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Sample records for china nine-province survey

  1. Prevalence of vision impairment in older adults in rural China: the China Nine-Province Survey.

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    Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Cui, Hao; Ge, Jian; Guan, Huaijin; Lv, Jianhua; Ma, Xianzhi; Yin, Jinglin; Yin, Zheng Qin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Liu, Hu

    2010-03-01

    Describe the prevalence of visual impairment/blindness among older adults in rural populations in China. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We evaluated 45 747 adults > or =50 years of age. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting a cross-section of residents from a representative rural county within each of 9 provinces in mainland China. Participants were enumerated through village registers followed by door-to-door household visits. Eligible persons were invited to local examination sites for visual acuity (VA) testing and eye examination. Presenting and best-corrected distance VA. Of 50 395 enumerated eligible persons, 45 747 (90.8%) were examined and tested for VA. The prevalence of presenting visual impairment or =20/400 in the better eye was 10.8% and blindness (visual impairment ranged from 6.89% to 15.8%, and blindness from 1.27% to 5.40%. With best-corrected VA, the prevalence of visual impairment was 5.30%, and 1.93% for blindness. The ranges across the 9 provinces were 3.13% to 9.51% for visual impairment and 0.74% to 4.95% for blindness. Visual impairment and blindness were associated with older age, female gender, lack of education, and geographic area (province) with both presenting and best-corrected VA. Visual impairment and blindness are important public health problems in rural China, with significant regional variations in prevalence. Blindness prevention programs targeting the rural elderly should be expanded, particularly in areas with limited access and affordability of eye care services. Special emphasis should be given to reaching women and those without education. Greater attention should also be given to correction of refractive error. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Main Factors Affecting Post-Harvest Grain Loss during the Sales Process: A Survey in Nine Provinces of China

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    Xiujuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security has always been a top priority of the Chinese government. However, China’s grain supply is facing challenges due to limited resources for grain production and the growth of domestic grain consumption. Reducing post-harvest grain loss represents one of the most realistic and effective ways to ensure grain security in China. In view of the importance of grain sales in the post-harvest period, we conducted a survey, interviewing 1890 grain sellers across 54 regions in 9 provinces of China, to investigate the factors affecting post-harvest grain loss during sales. The results of the survey show that grain storage conditions have the greatest impact on post-harvest grain loss, followed by transportation. Display and sales have the least impact on grain loss. The Tobit regression model was used to analyze the main factors affecting post-harvest grain loss during sales. The findings suggest that the seller’s education level, years of working as a seller, the conditions of grain storage, and the supply and management level of public facilities in the market were negatively correlated with grain loss in the sales process, whereas the seller’s age, the separation of sales shops and storage warehouses, and the fall season were positively correlated with grain loss. Policy implications are also provided for potential future policy decisions.

  3. [Sampling and measurement methods of the protocol design of the China Nine-Province Survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery].

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    Zhao, Jia-liang; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng; Ellwein, Leon B; Liu, Hu

    2011-09-01

    To design the protocol of the China nine-province survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery. The protocol design was began after accepting the task for the national survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery from the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China, in November, 2005. The protocol in Beijing Shunyi Eye Study in 1996 and Guangdong Doumen County Eye Study in 1997, both supported by World Health Organization, was taken as the basis for the protocol design. The relative experts were invited to discuss and prove the draft protocol. An international advisor committee was established to examine and approve the draft protocol. Finally, the survey protocol was checked and approved by the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China and Prevention Program of Blindness and Deafness, WