predictor. A company's environmental and energy strategy exerts insignificant effects on its preference for the ETS, although the sampled companies are very willing to save energy and reduce emissions. There exists an inverted U-shape relationship between a company's level of mitigation technologies and its attitudes towards the ETS. The carbon price fails to stimulate companies to upgrade mitigation technologies. The majority of companies treat participation in the ETS only as a means of improving ties with governments, as well as of earning a good social reputation, rather than as a cost-effective mechanism to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • This paper provides a timely study of companies’ awareness of ETS in China. • ETS is not approved by companies as a cost-effective mitigation tool. • External pressure is the most important indicator. • Carbon price fails to promote companies to upgrade mitigation technologies.

  15. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, ...

  16. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Background Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descript...

  17. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  18. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinan; Shi, Lizheng; Meng, Qingyue; Khan, M Mahmud

    2012-08-14

    China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009), household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476) respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863) had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p China through rapid expansion of CHNS in rural areas and initiation of URBMI in urban areas.

  20. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009, household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. Results In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476 respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863 had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p  Discussions Comparing 2009 to 2006, the income inequality in health insurance coverage was largely corrected in China through rapid expansion of CHNS in rural areas and initiation of URBMI in urban areas.

  1. Aerosol contamination survey during dust storm process in Northwestern China using ground, satellite observations and atmospheric modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonchyk, Mikalai; Yan, Haowen; Shareef, Tawheed Mohammed Elhessin; Yang, Shuwen

    2018-01-01

    The present survey addresses the comprehensive description of geographic locations, transport ways, size, and vertical aerosol distribution during four large dust events which occurred in the Northwest China. Based on the data from 35 ground-based air quality monitoring stations and the satellite data, emission flows for dust events within the period of 2014 to 2017 have been estimated. The data show that maximum peak daily average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 380 and 150 μg/m3, respectively, and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio was ranging within 0.12-0.66. Both satellite data and simulation data of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) coincide with location and extension of a dust cloud. The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) found dust at 0 to 10 km altitude which remained at this level during the most part of its trajectory. The vertical aerosol distribution at a wave of 532 nm total attenuated backscatter coefficient range of 0.0025-0.003 km-1 × sr-1. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Terra) Collection 6 Level-3 aerosol products data show that aerosol optical depth (AOD) at pollution epicenters exceeds 1. A comprehensive data survey thus demonstrated that the main sources of high aerosol pollutions in the territory were deserted areas of North and Northwest China as well as the most part of the Republic of Mongolia, where one of the largest deserts, Gobi, extends.

  2. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  3. Trends in injury morbidity in China, 1993-2013: A longitudinal analysis of population-based survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Peishan; Cai, Min; Cheng, Peixia; Zhang, Yaoguang; Schwebel, David C; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xunjie; Gao, Yuyan; Ling, Xu; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-04-01

    Understanding long-term trends in injury morbidity is critical to prevention and intervention planning. The aim of this study was to assess long-term trends in injury morbidity rates in China from 1993 to 2013. Using data from the National Health Service Survey (NHSS), which is conducted every five years, crude and age-standardized prevalence during the previous two weeks and hospitalization rates in the last 12 months with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Rao-Scott Chi-square test examined injury morbidity differences across the five survey years by location (urban/rural), sex, age group, and household income. Percent changes in morbidity rate were approximated using logistic regressions. Sampling weights were applied to all analyses. In 2013, crude two-week injury prevalence in China was 0.46% (95% CI: 0.40%, 0.52%) and 12-month crude hospitalization rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.63%, 0.77%). Age-standardized injury prevalence increased 31.4% (95% CI: 7.6%, 60.6%) between 1993 and 2013 (29.4%, 95% CI: 6.7%, 56.9% from 1993-2003; 1.6%, 95% CI: -14.8%, 21.0% from 2003-2013), and age-standardized hospitalization rates rose 107.2% (95% CI: 75.1%, 145.2%) from 1993 to 2013 (-9.5%, 95% CI: -24.6%, 8.6% from 1993-2003 and 129.0%, 95% CI: 93.9%, 170.4% from 2003-2013). Subgroup analyses showed similar trends over time. The leading cause of injury was dislocation, sprain or strain for prevalence, and fractures for hospitalization. In conclusion, injury morbidity increased substantially from 1993 to 2013 in China. Inconsistent changes in two-week prevalence and 12-month hospitalization rate merit attention from researchers and policy-makers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of hepatitis B knowledge and stigma among chronically infected patients and uninfected persons in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaxin; Guan, Mary L; Balch, Jeremy; Wu, Elizabeth; Rao, Huiying; Lin, Andy; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection carries substantial stigma in China. We surveyed HBV knowledge and stigma among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and persons without HBV infection in Beijing, China. Four hundred and thirty five CHB patients and 801 controls at Peking University People's Hospital were surveyed. Chronic hepatitis B patients were older (mean 46 vs. 39 years) and more often men (71 vs. 48%) than controls. Mean knowledge score was 11.9/15 for CHB and 9.3/15 for control patients (P sharing meals with CHB patients (39%) and believed CHB patients should not be allowed to work in restaurants (58%) or childcare (44%). Chronic hepatitis B patients felt that they were undesirable as spouses (33 vs. 17%) and brought trouble to their families (58 vs. 34%) more often than controls. Despite legal prohibitions, 40% of CHB patients were required to undergo pre-employment HBV testing, and 29% of these individuals thought that they lost job opportunities because of their disease status. 16% of CHB patients regretted disclosing their HBV status and disclosure was inversely associated with stigma. Higher stigma was associated with older age, lower education and lower knowledge score among controls; and with lower education, younger age, having undergone pre-employment HBV testing and regret disclosing their HBV status among CHB patients. Despite high prevalence of CHB in China, our study shows knowledge is limited and there is significant societal and internalized stigma associated with HBV infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  6. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  7. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  8. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  9. Who Smokes in Smoke-Free Public Places in China? Findings from a 21 City Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included…

  10. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  11. Motorized Transportation, Social Status, and Adiposity The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Background: Increased dependence on motorized transportation may contribute to obesity. Countries in rapid socioeconomic transitions, such as China, provide an opportunity to investigate such an association. Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the hypotheses that increased dependence on

  12. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  13. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  14. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  15. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) data was used to investigate internet use and mobile phone ownership in older Chinese adults and examine digital divide and social economic status and mobile technology adoption and health outcomes associations. Results suggest a significant digital divide associated with not only individual characteristics, but also neighborhood resources. Future eHealth programs should consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for different social groups.

  17. China's Contribution to Anesthesiology Research: A 10-Year Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guohao; Zhang, Kai; Wood, Chris; Hoeft, Andreas; Liu, Jin; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-05-01

    Anesthesiology has advanced in China over the past decade. We compared the trends in publication of anesthesiology articles from China between 2005 and 2014 with the trends in 5 developed countries. We included all journals listed in the ''Anesthesiology'' category of Journal Citation Reports. Anesthesiology-related publications from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the PubMed and Web of Knowledge online databases. The total number of articles, publication type categories, number of citations, and citation rate (number of citations/years since publication) were analyzed. The sample size was the n = 10 years for all confidence intervals and P values. We additionally evaluated the total number of articles published in the 10 top-ranking journals. From 2005 to 2014, 41,344 articles were published in anesthesiology journals. Of these, 3.07% were contributed by authors from Chinese institutions. Although this contribution was less than the Unites States, Great Britain, Germany, France, or Japan, publications from Chinese institutions grew at an annual rate of 13% (95% confidence interval: 3.08%-23.38%, P United States (2.71, P = 0.545), Great Britain (2.57, P = 0.999), Germany (2.35, P = 0.999), France (1.50, P = 0.520), and Japan (1.24, P = 0.065). In the 10 highest impact anesthesiology journals, China published 780 articles during the decade. The 3 journals with the most publications from Chinese institutions were Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anesthesiology, and Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. In the studied decade, anesthesiology research published by Chinese institutions lagged behind publications from developed countries. There was a steady increase in the number of articles every year, resulting in recent rates of publication similar to several developed countries. The citation rate of articles from Chinese institutions was similar to the citation rate of articles from developed countries, indicating that the quality of articles from China in these journals is

  18. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan E Lipkie

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples. Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L, β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L, β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L, and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L. Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L and total lipids (g/L decreased (p0.05 with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p0.3. This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  19. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (pLutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (pmilk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  20. Survey on breast cancer patients in China toward breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jiang, Ming; Zhou, Yi; Du, Xiao-Bo; Yao, Wen-Xiu; Yan, Xi; Jiang, Yu; Zou, Li-Qun

    2012-05-01

    We sought to investigate attitudes toward breast-conserving therapy (BCS) in early-stage breast cancer (EBC) patients from P. R. China and assess the factors influencing their decision. There exists geographical difference in decision to perform mastectomy or BCS for EBC patients. To date, there has been no report on attitudes toward BCS or factors influencing the surgical choice in mainland China. A structured questionnaire was delivered to 1800 EBC patients. The questionnaire elicited information about general patients' characteristics, attitudes toward BCS, the roles of doctors and spouses, the levels of understanding of BCS, and the reasons for their preferences. Of 1590 participants, only 7.3% anticipated BCS and this was significantly associated with patient age, income, occupation, martial status, education, levels of self-understanding of the disease, and doctors' and spouses' suggestions (Pwomen (39.2%), even if given another opportunity, only 32.5% of patients preferred to choose it. Moreover, the level of understanding BCS among patients is low (well-known: less-known: never-heard, 2.3 vs 47.4 vs 13.3%). These results suggested that Chinese EBC patients lack accurate and comprehensive understanding of BCS. More efforts are needed to educate breast cancer patients in mainland China toward BCS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  2. Survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding reproductive health among urban men in China: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Gong, Rui-Long; Han, Qing-Rong; Shi, Yu-Qin; Jia, Quan-An; Xu, Shan-Dan; Wang, Le-Qun; Zhu, Chang-Cai

    2015-01-01

    There has been little focus on men's reproductive health (RH) in China. This descriptive study conducted in Yiling District, Yichang, China, surveyed male knowledge of sexual physiology and RH to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 3933 men, aged 18-59 years (mean, 40.3 years), were recruited by cluster random sampling. They completed a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with items related to subject characteristics, RH knowledge, and subjective symptoms of the reproductive system. Physical examination and reproductive system disease diagnosis were performed. Participants' occupations were predominantly skilled labor (80.5%). Nearly four-fifths (78.5%) respondents had at least one reproductive disease. Over half of respondents were aware of and declared a positive attitude about sexual physiology and safe sex, and 70% of them selected to visit a doctor when they had a reproductive disorder. However, only 41.9% believed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome could be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 64.6% incorrectly thought they could avoid contracting STDs by cleaning their genitals after intercourse. In addition, 45% discriminated against and were unwilling to be friends with infected persons. Nearly 45% of those with a reproductive system disorder refused to discuss it with friends or family members. These results indicate that this cohort of Chinese men had a certain degree of KAP about RH, whereas some aspects require further public health education in the general population. It is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge of STD risk in China based on sociodemographic characteristics.

  3. Medical expenditure for liver cancer in urban China: A 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu-Qi; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Mao, A-Yan; Huang, Hui-Yao; Hu, Guang-Yu; Dong, Pei; Bai, Fang-Zhou; Yan, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Bai, Ya-Na; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Lin; Mai, Ling; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Song, Bing-Bing; Liu, Yu-Qin; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Shou-Ling; Cao, Rong; Qi, Xiao; Lan, Li; Ren, Ying; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Qu, Chunfeng; Dai, Min

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the medical expenditure for liver cancer during 2002-2011 in urban areas of China. This is a retrospective study. Based on a stratified cluster sampling method, a medical expenditure survey collected basic personal information from related medical records. Two-tailed independent sample t-test, variance analysis, and Student-Newman-Keuls Tests were used in cost analysis for the corresponding data types. A total of 12,342 liver cancer patients were included in the analysis. Overall average medical expenditure per case for liver cancer diagnosis and treatment in China has increased from ¥21, 950 to ¥40, 386 over the study period. For each liver cancer patient diagnosed between 2009 and 2011, the average expenditures were 29,332 CNY for stage I, 35,754 CNY for stage II, 34,288 CNY for stage III, and 30,275 CNY for stage IV diseases (P medical expenditure and it rose from 48.01% to 52.96% during these ten years, and the share of nursing fee expenses was the lowest (around 1%). Over the entire 10-year data period, the per capita expenditure of the east region (32,983 CNY) was higher than that of the west region (26,219 CNY) and slightly higher than the central region (31,018 CNY, P medical expenditure is heavy for families. Early diagnosis and treatment for liver cancer will save medical expenditure. The economic burden of liver cancer is high in China and related medical expenditure has increased.

  4. Survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding reproductive health among urban men in China: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little focus on men's reproductive health (RH in China. This descriptive study conducted in Yiling District, Yichang, China, surveyed male knowledge of sexual physiology and RH to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs regarding prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. A total of 3933 men, aged 18-59 years (mean, 40.3 years, were recruited by cluster random sampling. They completed a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with items related to subject characteristics, RH knowledge, and subjective symptoms of the reproductive system. Physical examination and reproductive system disease diagnosis were performed. Participants' occupations were predominantly skilled labor (80.5%. Nearly four-fifths (78.5% respondents had at least one reproductive disease. Over half of respondents were aware of and declared a positive attitude about sexual physiology and safe sex, and 70% of them selected to visit a doctor when they had a reproductive disorder. However, only 41.9% believed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome could be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 64.6% incorrectly thought they could avoid contracting STDs by cleaning their genitals after intercourse. In addition, 45% discriminated against and were unwilling to be friends with infected persons. Nearly 45% of those with a reproductive system disorder refused to discuss it with friends or family members. These results indicate that this cohort of Chinese men had a certain degree of KAP about RH, whereas some aspects require further public health education in the general population. It is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge of STD risk in China based on sociodemographic characteristics.

  5. Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) among Kindergarten Teachers in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Yuan, Jun; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers play an important role in providing kindergarten children with education on nutrition. However, few studies have been published on nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese kindergarten teachers. This study aimed to assess the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. Thus, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured KAP model questionnaire administered to 222 kindergarten teachers, who were senior teachers from 80 kindergartens in 19 districts and 20 counties in Chongqing. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors. Among the participants, 54.2% were familiar with simple nutrition-related knowledge; only 9.9% of them were satisfied with their knowledge of childhood nutrition; and 97.7% of them had a positive attitude to learn nutrition-related knowledge. Only 38.7% of the participants had attended pediatric nutrition knowledge courses or training. Multiple regression analysis confirmed significant independent effects on the nutrition knowledge score (p teachers, behavior of having ever participated in childhood nutrition education knowledge courses or training, and behavior of having ever paid attention to children’s nutrition knowledge. The model indicated that independent variables explained 45.4% (adjusted R2) of the variance found in the knowledge scores of respondents. While there were low levels of nutrition knowledge and training, it was still encouraging to note that there were positive attitudes towards acquiring nutrition-related knowledge among kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. These findings provide some implications that necessary training measures need to be carried out to improve the nutrition-related knowledge level among kindergarten teachers in China. PMID:29597273

  6. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension has been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to analyze the current prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in northeast China. This cross-sectional survey adopted the multistage stratified random cluster sampling method to obtain a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or older in the general population of northeast China. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medications in the last 2 weeks irrespective of BP. Altogether 4052 participants were included with weighted prevalence of hypertension of 57.3%. Among them, 47.4% were aware of their condition; 78.8% took antihypertensive medication, but only 10.2% had their blood pressure controlled. Individuals who were overweight/obesity, with dyslipidemia, or diabetes were at a higher risk of hypertension; these people also more likely to be aware of their condition. Subjects with a personal history of stroke were more inclined to receive antihypertensive medication, but that did not necessarily translate to well-controlled hypertension. Moreover, dyslipidemia (OR = 0.600; 95% CI: 0.375, 0.960) were associated with poor hypertension control. Subjects using combination of antihypertensive medications (OR = 2.924; 95% CI: 1.606, 5.325) or with a family history of coronary heart disease were more likely to have their blood pressure controlled. Our study identified a high prevalence of hypertension in northeast China. Although awareness and treatment rates improved over the last decade, the control rate remained disproportionately and unacceptably low.

  7. Survey of Attitudes and Ethical Concerns Related to Gene Therapy Among Medical Students and Postgraduates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangcheng; Xiao, Lihong; Gou, Zhongping; Li, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Haiping; Feng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy is becoming an important treatment modality for gravely ill patients, and today's medical students and postgraduates are both potential consumers and future providers of gene therapy. Therefore, their attitudes and concerns about gene therapy may directly influence its long-term development and implementation in the clinic. We performed a cross-sectional survey of medical students and postgraduates at West China Medical School of Sichuan University. A custom-designed questionnaire was distributed to 600 students, and 579 were valid (96.98% response). Most respondents (84.46%) indicated little prior knowledge about gene therapy. The proportion of respondents considering gene therapy as acceptable ranged from 63.73% for serious illness to 17.72% for genetic enhancement. Adverse side effects were the most frequent concern among respondents when asked to imagine that they would receive gene therapy to treat a severe brain-related illness. These results suggest that medical students in China consider gene therapy's acceptability to be rather low, and are most concerned about its adverse side effects.

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingling Chen

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.

  9. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  10. Survey on the use of mental health services and help-seeking behaviors in a community population in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ni, Chun-Ping; Yang, Ping; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2018-04-01

    There is little research into the patterns of mental health services use, related factors, and barriers in help-seeking behaviors among the community population in northwestern China. We conducted a community-based survey among the general population in Xi'an City with the stratified two-stage systematic selection scheme using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 computer-assisted personal interview (CIDI-CAPI 3.0). We interviewed 2447 individuals aged 16 years or older. The lifetime prevalence estimate of mental disorders was 21%. However, the lifetime use rate of mental health services of the 2447 responding subjects was 2.45% and 4.67% among those subjects who reported a mental disorder. Several variables were associated with lower use of mental health services: rural residence and divorced or unmarried. Among the group with mental disorders, 15/21 sought help from non-mental health specialty services such as a general physician (13/21). The high prevalence rate of mental disorders but low rate of mental health services use raises a significant public health issue in northwestern China. Reduction in the resource gap and encouraging people to seek treatment remain a challenge to the mental health services system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey on risk perception of radiation following an incident involving a stuck 60Co source in Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C.; Sun, Q.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, Y.; Chu, C.; Zhao, Y.; Qin, W.; Su, X.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2009, an incident involving a stuck Co-60 source led hundreds of thousands of people to escape Qi County, Henan Province, China, although no medical or environmental consequences were related to the incident. To investigate knowledge about radiation, public risk-perception of radiation, and evaluation of the official response, a survey was conducted in Qi and Hui County (control). Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were conducted among three groups with different educational backgrounds. In total, 1340 valid questionnaires were collected from people interviewed. Knowledge about radiation was low in all groups in both counties, although knowledge in Qi County was higher than that in Hui County (control). More than 40 % respondents supported construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, while only a few supported constructing NPPs in their vicinity. The main reasons for the mass escape following the incident were assumed to be lack of knowledge about radiation, misinformation, the government's failure to disclose information in time and imitation of group behaviour. Over 60 % in Group I and II trusted the local government. About 64 % disapproved the response of the Qi County government. After the incident, the population in Qi County still knows little about radiation. Although people trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the response of the local government regarding the incident. (authors)

  12. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingya; Lin, Senlin; Liang, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-09-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Our results showed that internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The years of living in the city of residence were positively associated with the utilization of public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces significantly reduced the probability of using health records (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on non-communicable diseases (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through the Internet (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). This study concludes that public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsidies. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.

  13. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  14. Equity of the essential public health service in rural china: evidence from a nationwide survey of hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donghua; Feng, Zhanchun; He, Shasha; Sun, Xi; Ma, Caihui; Lv, Benyan; Zou, Xiong

    2013-07-01

    To explore healthcare disparities in rural China two years after the implementation of the Essential Public Health Service (EPHS) reform in 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying 930 hypertension patients (HPs) from different regions in rural China in 2011. The percentages of patients using recommended four or more follow-up visits in a year were calculated by patient socio-demographic characteristics and statistically examined using chi-square and logistic regression to uncover disparities and correlated factors in EPHS use. The rates were not significantly different by age, gender, education, insurance status or income, but significantly different by region and hypertension history (p<0.01). Higher rates were also observed on patients who sought actively follow-up service at clinics, making appointment for the next follow-up with doctors, awareness of the need of follow-up, more satisfied with the follow-up services, and better medication adherence (p<0.01). There were no disparities observed among HPs in the use of follow-up services, suggesting that the reform has to some extent achieved its goal in ensuring equal access to EPHS. In this regard, regional implementation of the national policies and improvement of EPHS management at local level should be further improved.

  15. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Dong, Fei; Deacon, Claire; Chen Huojun; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. - Altering rice shoot phosphorus status is a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic.

  16. A sub-nationwide survey of outdoor and indoor 222Rn concentrations in China by passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yihe; Ikebe, Y.; Iida, T.

    1996-01-01

    From Nov. 1988 to Mar. 1993, cooperated by China and Japan, a survey of outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations in 10 cities which were highly populated in China was carried out by means of passive method. the annual mean of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in 10 cities was 8.8 Bq·m -3 . The highest of 13.5 Bq·m -3 was in Wuhan, the lowest of 3.3 Bq·m -3 was in Chongming Island of Shanghai; and there were no significant differences among the different years in the same areas. During the northwest wind seasons, about 50% of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in Taiwan was contributed by the airflow from the mainland. Typical apartment houses and offices built of brick and concrete were also surveyed for indoor 222 Rn concentration. The annual mean of indoor 222 Rn concentration in the 10 cities was 19.5 Bq·m - 3. The highest of 33.9 Bq·m -3 was observed in Guiyang, the lowest of 9.0 Bq·m -3 was observed in Chongming Island of Shanghai. The outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations showed a clear seasonal pattern with the minimum in summer and the maximum in winter. And they also showed a clear geographic distribution tendency; they were higher in inland than in seashores, and higher in the south than in the north. The ratios of indoor to outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were from 1.1 to 4.6. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations amounted to about 0.64 mSv·a -1 . The highest was in Guiyang, and the lowest was in Nantong, being 1.12 and 0.39 mSv·a -1 , respectively

  17. A survey of factors associated with the utilization of community health centers for managing hypertensive patients in Chengdu, China.

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    Yun Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For decades the development of community health services has been emphasized in China to cope with the growing burden of chronic diseases by providing basic medical services. This survey aims at investigating factors associated with the use of Community Health Centers (CHCs for the management of hypertensive patients in Chengdu, China. METHODS: We used a systematic sampling method to select 2,030 patients with hypertension or diabetes registered in 29 CHCs in Chengdu in 2007. Researchers interviewed patients who consented to participate at their home. This paper reports findings from the survey of 1,716 hypertensive patients with completed questionnaires. Univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors influencing the use of CHCs for the management of hypertensive patients. RESULTS: 81.4% of hypertensive patients regularly used CHCs for hypertension monitoring and treatment in Chengdu. Univariate analyses indicated that use of CHCs was associated with the education level, occupation, types of medical insurance, Body Mass Index(BMI, patients' knowledge on hypertension, awareness of CHCs functions, satisfaction of the service of CHCs. Multiple regression analyses found that use of CHCs was positively associated with the following factors: the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance(URBMI, knowledge on blood pressure, awareness of the sites in CHCs to measure blood pressure, awareness of having to take life-long antihypertensive medicine once the treatment started, awareness of the health records registration in CHCs, regular follow up, improved convenience of seeing doctor. Patients with professional job were less likely to use the services of CHCs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of CHCs for hypertension management could be increased by improving residents' knowledge on the monitoring and treatment of hypertension, and the awareness of CHCs functions. The CHCs could play an important role in

  18. Prevalence of dementia in Latin America, India, and China: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Acosta, Isaac; Dewey, Michael E; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT; Li, Shuran; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina; Kumar, P Senthil; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Prince, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Studies have suggested that the prevalence of dementia is lower in developing than in developed regions. We investigated the prevalence and severity of dementia in sites in low-income and middle-income countries according to two definitions of dementia diagnosis. Methods We undertook one-phase cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 years and older (n=14 960) in 11 sites in seven low-income and middle-income countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Dementia diagnosis was made according to the culturally and educationally sensitive 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm, which had been prevalidated in 25 Latin American, Asian, and African centres; and by computerised application of the dementia criterion from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). We also compared prevalence of DSM-IV dementia in each of the study sites with that from estimates in European studies. Findings The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia varied widely, from 0·3% (95% CI 0·1–0·5) in rural India to 6·3% (5·0–7·7) in Cuba. After standardisation for age and sex, DSM-IV prevalence in urban Latin American sites was four-fifths of that in Europe (standardised morbidity ratio 80 [95% CI 70–91]), but in China the prevalence was only half (56 [32–91] in rural China), and in India and rural Latin America a quarter or less of the European prevalence (18 [5–34] in rural India). 10/66 dementia prevalence was higher than that of DSM-IV dementia, and more consistent across sites, varying between 5·6% (95% CI 4·2–7·0) in rural China and 11·7% (10·3–13·1) in the Dominican Republic. The validity of the 847 of 1345 cases of 10/66 dementia not confirmed by DSM-IV was supported by high levels of associated disability (mean WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II score 33·7 [SD 28·6]). Interpretation As compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm, the DSM-IV dementia criterion might underestimate

  19. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  20. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  1. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

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    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  2. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  3. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  4. Floristic Survey of Summer Aspect in Chosen China Clay Pits in Western Bohemia

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    Kamila Botková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different china clay pits in the western part of the Czech Republic were explored and plant species were determined. These chosen pits were: Hájek-western part, Chlumčany, Horní Bříza, Otovice and Podlesí II. China clay pits with active excavation represent a specific environment concerning both physical and chemical characteristics. This article is presenting a list of the higher plants which were found within active excavation or former excavation areas. Species with a protection status according to the Czech legislation are presented in more detail. 189 different species have been found in total, including 2 species from category C4 – potentially vulnerable taxa, 6 species from category C3 – endangered taxa and 1 species from the C1 – critically threatened taxa from the Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. 28 different species occurred at each of the five sites. Predominant species favour sandy substratum and bare surface.

  5. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  6. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors.

  7. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  8. Combining satellite remote sensing and surveys to understand persistent yield variation--- a case study in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lobell, D. B.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large gap between maize yields on average farmers' fields and the highest yields achieved by either experiment or farmers is typical throughout the developing world, including in the North China Plain (NCP). This maize yield gap as identified by previous studies indicates large opportunities for raising yield by improving agronomy. Quzhou county is typical of the winter-wheat summer-maize system in NCP where the average plot size is as small as 0.25 hectares. To analyze this cropping system amidst the challenge of substantial heterogeneity, we identified fields that were either persistently higher or lower yielding according to the remote sensing yield estimates, and then conducted detailed field surveys. We found irrigation facility to be a major constraint to yield both in terms of irrigation water quality and farmers' access to wells. In total, improving the access to unsalty water would be associated with a 0.32t/ha (4.2%) increase in multi-year average yield. In addition, farmers' method of choosing cultivar, which likely relates to their overall knowledge level, significantly explained yield variation. In particular, those choosing cultivars according to technician advice, personal experiences and high yielding neighbors' advice had on average higher yield than farmers that either followed seed sellers' advice or collectively purchased seeds. Overall, the study presents a generalizable methodology of assessing yield gap as well as its persistent factors using a combination of satellite and survey data.

  9. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  10. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  11. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  13. Three-dimensional Seismic Survey of the Continental-Ocean Transition Zone of the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Sibuet, J. C.; Sun, L.; Sun, Z.; Qiu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific, which has experienced extension, rifting, breakup, post-spreading magmatism on its northern margin during the Cenozoic era. The complexity of this margin is exacerbated by rifting and seafloor spreading processes, which developed at the expenses of the subducting proto-South China Sea. Based on Sun et al. (2014, 2016) proposals, 6 sites were drilled on the northern SCS margin from February to June 2017, during IODP Expeditions 367/368. The preliminary results indicate that the width of the COT is about 20 km and is different from the typical magma-poor Iberia margin whose width is around 100 km. The combination of three-dimensional (3D) Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) refractive survey with IODP drilling results, will improve the drilling achievement and greatly contribute to the understanding of the specific mechanism of rifting and breakup processes of the northern SCS. In particular, it is expected to constrain: 1) the nature of the crust in the COT, 2) the degree of serpentinization of the upper mantle beneath the COT, and 3) the 3D extension of the COT, the oceanic crust and the serpentinized mantle. We firstly carry out the resolution tests and calculate the interval of OBSs using a ray tracing and travel time modelling software. 7-km interval between OBSs is the optimal interval for the resolution tests and ray coverage, which will provide optimal constraints for the characterization of the 20-km wide COT. The 3D seismic survey will be carried out in 2018. The design of the OBSs arrangement and the location of shooting lines are extremely important. At present, we propose 5 main profiles and 14 shooting lines along the multi-channel seismic lines already acquired in the vicinity of the 6 drilling sites. Any comments and suggestions concerning the OBSs arrangement will be appreciated. This work is supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (contracts

  14. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-01-01

    Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use. PMID:19698132

  15. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  16. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: a multi-campus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-08-22

    China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  17. A design of strategic alliance based on value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hong; Huang, Xianfeng

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we use value chain and strategic alliance theories to analyzing the surveying and mapping Industry and enterprises. The value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises is highly-contacted but split by administrative interference, the enterprises are common small scale. According to the above things, we consider that establishing a nonequity- Holding strategic alliance based on value chain is an available way, it can not only let the enterprises share the superior resources in different sectors of the whole value chain each other but avoid offending the interests of related administrative departments, by this way, the surveying and mapping enterprises gain development respectively and totally. Then, we give the method to building up the strategic alliance model through parting the value chain and the using advantage of companies in different value chain sectors. Finally, we analyze the internal rule of strategic alliance and prove it is a suitable way to realize the development of surveying and mapping enterprises through game theory.

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and socio-demographic correlates: Results of a representative household epidemiological survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Fang; Ma, Xin; Guo, Hong-Li; Tang, Yi-Lang; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yang; Li, Peng; Cao, Xin-Dong; Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Qiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in the general population and has been associated with socioeconomic factors. Beijing has undergone significant socioeconomic changes in last decade, however no large-scale community epidemiological surveys of MDD have been conducted in Beijing since 2003. To determine the prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in a representative household sample of the general population in Beijing, China. Data were collected from the 2010 representative household epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Beijing. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select qualified subjects in 18 districts and counties, and then face-to-face interviews were administered using the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) during November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. 19,874 registered permanent residents were randomly identified and 16,032 (response rate=80.7%) completed face-to-face interviews. The time-point and life-time prevalence rates of MDD were estimated to be 1.10% (95% CI: 0.94-1.26%) and 3.56% (95% CI: 3.27-3.85%) respectively. Significant differences were found in sex, age, location of residence, marital status, education, employment status, personal/family monthly income, perception of family environment and relationship with others, when comparing residents with MDD to those without MDD. Those who were female, aged 45 or above, reported low family income, or reported an "average" or "poor" family environment were associated with a higher risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD reported in this survey is relatively lower than that in other western countries. Female sex, age older than 45, low family income, and poor family environment appear to be independent risk factors for MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of stigma and its correlates among patients with major depressive disorder: A multicenter survey from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jie, Feng; Hong-Mei, Gao; Li, Wang; Bin-Hong, Wang; Yi-Ru, Fang; Gang, Wang; Tian-Mei, Si

    2017-09-01

    The stigma of major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important public health problem. This study evaluated stigma in MDD patients in China using explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) questionnaire and the demographic and clinical symptom factors associated with the stigma of these patients. A total of 158 MDD patients from domestic 3 mental health centers were surveyed. We used the EMIC questionnaire to assess stigma of these patients, Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) to assess depressive severity, self-reporting inventory (SCL-90) to assess mental health level, Sheehan disability scale (SDS) to assess social function, and fatigue severity scale (FSS) to assess degree of fatigue. The stigma scores were significantly higher in the 18- to 30-year-old (z = 2.875, P = .024) and 31- to 40-year-old (z = 3.204, P = .008) groups than the 51- to 65-year-old group; in the full-time employment group than the retired group (z = 3.163, P = .016). The stigma scores exhibited significant negative correlation with age (r = -0.169, P = .034) but positive correlations with the scores of MADRS (r = .212, P = .007), total scores (r = .273, P = .001) and subscales of interpersonal sensitivity (r = .233, P = .003), depression (r = .336, P stigma. The age, employment status, fatigue, and depressive severity are closely associated with the perceived stigma of MDD patients and may be important factors considered for stigma interventions of MDD in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. [Warning symptoms of asthma attack and asthma self-management: a national asthma control survey from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.

  1. The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Jit, Mark; Zheng, Yaming; Feng, Luzhao; Liu, Xinxin; Wu, Joseph T; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-10-16

    Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in China, but its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been previously measured. We conducted a retrospective telephone survey to assess the impact of influenza on the HRQoL among outpatients and inpatients using the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L instrument. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection registered by the National Influenza-like-illness Surveillance Network in 2013. We interviewed 839 of 11,098 eligible influenza patients. After excluding those who were unable to complete the HRQoL for the registered influenza episode, 778 patients were included in the analysis. Both outpatients (n = 529) and inpatients (n = 249) most commonly reported problems with pain/discomfort (71.8% of outpatients and 71.9% of inpatients) and anxiety/depression (62.0% of outpatients and 75.1% of inpatients). For individual influenza outpatients, the mean health utility was 0.6142 (SD 0.2006), and the average quality adjusted life days (QALD) loss was 1.62 (SD 1.84) days. The HRQoL of influenza inpatients was worse (mean health utility 0.5851, SD 0.2197; mean QALD loss 3.51 days, SD 4.25) than that of outpatients (p < 0.05). The presence of underlying medical conditions lowered the HRQoL for both outpatients and inpatients (p < 0.05). Influenza illness had a substantial impact on HRQoL. QALD loss due to an acute influenza episode in younger children was comparable to that due to enterovirus A71-associated hand, foot and mouth disease. Our findings are key inputs into disease burden estimates and cost-effectiveness evaluations of influenza-related interventions in China.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for acute mania and disconcordance with treatment guidelines: bipolar mania pathway survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Gao, Keming; Hong, Wu; Xing, Mengjuan; Wu, Zhiguo; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yuan, Chengmei; Huang, Jia; Peng, Daihui; Wang, Yong; Lu, Weihong; Yi, Zhenghui; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Jingping; Fang, Yiru

    2014-06-05

    With the recent attention to evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines for bipolar disorders have been published. This survey investigated prescribing patterns and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of a manic and mixed episode across mainland China. The pharmacological treatments of 2828 patients with a recent hypomanic/manic episode or mixed state were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. The most common pattern of pharmacological treatments for an acute manic or mixed episode was a mood stabilizer plus an atypical antipsychotic (n = 1345, 47.6%), and the rate of guideline-disconcordant treatments was 11.1%. The patients who were treated in general hospitals were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those who were treated in psychiatric hospitals, with an OR of 1.84 (95% CI 1.44-2.36). Similarly, the patients with a mixed episode at study entry were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those with a manic episode, with an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 1.22-2.35). In contrast, the patients with a longer duration of disease (>5 years) were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those with a short duration, with an OR of 0.47 (95% CI 0.36-0.60). In mainland China, the disconcordance with treatment guidelines for a most recent acute manic or mixed episode was modest under naturalistic conditions. The higher risk for disconcordance in general hospitals than in psychiatric hospitals suggests that special education based on treatment guidelines to practitioners in general hospitals is necessary in order to reduce the risk for disconcordant treatments.

  3. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  4. Prevalence of diabetes among Han, Manchu and Korean ethnicities in the Mudanjiang area of China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.

  5. A Cross-sectional Survey of Growth and Nutritional Status in Children With Cerebral Palsy in West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Cai, Qianyun; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Huayin; Li, Na; Ma, Dan; Wang, Qiu; Luo, Rong; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    We describe the growth and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (2 to 18 years old) in West China and to explore the correlation between the nutritional status and age, gender, and gross and fine motor function. We performed a cross-sectional survey of children registered as having cerebral palsy in the China Disabled Persons' Federation branch in Chengdu. Growth (height and weight) and nutritional (body mass index) status were recorded. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were used to determine gross and fine motor function, respectively. The association between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels was evaluated. We enrolled 377 children (53.6% male), among whom 160 (42.4%) were stunting, 48 (12.7%) underweight, 81 (21.5%) thin, and 70 (18.5%) overweight and obese. Thinness was the main nutritional problem in older patients (12 to 18 years), whereas overweight and obesity were the major issues in younger patients (2 to 12 years). Growth deviation and malnutrition were significantly more prevalent in patients with severe motor impairments. A significant negative correlation was found between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels, and between growth and GMFCS and MACS levels. Growth abnormality is common in children with cerebral palsy. Malnutrition and overnutrition both exist in children with cerebral palsy. Characteristics at different age stages and motor functional levels should be taken into consideration in the management of growth and nutrition in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between occupational stress and burnout among Chinese teachers: a cross-sectional survey in Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ramos, Aaron; Wu, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2015-07-01

    Teaching has been reported to be one of the most stressful occupations in the world. Few studies have been conducted to explore the effects of occupational stress on burnout among teachers in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the relationship between occupational stress and burnout among teachers in primary and secondary schools in the Liaoning Province of China. A questionnaire that assessed occupational stress comprised of Karasek's job content questionnaire (JCQ), Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI), and burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was distributed to 681 teachers in primary and secondary schools. A total of 559 effective respondents became our final study subjects. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed through the use of SPSS 17.0 to explore the association between occupational stress and burnout. A high level of emotional exhaustion was significantly associated with high extrinsic effort, high overcommitment, low skill discretion, and high job demand. A high level of cynicism was associated with low reward, low skill discretion, high overcommitment, and low supervisor support. The low level of professional efficacy was associated with low coworker support, low reward, low skill discretion, and high job demand. Compared to the JCQ, the ERI was more likely to explain the burnout of teachers in our study. Occupational stress proved to be associated with dimensions of burnout among Chinese teachers. It is important for administrators of primary and middle schools to note that strategies to decrease teachers' occupational stress seem to be crucial to enhance physical and mental health of teachers in China.

  7. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among sonographers in China: results from a national web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danying; Huang, Hanlin

    2017-11-25

    The aims of present study were to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) among sonographers in China and to provide evidence for appropriate intervention measures to be taken. A self-reported questionnaire was used to screen WRMSDs experienced by sonographers during the past 12 months. This questionnaire survey was created and hosted on the WeChat official account platform for sonographers. In the present study, 567 sonographers from 521 medical institutions completed the questionnaire. The vast majority (99.3%) of respondents reported experiencing symptoms of WRMSDs for at least one body region during the past 12 months. Work-related musculoskeletal pain or discomfort was most frequently reported for the neck (95.1%), right shoulder (84.1%), lower back (82.4%), right wrist/hand (81.0%), upper back (78.1%), right forearm/elbow (72.0%), and left shoulder (66.1%). Scanning hours per day, number of patients per day, and years of experience were positively associated with the occurrence and frequency of experiencing WRMSDs of some common and specific anatomical regions. Taking a regular rest break during the scanning working day was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the right shoulder and right wrist/hand. Adopting a sitting posture while performing scanning was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs, particularly for the lower back and the neck. Performing regular physical activity during leisure time was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the neck. The prevalence of WRMSDs among sonographers in China was extremely high. It is necessary and essential to reduce the number of scanning hours and patients per day, adopt a sitting posture while performing scanning, schedule regular rest breaks during the scanning working day, and encourage performance of regular physical activity during leisure time to alleviate this WRMSD issue experienced by sonographers.

  8. Prevalence, risk factors and the bother of lower urinary tract symptoms in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Hu, Hao; Xu, Kexin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Na, Yanqun; Kang, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consist of storage, voiding and postmicturition symptoms and cause discomfort in approximately 15.8 to 82.0 % of adults worldwide. Despite the wide range in prevalence rates, certain potential risk factors for LUTS have been identified, advanced age being the most noted one. However, the true extent of symptom discomfort among the affected population may be underestimated because of the considerable underreporting of the problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and discomfort caused by LUTS in China. This population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in five geographical regions of China. A stratified, clustered, systematic sample of individuals aged ≥18 years was selected to answer demographic questionnaires and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Male/Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Long Form. A total of 3,023 participants (1,551 men; 1,472 women) were included in this study, and 61.2 % (61.2 % men; 61.1 % women) reported at least one LUTS. The prevalence of storage symptoms (59.8 % men; 60.5 % women) was greater than that of voiding (23.6 % men; 8.8 % women) plus postmicturition symptoms (14.6 % men; 6.3 % women). Nocturia (58.2 % men; 56.9 % women) was the most common specific LUTS. Advanced age, alcohol consumption and smoking were risk factors for LUTS among participants of both sexes. Enlarged prostate, diabetes mellitus and lower education levels correlated positively with LUTS in men, whereas higher parity and hypertension correlated positively with LUTS in women. Subjects with LUTS had great discomfort. Nocturia was the least bothersome symptom in both sexes, whereas nocturnal enuresis and urge urinary incontinence were the most bothersome in men and women respectively. Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent in China and many known risk factors are associated with these bothersome symptoms. However, the perception of the extent

  9. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  11. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wagner, Anita K; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Limited access to essential medicines is a global problem. Improving availability and affordability of essential medicines is a key objective of the National Essential Medicine Policy (NEMP) in China. In its initial implementation in 2009, the NEMP targeted primary hospitals with policies designed to increase availability of essential medicines and reduce patients' economic burden from purchasing medicines. We assessed medicine availability and price during the early years of the health reform in Shaanxi Province in underdeveloped western China. We undertook two public (hospitals) and private (pharmacy) sector surveys of prices and availability of medicines, in September, 2010 and April, 2012, by a standard methodology developed by WHO and Health Action International. We measured medicine availability in outlets at the time of the surveys and inflation-adjusted median unit prices (MUPs), taking 2010 as the base year. We used general estimating equations to calculate the significance of differences in availability from 2010 to 2012 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test to calculate the significance of differences in adjusted median prices. We collected data from 50 public sector hospitals and 36 private sector retail pharmacies in 2010 and 72 public hospitals and 72 retail pharmacies in 2012. Mean availability of surveyed medicines was low in both the public and private sectors; availability of many essential medicines decreased from 2010 to 2012, particularly in primary hospitals (from 27·4% to 22·3% for lowest priced generics; ppublic sector, the median adjusted patient price was significantly lower in 2012 than in 2010 for 16 originator brands (difference -11·7%; p=0·0019) and 29 lowest-priced generics (-5·2%; p=0·0015); the median government procurement price for originator brands also decreased significantly (-10·9%; p=0·0004), whereas the decrease in median procurement price for lowest-priced generics was not significant (-4·9%; p=0·17). In the private

  12. Research Capacity at Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Centers in China: A Survey of Clinical Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Han, Mei; Lai, Lily; Wang, Si-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background. The development of an evidence-based approach to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which depends on the generation of good quality evidence, requires an adequate workforce. However, the research capacity of TCM investigators is not known. Study Design. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the research capacity of TCM clinical investigators in China. Participants. A total of 584 participants from TCM hospitals and research centers were included. They were asked about the academic and research characteristics, needs for research capacity building, and barriers to clinical research. Results. The majority (80.82%) were qualified to at least a Master's degree, whilst a smaller proportion (40.24%) held a senior professional title. We found that academic outputs were low with the majority (62.16%) authoring less than five publications in total. The most pressing needs for building research capacity identified were training in research methodology (97.43%) and identification of research questions (86.81%), whilst the highest ranking barriers to conducting research were limited motivation, funding (40.72%), and time (37.15%). Conclusion. The methodology training, along with investment in the research workforce, needs to be urgently addressed to improve investigators' research capacity and the development of an evidence-based approach of TCM.

  13. Walkaway-VSP survey using distributed optical fiber in China oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Yu, Gang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yanpeng; Cai, Zhidong; Chen, Yuanzhong; Liu, Congwei; Zhao, Haiying; Li, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a new type of replacement technology for geophysical geophone. DAS system is similar to high-density surface seismic geophone array. In the stage of acquisition, DAS can obtain the full well data with one shot. And it can provide enhanced vertical seismic profile (VSP) imaging and monitor fluids and pressures changes in the hydrocarbon production reservoir. Walkaway VSP data acquired over a former producing well in north eastern China provided a rich set of very high quality data. A standard VSP data pre-processing workflow was applied, followed by pre-stack Kirchhoff time migration. In the DAS pre-processing step we were faced with additional and special challenges: strong coherent noise due to cable slapping and ringing along the borehole casing. The single well DAS Walkaway VSP images provide a good result with higher vertical and lateral resolution than the surface seismic in the objective area. This paper reports on lessons learned in the handling of the wireline cable and subsequent special DAS data processing steps developed to remediate some of the practical wireline deployment issues. Optical wireline cable as a conveyance of fiber optic cables for VSP in vertical wells will open the use of the DAS system to much wider applications.

  14. Legal Professionals' Knowledge of Eyewitness Testimony in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang

    Full Text Available To examine legal professionals' knowledge of a wide range of factors that affect eyewitness accuracy in China.A total of 812 participants, including 210 judges, 244 prosecutors, 202 police officers, and 156 defense attorneys, were asked to respond to 12 statements about eyewitness testimony and 3 basic demographic questions (i.e., gender, age, and prior experience.Although the judges and the defense attorneys had a somewhat higher number of correct responses than the other two groups, all groups showed limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. In addition, the participants' responses to only four items (i.e., weapon focus, attitude and expectations, child suggestibility, and the impact of stress were roughly unanimous within the four legal professional groups. Legal professionals' gender showed no significant correlations with their knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Prior experiences were significantly and negatively correlated with the item on the knowledge of forgetting curve among judges but positively correlated with two items (i.e., attitudes and exposure time among defense attorneys and with 4 statements (i.e., the knowledge of attitudes and expectations, impact of stress, child witness accuracy, and exposure time among prosecutors.The findings suggest that knowledge of the factors that influence eyewitness accuracy must be more effectively communicated to legal professionals in the future.

  15. Research Capacity at Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Centers in China: A Survey of Clinical Investigators

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    Shuo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of an evidence-based approach to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which depends on the generation of good quality evidence, requires an adequate workforce. However, the research capacity of TCM investigators is not known. Study Design. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the research capacity of TCM clinical investigators in China. Participants. A total of 584 participants from TCM hospitals and research centers were included. They were asked about the academic and research characteristics, needs for research capacity building, and barriers to clinical research. Results. The majority (80.82% were qualified to at least a Master’s degree, whilst a smaller proportion (40.24% held a senior professional title. We found that academic outputs were low with the majority (62.16% authoring less than five publications in total. The most pressing needs for building research capacity identified were training in research methodology (97.43% and identification of research questions (86.81%, whilst the highest ranking barriers to conducting research were limited motivation, funding (40.72%, and time (37.15%. Conclusion. The methodology training, along with investment in the research workforce, needs to be urgently addressed to improve investigators’ research capacity and the development of an evidence-based approach of TCM.

  16. An epidemiology survey on the worker's accident death in China nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shouchen; Gao Zenglin; Chang Xuezhang

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the worker's accident death in China nuclear industry, the author adopted epidemiological method, ICD-9 death classification principle in investigating the cause of all deaths in 11 units from their setting up to the end of 1990. There were 786 cases of accident death which was in the second place among all death causation. The crude mortality was 50.98 x 10 -5 , standard mortality 46.56 x 10 -5 , and SMR 1.20 (P>0.01). Average death age was 34.93 years. There wasn't obvious increase or decrease trends over the years (P>0.05). The most accident death was injury suffered on the job (29.90%), the second was suicide (22.52%), third, transport accident (10.81%) and next, drowning (8.40%), accidental fall (6.87%), poisoning (4.20%). Potential life lose was 25743 years. Relative risk (RR) for accident death of male is bigger than that of female. and the higher RR in radiation group compared with non-radiation group, came from uranium geological teams and mines mainly, while without proof of radioactivity itself

  17. Real Conditions and Themes of Gender Diversity in Management in Japan, China, and South Korea: 605 results from the "Corporate Survey of Human Resource Utilization (China and Korea)" (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIZUKA Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Japan, China, and South Korea, as neighboring countries in northeast Asia, have a Confucian-rooted orientation toward the separation of labor among women and men, and they share the perception of having gender disparities in the workplace. Hereafter, their various roles in serving the world economy will increase, as will corporate expansion and employee movements. The purpose of this paper is to use the company survey data of the three countries to compare the real conditions of gender divers...

  18. Epidemiology of functional diarrhea and comparison with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based survey in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling design in five cities of China. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire, and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36 was used for assessing health-related quality of life in 20% of the sample. Overall, 248 respondents (1.54% had functional diarrhea and 277 (1.72% had IBS-D. Functional diarrhea was positively associated with increasing age and body mass index (trend test P<0.05. The three most common symptoms for at least 3 weeks in the past months were loose, mushy or watery stools (n = 203, 81.85%, more than three bowel movements a day (n = 100, 40.32% and having to rush to the toilet to have a bowel movement (n = 72, 29.03%. Meaningful impairment was observed in 5 of the 8 SF-36 domains in respondents with functional diarrhea. The demographics are mostly similar between the respondents with functional diarrhea and IBS-D; however, respondents with IBS-D had more frequent symptoms of diarrhea and even lower scores in SF-36 domains than those with functional diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of functional diarrhea in China is substantially lower than that in Western countries and relatively higher than that in other Asian countries. It impaired health-related quality of life, and respondents with IBS-D have even worse quality of life. Further population-based studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and the differences between functional diarrhea and IBS-D.

  19. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

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    Changfa Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005. To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002 but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089 level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  20. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Kahn, Clare; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-01-01

    To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002) but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089) level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest) and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents. PMID:27690073

  1. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973-2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Kahn, Clare; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-09-28

    To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973-1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990-1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004-2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level ( p = 0.002) but not at the economic zone ( p = 0.089) level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest) and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres' beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15-64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  2. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  3. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  4. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  5. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia among adults in Northwestern China: the cardiovascular risk survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang, China. Method Stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of the general population including Chinese Han, Uygur, and Kazak in this geographic area. Seven cities were chosen. Based on the government records of registered residences, one participant was randomly selected from each household. The eligibility criterion for the study was ≥ 35 years of age. Results A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Han, 4,767 Uygur, and 4,094 Kazak), were randomly selected from 26 villages in 7 cities. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 52.72% in the all participants. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher in Han than that in the other two ethnic (58.58% in Han, 48.27% in Uygur, and 49.60% in Kazak, P dyslipidemia was higher in men than that in women (56.4% vs. 49.3%, P dyslipidemia, the proportion of those who aware, treat, control of dyslipidemia were 53.67%, 22.51%, 17.09% in Han, 42.19%, 27.78%, 16.20% in Uygur, 37.02%, 21.11%, 17.77% in Kazak. Conclusion Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The proportion of participants with dyslipidemia who were aware, treated, and controlled is unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve the prevention, detection, and treatment of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang. PMID:24393232

  6. Problem-based learning in pharmacology:a survey of department heads in Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-tung LAU

    2004-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) requires active student participation and the use of clinical cases as a trigger to learn within a given area. It has gained much attention as a pedagogic alternative in the course of reform in medica education due to information overload. From discipline-based consideration, it is interesting to understand the views of department heads of pharmacology about implementing PBL for their medical students. According to a general survey from the heads of the department of pharmacology across medical schools in Taiwan, we found that although serious reservation about the approach remains, many departments indeed look forward to including PBL component in their pharmacology curriculum.

  7. Association between Body Mass Index and Migraine: A Survey of Adult Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both migraine and obesity are prevalent disorders in the general population, which are characterized by disability and impaired quality of life. Although so many researches had studied the association between migraine and obesity, there are still no full knowledge of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and migraine, especially chronic migraine (CM. In this study, we analyzed a previous epidemiological survey data of primary headache patients in Chongqing, which surveyed consecutive neurological outpatients through face-to-face interview with physicians using a headache questionnaire. 166 episodic migraine (EM patients and 134 chronic migraine (CM patients were included in the study out of 1327 primary headache patients. And 200 healthy adults from the physical examination center were included as a control group. Finally, we found that the patients with migraine (EM and CM were more likely to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese compared to those in the healthy group. Significant difference was found between BMI and frequency of migraine attacks but not severity or duration of headache onset. And no significant difference was found in severity and duration of headache onset between episodic and chronic migraine among different BMI classifications. Such may update our knowledge about the clinical features of migraine and BMI, revealing that the frequency of attacks may be associated with being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in patients with migraine and that the extent of being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in CM patients was lower than that in EM patients.

  8. Which factors are effective for farmers’ biogas use?–Evidence from a large-scale survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei; Tu, Qin; Bluemling, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government since 1995 has carried out programs for the construction of household biogas digesters in the Chinese countryside. Despite the large governmental spending in the building of household biogas digesters, only 12.16% of the households suitable to produce and use biogas, have built a digester (Li, 2009). This article asks which factors on the household level may be important for the decision whether or not to build a biogas digester. Based on a survey with 1227 households from Guangxi, Hubei, Shandong and Gansu provinces, results of a binary Probit Model show that the governmental promotion of biogas has a significant effect on households’ decision. The question arises which households may, if governmental programs were to be running out, be most likely to construct a household biogas digester? The household head′s age, the number of household members staying at home, the total household income and the subjective discount rate of the respondents are significant factors in a farm household′s decision to build a biogas digester. However, also agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive, which is why technical solutions for tackling the low productivity of biogas digesters in cold regions may need to be further considered. - Highlights: • A binary Probit Model is used to test important factors of household biogas implementation in rural China. • The analysis is based on a survey of 1227 households from four provinces. • The promotion of government has very big and significant effects on household′s decision-making. • The agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive. • Many household characteristics including the subjective discount rate are significant factors

  9. A primary liver cancer death's survey and risk factors analysis of the workers in China nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shouchen; Chang Xuezhang; Gao Zenglin; Xiong Jinlian; Zhang Xuzong; Zhang Zhongren

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate primary liver cancer death in the workers of China nuclear industry and to discuss the risk factors probably for making protection and cure measures, the workers of 11 units are surveyed from the time of foundation to the end of 1990 by groups, trades and sex, and the results are analyzed with the relevant physical examinations, the results in laboratory test, and some clinic epidemiological data concerned. The accumulative rough mortality is 19.20 x 10 -5 , standard mortality 10.09 x 10 -5 , the most is at the age of 35 to 54. SMR 1.00 (P > 0.05), RR value in uranium mines is 3.67 (P < 0.01) and others does not increase. The incidence of hepatomegalia and GPT rising are lower than or about 10%, while the incidence of HBsAg is lower than 8%, a middle-levelled infection in the country. And HBsAg incidence in liver cancer cases is 61.6% and chronic hepatitis in liver cancer cases is 53.4%. The liver cancer case increase in the workers in nuclear industry is not found, but significant increase is found in uranium mine workers; whereas there is no evidence that can be attributed to radiation operation, and the death risk may be considered mainly to be related to HBV infection, then chronic hepatitis or environment factors

  10. Farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses in rural areas: A survey of 465 households in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuesong; Li, Hao; Wang, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    In rural China, reducing low-quality fuel consumption and adopting solar technologies can mitigate pollution problems and improve farmers' living conditions. Before advising farmers to convert traditional houses to solar houses, it is necessary to understand their willingness to do so. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study examined nine factors related to farmers' willingness (FW). A survey was conducted in Chongqing with 465 participants. Nine hypotheses were proposed based on literature studies. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to test the data with the SPSS software package. Three of the nine factors had positive and significant impacts on FW, which were quality of life, government commitments and neighbours'/friends' assessments; two factors had negative and significant impacts, which were additional monthly out-of-pocket expenses and switching cost; and the remaining four factors had no significant impacts, which were durability, popularity, timing and local solar market maturity. Based on the findings, suggestions are made to properly introduce solar houses to Chinese farmers and to quickly stimulate market activities. - Highlights: • We study farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses. • We have nine hypotheses and test nine associated factors. • Three factors positively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Other two factors negatively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Remaining four factors do not significantly impact farmers' willingness

  11. Obesity and chronic kidney disease in patients with chronic heart failure: an insight from the China Heart Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Shi, Hong; Yu, Jinming; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Qingwu; Hu, Dayi

    2011-08-01

    Obesity and decreased kidney function have been shown to be prevalent in Western patients with heart failure; however, whether this phenomenon exists in Chinese patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is not known. One thousand and nine patients with CHF from the China Heart Survey were assessed. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was 34.2%, and there was a stepwise increase in the prevalence of CKD with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes (P obesity and central obesity was 35.7% and 62.5%, respectively. Notably, there was a downward trend in the prevalence of obesity with advanced NYHA classes (trend test, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis further supported the finding that obesity, but not central obesity, was inversely associated with the extent of CHF (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.94, P = 0.017). Renal dysfunction is common in Chinese patients with CHF and is independently associated with advanced NYHA classes. Obesity was inversely associated with the extent of CHF, which further supports the notion that obesity confers improved prognosis in patients with heart failure.

  12. Family characteristics and the use of maternal health services: a population-based survey in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xue, Chengbing; Wang, Youjie; Zhang, Liuyi; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the benefits of maternal health services, these services are often underutilized, especially in the developing countries. The aim of the present study is to provide insight regarding factors affecting maternal health services use from the family perspective. We use data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Jiangsu province of Eastern China to investigate the effect of family characteristics on the use of maternal health services. Family characteristics included whether or not living with parents, age of husband, husband's education, and husband's work status as well as family economic status. Demographic variables, social and environmental factors, and previous reproductive history were taken as potential confounders. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the independent effects of the family characteristic variables on maternal health service utilization. The data indicate that the percentages of prenatal care, postnatal visits and hospital delivery were 85.44, 65.12 and 99.59 % respectively. Living with parents was associated with less use of prenatal care and husband's age, education and employment status had no effect on the use of prenatal care after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Our findings suggest that maternal health education (especially the role of prenatal care) needs to be extended beyond the expectant mothers themselves to their parents and husbands. The difference of health care delivery as a result of traditional family culture may highlight the differences in factors influencing the use of postnatal visits and those influencing the use of prenatal care; which may be worthy of further study.

  13. Migration in the urban-rural hierarchy of China: insights from the microdata of the 1987 National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Liaw, K L; Zeng, Y

    1997-04-01

    Microdata from the 1987 National Population Survey are used to analyze internal migration in China in the 1980s. The focus is on the impact of migration policies on rural-urban migration. "There are two main findings. First, although the migration policy resulted in a very low migration level and systematic distortions in migration schedules, its encouragement of downward migrations was very ineffective, whereas its control on rural-to-urban migrations was partially weakened by the strong upward aspirations of rural families awakened by recent economic reform. Consequently, net in-migration contributed substantially to the growth both of city and of town populations. Second, although the level of education had a strong positive effect on the migration propensities both of males and of females in general, it had a strong negative effect on the migration propensities of females at the time of marriage, a finding which suggests that the families at subsistence income level tended to marry their daughters to grooms in other communities in order to reduce the risk of familial income shortfalls." excerpt

  14. Surveying the Knowledge and Practices of Health Professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on Treating Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Lavis, John N; Randhawa, Harkanwal; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Dejman, Masoumeh; Falahat, Katayoun; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Ramachandran, Parasurama; Shi, Guang; Yesudian, C A K

    2016-05-04

    Research evidence continues to reveal findings important for health professionals' clinical practices, yet it is not consistently disseminated to those who can use it. The resulting deficits in knowledge and service provision may be especially pronounced in low- and middle-income countries that have greater resource constraints. Tuberculosis treatment is an important area for assessing professionals' knowledge and practices because of the effectiveness of existing treatments and recognized gaps in professionals' knowledge about treatment. This study surveyed 384 health professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on their knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Few respondents correctly answered all five knowledge questions (12%) or self-reported performing all five recommended clinical practices "often or very often" (3%). Factors associated with higher knowledge scores included clinical specialization and working with researchers. Factors associated with better practices included training in the care of tuberculosis patients, being based in a hospital, trusting systematic reviews of randomized controlled double-blind trials, and reading summaries of articles, reports, and reviews. This study highlights several strategies that may prove effective in improving health professionals' knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Facilitating interactions with researchers and training in acquiring systematic reviews may be especially helpful. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Development and enrolee satisfaction with basic medical insurance in China: A systematic review and stratified cluster sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Limei; Chen, Ru; Jing, Lisa; Qiao, Yun; Lou, Jiquan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Junwei; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Basic Medical Insurance (BMI) has changed remarkably over time in China because of health reforms that aim to achieve universal coverage and better health care with adequate efforts by increasing subsidies, reimbursement, and benefits. In this paper, we present the development of BMI, including financing and operation, with a systematic review. Meanwhile, Pudong New Area in Shanghai was chosen as a typical BMI sample for its coverage and management; a stratified cluster sampling survey together with an ordinary logistic regression model was used for the analysis. Enrolee satisfaction and the factors associated with enrolee satisfaction with BMI were analysed. We found that the reenrolling rate superficially improved the BMI coverage and nearly achieved universal coverage. However, BMI funds still faced dual contradictions of fund deficit and insured under compensation, and a long-term strategy is needed to realize the integration of BMI schemes with more homogeneous coverage and benefits. Moreover, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance participants reported a higher rate of dissatisfaction than other participants. The key predictors of the enrolees' satisfaction were awareness of the premium and compensation, affordability of out-of-pocket costs, and the proportion of reimbursement. These results highlight the importance that the Chinese government takes measures, such as strengthening BMI fund management, exploring mixed payment methods, and regulating sequential medical orders, to develop an integrated medical insurance system of universal coverage and vertical equity while simultaneously improving enrolee satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-06-01

    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling-ling; Wang, Yu-xia; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Bian, Che; Wang, He; Du, Shufa; Suo, Lin-na

    2014-11-01

    This study examines gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in Chinese. Based on a nationwide, population-based China Health and Nutrition survey this study included 8564 men and women aged 18 years or older. Anthropometric and fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, and transferrin data were collected. Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55 ± 3.6 versus 80.46 ± 1.64 ng/mL, p obesity, and overweight were 8.05, 8.97, 4.67, 25.88% among men and 14.23, 6.58, 5.81, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p gender difference in associations between ferritin and MetS, obesity, and diabetes in Chinese adults. Further evaluations of the variation in gender on these associations are warranted to understand the mechanisms behind gender differences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Epidemiological survey and risk factor analysis of asthma in children in urban districts of Zhengzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Song, Gui-Hua; Gu, Hua-Qian; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan-Rong

    2014-12-01

    To study the epidemiological features, treatment status, and risk factors for asthma in children in Zhengzhou, China. Questionnaires for primary screening were issued using the method of multi-stage stratified sampling. Suspected asthmatic children were given a second questionnaire, physical examination, medical history review, and auxiliary examination to confirm the diagnosis. Age- and sex-matched non-asthmatic children were randomly recruited to the control group. The number of valid questionnaires was 10 616 (5 444 males and 5 172 females). There were 308 confirmed asthma cases and the overall prevalence was 2.90%. The prevalence in boys was higher than that in girls (3.4% vs 2.4%). The prevalence in children under 3 years of age was 10.2%, which was higher than that in other age groups. The top three triggers for asthma attack in children were respiratory infection (94.2%), weather changes (89.0%), and exercise (35.1%). The most common asthma attack was moderate (71.8%), followed by mild (22.7%). Inhaled corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics were applied to 94.8% (292 cases), 74.7% (230 cases), and 90.9% (280 cases) of all patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated the following major risk factors for asthma: history of allergic rhinitis (OR=150.285, 95% CI: 31.934-707.264), history of eczema (OR=10.600, 95% CI: 1.054-106.624), history of atopic dermatitis (OR=31.368, 95% CI: 3.339-294.683), food allergies (OR=27.373, 95% CI: 2.670-280.621), method of birth (OR=2.853, 95% CI: 1.311-6.208), age of first antibiotic use (OR=0.384, 95% CI: 0.172-0.857), frequency of antibiotic use within 1 year of age (OR=9.940, 95% CI: 6.246-15.820), use of wall decorating materials (OR=2.108, 95% CI: 1.464-3.036), and use of heat supply in winter (OR=6.046, 95% CI: 1.034-35.362). The prevalence of childhood asthma is associated with age and gender in Zhengzhou. Most asthma attacks are moderate, often triggered by

  19. Parent-child associations for changes in diet, screen time, and physical activity across two decades in modernizing China: China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-11-11

    While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009). We collected three-day 24-h recall diet data to generate percentages of energy from animal-source foods, away-from-home eating, and snacking from 1991-2009, which are known urbanization-related behaviors. We used a seven-day PA recall to collect screen time (hours/week) and leisure-time sports participation (yes/no) since 2004. We examined the changes in children's and parents' behaviors over time using random-effects negative binomial regression for diet and screen time, and random-effects logistic regression for leisure-time sports. We then regressed each of the behaviors of offspring on each of their parents' same behaviors to examine the parent-child association, using the same set of models. We observed increases in energy from animal-source foods, eating away-from-home, and snacking, as well as screen time and leisure-time sports in parents and children over time, with different rates of change between children and their parents for some behaviors. We found positive parent-child associations for diet, screen time, and PA. When parental intakes increased by 10 % energy from each dietary behavior, children's increase in intakes ranged from 0.44 to 1.59 % total energy for animal-source foods, 0.17 % to 0.45 % for away-from-home eating, and 2.13 % to 7.21 % for snacking. Children were also more likely to participate in leisure

  20. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Shelley, Mack; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-03-07

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design ( n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45). Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being ( p fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  1. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS with a cross-sectional study design (n = 7970, we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45. Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being (p < 0.05. However, respondents’ preferences regarding fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  2. [Changes on patterns of sleep duration: findings from China Health and Nutrition Survey in population in 9 provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D H; Du, S F; Chen, B Y; Liu, J W; Fu, Z X; Wang, H J

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the changes on patterns of sleep duration of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort in 9 provinces from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Four rounds of CHNS data were used. Urban/rural, age and gender specific insufficient sleeping rates and excessive sleeping rates were analyzed. Results: In 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, a total of 274, 281, 329 and 304 children aged 3-5 years; 874, 806, 768 and 742 children aged 6-12 years; 789, 529, 426 and 367 children aged 13-17 years; 9 568, 9 530, 9 942 and 9 609 adults aged ≥18 years were surveyed respectively. The lowest insufficient sleeping rate was 53.9 % (200/371) in 3-17 years old children in rural area in 2006, the highest insufficient sleeping rate was 77.2 % (44/57) in 3-5 years old children in urban area in 2004. The insufficient sleeping rate increased in rural 3-5 years old children from 2004 to 2011. For the adults aged ≥18 years, the insufficient sleeping rate ranged from 4.2 % (82/1 954) in females aged 18-44 years in 2004 and 2009 to 20.8 % (211/1 015) in urban residents aged > 60 years in 2011. The insufficient sleeping rate in age-groups 44-59 years and ≥60 years increased in both males and females and in both urban area and rural area from 2004 to 2011. The gender specific excessive sleeping rate in 3-17 years old children was very low in both urban area and rural area and no difference was found in different rounds of survey. The excessive sleeping rate in adults ranged from 18.4 % (569/3 093) in urban population in 2011 to 32.5 % (1 617/4 969) in females in 2004. The excessive sleeping rate of adult decreased from 2004 to 2011. Conclusion: We should pay attention to the fact that the insufficient sleeping rate in adolescents is high and in increase in rural 3-5 years old children and adults aged ≥45 years.

  3. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  4. Guidelines disconcordance in acute bipolar depression: data from the national Bipolar Mania Pathway Survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Gao, Keming; Hong, Wu; Xing, Mengjuan; Wu, Zhiguo; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yuan, Chengmei; Huang, Jia; Peng, Daihui; Wang, Yong; Lu, Weihong; Yi, Zhenghui; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Jingping; Fang, Yiru

    2014-01-01

    With the recent attention to the importance of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines have been published. This survey investigated prescribing pattern and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of bipolar depression across mainland China. Pharmacological treatments of 1078 patients with bipolar depression were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Predictors for guidelines discordance were analyzed with logistic regression. Of the 1078 patients, 50.2% patients were treated against treatment guidelines recommendations. The patients who were treated in general hospitals (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.18-1.97), with a depressive episode (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.27-2.19) and an older age at first onset (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.28) were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatment than their counterparts. In contrast, the patients with current mental comorbidity, an older age at study entry, a longer duration of disease, and more frequent episodes in past year were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than their counterparts with an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.77), 0.52 (95CI% 0.36-0.75), 0.48 (95% CI 0.36-0.65), and 0.50 (95% CI 0.38-0.64), respectively. Our finding suggested the disconcordance with treatment guidelines in patients with an acute bipolar depression is common under naturalistic conditions in mainland China, and the predicting factors correlated with guidelines disconcordance include both psychiatrist-specific (clinicians from general hospitals) and patient-specific features (a depressive episode at first onset, no current co-morbidity with mental disorders, a younger age at study entry, an older age at first onset, shorter duration of disease, and non-frequent episodes in past year).

  5. Experience and levels of satisfaction with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in China: a prospective multicenter survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuping Zhao,1 Jihong Deng,2 Yan Wang,3 Shiliang Bi,4 Xiaoye Wang,5 Wen Qin,6 Zirong Huang,7 Li Li,8 Xin Mi,9 Liping Han,10 Qing Chang,11 Jian Li12 1The Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College Qingdao University, Qingdao, 2Kunming Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Kunming, 3Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan, 4West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 5Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 6Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, 7The Affiliated Women’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 8Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou, 9Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Shunyi District, Beijing, 10The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan, 11Southwest Hospital, Chongqing City, Chongqing, 12Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although surveys conducted in Western countries have shown that the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena® is well accepted by European women, its acceptance by Chinese women is not yet clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences and levels of satisfaction with Mirena among Chinese women living in 12 different cities. Methods: In total, 1,021 women who attended 21 medical centers for insertion of Mirena were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their contraceptive decision at baseline (preinsertion, and two further questionnaires on their experience and satisfaction with Mirena at 3–6 months and 1 year after insertion. Results: At baseline, 36% of women self-reported heavy or very heavy menstrual bleeding, while 41% reported normal bleeding. The majority of women (98% were satisfied with the preinsertion counseling, during which contraceptive reliability was identified as the most important reason for

  6. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4% and apathy (45.0%. As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%. In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH.

  7. Survey of food radioactivity and estimation of internal dose from ingestion in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyuan; Zhu Hongda; Han Peizhen

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide necessary bases for establishing 'Radionuclide Concentration Limits in Food stuffs', survey on radionuclide contents in Chinese food and estimation of internal dose from ingestion were carried out with the cooperation of 30 radiation protection establishments during the period 1982-1986. Activity concentrations in 14 categories (27 kinds) of Chinese food for 22 radionuclides were determined. In the light of three principal types of Chinese diet, food samples were collected from normal radiation background areas in 14 provinces or autonomous regions and three similarly elevated natural background areas. Annual intake by ingestion and resultant committed dose equivalents to general public for 15 radionuclides in these areas were estimated. In normal background areas the total annual intake of the 15 radionuclides by the public (adlut males) is about 4.2 x 10 4 Bq, and the resultant total committed dose equivalent is about 3.43 x 10 -4 Sv, but in two elevated natural background area the public annual intake and resulting committed dose equivalents for some natural radionulides are much higher than those in normal areas, while no obvious radiocontamination was discoveried relative contribution of each food category or each radionuclide to the total are discussed

  8. A completive survey study on the feasibility and adaptation of EVs in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lishan; Huang, Yuchen; Liu, Shuli; Chen, Yanyan; Yao, Liya; Kashyap, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EVs have been greatly developed with a series of encouraging policies. • The maxi mileages and braking performance still needs further improvement. • More residential and public charging piles should be in the plan and design. • APP oriented information of charging station need to be researched and developed. - Abstract: The private motor vehicles are significantly important means of transportation in modern lifestyle, however, these also contribute to a large proportion of the total air pollution and primary energy consumption. In order to develop green transportation system, it becomes imperative to use integrated technologies to achieve reduced emissions and utilize renewable energy. Electric vehicles (EVs) have been considered as one of these technologies to transform the traditional vehicle mix. However, the uptake of EV has been debated on factors like cost, performance (autonomous mileage), charging point infrastructure construction, energy saving, policy and end users’ adaptation. Present study investigates the technology feasibility (which usually refer to EVs’ cost, EV charging, supplier’s customer services quality, EV travel performance) and users’ adaptation of EV in Beijing, which is a key driver for the EV uptake into the Beijing transportation system. The relevant data have been collected and analyzed in the form of questionnaire survey around all of these factors. While considering the user perception and satisfaction, safety of charging and energy bills have also been investigated. According to the data analysis, it has been found the policy of ‘No traffic restrictions for EVs’ (the traffic restrictions means for certain date, from Monday to Friday the motor vehicles with the last register number of 1 and 6, 2 and 7, 3 and 8, 4 and 9, 5 and 0, are restricted to travel, respectively), the availability of the charging infrastructure and technical support are the most significant factors affecting the users

  9. A survey investigation of the quality of work and life of China's senior female intellectuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Sun, J

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of 122 senior female intellectuals from key national universities. Analyses are conducted on value orientation of work and family life, degree of job satisfaction, mental and physical health, and working conditions, family life, and leisure activities. Findings suggest that these women had high spiritual needs, high job satisfaction, but low levels of material life. The domestic burden at home and the high profile employment create a tremendous burden on these women. 89.3% held a sub-senior title in a special area, and 10.7% had senior titles. 59% were aged 51-60 years, and 35.6% were aged 41-50 years. Most lived in nuclear families. 95% of children received a high education or were enrolled in higher education. 90% of husbands were in teaching or research. 49.6% reported greater satisfaction in career success, and 41.7% reported family happiness. 49.6% believed that women's social status was related to educational level. 46.7% believed that confidence and independence was attainable in an institutional setting. There were 1.62 books and materials written per person, and 4.9 research topics received per person. Women aged 41-50 years reported poorer health evaluations than women aged 50-60 years. 79.6% reported their health as quite good or about average. 78.4% indicated that both parents influenced major decisions affecting their children. The majority of husbands were supportive of wives' senior intellectual standing. 96.7% reported that their careers were more important or equal to their families. 95.9% had a dominant or equal role with regard to their husbands. 85% had the major responsibility for shopping, cooking, laundry, and cleaning. About 50% spent time on managing household finances and tutoring children. 32.5% cared for elderly relatives. The average work day was 12 hours. The average television viewing time was 30 minutes/day. It is suggested that policies be formulated that would be favorable to senior

  10. Price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand during urbanization: An empirical analysis based on the household-level survey data in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, one of the most obvious characteristics of economic growth in China, has an apparent “lock-in effect” on residential energy consumption pattern. It is expected that residential sector would become a major force that drives China's energy consumption after urbanization process. We estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand using data from China's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS) that covers households at different income levels and from different regional and social groups. Empirical results from the Almost Ideal Demand System model are in accordance with the basic expectations: the demands for electricity, natural gas and transport fuels are inelastic in the residential sector due to the unreasonable pricing mechanism. We further investigate the sensitivities of different income groups to prices of the three types of energy. Policy simulations indicate that rationalizing energy pricing mechanism is an important guarantee for energy sustainable development during urbanization. Finally, we put forward suggestions on energy pricing reform in the residential sector based on characteristics of China's undergoing urbanization process and the current energy consumption situations.

  11. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL. A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old, were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China.

  12. Patterns and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban and rural China: a community-based survey of 25 000 adults across 10 regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Davis, Kourtney J; Hubert Lam, Kin Bong; Guo, Yu; Vaucher, Julien; Bennett, Derrick; Wang, Jenny; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Li, Liming; Clarke, Robert; Chen, Zhengming

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide, with COPD deaths in China accounting for one-third of all such deaths. However, there is limited available evidence on the management of COPD in China. A random sample of 25 011 participants in the China Kadoorie Biobank, aged 38-87 years, from 10 regions in China was surveyed in 2013-2014. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires on the diagnosis ('doctor-diagnosed' or 'symptoms-based') and management of COPD (including use of medication and other healthcare resources), awareness of diagnosis and severity of symptoms in COPD cases. Overall, 6.3% of the study population were identified as COPD cases (doctor-diagnosed cases: 4.8% and symptom-based cases: 2.4%). The proportion having COPD was higher in men than in women (7.9% vs 5.3%) and varied by about threefold (3.7%-10.0%) across the 10 regions. Among those with COPD, 54% sought medical advice during the last 12 months, but management were limited.

  13. Disease burden of community acquired pneumonia among children under 5 y old in China: A population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; An, Zhijie; Yin, Dapeng; Liu, Yanmin; Huang, Zhuoying; Ma, Yujie; Li, Hui; Li, Qi; Wang, Huaqing

    2017-07-03

    To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012. The overall incidence of clinically diagnosed pneumonia in children under 5 y old was 2.55%. The incidence in urban area was 7.97%, higher than that in rural areas (1.68%). However, no difference was found in the incidences of chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia between urban and rural areas (1.67% vs 1.23%). X-ray confirmed cases in rural and urban areas respectively accounted for 73.45% and 20.93% of all clinically diagnosed pneumonia. The hospitalization rate of all cases was 1.40%. Incidence and hospitalization rate of pneumonia decreased with age, with the highest rates found among children younger than one year and the lowest among children aged 4 (incidence: 4.25% vs 0.83%; hospitalization: 2.75% vs 0.36%). The incidence was slightly higher among boys (2.92% vs 2.08%). The total cost due to pneumonia for the participants was 1138 733 CNY. The average cost and median cost was 5722 CNY and 3540 CNY separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the only factor related to higher cost was hospitalization. The disease burden was high for children under 5 y old, especially the infant. PCV has not been widely used among children, and thus further health economics evaluation on introducing PCV into National Immunization Program should be conducted.

  14. Adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with uterine fibroids in China: A multicenter survey involving 112,403 deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhao

    Full Text Available To estimate the association between uterine fibroids and adverse obstetric outcomes.This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 112,403 deliveries from 14 provinces and 39 different hospitals in 2011 in mainland China. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with and without uterine fibroids who underwent detailed second trimester obstetric ultrasonography during 18 to 22 weeks. Obstetric outcomes include cesarean delivery, breech presentation, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes and neonatal birthweight. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.Of 112,403 women who underwent routine obstetric survey, 3,012 (2.68% women were identified with at least 1 fibroid. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the presence of uterine fibroids was significantly associated with cesarean delivery (Adjusted odds radio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.0, breech presentation (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5 and postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4. The size of uterine fibroids and location in uterus had important effect on the mode of delivery. The rates of PPH were significantly higher with increasing size of the uterine fibroid (P<0.001. And the location of fibroid (intramural, submucosal or subserosal also have a statistically significant impact on the risk of PPH (5.6% [subserosal] vs 4.7% [submucosal] vs 8.6% [intramural].Pregnant women with uterine fibroids are at increased risk for cesarean delivery, breech presentation and postpartum hemorrhage. And different characteristics of uterine fibroids affect obstetric outcomes through different ways. Such detailed information may be useful in risk-stratifying pregnant women with fibroids.

  15. Welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction of Chinese physicians: A national survey of public tertiary hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Ma, Jing; Hu, Guangyu; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Changzheng; Si, Wen; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-07-01

    Little national data are available on Chinese physicians' welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction. We conducted a self-administered smartphone-based national survey in early 2016 of 17 945 physicians from 136 tertiary hospitals across 31 provinces in China. In addition to collecting the physicians' basic information, we also measured 5 domains (the ethical and working environments, welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction). Half of the physicians reported a hospital-based annual income of less than RMB 72 000 ($10 300), and 60.31% of them did not think that the current medical pricing system reflects physicians' value. More than half (58.64%) of them did not have or did not know about medical malpractice insurance. These physicians worked long hours (an average of 10 h) and slept short hours (average 6 h). Only 35.78% of them thought that they were in good health, and 51.03% were in good mental health. Approximately, a quarter of them had helped to pay medical bills for patients who could not afford care, and 1 in 7 has been penalised for seeing patients who generated bad debts. Only 33.42% of them thought that their occupation receives social recognition and respect, and 70.98% would not encourage their children to pursue a medical career. The top 3 factors that may influence physician job satisfaction as chosen by the physicians were as follows: (1) the income distribution policy (45.92%), (2) working environment safety (25.86%), and (3) public trust and respect for their job (16.10%). In conclusion, we found that Chinese physicians bear heavy physical, mental, and financial stress, and many of them lack confidence that they receive trust and respect from society. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenyi Shao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation.

  17. Does the professional attitude of physicians always affect their professional behaviour? A survey in tertiary hospitals in Nanchang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Wang, Xuan; Du, Xin; Du, Xin; Liu, Chenxi; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-03-23

    the current knowledge gaps. What does this paper add? The study surveyed professional attitudes and behaviour of Chinese physicians and explored the effects of the former on the latter. The study found that professional attitude affects professional behaviour, but such an effect varies with different professional norms. The results may help establish fundamental problems in the professionalism of physicians and in measures to promote professional behaviour not only in China, but also in other countries. What are the implications for practitioners? The implications for hospital managers and policy makers are that improving professional attitude is useful but insufficient to promote medical professionalism. A management system conducive to the conversion of professional attitude to professional behaviour should be established.

  18. [Survey on fungi contamination and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in 94 corn feed ingredients collected from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X M; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Xu, W J; Liu, D; Jiang, T; Xu, J; Li, F Q

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate fungi contamination and the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn feed ingredients collected from China. Methods: A total of 94 corn feed ingredient samples were collected from 8 Chinese provinces(i.e., Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong)in February 2014. A tandem ultra-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was used for simultaneous detection of twelve kinds of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin(AF), type A and type B tricothecenes, and zearalenone(ZEN). Contaminated fungi were also identified and counted. Results: AF was detected in 36.2%(34/94)of samples; the concentration of AFB 1 was the highest in the four AFs with the range: 0.3~181.3 μg/kg; and then followed by AFB 2 (range: 1.0-74.3 μg/kg). There were 7 samples(7.5%)with AFB 1 concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 50 μg/kg. The concentration of type A tricothecenes in all samples was lower(0.1-10.5 μg/kg). DON had the most serious contamination than other kind of type B tricothecenes(range: 0.7-606.6 μg/kg; median: 66.3 μg/kg). The DON concentration in all samples was below the tolerance limit of 1 000 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 76.6%(72/ 94)of samples(median: 36.9 μg/kg), with 3 samples having ZEN concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 500 μg/kg. The survey on fungi contamination showed that all samples were contaminated by fungi(range: 5.0-1.4×10 5 CFU/g). There were 18 and 3 samples with quantities of fungi higher than the tolerance and forbidden limits, respectively. The Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Trichoderma and Mucor genuses were the predominant fungi in corn feed ingredients, with detection rates of 71.3%(67), 60.6%(57), 71.3%(67), 27.7%(26), and 24.5%(23), respectively. The detection rate of Fusarium moniliforme , 73.4%(69/94)was higher than that of Aspergillus flavus , 41.5%(39/94). Conclusion: In this survey, the corn feed ingredients were not seriously

  19. Linking young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to STI physicians: a nationwide cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Zhao, Peipei; Bien, Cedric; Pan, Stephen; Tang, Weiming; Watson, Julia; Mi, Guodong; Ding, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhou; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-05-18

    Many young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are reluctant to seek health services and trust local physicians. Online information seeking may encourage YMSM to identify and see trustworthy physicians, obtain sexual health services, and obtain testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examined online STI information seeking behaviors among Chinese YMSM and its association with offline physician visits. We conducted a nationwide online survey among YMSM through WeChat, the largest social media platform in China. We collected information on individual demographics, sexual behaviors, online STI information seeking, offline STI testing, and STI physician visits. We examined the most commonly used platforms (search engines, governmental websites, counseling websites, generic social media, gay mobile apps, and mobile medical apps) and their trustworthiness. We assessed interest and willingness to use an MSM-friendly physician finder function embedded within a gay mobile app. Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlation between online STI information searching and offline physician visits. A total of 503 men completed the survey. Most men (425/503, 84.5%) searched for STI information online. The most commonly used platform to obtain STI information were search engines (402/425, 94.5%), followed by gay mobile apps (201/425, 47.3%). Men reported high trustworthiness of information received from gay mobile apps. Men also reported high interest (465/503, 92.4%) and willingness (463/503, 92.0%) to use a MSM-friendly physician finder function within such apps. Both using general social media (aOR =1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26) and mobile medical apps (aOR =1.16, 95%CI: 1.01-1.34) for online information seeking were associated with visiting a physician. Online STI information seeking is common and correlated with visiting a physician among YMSM. Cultivating partnerships with the emerging mobile medical apps may be useful for disseminating STI

  20. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G W K; Mahesh, P A; Ogorodova, L; Leung, T F; Fedorova, O; Holla, A D; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Clare Mills, E N; Kummeling, I; van Ree, R; Yazdanbakhsh, M; Burney, P

    2010-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for studies in the European Union. The epidemiological surveys of the project were designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy and to compare the data with different European countries. Random samples of primary schoolchildren were recruited from urban and rural regions of China, Russia and India for screening to ascertain possible adverse reactions to foods. Cases and controls were then selected to answer a detailed questionnaire designed to evaluate the possible risk factors of food allergies. Objective evidence of sensitisation including skin-prick test and serum specific IgE measurement was also collected. More than 37 000 children from the three participating countries have been screened. The response rates for the screening phase ranged from 83% to 95%. More than 3000 cases and controls were studied in the second phase of the study. Further confirmation of food allergies by double blind food challenge was conducted. This will be the first comparative study of the epidemiology of food allergies in China, India, and Russia using the same standardized methodology. The findings of these surveys will complement the data obtained from Europe and provide insights into the development of food allergy.

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  2. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  3. The Prevalence and Correlates of Frailty in Urban and Rural Populations in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Prina, A Matthew; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velasquez, Ivonne Z; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Prince, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India. We assessed weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low energy consumption, but not hand grip strength. Therefore, frailty phenotype was defined on 2 or more of 4 of the usual 5 criteria. We surveyed 17,031 adults aged 65 years and over. Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (95% confidence inteval 14.6%-15.7%). Prevalence was low in rural (5.4%) and urban China (9.1%) and varied between 12.6% and 21.5% in other sites. A similar pattern of variation was apparent after direct standardization for age and sex. Cross-site variation in prevalence of frailty indicators varied across the 4 indicators. Controlling for age, sex, and education, frailty was positively associated with older age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia, disability and dependence, and high healthcare costs. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of frailty and its indicators across sites in Latin America, India, and China. Culture and other contextual factors may impact significantly on the assessment of frailty using questionnaire and physical performance-based measures, and achieving cross-cultural measurement invariance remains a challenge. A consistent pattern of correlates was identified, suggesting that in all sites, the frailty screen could identify older adults with multiple physical, mental, and cognitive morbidities, disability and needs for care, compounded by socioeconomic disadvantage and catastrophic healthcare spending. Copyright © 2017. Published

  4. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

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    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  5. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  6. Relationship between acne and psychological burden evaluated by ASLEC and HADS surveys in high school and college students from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Jiang, Guangbin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lai, Ruiping; Wen, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Previously, acne and its effects on psychological well-being have mostly been studied unilaterally in the western population. This study was aimed to investigate bidirectional relationship between acne and stress using Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check (ASLEC) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) surveys from inhabitants of central China. An on-line survey of 2,284 high school and college students from central China was conducted using three questionnaires posted on Chinese professional survey website, the Questionnaire Web. The prevalence and severity of acne were determined using the Pillsbury grading, whereas, the role of stress in acne formation was ascertained by the ASLEC scale. The HADS was employed to assess the psychological well-being. A total of 50.61 % of high school and college students in central China were found to be suffering from acne for more than 6 months, and 19.72 % of them were graded as having severe acne. Negative life events were found to accelerate the occurrence and exacerbation of the condition. Acne-affected groups showed significantly higher HADS-A (HADS-anxiety) and HADS-D (HADS-depression) scores than the controls (7.31 and 7.28 vs. 4.37 and 3.85, respectively; p < 0.01). Despite the apparent neglect of acne in Chinese high school and college students, a close bidirectional relationship was found to exist between stress and acne. It is incumbent on the healthcare professional to introduce school-based educational programs to help students with knowledge and management of acne and prevent the consequent psychological disorders.

  7. Safety culture in a pharmacy setting using a pharmacy survey on patient safety culture: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P L; Zhang, L H; Zhang, M M; Zhang, L L; Zhang, C; Qin, S F; Li, X L; Liu, K X

    2014-06-30

    To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. We performed χ(2) test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and qualification levels and countries towards patient safety culture. We also computed descriptive statistics, internal consistency coefficients and intersubscale correlation analysis, and then conducted an exploratory factor analysis. A test-retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items. A total of 630 questionnaires were distributed of which 527 were responded to validly (response rate 84%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 37% to 90%. The positive response rate on three dimensions ('Teamwork', 'Staff Training and Skills' and 'Staffing, Work Pressure and Pace') was higher than that of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) data (pculture at different hospital and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach's α=0.89). The results demonstrated that among the pharmacy staffs surveyed in China, there was a positive attitude towards patient safety culture in their organisations. Identifying perspectives of patient safety culture from pharmacists in different hospital and qualification levels are important, since this can help support decisions about action to improve safety culture in pharmacy settings. The Chinese translation of the PSOPSC questionnaire (V.2012) applied in our study is acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

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    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  9. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Lu; Xie, Yaojie; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-27

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error ( SE ) = 0.016, p women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = -0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035), and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = -0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.42-0.74). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy ( OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). Conclusions: The high prevalence rate of prolonged TV, computer, and mobile phone viewing times was common for pregnant women in their first and second pregnancy. This study preliminarily explored the relationship between

  10. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error (SE = 0.016, p < 0.001 and computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.053, SE = 0.022, p = 0.015. Pregnant women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001 and long computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.049, SE = 0.020, p = 0.015 were likely have long mobile phone viewing times. Pregnant women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = −0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035, and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = −0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.42–0.74. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (OR 1.25, 95

  11. FY 2000 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)

  12. Cervical cancer prevention-related knowledge and attitudes among female undergraduate students from different ethnic groups within China, a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enqi; Tiggelaar, Sarah M; Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Huanhu; Wu, Ritu; Wu, Rilige; Xu, Fangmei

    2017-05-22

    The purpose of this study was to understand cervical cancer prevention-related knowledge and attitudes among female undergraduate students from different ethnic groups within China. We conducted a survey among ethnically diverse female students from the Minzu University of China, in Beijing in October, 2014. Questionnaires from 493 participants aged from 16 to 26 years were included in the final database. The seven ethnic groups included in the final analysis were Han, Korean, Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Hui, and Tujia. Compared to the Han Chinese, the members of the other six ethnic groups had lower cervical cancer knowledge levels. The knowledge scores of Mongolian and Korean students were significantly lower than those of the Han Chinese. The willingness to accept cervical cancer prevention efforts also differed across different ethnic groups. After adjusting for age and place of residence, the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among the Tibetan, Uyghur, and Korean groups was significantly lower than among the Han Chinese, with different related decision-making factors in each group. Cervical cancer prevention-related public education is an urgent need in China. Extra consideration of ethnic differences should be taken into account when designing and improving new current cervical cancer prevention programs.

  13. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HBV and HCV test uptake and correlates among men who have sex with men in China: a nationwide cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Thomas; Pan, Stephen W; Tang, Weiming; Guo, Wilson; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-05-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, including China. WHO guidelines recommend men who have sex with men (MSM) receive HBV and HCV screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of MSM in China who have HBV and HCV tested and identify correlates of test uptake. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey of young MSM in China. Respondents were asked to report previous HBV and HCV testing, sociodemographic information, sexual risk factors for hepatitis infection, other STI testing and primary care physician (PCP) status. Associations were analysed by logistic regression. 503 eligible MSM completed the survey. 41.0% (206/503) of MSM had HCV tested, and 38.2% (60/157) of MSM with no or uncertain HBV vaccination had HBV tested. In multivariate analysis, HCV testing was correlated with HBV testing (adjusted OR (aOR) 22.98, 95% CI 12.11 to 43.60), HIV testing (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 1.92 to 6.91), HIV-positive status (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.98) and having a PCP (aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.98). Among MSM with no or uncertain HBV vaccination, HBV testing was correlated with HCV testing (aOR 80.85, 95% CI 20.80 to 314.33), HIV testing (aOR 5.26, 95% CI 1.81 to 15.28), HIV-positive status (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.22 to 7.37) and having a PCP (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.00 to 7.26). Our data suggest many young MSM in China have not received hepatitis testing. HCV testing rates were lower than those recently reported among MSM in Australia and the USA. The strong correlation between HBV and HCV testing suggests bundled testing interventions may be useful for MSM in China. Men with a PCP were more likely to have received hepatitis testing, consistent with literature demonstrating the importance of primary care in expanding access to testing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  15. Perceptions of malaria control and prevention in an era of climate change: a cross-sectional survey among CDC staff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-31

    Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change. A majority (79.8%) of CDC staff were concerned about climate change and 79.7% believed the weather was becoming warmer. Most participants (90.3%) indicated climate change had a negative effect on population health, 92.6 and 86.8% considered that increasing temperatures and precipitation would influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases including malaria. About half (50.9%) of the surveyed staff indicated malaria had re-emerged in recent years, and some outbreaks were occurring in new geographic areas. The main reasons for such re-emergence were perceived to be: mosquitoes in high-density, numerous imported cases, climate change, poor environmental conditions, internal migrant populations, and lack of health awareness. This study found most CDC staff endorsed the statement that climate change had a negative impact on infectious disease transmission. Malaria had re-emerged in some areas of China, and most of the staff believed that this can be managed. However, high densities of mosquitoes and the continuous increase in imported cases of malaria in local areas, together with environmental changes are bringing about critical challenges to malaria control in China. This study contributes to an understanding of climate change related perceptions of malaria control and prevention amongst CDC staff. It may help to formulate in-house training guidelines, community health promotion

  16. Experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in a national general population health survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sun; Chen, Jiaying; Kind, Paul; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang; Burström, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of deriving experience-based visual analogue scale (VAS) values for EQ-5D-3L health states using national general population health survey data in China. The EQ-5D-3L was included in the National Health Services Survey (n = 120,709, aged 15-103 years) to measure health-related quality of life. The respondents reported their current health status on a VAS and completed the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, enabling modelling of the association between the experience-based VAS values and self-reported problems on EQ-5D dimensions and severity levels. VAS values were generally negatively associated with problems reported on the EQ-5D dimensions, and the anxiety/depression dimension had the greatest impact on VAS values. A previously obtained value for dead allowed the values for all 243 EQ-5D-3L health states to be transformed to the 0-1 scale (0 = dead, 1 = full health). This study presents the feasibility of deriving an experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in China. The analysis of these VAS data raises more fundamental issues concerning the universal nature of the classification system and the extent to which Chinese respondents utilise the same concepts of health as defined by this classification system.

  17. A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China

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    He Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD has yet to be investigated using the symptomatic threshold criteria recommended by the Montreal Definition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD across five regions of China, and to investigate variables associated with GERD. Methods A representative sample of 18 000 adults (aged 18-80 years were selected equally from rural and urban areas in each region (n = 1800. According to the Montreal Definition, GERD is present when mild symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥2 days a week, or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥1 day a week. Results In total, 16 091 participants completed the survey (response rate: 89.4% and 16 078 responses were suitable for analysis. Applying the Montreal criteria, the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD was 3.1% and varied significantly (p Conclusions This population-based survey found that the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD in China was 3.1%, which is lower than that found in Western countries.

  18. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Associated Behaviors, and Weight-related Perceptions in a National Survey of Primary School Children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhai, Yi; Feng, Xiao Qi; Li, Wei Rong; Lyu, Yue Bin; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhao, Peng Yu; Shi, Xiao Ming

    2018-01-01

    To in vestigate potential gender differences in the odds of overweight/obese, weight-related perceptions, and behaviors among Chinese school children. Height, weight, and a survey of weight-related perceptions and behaviors were measured in a nationally representative survey of 12,811 children in primary schools in China. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess gender differences, adjusting for confounders. Boys had higher odds of being overweight/obese compared to girls within both urban [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.65] and rural areas (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.20). Girls reported healthier diets (e.g., daily vegetables OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85) whereas boys consumed fried food (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.38) and sugar-sweetened drinks more often (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.65). Gender differences included higher odds of boys perceiving themselves as overweight if they had more highly educated mothers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68), less educated fathers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99), and if they frequently consumed carbonated drinks (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.05). Childhood obesity prevention in China should be gender-focused, particularly for boys who reported an unhealthier diet but were less likely to see they were fat, even though more boys were overweight or obese than girls. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshuang Rao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arthritis is a common disease in China, but few studies have been conducted to explore the associated health-related quality of life (HRQoL and its influencing factors in Chongqing, China. This study aimed to explore the association of arthritis and HRQoL and probe factors affecting HRQoL among arthritis patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 1224 adults were included in the analysis. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 was used to measure HRQoL. Multiple linear regression models (stepwise and covariance analysis models were used to examine the association of arthritis with HRQoL and analyze factors associated with HRQoL among arthritis patients. Results: Participants with arthritis had poorer HRQoL than those without. Among arthritis patients, the female was associated with a poorer state of physical functioning (p < 0.05; unemployed patients had a poorer state of role-physical than employed patients (p < 0.05; low average monthly income was associated with a poorer state of physical functioning (p < 0.01; childhood non-breastfeeding history was associated with a poorer state of social functioning (p < 0.01; average or dissatisfied attitude to current living conditions was associated with a poorer state of vitality and mental health (p < 0.05 for all; moreover, poor or general appetite was associated with a poorer state of role-physical, general health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role-emotional (p < 0.01 for all. Conclusions: Arthritis patients have worse HRQoL than those without in the Chinese population. Female, low socioeconomic status, childhood non-breastfeeding history, average or dissatisfied attitude to current living conditions and poor or general appetite were associated with poorer state of HRQoL among Chinese arthritis patients.

  20. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  1. National Survey on Internal Quality Control Practice for Lipid Parameters in Laboratories of China from 2014 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the situation of Internal Quality Control (IQC) practice for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol from 2014 to 2016 in laboratories in China and provide improvement measurements. A web-based External Quality Assessment (EQA) system was used to collect IQC data of lipid parameters in laboratories which continuously participated in the national EQA programs in China from 2014 to 2016. Pass rate of the coefficients of variation (CVs) of two level quality controls in four lipid parameters were calculated according to six quality specifications for precision to evaluate the current status of precision level of the four lipid parameters and their change over time in China. 533, 512, 504, and 466 laboratories continuously reported the data of level one for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and 212, 210, 208 and 198 laboratories reported the level two, respectively. The percentage of laboratories meeting the quality specification varied based on different criteria. Non-significant change can be found in the pass rate of CVs over time. The number of laboratories using a closed system increased over time, but still only accounted for a small proportion. There is no significant difference in the pass rate of CVs between closed and open systems. Triglycerides currently have a fairly good performance in China. While the performance of laboratories on total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol has yet to be improved.

  2. Child health security in China: a survey of child health insurance coverage in diverse areas of the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Juyang; Hipgrave, David; Myklebust, Karoline; Guo, Sufang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Tong, Xuetao; Yao, Lan; Moran, Andrew E

    2013-11-01

    China embarked on an ambitious health system reform in 2009, and pledged to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2020. However, there are gaps in access to healthcare for some children in China. We assessed health insurance status and associated variables among children under five in twelve communities in 2010: two urban community health centers and two rural township health centers in each of three municipalities located in China's distinctly different East, Central and Western regions. Information on demographic and socio-economic variables and children's insurance status was gathered from parents or caregivers of all children enrolled in local health programs, and others recruited from the local communities. Only 62% of 1131 children assessed were insured. This figure did not vary across geographic regions, but urban children were less likely to be insured than rural children. In multivariate analysis, infants were 2.44 times more likely to be uninsured than older children and children having at least one migrant parent were 1.90 times more likely to be uninsured than those living with non-migrant parents. Low maternal education was also associated with being uninsured. Gaps in China's child health insurance coverage might be bridged if newborns are automatically covered from birth, and if insurance is extended to all urban migrant children, regardless of the family's residential registration status and size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiqing; Yin, Ping; Newman, Ian M; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F; Yuen, Lok-Wa

    2017-09-22

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People's Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV) compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  4. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu, either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People’s Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  5. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yu Fang, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: The National Natural Science Fund (71103141/G0308, the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62, the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066, and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship.

  6. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  7. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  8. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. Methods A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. Results A total of 80 (8.8% pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6% and nervous system (10.7% symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p 2 = 0.9246. Conclusions This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

  9. Disease characteristics and management of hospitalised adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a retrospective multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Fei; Li, Hui; Xing, Xiqian; Han, Xiudi; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Chunxiao; Suo, Lijun; Wang, Jingxiang; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Guangqiang; Yao, Xuexin; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Xue, Chunxue; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yanli; Xiao, Ying; Cui, Xiaojing; Li, Lijuan; Uyeki, Timothy M; Wang, Chen; Cao, Bin

    2018-02-15

    To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. 13 teaching hospitals in northern, central and southern China from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 PARTICIPANTS: Information on hospitalised patients aged ≥14 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia with illness onset in the community was collected using standard case report forms. Resource use for CAP management. Of 14 793 patients screened, 5828 with radiographically confirmed CAP were included in the final analysis. Low mortality risk patients with a CURB-65 score 0-1 and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class I-II accounted for 81.2% (4434/5594) and 56.4% (2034/3609) patients, respectively. 21.7% (1111/5130) patients had already achieved clinical stability on admission. A definite or probable pathogen was identified only in 12.7% (738/5828) patients. 40.9% (1575/3852) patients without pseudomonal infection risk factors received antimicrobial overtreatment regimens. The median duration between clinical stability to discharge was 5.0 days with 30-day mortality of 4.2%. These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China. NCT02489578; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: a cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Min; Li, Xiu-De; Li, Xiang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Tong, Fei; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. All women were interviewed in the form of a standardized questionnaire. We found that 32.0% (16,800) of these women had had at least one induced abortion: 21.1% (11,090) of women had had one; 7.6% (3976) of women had had two; and 4.1% (1734) of women had had at least three. The number of induced abortions per 100 pregnancies was found to be 22.0. Multivariate analysis showed that education, the age of a woman at her first marriage, number of total births, number of total pregnancies, and contraceptive methods were significant predictors for induced abortion after controlling for women's current age, employment and family yearly income. The study shows that the prevalence of induced abortion is still very high among married women in rural China, and highly effective methods of contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device) decrease women's recourse to induced abortion. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessment of Disability among the Elderly in Xiamen of China: A Representative Sample Survey of 14,292 Older Adults.

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    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available The unprecedented number of elderly individuals in China presents a serious public health challenge. Limited data are available on the prevalence of disability or factors resulting in disability among the elderly in China.We aimed to assess the prevalence of disability and related risk factors among the elderly of Xiamen, China.A cross-sectional study was performed on individuals who were ≥60 years of age. The subjects were recruited by multi-stage sampling; a total of 14,292 valid questionnaires were received. Study measurements included activities of daily living (ADL, demographics, and health status. The ADL was assessed by the Katz Index Scale to evaluate disability. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with disabilities.Among the valid participants, 4.27% had at least one disability. Bathing was the most frequently reported disability and feeding was the least frequently reported disability. Disabilities were significantly associated with female gender, older age, unmarried status, living with family, urban residence, illiteracy, poor economic status, self-rated bad health, chronic illnesses, lower life satisfaction, bad mood, and feelings of loneliness.Functional disability among the elderly requires more public attention. Culturally appropriate policies and programs are also needed to address the care for the disabled elderly.

  13. Current status of cleaning and disinfection for gastrointestinal endoscopy in China: a survey of 122 endoscopy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Kong, Jinyan; Tang, Ping; Wang, Shufang; Hyder, Qurratulain; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Rugang; Yang, Yunsheng

    2011-04-01

    Adequate compliance with the existing guidelines for cleaning and disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes and accessories is necessary to obtain high-level disinfection and prevent pathogen transmission. To investigate cleaning and disinfection practice in China. A questionnaire with 21 questions concerning gastrointestinal endoscopy reprocessing was sent by e-mail to 189 endoscopy units in China. One hundred and twenty-two (80.39%) of the 189 units responded. Compared with the low-workload units (disinfectant (88.5%) in all the units. In 23/122 (18.8%) units, the exposure time to glutaraldehyde was <45 min in the case of infectious disease patients. Eighty-six of 122 (70.5%) units reused disposable materials, of which 21/86 (24.4%) reused disposable forceps and disposable polypectomy hooks, and 2/86 (1.6%) reused disposable injection needles intermittently. Although gastrointestinal endoscopy has developed rapidly in China in the past decade, there is still room for improvement in the practice of endoscopy reprocessing, especially in middle-sized and small cities. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity and overweight prevalence and its association with undiagnosed hypertension in Shanghai population, China: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Xu, Jiying; Yao, Haihong; Guo, Yanfei; Chen, Minna; Lu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese subjects in the Shanghai population of China and its association with undiagnosed hypertension, by taking age, gender and place of residence (urban or suburban) into account. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 2007. The sample included 13,359 participants aged 15-69 years.Weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and information about gender, age and place of residence was obtained. Overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated by the body mass index (BMI) definition recommended by Working Group on Obesity in China (normal weight, 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 24-27.9 kg/m(2); obesity, ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Undiagnosed hypertension was defined by China criteria in accord with that of WHO-ISH (subjects with systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of overweight or obesity with undiagnosed hypertension by adjusting for age, gender and place of residence. The overall overweight, obesity, and undiagnosed hypertension prevalence were 27.6% (95% CI: 26.8-28.4), 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2-7.0), and 15.5% (95% CI: 14.9-16.1), respectively. Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects who were overweight and had hypertension was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.10-2.59); that for obesity and hypertension was 4.27 (95% CI: 3.66-4.99). These data suggest that overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with undiagnosed hypertension are high in our study population.

  15. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-02-22

    Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β -0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was -0.186 (pturnover intention was -0.094 (pturnover intention was -0.092 (pturnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-06-05

    It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey. Heilongjiang Province, China. The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730

  18. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on West Pacific Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Dalian, China. Energy conservation project for West Pacific Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a potential survey was conducted of energy conservation at West Pacific Oil Refinery, Dalian, China. In the survey, studies were made of energy conservation by introducing the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system using exhaust gas as fuel, and of potentiality of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions. As a result of the survey, a gas turbine generator of about 29MW using the surplus gas as fuel can be installed. By this, approximately 71% of the power used in refinery is to be supplied as against 25% of the power presently used. The technology was proposed on the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system to discuss the revision plan with the Chinese partner. When this project is realized, the reduction amount of CO2 will be 136,000 ton/y. The Chinese side highly estimated not only the remarkable reduction in CO2, but the reduction in purchased power from outside which is to be brought by realization of this project. (NEDO)

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China

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    Xiaona Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2, we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP. After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers’ physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors.

  20. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Occupational HIV Exposure and Protection among Health Care Workers in China: Census Survey in a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Xue, Xiao Fei; Shah, Dimpy; Zhao, Jian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Zhuang, GuiHua

    2016-09-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) seek, treat, and care for patients living with HIV/AIDS on a daily basis and thus face a significant risk to work-related infections. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding occupational HIV exposure and protection among HCWs in low HIV prevalence areas of rural China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among all medical units in Pucheng County, Shaanxi, China. Response rate of this study was 94%. The average overall knowledge score of HCWs was 10.9 of 21.0. Deficiencies in general, transmission, exposure, and protection knowledge were identified among HCWs at all levels. A high rate of occupational exposure (85%) and lack of universal precautions practice behavior were recorded. Significant predictors of universal precautions practice behavior were female sex, prior training, and greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Health care workers at various levels have inadequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS and do not practice universal precautions. Nurses and medical technicians at the county level faced more occupation risk than other HCWs. The key of AIDS training for different levels of HCWs should be distinguished. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Guidelines concordance of maintenance treatment in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder: Data from the national bipolar mania pathway survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Keming; Hong, Wu; Xing, Mengjuan; Wu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Chengmei; Huang, Jia; Peng, Daihui; Wang, Yong; Lu, Weihong; Yi, Zhenghui; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Jingping; Fang, Yiru

    2015-08-15

    Although the treatment guidelines of bipolar disorders (BPD) have spread more than a decade, the concordance with evidence-based guidelines was typically low in routine clinical practice. This study is to present the data on the maintenance treatment of BPD in mainland China. One thousand and twenty-three patients who had experienced a euthymia were eligible for entry into this survey on the maintenance treatment of BPD. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) that patients were prescribed with the recommendations in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Three hundred and sixty-four patients (35.6%) had not been prescribed with the maintenance treatment as guidelines recommendations, and 208 patients (20.3%) were prescribed with the antidepressants. A longer duration of BPD, a depressive episode at first onset, and a recent depressive or mixed episode significantly increased the risk for guidelines disconcordance and prescribing antidepressant. In contrast, a hospitalization history due to manic episode was associated with a significant decrease in the risk for guidelines disconcordance and prescribing antidepressant. This study was a cross-sectional and retrospective investigation based on medical records. Considering the potentially hazardous effects of inappropriate treatment, individualized psychoeducational strategies for subjects with BPD are necessary to enhance treatment adherence and close the gap between guidelines and clinical practice in mainland China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  4. Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES. “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.18, −0.12 for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60 for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17 for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49 for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  5. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-12

    Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descriptive statistics were reported for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, level of work stress, coping strategies, and job performance. Regression analysis was conducted to test the interaction between work stress and coping strategies on job performance. Three subscales of work stress were negatively related to job performance. Positive coping strategies moderated Patient Care and job performance while negative coping strategies moderated Workload and Time and performance, and between Working Environment and Resources and performance. Positive coping strategies reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress on job performance and negative coping strategies increased the negative effects.

  7. Mobile-Source GHG Modeling Institutions and Capacities in China:Findings Based on Structured Interviews and On-Line Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping; ZHOU; Yin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of practices of mobile-source greenhouse gas(GHG) modeling in China and related data sharing issues. It is based on structured phone interviews and two on-line surveys conducted in 2011 and finds that most cities have transportation-land use models but that few have mobile-source GHG models. A group of entities housed in the government have the strongest GHG modeling capacities and dominate the relevant consulting market. Data hoarding of public entities is the biggest barrier for entities without government ties to compete in the market. The reasons for data hoarding include government concerns over political implications of data release, a tradition of data hoarding, and a lack of confidence in reliability and accuracy of the data.

  8. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  9. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health system reforms, violence against doctors and job satisfaction in the medical profession: a cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing doctors’ job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor–patient relationship. Design Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. Study setting The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. Results The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Conclusions Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors’ workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors’ salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. PMID:25552614

  11. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyan Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV. This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18–54 months in rural Guangxi. Methods: Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011–2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Weighted Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1 and second (MCV2 doses of the vaccine. Results: A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%–62.0% for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%–80.0% for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%–51.0%. The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27–38 days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118–195 days for MCV2. Conclusions: The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China.

  12. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  13. Health system reforms, violence against doctors and job satisfaction in the medical profession: a cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-12-31

    To explore the factors influencing doctors' job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor-patient relationship. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors' workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors' salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  14. Mental health status and work environment among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises in Guangdong, China-a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2014-11-12

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young

  15. [Comparative analyze on hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys among population aged 1-29 years in different epidemic regions of China in 1992 and 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Sun, X J; Bi, S L; Liang, X F; Wang, H Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95 % CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95 %CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting. Results: 34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95 %CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95 % CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95 %CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95 % CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95 %CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95 % CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born

  16. Survey, Culture, and Genome Analysis of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Tibetan Boarding Primary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Le; Lu, Xinxin; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, Tao; Luo, Shengdong; Sun, Zhihui; Duan, Qing; Wang, Ningli; Song, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is an ancient human disease. Its existence in China can be traced back to as early as the twenty-seventh century BC. In modern China, the overall prevalence of trachoma has dramatically reduced, but trachoma is still endemic in many areas of the country. Here, we report that 26 (8%) of 322 students from two rural boarding schools of Qinghai province, west China, were identified as having ocular C. trachomatis infection; and 15 ocular C. trachomatis strains were isolated from these trachoma patients. Chlamydiae in 37 clinical samples were genotyped as type B based on ompA gene analyses. Three ompA variants with one or two in-between SNP differences in the second or fourth variable domain were found. C. trachomatis strains QH111L and QH111R were from the same patient's left and right conjunctival swabs, respectively, but their ompA genes have a non-synonymous base difference in the second variable domain. Moreover, this SNP only exists in this single sample, suggesting QH111L is a newly emerged ompA variant. Interestingly, chromosomal phylogeny analysis found QH111L clusters between a branch of two type B strains and a branch of both A and C strains, but is significantly divergent from both branches. Comparative chromosome analysis found that compared to sequences of reference B/TZ1A828/OT strain, 12 of 22 QH111L's chromosomal genes exhibiting more than nine SNPs have the best homology with reciprocal genes of UGT strains while 9 of 22 genes are closest to those of type C strains. Consistent with findings of UGT-type genetic features in the chromosome, the QH111L plasmid appears to be intermediate between UGT and classical ocular plasmids due to the existence of UGT-type SNPs in the QH111L plasmid. Moreover, the QH111L strain has a unique evolutionarily older cytotoxin region compared to cytotoxin regions of other C. trachomatis strains. The genome analyses suggest that the QH111L strain is derived from

  17. Survey on basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yinghua; Sun Quanfu; Du Weixia; Lei Suwen; Lei Shujie; Li Xiaoying; Zhang Shouzhi; Qian Yekan; Su Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China. Methods: 2836 workers from 24 mines in 9 provinces/regions were face-to-face interviewed to collect information including age at exposure,exposure duration, cigarette smoking among others. Results: Age of the investigated non-uranium miners ranged from 17 to 72 (36.9 ± 8.0) years. The miners received low and poor education, 3% of them were illiterate, 58% with primary and middle school education, only 7% with junior college and higher education. Seventy-five percent of the uranium miners are migrant rural workers. Ethnic minority miners accoungted for 16% of all the investigated miners. Among the migrant rural workers age at initial exposure was estimated to be 29.6 ± 8.0 years. By the time of the investigation, 46.7% of the miners had worked in the mine for five years and longer, working years in the mine was 6.7 ± 6.8 years with a median of 4.1 years. 3.4% of the non-uranium miners began the initial radon exposure in mines before their 18 years of old. 17.5% of the investigated miners reported working more than 8 h every working day. Among the males, 58.0% were current smokers with a median of 16 cigarettes per day. Age to begin the cigarette smoking was 20 years on average. Current smoking rate was age-dependent, the rate as high as 69.2% for the males aged 15-19 years. Current smoking rate was significantly statistically lower in coal mines than that in other mines, 49.0% vs 62.5%. Compared with other miners, more frequent mechanical ventilations were reported by coal miners, Conclusions: In China non-uranium mines, 75% were migrant rural workers, by the time of the investigation about half of them had worked in the mines for at least five years. Non-uranium miners began their mining at 30 years on average, with a very small percentage of 3%, exposed to the mining radon before their 18 years. Current cigarette smoking rate in non-uranium male miners

  18. Multiple linear regression model for bromate formation based on the survey data of source waters from geographically different regions across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; Liu, Juan; An, Wei; Wang, Yongjing; Zhang, Junzhi; Wei, Wei; Su, Ming; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total of 86 source water samples from 38 cities across major watersheds of China were collected for a bromide (Br(-)) survey, and the bromate (BrO3 (-)) formation potentials (BFPs) of 41 samples with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1) were evaluated using a batch ozonation reactor. Statistical analyses indicated that higher alkalinity, hardness, and pH of water samples could lead to higher BFPs, with alkalinity as the most important factor. Based on the survey data, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model including three parameters (alkalinity, ozone dose, and total organic carbon (TOC)) was established with a relatively good prediction performance (model selection criterion = 2.01, R (2) = 0.724), using logarithmic transformation of the variables. Furthermore, a contour plot was used to interpret the influence of alkalinity and TOC on BrO3 (-) formation with prediction accuracy as high as 71 %, suggesting that these two parameters, apart from ozone dosage, were the most important ones affecting the BFPs of source waters with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1). The model could be a useful tool for the prediction of the BFPs of source water.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  20. National surveys on internal quality control for blood gas analysis and related electrolytes in clinical laboratories of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Chuanbao; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-05-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is essential for precision evaluation and continuous quality improvement. This study aims to investigate the IQC status of blood gas analysis (BGA) in clinical laboratories of China from 2014 to 2017. IQC information on BGA (including pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-) was submitted by external quality assessment (EQA) participant laboratories and collected through Clinet-EQA reporting system in March from 2014 to 2017. First, current CVs were compared among different years and measurement systems. Then, percentages of laboratories meeting five allowable imprecision specifications for each analyte were calculated, respectively. Finally, laboratories were divided into different groups based on control rules and frequency to compare their variation trend. The current CVs of BGA were significantly decreasing from 2014 to 2017. pH and pCO2 got the highest pass rates when compared with the minimum imprecision specification, whereas pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- got the highest pass rates when 1/3 TEa imprecision specification applied. The pass rates of pH, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- were significantly increasing during the 4 years. The comparisons of current CVs among different measurement systems showed that the precision performance of different analytes among different measurement systems had no regular distribution from 2014 to 2017. The analysis of IQC practice indicated great progress and improvement among different years. The imprecision performance of BGA has improved from 2014 to 2017, but the status of imprecision performance in China remains unsatisfying. Therefore, further investigation and continuous improvement measures should be taken.

  1. A survey of congenital heart disease and other organic malformations associated with different types of orofacial clefts in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Tian, Hua; Wang, Changqian; Yin, Ping; Zhu, Yaqin; Chen, Xianghua; Tang, Zhengde

    2013-01-01

    A high incidence of orofacial clefts is reported in China, but no data has shown the relation between cleft types and the incidence of other defects so far. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of congenital heart diseases and other organic defects associated with different types of orofacial clefts. All children with orofacial clefts, which were sought out from the Health Information System of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between 1(st) Jan 2009 and 30(th) Dec 2011, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent a thorough examination and grouped by the cleft phenotype. The numbers and types of other organic defects were recorded and analyzed statistically using SPSS 17.0. Of 2180 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 657 (30.1%) had other congenital abnormalities, which were significantly more common in cleft palate (47.9% (329/687)) than that in cleft lip (10.6% (80/755)) or cleft lip and palate (33.6% (248/738)) (Pmalformation was congenital heart disease, which counted 45.1% (296/657) of all malformations. Disorders of the central nervous system (14.3%(94/657)) and Skeletal anomalies (13.1%(86/657)) were also frequently associated. Additionally, the most common defect in heart was atrial septal defect, which was 39.7% (118/296) of all congenital heart diseases. As the high incidence of heart defects and other organic abnormalities in the children with cleft palate in Eastern China, special attention should be paid to them and echocardiography should be a proposed examination in the evaluation of children with cleft palate before any surgical correction being executed.

  2. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Sun

    Full Text Available The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China.A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model.We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM. The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance.It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  3. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  4. A Survey of Congenital Heart Disease and Other Organic Malformations Associated with Different Types of Orofacial Clefts in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Tian, Hua; Wang, Changqian; Yin, Ping; Zhu, Yaqin; Chen, Xianghua; Tang, Zhengde

    2013-01-01

    Background A high incidence of orofacial clefts is reported in China, but no data has shown the relation between cleft types and the incidence of other defects so far. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of congenital heart diseases and other organic defects associated with different types of orofacial clefts. Methodology and Principal Findings All children with orofacial clefts, which were sought out from the Health Information System of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between 1st Jan 2009 and 30th Dec 2011, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent a thorough examination and grouped by the cleft phenotype. The numbers and types of other organic defects were recorded and analyzed statistically using SPSS 17.0. Of 2180 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 657 (30.1%) had other congenital abnormalities, which were significantly more common in cleft palate (47.9% (329/687)) than that in cleft lip (10.6% (80/755)) or cleft lip and palate (33.6% (248/738)) (Pmalformation was congenital heart disease, which counted 45.1% (296/657) of all malformations. Disorders of the central nervous system (14.3%(94/657)) and Skeletal anomalies (13.1%(86/657)) were also frequently associated. Additionally, the most common defect in heart was atrial septal defect, which was 39.7% (118/296) of all congenital heart diseases. Conclusions and Significance As the high incidence of heart defects and other organic abnormalities in the children with cleft palate in Eastern China, special attention should be paid to them and echocardiography should be a proposed examination in the evaluation of children with cleft palate before any surgical correction being executed. PMID:23349958

  5. Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 2010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qin-Long

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The re-emergence of dengue virus 4 (DENV-4 has become a public health concern in South America, Southeast Asia and South Asia. However, it has not been known to have caused a local outbreak in China for the past 20 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of one local community outbreak caused by DENV-4 in Guangzhou city, China, in 2010; and to determine the molecular characteristics of the genotype II virus involved. Case presentations During September and October of 2010, one imported case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand, resulted in 18 secondary autochthonous cases in Guangzhou City, with an incidence rate of 5.53 per 10,000 residents. In indigenous cases, 14 serum samples tested positive for IgM against DENV and 7 for IgG from a total of 15 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 5 DENV-4 isolates. With identical envelope gene nucleotide sequences, the two isolates (D10168-GZ from the imported index case and Guangzhou 10660 from the first isolate in the autochthonous cases were grouped into DENV-4 genotype II after comparison to 32 previous DENV-4 isolates from GenBank that originated from different areas. Conclusions Based on epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, the outbreak, which was absent for 20 years after the DENV-4 genotype I outbreak in 1990, was confirmed as DENV-4 genotype II and initially traced to the imported index case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand.

  6. [Comparison study on sampling methods of Oncomelania hupensis snail survey in marshland schistosomiasis epidemic areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhao; Wen-Xin, Zhang; Zhong, Yao; Yu-Kuan, Ma; Qing, Liu; Hou-Lang, Duan; Yi-di, Shang

    2016-06-29

    To optimize and simplify the survey method of Oncomelania hupensis snail in marshland endemic region of schistosomiasis and increase the precision, efficiency and economy of the snail survey. A quadrate experimental field was selected as the subject of 50 m×50 m size in Chayegang marshland near Henghu farm in the Poyang Lake region and a whole-covered method was adopted to survey the snails. The simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified random sampling methods were applied to calculate the minimum sample size, relative sampling error and absolute sampling error. The minimum sample sizes of the simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified random sampling methods were 300, 300 and 225, respectively. The relative sampling errors of three methods were all less than 15%. The absolute sampling errors were 0.221 7, 0.302 4 and 0.047 8, respectively. The spatial stratified sampling with altitude as the stratum variable is an efficient approach of lower cost and higher precision for the snail survey.

  7. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pperspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

  8. Using marine magnetic survey data to identify a gold ore-controlling fault: a case study in Sanshandao fault, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayong; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jinhui; Song, Jianhua

    2018-06-01

    The Jiaodong Peninsula has the greatest concentration of gold ore in China and is characterized by altered tectonite-type gold ore deposits. This type of gold deposit is mainly formed in fracture zones and is strictly controlled by faults. Three major ore-controlling faults occur in the Jiaodong Peninsula—the Jiaojia, Zhaoping and Sanshandao faults; the former two are located on land and the latter is located near Sanshandao and its adjacent offshore area. The discovery of the world’s largest marine gold deposit in northeastern Sanshandao indicates that the shallow offshore area has great potential for gold prospecting. However, as two ends of the Sanshandao fault extend to the Bohai Sea, conventional geological survey methods cannot determine the distribution of the fault and this is constraining the discovery of new gold deposits. To explore the southwestward extension of the Sanshandao fault, we performed a 1:25 000 scale marine magnetic survey in this region and obtained high-quality magnetic survey data covering 170 km2. Multi-scale edge detection and three-dimensional inversion of magnetic anomalies identify the characteristics of the southwestward extension of the Sanshandao fault and the three-dimensional distribution of the main lithologies, providing significant evidence for the deployment of marine gold deposit prospecting in the southern segment of the Sanshandao fault. Moreover, three other faults were identified in the study area and faults F2 and F4 are inferred as ore-controlling faults: there may exist other altered tectonite-type gold ore deposits along these two faults.

  9. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  10. Endorsement of the CONSORT statement by high-impact medical journals in China: a survey of instructions for authors and published papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qian; Tao, Kun-ming; Zhou, Qing-hui; Moher, David; Chen, Hong-yun; Wang, Fu-zhe; Ling, Chang-quan

    2012-01-01

    The CONSORT Statement is a reporting guideline for authors when reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It offers a standard way for authors to prepare RCT reports. It has been endorsed by many high-impact medical journals and by international editorial groups. This study was conducted to assess the endorsement of the CONSORT Statement by high-impact medical journals in China by reviewing their instructions for authors. A total of 200 medical journals were selected according to the Chinese Science and Technology Journal Citation Reports, 195 of which publish clinical research papers. Their instructions for authors were reviewed and all texts mentioning the CONSORT Statement or CONSORT extension papers were extracted. Any mention of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM) developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) or 'clinical trial registration' was also extracted. For journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, their most recently published RCT reports were retrieved and evaluated to assess whether the journals have followed what the CONSORT Statement required. Out of the 195 medical journals publishing clinical research papers, only six (6/195, 3.08%) mentioned 'CONSORT' in their instructions for authors; out of the 200 medical journals surveyed, only 14 (14/200, 7.00%) mentioned 'ICMJE' or 'URM' in their instructions for authors, and another five journals stated in their instructions for authors that clinical trials should have trial registration numbers and that priority would be given to clinical trials which had been registered. Among the 62 RCT reports published in the six journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, 20 (20/62, 32.26%) contained flow diagrams and only three (3/62, 4.84%) provided trial registration information. Medical journals in China endorsing either the CONSORT Statement or the ICMJE's URM constituted a small percentage of the total; all of these journals used

  11. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  12. Endorsement of the CONSORT statement by high-impact medical journals in China: a survey of instructions for authors and published papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CONSORT Statement is a reporting guideline for authors when reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs. It offers a standard way for authors to prepare RCT reports. It has been endorsed by many high-impact medical journals and by international editorial groups. This study was conducted to assess the endorsement of the CONSORT Statement by high-impact medical journals in China by reviewing their instructions for authors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 200 medical journals were selected according to the Chinese Science and Technology Journal Citation Reports, 195 of which publish clinical research papers. Their instructions for authors were reviewed and all texts mentioning the CONSORT Statement or CONSORT extension papers were extracted. Any mention of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE or 'clinical trial registration' was also extracted. For journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, their most recently published RCT reports were retrieved and evaluated to assess whether the journals have followed what the CONSORT Statement required. Out of the 195 medical journals publishing clinical research papers, only six (6/195, 3.08% mentioned 'CONSORT' in their instructions for authors; out of the 200 medical journals surveyed, only 14 (14/200, 7.00% mentioned 'ICMJE' or 'URM' in their instructions for authors, and another five journals stated in their instructions for authors that clinical trials should have trial registration numbers and that priority would be given to clinical trials which had been registered. Among the 62 RCT reports published in the six journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, 20 (20/62, 32.26% contained flow diagrams and only three (3/62, 4.84% provided trial registration information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Medical journals in China endorsing either the CONSORT Statement or the

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  14. Perceived challenges to achieving universal health coverage: a cross-sectional survey of social health insurance managers/administrators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Linghan; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Li, Ye; Cui, Yu; Liang, Zi; Hao, Yanhua; Liang, Libo; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Han, Liyuan

    2017-06-02

    China has achieved over 96% health insurance coverage. However, universal health coverage (UHC) entails population coverage and the range of services covered and the extent to which health service costs are covered. This study aimed to determine the performance of the health insurance system in China in terms of its role in UHC and to identify challenges in the progress of UHC as perceived by health insurance managers/administrators. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Beijing, Ningbo, Harbin and Chongqing over the period of 2014 and 2015. A stratified cluster random sampling strategy was adopted to select study participants. A total of 1277 (64.8%) respondents who reported familiarity with the current health insurance system and the requirements of UHC provided valid data for analyses. They gave a rating on the role of the current health insurance system in achieving UHC. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine the associations between the rating and the features of insurance arrangements. There was consensus among the respondents on the performance of the current health insurance system in terms of its role in UHC, regardless who they were and what responsibility they held in their organisation (ie, policy development, managing fund transactions, and so on). Overall, about 45% of the respondents believed that there is a long way to go to achieve UHC. The low rating was found to be associated with limited financial protection (OR=1.656, 95% CI 1.279 to 2.146), healthcare inequity (OR=1.607, 95% CI 1.268 to 2.037), poor portability (OR=1.347, 95% CI 1.065 to 1.703) and ineffective supervision and administration of funds (OR=1.339, 95% CI 1.061 to 1.692) as perceived by the respondents. Health insurance managers/administrators in China are pessimistic about the achievements of the current health insurance system. They are concerned about the overall lack of benefit that insurance programmes bring to members

  15. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among 13473 patients with diabetes mellitus in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in six provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Song, Yifan; Tao, Liyuan; Qiu, Weiqiang; Lv, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Mingzhou; Li, Xuemin

    2017-01-09

    To describe the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening DR (STDR) among Chinese adults with diabetes. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey across Mainland China (N=13 473). Participants were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus by physicians and transferred to our screening clinics (1/3 from hospital patients, 1/3 from city residents, the other 1/3 from rural residents). 2 fundus photographs were taken of each eye with a colourful, non-mydriatic and non-stereoscopic camera and were graded according to the UK guidelines. The prevalence and severity of DR and STDR. Of the 13 473 participants with diabetes participating in the study, 4591 had DR and 1769 had STDR, for an overall prevalence of 34.08% (95% CI 33.28% to 34.88%) and 13.13% (95% CI 12.56% to 13.70%), respectively. Among these, gradable photographs were available for 12 780 participants (94.86%). Participants who were aged >65 years were less likely to suffer from DR or STDR (p0.05). Participants with STDR suffered from more severe visual impairment compared with those without STDR (pprevalence of DR and STDR in the northern region was higher than in the southern region (pprevalence of DR was closely related to duration of disease (OR 2.63; 95% CI 2.42 to 2.86; pdiabetes onset age (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.41; pprevalence of DR and STDR in Mainland China appeared a little high, and varied according to area. Non-proliferative DR was more common, but STDR needed prompt treatment, especially in economically less developed areas. This study highlights the necessity for DR screening and treatment in Mainland China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples: a cross-sectional survey in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peierdun Mijiti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among

  17. Community engagement in sexual health and uptake of HIV testing and syphilis testing among MSM in China: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiange P; Liu, Chuncheng; Han, Larry; Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Tang, Songyuan; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-04-03

    HIV and syphilis testing rates remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community engagement has been increasingly used to promote HIV testing among key populations in high-income countries, often in settings with stronger civil society. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic, behavioural, and community engagement factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing among MSM in China. MSM ≥16 years old who had condomless sex in the past three months were recruited nationwide to complete a cross-sectional online survey in November 2015. Data were collected on socio-demographics, sexual behaviours, HIV testing, syphilis testing, and community engagement in sexual health. We defined community engagement in sexual health using six items assessing awareness and advocacy of sexual health programmes. The underlying factor structure of a 6-item community engagement scale was determined through exploratory factor analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions identified correlates of HIV and syphilis testing. 1189 MSM were recruited. 54% (647/1189) of men had ever tested for HIV and 30% (354/1189) had ever tested for syphilis. Factor analysis suggested three levels of community engagement (minimal, moderate, and substantial) and this model explained 79.5% of observed variance. A quarter (26%, 312/1189) reported none to minimal engagement, over one half (54%, 644/1189) reported moderate engagement, and a fifth (20%, 233/1189) reported substantial engagement. Multivariable logistic regression showed that MSM with greater community engagement in sexual health were more likely to have ever tested for HIV (substantial vs. no engagement: aOR 7.91, 95% CI 4.98-12.57) and for syphilis (substantial vs. no engagement: aOR 5.35, 95% CI 3.16-9.04). HIV and syphilis testing are suboptimal among MSM in China. Community engagement may be useful for promoting testing in China and should be considered in intervention

  18. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Luo, Yun; Sun, Ming-Shuo; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi

    2017-03-23

    Dyslipidemia is an important independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to explore the current prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia and its associated influence factors in northeast China. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we adopted a multi-stage, stratified sampling method to obtain a representative sample of 4052 permanent residents aged 40 years and over from different urban and rural regions in Dehui City of Jilin Province. All subjects completed a questionnaire and were examined for risk factors. Continuous data were presented as means ± standard deviations (SD) and compared using the Student's t-test. Categorical variables were presented as proportions and compared using the Rao-Scott-χ 2 test in different subgroups. The associated influence factors for the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1% overall, with 33.5, 43.9, 0.6, and 8.8% for high total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of subjects who were aware, treated, and controlled was 14.4, 33.9, and 19.9%, respectively. Overweight or obesity (OR = 2.156; 95% CI: 1.863, 2.533), hypertension (OR = 1.643; 95% CI: 1.425, 1.893), or diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.173; 95% CI: 1.661, 2.844) increased the prevalence of dyslipidemia, also these participants were more likely to be aware of their condition, however, this did not increase the likelihood of treatment and control. Living in urban areas and higher education level also increased the awareness of dyslipidemia. Personal history of coronary heart disease was the strongest influence factors associated with better awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia. Overweight or obesity (OR = 0.404; 95% CI

  19. Health-related quality of life in residents aged 18 years and older with and without disease: findings from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-09-03

    Published research has not considered acute diseases and injuries in assessing the impact of varying disease counts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We used Chinese value sets of EQ-5D-3L to examine the relationship between the number of diseases individuals had (including chronic diseases, acute diseases and injuries) and their HRQoL. A total of 19 387 individuals aged 18 years and older were included in the study. Using data from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, HRQoL was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L scale, a standardized instrument developed by the EuroQoL group. The EQ-5D-3L utility score was calculated using the Chinese EQ-5D-3L value set. This survey coded disease using the list of 133 conditions that was defined by the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, based on the 10th International Classification of Diseases. 126 conditions were disease-related and were therefore included in data analysis. Of 15 245 respondents, urban residents and male constituted 53.0% and 48.2%, respectively. 19.3% of respondents had one disease and 5.0% had at least two diseases. Of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L, the pain/discomfort dimension had the highest proportion of moderate or serious problems among the respondents (14.4%, 95% CI 10.5% to 18.2%). The average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and utility score were 78.0 (95% CI 76.9 to 79.1) and 0.958 (95% CI 0.946 to 0.970), respectively. Residents with 1 and ≥2 diseases had higher proportions of moderate or serious problems in five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L scale during the previous 2 weeks than those without disease after controlling for location (urban/rural), sex, age, education level and household income, respectively (adjusted ORs: 3.1-3.7 and 4.4-6.6, respectively). The mean of the EQ VAS score was 8.4 and 13.6 points lower in respondents with 1 and ≥2 diseases than in respondents without disease; the corresponding mean score difference was 0

  20. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  1. Barriers to Research Utilization among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As there might be relevant differences with regard to research utilization in the general hospitals, we aimed to study research utilization among registered nurses working in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. Methods. A total of 648 registered nurses from 4 tertiary-level hospitals in China were recruited for participation. A modified BARRIERS Scale and self-designed questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation analysis. Results. Overall, items which belong to the subscale “Research” were identified as the most important barriers. Among the individual items, the lack of time on the job was ranked as the top barrier, followed by the lack of knowledgeable colleagues and by overwhelming research publications. Clinical experience, working pressure, job satisfaction, and research experience could be identified as associated factors for barriers to research utilization. Conclusions. Registered nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals felt high barriers to research utilization. Reducing registered nurses’ working pressure, promoting their positive attitude to nursing, and improving research training might be helpful for increasing research utilization. Close cooperation between clinical and nursing schools or academic research centres might facilitate the necessary change in nursing education and routine.

  2. Parental migration and smoking behavior of left-behind children: evidence from a survey in rural Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Li, Cuicui; Zhou, Chengchao; Jiang, Shan; Chu, Jie; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-08-05

    Parental migration is most an important factor affecting children's behaviors. Few studies have addressed the association between parental migration and children's smoking behavior in China. This study aims to estimate the current smoking prevalence among children, evaluate the association of parental migration and the smoking behavior of children and identify factors associated with smoking behavior among left-behind children (LBC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 cities in Anhui province during July and August, 2012. All participants were interviewed face-to-face using a standardized questionnaire. Only children 10 to 14 years old that live in rural villages for at least 6 months during the previous year were included in the study. A total of 1343 children met the sampling criteria and participated in the study. Of these, 56 % are LBC and 44 % live with both parents. The average rate of smoking is 3.4 %. The rate of smoking is statistically higher for LBC with both parents out (rate = 6.1 %; OR = 5.59, P gender (i.e., boys), (perceived) school performance and primary caregiver. Parental migration is associated with a significant increase in smoking behavior among children. Intervention studies that target LBC would help to develop strategies to reduce smoking among rural children. Gender-specific strategies and anti-smoking education also appears to be needed to reduce tobacco use among rural LBC.

  3. The Rise and Need for Mobile Apps for Maternal and Child Health Care in China: Survey Based on App Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Puhong; Dong, Le; Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Liu, Jianbo

    2018-06-08

    Mobile health services are thriving in the field of maternal and child health in China due to expansions in the field of electronic health and the introduction of the two-child policy. There are numerous maternal and child health apps in computer stores, but the exact number of apps, number of downloads, and features of these apps is not known. This study aimed to explore the use of maternal and child health apps in Android and iOS app stores and to describe the key functional features of the most popular apps, with the purpose of providing insight into further research and development of maternal and child health mobile health products. The researchers conducted a search in the 3 most popular Android app stores (Tencent MyApp, Baidu Mobile Assistant, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and the iTunes App Store in China. All apps regarding family planning (contraception and preparing for pregnancy), pregnancy and perinatal care, neonatal care and health, and development for children under 6 years were included in the initial analysis. Maternal and child health mobile apps with predominant features of product marketing, children's songs, animation, or games were excluded from the study. The 50 most frequently used apps in each of the Android stores as well as the iTunes store (a total of 78 deduplicated apps) were selected and downloaded for an in-depth analysis. A total of 5276 Android apps and 877 iOS apps developed for maternal and child health care were identified. Of the 78 most frequently used apps, 43 (55%) apps focused on one stage of MCH care, mainly targeting child care (25 apps) and before pregnancy care (11 apps), whereas 35 (45%) of the apps covered 2 or more stages, most of which (32 apps) included both pregnancy and child care services. The app features that were commonly adopted by the popular apps were health education, communication, health status self-monitoring, a diary, reminders, and counseling. Within the app feature of "health status self

  4. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Han Lee; Mack Shelley; Ching-Ti Liu; Yen-Chang Chang

    2018-01-01

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Surve...

  5. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  6. Interaction of diabetes and smoking on stroke: a population-based cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Heqing; Dong, Zongmei; Zhang, Pan; Shao, Xiaoping; Li, Ting; Zhao, Chunyan; Zhang, Xunbao; Lou, Peian

    2018-04-04

    Diabetes and smoking are known independent risk factors for stroke; however, their interaction concerning stroke is less clear. We aimed to explore such interaction and its influence on stroke in Chinese adults. Cross-sectional study. Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. A total of 39 887 Chinese adults who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. Participants were selected using a multistage stratified cluster method, and completed self-reported questionnaires on stroke and smoking. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) was assessed by fasting blood glucose or use of antidiabetic medication. Interaction, relative excess risk owing to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion (AP) and synergy index (S) were evaluated using a logistic regression model. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, family history of stroke, alcohol use and blood lipids, the relationships between DM2 and stroke, and between smoking and stroke, were still significant: ORs were 2.75 (95% CI 2.03 to 3.73) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.10), respectively. In subjects with DM2 who smoked, the RERI, AP and S values (and 95% CIs) were 1.80 (1.24 to 3.83), 0.52 (0.37 to 0.73) and 1.50 (1.18 to 1.84), respectively. The results suggest there are additive interactions between DM2 and smoking and that these affect stroke in Chinese adults. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. [Epidemiological survey of asthma among children aged 0-14 years in 2010 in urban Zhongshan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Huang, Dong-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Xiong; Fu, Si-Mao; Luo, Cui-Mei; Zeng, Guan; Wang, Ye-Hong; Wang, Ke-Ming; Ruan, Jian; Zhen, Bo-Qiang; Li, Min; Li, Lan; Cui, Bi-Yun; Huang, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Gui-Lan; Rong, Jia-Yan; Huang, Jian-Mei; Xiao, Qiong-Qing; Guo, Xiao-Ling

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease, among children aged 0-14 years in 2010 in urban Zhongshan, China. A total of 10 336 children aged 0-14 years were selected from urban Zhongshan by cluster random sampling. The Third National Childhood Asthma Epidemiological Questionnaire 2010 was used to analyze the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of childhood asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease. Asthma was diagnosed in 179 cases (1.73%). The prevalence of asthma in male children was significantly higher than that in female children (2.25% vs 1.16%; Pattacks were common in 104 cases (58.1%), 110 cases (61.5%) had slow onset, 102 cases (57.0%) had gradually relieved conditions, 61 cases (34.1%) suffered from asthma during seasonal transition, and 150 cases (83.8%) developed asthma due to respiratory tract infection. Among all asthmatic children, 71.5% had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 71.5% had been treated with bronchodilator. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a history of penicillin allergy, a family history of allergy, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, cesarean delivery, family mould, and perinatal passive smoking were independent risk factors for childhood asthma. The prevalence of childhood asthma in urban Zhongshan is on a high level, and is associated with gender. The treatment of asthma has been standardized, but still needs further improvement. The onset of asthma attack is influenced by various factors.

  8. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  9. Integrating a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey: a case study on temperate intertidal polychaete communities in Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Renhua; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lei; Pan, Haijian

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we integrated a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey on intertidal polychaete communities and investigated the utility of CO1 gene sequence as a DNA barcode for the classification of the intertidal polychaetes. Using 16S rDNA as a complementary marker and combining morphological and ecological characterization, some of dominant and common polychaete species from Chinese coasts were assessed for their taxonomic status. We obtained 22 haplotype gene sequences of 13 taxa, including 10 CO1 sequences and 12 16S rDNA sequences. Based on intra- and inter-specific distances, we built phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining method. Our study suggested that the mitochondrial CO1 gene was a valid DNA barcoding marker for species identification in polychaetes, but other genes, such as 16S rDNA, could be used as a complementary genetic marker. For more accurate species identification and effective testing of species hypothesis, DNA barcoding should be incorporated with morphological, ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic information. The application of DNA barcoding and molecular identification in the ecological survey on the intertidal polychaete communities demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNA taxonomy and ecology.

  10. The Beliefs and Usage of Social Media Among General Practitioner Trainers from Eleven Provinces of China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Ren, Jingjing

    2018-05-07

    It has become a new lifestyle of using social media (SM) to acquire all kinds of information. The objectives of this study were to determine general practitioner (GP) trainers' current use of SM and their beliefs and attitudes regarding use of SM. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was taken during a 1-week GP trainers' training program. Data probing GP trainers' use of SM and attitudes toward SM use in clinical work and education were collected and analyzed. Four hundred seven respondents participated in the survey, and the response rate was 61.4%. All the respondents reported that they have at least an SM account. A total of 99.3% of respondents replied that they would add a colleague as a friend via SM; however, only 68.6% of them would add a patient. More than half of the respondents have been contacted by a patient more than five times per year, whereas 67.2% of them attempted to contact a patient by SM less than three times per year. One hundred forty of 407 (34.4%) respondents used SM daily to explore medical information, whereas 42 of 407 (10.3%) contributed new information via SM on a daily basis. Nearly 50% of respondents believed that SM was useful and beneficial. SM is widely used among GP trainers from 11 provinces of China. Most of the participants believed that SM is useful and beneficial to their work. However, there are still some problems for them to use SM in healthcare and medical education, including separating personal and professional use of SM, SM policy, and the quality of information from SM.

  11. A 2-year follow-up survey of 523 cases with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-qing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a 2-year follow-up survey of 523 patients with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, China. Nerve injuries were classified into three types: type I injuries were nerve transection injuries, type II injuries were nerve compression injuries, and type III injuries displayed no direct neurological dysfunction due to trauma. In this study, 31 patients had type I injuries involving 41 nerves, 419 had type II injuries involving 823 nerves, and 73 had type III injuries involving 150 nerves. Twenty-two patients had open transection nerve injury. The restoration of peripheral nerve function after different treatments was evaluated. Surgical decompression favorably affected nerve recovery. Physiotherapy was effective for type I and type II nerve injuries, but not substantially for type III nerve injury. Pharmacotherapy had little effect on type II or type III nerve injuries. Targeted decompression surgery and physiotherapy contributed to the effective treatment of nerve transection and compression injuries. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for nerve injury severity declined with increasing duration of being trapped. In the first year after treatment, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for grades 3 to 5 nerve injury increased by 28.2% to 81.8%. If scores were still poor (0 or 1 after a 1-year period of treatment, further treatment was not effective.

  12. Poppers use and Sexual Partner Concurrency Increase the HIV Incidence of MSM: a 24-month Prospective Cohort Survey in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Yun, Ke; Wang, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Shang, Hong

    2018-01-08

    The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15.5 (95% CI:9.4-23.4)/100 PY[person-years]) and 4.6 (95% CI:2.9-7.0)/100 PY in poppers-users and non-poppers-users, respectively. Predictors of HIV seroconversion included poppers-using-behavior, having had more than two male partners, practicing group sex, unprotected anal intercourse(UAI) with male partners, and baseline syphilis positivity (all P poppers, high-risk-sexual behaviors and syphilis infection significantly increase the HIV incidence among Shenyang MSM. It is essential for policy makers to add poppers to the official controlled illicit drug list to reduce HIV transmission among the MSM community. A comprehensive strategy should also be implemented to control both their high-risk-sexual behaviors and risk of syphilis infection, since these may represent novel ways to prevent new HIV infections in these MSM.

  13. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  14. Prevalence and Gender-Specific Influencing Factors of Hypertension among Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has become the leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among Nanchang adults are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and gender-specific influencing factors of hypertension in adults in Nanchang, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2722 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above between May and September 2016, with a response rate of 92.4% (2516/2722. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in this study. Data on prevalence and influencing factors were obtained from a standard questionnaire and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the influencing factors. The age-standardized prevalence was 19.8% (18.2–21.3 (male: 19.5% (18.0–21.1; female, 20.01% (18.5–21.6. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were past smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM, and overweight and obesity in both genders. Abdominal obesity and family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were risk factors only in males; sleeping time and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were related to the prevalence of hypertension only in females. These findings will form the baseline information for the development of more effective approaches to enhance current prevention and control management of hypertension.

  15. Survey of Wild and Domestic Mammals for Infection with Leishmania infantum following an Outbreak of Desert Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis in Jiashi, People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Gao

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, an outbreak of desert-subtype zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis occurred in Jiashi county, Xinjiang, China. So far, no animal reservoir has been identified for this type of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we surveyed the most common mammals (wild and domestic for Leishmania infections during the outbreak in 2008 and 2009 in order to identify the source of the visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Spleen, liver, bone marrow and blood samples collected from 86 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, 61midday jirds (Meriones meridianus and 27 Yarkand hares (Lepus yarkandensis were tested for the presence of Leishmania by microscopy, culture and PCR. All of the animals were found to be negative for Leishmania infections; On the other hand, Leishmania DNA was detected in blood samples collected from livestock reared in the outbreak area: 30.36% (17/56 of sheep, 21.57% (11/51 of goats, 17.78% (8/45 of cattle, and 21.62 (8/37 of donkeys were positive for Leishmania DNA by PCR. The amplified kDNA sequences from the livestock samples matched Leishmania DNA sequences isolated from patients with visceral leishmaniasis in the study area. We suggest that these domestic mammals are a possible reservoir host for Leishmania infantum in the outbreak area.

  16. Problematic Internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Yau, Yvonne H C; Chai, Jingxin; Guo, Jinhua; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Given the prevalence of Internet use among youth, there is concern that a subset of Internet-using youth may exhibit problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. The present study examines the association between problematic Internet use (PIU), demographic variables, and health-related measures among Chinese adolescents. Survey data from 1552 adolescents (male=653, mean age=15.43years) from Jilin Province, China, were collected. According to the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), 77.8% (n=1207), 16.8% (n=260), and 5.5% (n=85) showed adaptive, maladaptive, and problematic Internet use, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and family income per month differed between youth showing problematic and adaptive patterns of Internet use. Well-being, self-esteem, and self-control were related to severity of problematic Internet use, with greater severity typically associated with poorer measures in each domain. The findings that severity of problematic Internet use is associated with specific socio-demographic features and temperamental and well-being measures suggest that specific groups of youth may be particularly vulnerable to developing problematic Internet use. Early prevention/intervention programs targeting at-risk groups may help improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Access to Paediatric Essential Medicines: A Survey of Prices, Availability, Affordability and Price Components in Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Fang, Yu; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Yan, Kangkang; Wu, Lina; Lv, Bing; Shen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days’ wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. Findings The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs) and lowest-priced generics (LPGs) were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs) for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day’s wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer’s selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. Conclusions The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system. PMID:24595099

  18. Access to paediatric essential medicines: a survey of prices, availability, affordability and price components in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. METHODS: Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days' wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. FINDINGS: The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs and lowest-priced generics (LPGs were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day's wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer's selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. CONCLUSIONS: The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system.

  19. A time-lapse gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field, China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Blake, Kelly

    2018-04-19

    We have conducted a gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field to continue the time-lapse gravity study of the area initiated in 1991. In this report, we outline a method of processing the gravity data that minimizes the random errors and instrument bias introduced into the data by the Scintrex CG-5 relative gravimeters that were used. After processing, the standard deviation of the data was estimated to be ±13 microGals. These data reveal that the negative gravity anomaly over the Coso geothermal field, centered on gravity station CER1, is continuing to increase in magnitude over time. Preliminary modeling indicates that water-table drawdown at the location of CER1 is between 65 and 326 meters over the last two decades. We note, however, that several assumptions on which the model results depend, such as constant elevation and free-water level over the study period, still require verification.

  20. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  1. Population Structure of the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, an Invasive Species from the Americas, 60 Years after Invading China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rui Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae was introduced into China more than 60 years ago, the genetic diversity and structure of this exotic insect pest and virus vector have not been studied. To investigate the population genetic characteristics of this invasive species and to identify potential invasion routes, the genetic diversity and population structure of 17 collections of T. vaporariorum from nine provinces in China were analyzed using seven microsatellite loci. The results of the analyses indicated that the genetic diversity for the populations examined from the four provinces: Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai, was lower than the genetic diversity of populations from the five provinces: Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Liaoning, and Gansu. The T. vaporariorum populations analyzed in this study grouped as two distinct genetic clusters based on the analysis using STRUCTURE, whereas, 8 clusters were identified based on the BAPS analysis. Of the 136 genetic distance (Fst values, 128 (94% were associated with a significant exact test. However, there was no significant relationship between Fst and geographical distance. These results demonstrate that populations of T. vaporariorum in China exhibit significant genetic differentiation, indicating the likelihood that multiple introductions of T. vaporariorum into China have occurred. Also, the populations collected from the provinces of Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai appear to represent secondary introductions originating from other Chinese provinces.

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated from chicken in South China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Ji, Jun; Qin, Jian-Ping; Li, Hai-Yan; Lu, Jun-Peng; Xue, Yu; Liu, Jia-Jia; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Xue, Chun-Yi; Bee, Ying-Zuo

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. Thousands of cases of IBDV infection are reported each year in South China, and these infections can result in considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To monitor variations of the virus during the outbreaks, 30 IBDVs were identified from vaccinated chicken flocks from nine provinces in South China in 2011. VP2 fragments from different virus strains were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with the published sequences of IBDV strains from China and around the world. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable regions of the VP2 (vVP2) gene showed that 29 of the isolates were very virulent (vv) IBDVs, and were closely related to vvIBDV strains from Europe and Asia. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of vVP2 showed the 29 vv isolates had high uniformity, indicated low variability and slow evolution of the virus. The non-vvIBDV isolate JX2-11 was associated with higher than expected mortality, and had high deduced aa sequence similarity (99.2 %) with the attenuated vaccine strain B87 (BJ). The present study has demonstrated the continued circulation of IBDV strains in South China, and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing IBDV surveillance.

  3. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  4. Investigation of mental health and its influence on Chinese cancer patients using a multidisciplinary screening flow:an epidemiological survey in the west of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huan; LI Jin; LU You; DENG Lei; SUN Xue-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite psycho-oncological concerns and studies having thrived these past decades,sparse reports illustrate to what extent Chinese cancer patients are involved and influenced by comorbid mental health problems.To investigate the mental health condition of cancer patient,as well as its possible impacts on prognosis,the first large-scale survey was performed in the west of China.Methods For standardizing and facilitating the assessment of mental illness in inpatients with cancer,a multidisciplinary rating flow was designed and established.On the basis of this system,between May 1st and 31st 2009,2279 cancer inpatients from nine medical centers received preliminarily screening executed by oncologists using screening scales Mental Health Screening Questionnaire (MHSQ),Zung self-rating depression scales (SDS),Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS),and posttraumatic stress disorder checklist-civilian version (PCL-C).Further analyses of the ones screened positively were conducted by psychiatrists applying corresponding symptom-rating scales (HAMA/HAMD/BPRS).We summarized the overall proportion of patients with impaired mental health based on the data acquired from preliminary screening,and then calculated occurrence rates of each clinical syndrome of mental disorder according to symptom conclusions.The impact of comorbid mental illness was evaluated through the follow-up scheduled 1 year later,by comparing the survival rate,progression of disease,and quality of life (QoL) between subgroup patients with or without clinical syndrome of mental disorder.Results In preliminary screenings,26.1% (595/2279) yielded positive results.Further symptom conclusions confirmed 15.8% (359/2279) with clinical syndrome of mental disorder.Regarding specific type of syndrome,the occurrence rates of depression,anxiety,psychotic symptoms,and stress-related disorders were 13.3%,10.2%,2.8%,and 1.4%,respectively.Follow-up assessments were successfully performed in 1918

  5. Attitude towards working in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhang, Kun; Mao, Ying

    2018-05-02

    Attracting and recruiting health workers to work in rural areas is still a great challenge in China. The rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education (RTME) programme has been initiated and implemented in China since 2010. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) in Shaanxi towards working in rural areas and the related influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 among 232 RTMSs in two medical universities from the first group of students enrolled in the RTME programme in Shaanxi. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used for the data analyses. Of the 230 valid responses, 92.6% expressed their intentions of breaking the contract for working in rural township hospitals for 6 years after their graduation under the RTME programme. After the contract expired, only 1.3% intended to remain in the rural areas, 66.5% had no intention of remaining, and 32.2% were unsure. The factors related to a positive attitude among the RTMSs towards working in rural areas (no intention of breaking the contract) included being female, having a mother educated at the level of primary school or below, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the policy. The factors related to a positive attitude of the RTMSs towards remaining in rural areas included being female, having a rural origin, having no regular family monthly income, having a father whose occupation was farmer, having a mother educated at the level of postsecondary or above, having the RTMSs be the final arbiter of the policy choice, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the educational scheme. Related policy makers and health workforce managers may benefit from the findings of this study. Appropriate strategies should be implemented to stimulate the RTMSs

  6. Livelihood Benefits from Post-Earthquake Nature-Based Tourism Development: A Survey of Local Residents in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale tourism development after a natural disaster often leads to substantial changes in the living conditions of local residents. Few studies have examined how these changes are perceived by residents and related to their support to tourism development. We conducted a household survey in Wolong National Nature Reserve, which is a popular nature-based tourist location severely devastated by a catastrophic earthquake in 2008. Structural equation modelling (SEM was employed to explore the association between residents’ expectation of tourism impacts and their willingness to support tourism development. Results indicated that they held high expectations about development and believed that it would be enhance Wolong’s economic progress and improve their personal living conditions. Expected economic benefits (EEB had a significant and positive relationship with the expected improvement of their personal living conditions, but not with their support to tourism development. The latter two variables, however, were associated with each other, suggesting that expected improvement of living conditions mediated between expected benefits and stated support to tourism development. Similar results were not found for resistance and concerns about tourism development. Policy-makers and tourism planners should recognize that public support to tourism development is not necessarily driven directly by expected economic benefits.

  7. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome in the urban Chinese population: prevalence and disease burden using the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Niklas Karlsson,1 Xia Ling31Department of Global Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medical Affairs China, AstraZeneca, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Research has suggested a significant burden for patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, few studies have studied this population in the People’s Republic of China, a region in the midst of rapid epidemiological change with respect to respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACOS and its association with patient outcomes in urban China.Methods: Data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Survey, an Internet-based survey of adults in urban China, were used (N=59,935. Respondents were categorized into one of four groups based on self-reported physician diagnoses: ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, or control (ie, no asthma or COPD. A propensity score matching procedure was conducted to cull the control group into a subgroup (ie, matched controls who resembled patients with ACOS, asthma only, and COPD only. These four groups (ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, matched controls were then compared with respect to health status (Short Form-12 version 2/Short Form-36 version 2, work productivity, and health care resource use using generalized linear models.Results: Patients with ACOS (N=366 comprised 0.61% of the adult population, 30.73% of the asthma population, and 18.60% of the COPD population in the People’s Republic of China. Patients with ACOS reported significantly worse health status (eg, health utilities =0.63, 0.66, 0.63, and 0.69 for ACOS, COPD only, asthma only, and matched controls, respectively and significantly greater work impairment (eg, overall work impairment =43.65%, 35.19%, 48.55%, and 29.80%, respectively and health care

  8. Interaction of sleep quality and sleep duration on impaired fasting glucose: a population-based cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peian; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Pan; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Ning; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2014-03-13

    To explore the interactions of sleep quality and sleep duration and their effects on impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. 15 145 Chinese men and women aged 18-75 years old who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to produce sleep quality categories of good, common and poor. Fasting blood glucose levels were assessed for IFG. Sleep duration was measured by average hours of sleep per night, with categories of 8 h. The products of sleep and family history of diabetes, obesity and age were added to the logistic regression model to evaluate the addictive interaction and relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) on IFG. The attributable proportion (AP) of the interaction and the synergy index (S) were applied to evaluate the additive interaction of two factors. Bootstrap measures were used to calculate 95% CI of RERI, AP and S. The prevalence of IFG was greatest in those with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration (OR 6.37, 95% CI 4.66 to 8.67; pquality and 6-8 h sleep duration, after adjusting for confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders RERI, AP and S values (and their 95% CI) were 1.69 (0.31 to 3.76), 0.42 (0.15 to 0.61) and 2.85 (2.14 to 3.92), respectively, for the interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, and 0.78 (0.12 to 1.43), 0.61 (0.26 to 0.87) and -65 (-0.94 to -0.27) for the interaction between good sleep quality and long sleep duration. The results suggest that there are additive interactions between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration.

  9. Perceived impacts of the national essential medicines system: a cross-sectional survey of health workers in urban community health services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Jianping; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Xianhong; Guo, Qing

    2017-07-10

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of primary care workers about the impacts of the national essential medicines policy (NEMP). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken in 42 urban community health centres randomly selected from four provinces in China. 791 primary care workers rated the impacts of the NEMP on a 5-point Likert scale. An average score for the impacts of the NEMP on four aspects (the practice of health workers, interactions of patients with health workers, operations of health centres and provision of medicines) was calculated, each ranging from 0 to 100. A higher score indicates a more positive rating. Linear regression models were established to determine the sociodemographic characteristics (region, age, gender, profession, training, income) that were associated with the ratings. The respondents gave an average rating score of 65.61±11.76, 63.17±13.62, 66.35±13.02 and 67.26±11.60 for the impacts of the NEMP on health workers, patients, health centres and provision of medicines, respectively. Respondents from the central region rated the NEMP higher than those from the eastern and western regions. The pharmacists (β=5.457~7.558, pimpacts (as perceived by the health workers) on health services delivery in primary care settings. However, the impacts of the NEMP vary by region, professional practice and the income level of health workers. It is important to maintain support from physicians through income subsidies (to compensate for potential loss) and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control between Bouyei and Han: Results from a Bi-Ethnic Health Survey in Developing Regions from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fen; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Wang, Ke; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Zhang, Biao; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-02-19

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in low-income population. This study aims to investigate ethnic disparities in hypertension and identify modifiable factors related to its occurrence and control in developing regions in South China. Blood pressure was measured in the Bouyei and Han populations during a community-based health survey in Guizhou, 2012. A multistage stratified sampling method was adopted to recruit Bouyei and Han aged from 20 to 80 years. Taking mixed effects into consideration, multilevel logistic models with random intercept were used for data analysis. The prevalence rates of hypertension were 35.3% for the Bouyei and 33.7% for the Han. Among the hypertensive participants, 30.1% of the Bouyei and 40.2% of the Han were aware of their hypertensive conditions, 19.7% of the Bouyei and 31.1% of the Han were receiving treatment, and only 3.6% of the Bouyei and 9.9% of the Han had their blood pressure under control. Age-sex standardized rates of awareness, treatment, and control were consistently lower in the Bouyei than the Han. Such ethnic disparities were more evident in the elderly population. Avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption and better education were favorable lifestyle for reduction in risk of hypertension. Moderate physical activity improved control of hypertension in Bouyei patients under treatment. Conclusively, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were substantially lower in Bouyei than Han, particularly in the elderly population. Such ethnic disparities indicate that elderly Bouyei population should be targeted for tailored interventions in the future.

  11. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  12. Measuring costs of data collection at village clinics by village doctors for a syndromic surveillance system-a cross sectional survey from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Fei, Yang; Xu, Biao; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-07-25

    Studies into the costs of syndromic surveillance systems are rare, especially for estimating the direct costs involved in implementing and maintaining these systems. An Integrated Surveillance System in rural China (ISSC project), with the aim of providing an early warning system for outbreaks, was implemented; village clinics were the main surveillance units. Village doctors expressed their willingness to join in the surveillance if a proper subsidy was provided. This study aims to measure the costs of data collection by village clinics to provide a reference regarding the subsidy level required for village clinics to participate in data collection. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a village clinic questionnaire and a staff questionnaire using a purposive sampling strategy. We tracked reported events using the ISSC internal database. Cost data included staff time, and the annual depreciation and opportunity costs of computers. We measured the village doctors' time costs for data collection by multiplying the number of full time employment equivalents devoted to the surveillance by the village doctors' annual salaries and benefits, which equaled their net incomes. We estimated the depreciation and opportunity costs of computers by calculating the equivalent annual computer cost and then allocating this to the surveillance based on the percentage usage. The estimated total annual cost of collecting data was 1,423 Chinese Renminbi (RMB) in 2012 (P25 = 857, P75 = 3284), including 1,250 RMB (P25 = 656, P75 = 3000) staff time costs and 134 RMB (P25 = 101, P75 = 335) depreciation and opportunity costs of computers. The total costs of collecting data from the village clinics for the syndromic surveillance system was calculated to be low compared with the individual net income in County A.

  13. Urban residents' response to and evaluation of low-carbon travel policies: Evidence from a survey of five eastern cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jichao; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-24

    To address the problems of excessive energy consumption and global climate change, the Chinese government has issued numerous policies to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. To evaluate the validity of these policies from the perspective of public opinion, this study summarizes 22 policies from the four vantage points of economics, administration, technology, and public information and then measures residents' response to and evaluation of policies based on survey data on 1977 urban residents using stratified random sampling in five cities in eastern China. The results indicate that from the viewpoint of policy response, administrative policies for promoting public transport show the highest degree of response, followed by public information, technological, and economic policies. Specifically, the responses to parking and congestion fee policies are relatively stronger than those to vehicle purchase tax, vehicle and vessel tax, and fuel surcharge policies. Moreover, the responses to fuel surcharge policy are even weaker than car-restriction policies, including license-plate number restriction, license-plate lottery, and license-plate auction policies. From the viewpoint of policy evaluation, administrative policies for promoting public transport obtain the highest evaluations, followed by economic and technological policies. Residents' evaluations of car-restriction and public information policies are the lowest. In addition, a four-paradigm model is introduced to illustrate residents' reactions to each policy in terms of response and evaluation. Finally, several implementation strategies, including the anterior, concurrent, optional, core, supporting, and assisting policy options are proposed to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FY 2000 survey of the geological structure overseas, etc. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa - futai shiryoshu. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This data book summarized the proceedings and the technical report of the management committee on the Japan-China geological structure survey based on the consultation concluded between NEDO and China's bureau of coal field geology and a report meeting on the Yu Xian project. In the exploration, conducted were the boring survey of 10 boreholes, seismic survey of 2D (71 traverse lines, 180.105km) and 3D (1.5km{sup 2}), VSP (6 holes (345 shots)) and the low velocity band survey (2,072 shots). The geological structure of the area presented the syncline structure with a gentle line associated with foldings and a number of faults and was classified into the medium class or the class of a little complication in the Chinese standard. The number of the faults confirmed in this exploration totaled 57. Coal reserves by coal seam were 157.22 million tons at No. 5 seam and 102.57 million tons at No. 1 seam. The total amount of the two seams was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The coal quality of Nos. 1 and 5 was brown coal - flame coal in the Chinese classification, and subbituminous coal B - subbituminous coal C in the ASTM classification. The coal, however, cannot be used for process raw coal. There is a technical potentiality of the fixed bed pressurized gasification. (NEDO)

  15. An epidemiological survey of prevalence and risk factors for fatty liver disease in adults residing in Yan′an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Li′na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence and major risk factors for fatty liver disease among adult residents in Yan’an, Shanxi Province, China.MethodsThe study enrolled healthy adults who had physical examination with complete clinical records in our hospital from February 2011 to March 2013. All participants underwent anthropometric measurement (height, weight, and blood pressure, biochemical and immunological tests (liver and renal function; blood glucose, lipids, and uric acid [UA]; viral markers, and ultrasound examination. Data analysis was performed using the t test, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis. ResultsA total of 6236 adult residents participated in the survey, who accounted for approximately 3.76/1000 of the total population in Yan’an. There were 3532 males and 2704 females, with a mean age of 49.27±12.93 years. Fatty liver disease was detected with ultrasound examination in 1602 participants (2568%, among whom alcoholic, suspected alcoholic, and nonalcoholic forms accounted for 4.55%, 7.08%, and 88.37%, respectively. The fatty liver group had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hyperuricemia, higher-than-normal fasting serum glucose (FSG level, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia than the non-fatty-liver group (P<0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, gender (male, drinking, waist circumference, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglyceride (TG, UA, FSG, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were influential factors for fatty liver disease, of which HDL-C was a protective factor. Compared with the normal FSG group, the impaired fasting glycaemia and diabetes groups were at an increased risk for fatty liver disease by 1.584-and 2.638-fold, respectively (P<0.001. The risk increased by1.627-, 1.796-, 9.544-fold, respectively, in the overweight, grade I obesity, and grade Ⅱ obesity groups versus the

  16. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  17. The 5th national survey on the physical growth and development of children in the nine cities of China: Anthropometric measurements of Chinese children under 7 years in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Qin; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zong, Xin-Nan; Zhu, Zong-Han; Pan, Ying; Li, Jia; Zheng, Xing-Rong; Wei, Mei; Tong, Mei-Ling; Zhou, Ai-Fen; Hu, Yan; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Ke; Yu, Yang

    2017-07-01

    To describe the physical growth of healthy children under 7 years in China based on the latest national survey and provide more data for revising growth reference and monitoring the impact of social development on children's health and growth. In the cross-sectional survey, 161,774 healthy children under 7 years were selected by multistage stratified cluster sampling method in nine cities of China. According to the geographical location, the nine cities were divided into northern, central and southern regions, and each city included urban and suburban areas. Anthropometric measurements were obtained on the spots and other related information was collected with questionnaires. There were slight urban-suburban difference and obvious regional difference in anthropometric measurements in China. Comparison with the 4th NSPGDC in 2005, measurements increased 0.1-1.1 kg in weight, 0.5-1.8 cm in height in urban areas (except children under 3 years) and 0.1-2.5 kg in weight, 0.2-3.8 cm in height in suburban areas. The urban-suburban difference of those measurements became smaller than 10 years ago, but their regional difference persistently exist. Chinese children were 0.36 SD in weight, 0.43 SD in height in urban areas and 0.30 SD in weight, 0.30 SD in height in suburban areas higher than WHO standards. Physical growth of children under 7 years old was undergoing a slowly positive secular trend during the latest decade in more economically developed regions of China. Urban-suburban difference of those measurements became smaller, while their regional difference persistently exist. Chinese healthy children under 7 years in nine cities was taller and heavier than WHO standards. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhad; Shet, Arun; Yan, Weirong; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Atkins, Salla; Lucas, Henry

    2017-09-02

    Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries - China, India, Oman and Vietnam. In-depth interviews were conducted with research scholars, research supervisors and principal investigators (n = 13) at ARCADE partner institutions, which included eight universities and research institutes. In addition, structured questionnaires (n = 70) were used to collect quantitative data relating to the courses available, teaching and supervisory capacity, and related issues for students being trained in research on SDH. Simple descriptive statistics were calculated from the quantitative data and thematic analysis applied to the qualitative data. We identified a general lack of training courses focusing on SDH. Added to this, PhD students studying related areas reported inadequate supervision, with limited time allocated to meetings and poor interpersonal communication. Supervisors cited interpersonal communication problems and student lack of skills to perform high quality research as challenges to research training. Further challenges reported included a lack of research funding to include SDH-related topics. Finally, it was suggested that there was a need for institutions to define clear and appropriate standards regarding admission and supervision of students to higher education programs awarding doctoral degrees. There are gaps in training for research on the SDH at the surveyed

  19. Survey of motivation for use of voluntary counseling and testing services for HIV in a high risk area of Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jing

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is considered an effective prevention method of HIV infection. In order to understand the VCT environment and enhance the effective delivery of VCT services in a country, an accurate assessment of the current status of VCT services is very important. Methods From July 2006 to June 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a face to face interview among 2676 VCT clients from a high risk area in Shenyang city, China. Results The major demographic characteristics among 2,676 VCT clients were: 41.1% were in the age range 20 to 30 years; 73.1% were males; and 67.1% had attained the level of junior high school education. The primary information source for VCT services was mass media like television (TV and newspaper in 88.9%. 34.3% were afraid of the result of infection which was the main barrier to accept VCT services among 540 participants answering the question. 75.2% were motivated by recently acquired knowledge about HIV. 47.9% had 3 or more male sex partners, 62.3% had used condoms sometimes, and 14.5% had been infected with a STD. 2.8% of the participants identified themselves as men who have sex with men (MSM. The main demographic characteristics of MSM did not differ from the total group of participants except with respect to age: 63.5% reported having one male sex partner in the preceding 12 months, 44.6% reported never using condoms in the preceding 12 months, and only 2.7% reported a history of sexually transmitted disease. Conclusion Public education offered by health workers in hospitals, private clinics and other medical institutions needs to be strengthened. Given the results from this study, we recommend: (1 making VCT a routine part of health services, especially in areas where many high-risk individuals live; (2 improving the information sources and increasing the understanding of HIV and HIV-infected individuals; (3 enhancing international collaboration in

  20. Impact of organizational and individual factors on patient-provider relationships: A national survey of doctors, nurses and patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fang; Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Liu yi; Ye, Bei zhu; Jiang, Hong wei; Sun, Yi; Zhu, Xi; Liang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To provide an empirical examination of patient–provider relationships (PPR) and its association with organizational and individual factors. Methods A national cross-sectional survey was conducted by stratified cluster sampling in 77 hospitals across seven provinces in China between July 2014 and April 2015, involving 3621 doctors, 5561 nurses, and 8022 patients with response rates of 62.93%, 61.16%, and 33.08%, respectively. Self-perceived PPR was the outcome variable. Organizational factors included hospital type (western medicine [WM] and traditional Chinese medicine [TCM] hospital); hospital level (tertiary and secondary hospital); area of specialization (internal medicine and surgery); ratio of doctors (nurses) to ward beds; doctors/nurses’ concerns about performance assessment; and patients’ perceptions of healthcare cost. Individual factors included consultation, listening to patients and socio-demographic factors. Results 54.6% of doctors, 36.6% of nurses, and 10.2% of patients perceived PPR as poor. Organizational factors independently associated with providers’ perception of poor PPR included hospital type (WM vs TCM: OR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.06–1.47]) and concerns about performance assessment (high vs low levels: OR = 1.40 [95% CI: 1.14–1.72]) for doctors, and concerns about performance assessment (average vs low levels: OR = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.67–0.93]) for nurses. Those associated with patients’ perception of poor PPR included hospital type (WM vs TCM: OR = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.53–0.74]) and hospital level (tertiary vs secondary: OR = 0.65 [95% CI: 0.51–0.82]). Doctors and nurses reporting listening to patients “frequently” had better perceptions of PPR (OR = 0.46 [95%CI: 0.38–0.56] and 0.49 [95% CI: 0.41–0.59] for doctors and nurses, respectively), as did their patients (OR = 0.24 [95% CI: 0.18–0.31] and 0.54 [95% CI: 0.35–0.84] for doctors and nurses, respectively). Conclusions Although our findings require validation in

  1. Scientific publications in public, environmental and occupational health journals by authors from China, Japan and Korea in East Asia: A 10-year literature survey from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meina; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    To compare the number and quality of public, environmental and occupational health articles published in international journals from the 3 major non-English speaking countries of East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. Public, environmental and occupational health articles from China, Japan and Korea that were published in 161 journals from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, impact factors (IF), citations, number of articles in top 10 journals, references as well as the article distribution from various regions in China. From 2003 to 2012, China, Japan and Korea published 5713, 3802 and 1967 papers respectively, with accumulated impact factor of 14 934.55, 8758.36 and 6189.25, the average impact factor of 2.61, 2.30 and 3.15 and the average citation numbers per document of 5.08, 6.49 and 5.25. In the top 10 high-impact public, environmental and occupational health journals, China, Japan and Korea accounted for 50.19%, 20.34% and 29.47% of all the papers published in those journals, respectively. Total impact factors of the most popular 10 papers for China, Japan and Korea were: 26.23, 27.08 and 26.91. Distribution of scientific papers among regions was unbalanced in China, for Hong Kong and Taiwan it accounted for 47.31% of the papers from China. From 2003 to 2012, both the quality and number of papers from China published in public, environmental and occupational health journals have greatly improved. China exceeded Japan and Korea in the number, accumulated impact factor, total citation times and the average number of references, while Korea had the highest average impact factor. Japan had the highest journal impact factor among the most popular journals, and the highest average citation number per document. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Social Media Engagement and HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Liu, Chuncheng; Durvasula, Maya; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Saffer, Adam J; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-07-19

    Many interventions find that social media engagement with health promotion materials can translate into behavioral changes. However, only a few studies have examined the ways in which specific actions on various social media platforms are correlated with health behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between social media use and HIV testing behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). In July 2016, a Web-based survey was conducted to recruit MSM in 8 Chinese cities through Blued (Blue City Holdings Ltd.), the world's largest gay mobile phone app. Data on sociodemographic variables, social media use platforms and behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing histories were collected. HIV testing-related social media use was defined as having ever engaged with HIV testing content on social media, which was further divided into observing (ie, receiving), endorsing (eg, liking and sharing), and contributing (eg, posting or commenting on HIV testing materials). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the best division of HIV testing-related social media use. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between HIV testing-related social media use and HIV testing behaviors. A total of 2105 individuals participated in the survey. Among them, 46.75% (984) were under the age of 24 years, 35.43% (746) had high school education or less, and 47.74% (587) had condomless sex in the last 3 months. More than half of the respondents (58.14%, 1224/2105) reported HIV testing-related social media use. Additionally, HIV testing-related social media use, especially on multifunctional platforms such as WeChat, was found to be associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% CI 1.66-3.24). Contributing on social media was correlated with recent HIV testing (aOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.40-3.16), but neither observing (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.38-1.15) nor endorsing (aOR 1.29, 95

  3. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  4. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Schoepf, U Joseph; Xu, Jiaqian; Lu, Guang Ming; Li, Enzhong

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. • Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase. • Neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology are the most productive fields. • MRI is the most used modality in Mainland China's Radiology research. • Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing are the most productive provinces.

  5. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome in the urban Chinese population: prevalence and disease burden using the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; DiBonaventura, Marco; Karlsson, Niklas; Ling, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested a significant burden for patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, few studies have studied this population in the People's Republic of China, a region in the midst of rapid epidemiological change with respect to respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACOS and its association with patient outcomes in urban China. Data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Survey, an Internet-based survey of adults in urban China, were used (N=59,935). Respondents were categorized into one of four groups based on self-reported physician diagnoses: ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, or control (ie, no asthma or COPD). A propensity score matching procedure was conducted to cull the control group into a subgroup (ie, matched controls) who resembled patients with ACOS, asthma only, and COPD only. These four groups (ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, matched controls) were then compared with respect to health status (Short Form-12 version 2/Short Form-36 version 2), work productivity, and health care resource use using generalized linear models. Patients with ACOS (N=366) comprised 0.61% of the adult population, 30.73% of the asthma population, and 18.60% of the COPD population in the People's Republic of China. Patients with ACOS reported significantly worse health status (eg, health utilities =0.63, 0.66, 0.63, and 0.69 for ACOS, COPD only, asthma only, and matched controls, respectively) and significantly greater work impairment (eg, overall work impairment =43.65%, 35.19%, 48.55%, and 29.80%, respectively) and health care resource use (eg, physician visits in the past 6 months =5.13, 3.84, 4.65, and 2.39, respectively) compared with matched controls and patients with COPD only. Few significant differences were observed between patients with ACOS and asthma only. Patients with ACOS have a greater comorbidity burden and significantly worse health

  6. Fiscal 2000 survey report on feasibility of implementing model project for energy conservation of sintering machine in China; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shoketsuki sho energy ka model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted on the feasibility of implementing a model project for energy conservation of sintering machines in ironworks in China. This paper explains the results of fiscal 2000. The survey was based on the assumption that the HPS (Hybrid Pelletized Sinter) process in operation at Fukuyama ironworks in Japan was to be introduced into China. This process is employed at the Fukuyama No.5 sintering plant with an area of 530 m{sup 2}, and is famous for the highly efficient energy consumption rate with the solid fuel consumption of 37 kg/t and the electric power consumption of 31 kWh/t. The technology was applied to the No.3 sintering machine (265 m{sup 2}) at Tangshan Steel. Case A refers to where only the energy conservation effect of a targeted sintering machine was considered, and Case B refers to where the productivity of the applied sintering machine is increased, with that of the others decreased. In Case A, total equipment cost was 1,977,450 thousand yen, energy conservation effect was 23,795 toe/y, economic savings was 244,000 thousand yen/y, and investment recoupment period was 7.85 years. In Case B, they were 1,977,450 thousand yen, 36,215 toe/y, 356,000 thousand yen/y, and 5.38 years, respectively. In the same token, at Wuhan Steel, Case A showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 30,320 toe/y, 272,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.77 years; Case B showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 31,570 toe/y, 289,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.28 years, respectively. Assuming the technological spread is over the entire China, the total energy conservation in terms of crude oil is expected to be 845,700 toe/y. (NEDO)

  7. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, G. W. K.; Mahesh, P. A.; Ogorodova, L.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, A. D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for

  8. A Cross-sectional Survey Assessing Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Healthy Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Na; Chen, Zhao Yun; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Bing Qing; Xu, Li; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ai Yu; Zhao, Pan; Liu, Ji Wen; Shao, Zhu Jun

    2018-03-01

    The carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a healthy population in China remains unclear. In this study, we collected the oropharyngeal swabs from 513 individuals in Xinjiang, China. Real-time PCR targeting the lytA gene and 12 serotypes were assessed to identify S. pneumoniae carriage. The total carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 70.4% (361/513). The most prevalent serotypes were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5, and 6A/B. The highest carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was noted in children aged 6-10 years (88.6%), which merits further attention. The co-colonization rate of two or more S. pneumoniae serotypes was 79.8% (264/331). This study aimed to investigate the baseline pneumococcal carriage rate among healthy individuals in China to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Xu, Jiaqian [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Li, Enzhong [National Natural Science Foundation of China, Department of Medical Science, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  10. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming; Schoepf, U.J.; Xu, Jiaqian; Li, Enzhong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  11. Silk, porcelain and lacquer : China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan

  12. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran; Wu, Tianxing

    2011-01-01

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  13. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the spread/promotion of circulating fluidized bed boilers in China; 1999 nendo chosa hokoksho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku ni okeru junkan yukaboira no fukyu sokushin ni kakawaru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the spread/promotion of Japanese-make circulating fluidized bed boilers with desulfurization function, survey was conducted of the state of utilization of circulating fluidized bed boilers, the needs, etc. in China. In the survey, field survey was made at two boiler manufacturers and four companies using boilers in Beijing city, Fujian province, Hubei province, etc. to grasp the state of utilization and study conditions for the spread/promotion of circulating fluidized bed boilers. The Chinese government is making efforts for the spread of circulating fluidized bed boilers. The number of the domestically existing circulating fluidized bed boilers is estimated at approximately 800, but almost none of them conducts furnace desulfurization. Further, the operating rate of boiler is not always high. The reasons are as follows: desulfurization costs high without connecting to the production; environmental regulation is still mild in China; reliability and maintenance technique are still at low levels. It is urgently desirable to spread highly reliable circulating fluidized bed boilers with desulfurization function, and accordingly, it is necessary to reduce the cost of Japanese-make boilers. (NEDO)

  14. Perceptions of capacity for infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenges of dengue fever in the face of climate change: A survey among CDC staff in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is an important climate-sensitive mosquito-borne viral disease that poses a risk to half the world's population. The disease is a major public health issue in China where in 2014 a major outbreak occurred in Guangdong Province. This study aims to gauge health professionals' perceptions about the capacity of infectious disease control and prevention to meet the challenge of dengue fever in the face of climate change in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered among staff in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) in Guangdong Province. Data analysis was undertaken using descriptive methods and logistic regression. In total, 260 questionnaires were completed. Most participants (80.7%) thought climate change would have a negative effect on population health, and 98.4% of participants reported dengue fever had emerged or re-emerged in China in recent years. Additionally, 74.9% of them indicated that the capability of the CDCs to detect infectious disease outbreak/epidemic at an early stage was excellent; 86.3% indicated laboratories could provide diagnostic support rapidly; and 83.1% believed levels of current staff would be adequate in the event of a major outbreak. Logistic regression analysis showed higher levels of CDCs were perceived to have better capacity for infectious disease control and prevention. Only 26.8% of participants thought they had a good understanding of climate change, and most (85.4%) thought they needed more information about the health impacts of climate change. Most surveyed staff suggested the following strategies to curb the public health impact of infectious diseases in relation to climate change: primary prevention measures, strengthening the monitoring of infectious diseases, the ability to actively forecast disease outbreaks by early warning systems, and more funding for public health education programs. Vigilant disease and vector surveillance, preventive practice and

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer and precursor lesions in Anyang, China: a population-based endoscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z; Zhao, Y; Guo, C; Liu, Y; Sun, M; Liu, F; Wang, X; Guo, F; Chen, K; Gao, L; Ning, T; Pan, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, S; Lu, C; Wang, Z; Cai, H; Ke, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background: The etiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) in high prevalence regions of China remains unclear. Methods: Endoscopic biopsies were conducted among 7381 inhabitants aged from 25 to 65 of Anyang, China. Results: In this study, 2.57, 0.20 and 0.16% of the participants had mild, moderate and severe squamous dysplasia, respectively; 0.19 and 0.08% showed squamous carcinoma in situ and invasive ESCC. Using deep well (depth >100 meters) as water source (odds ratio=0.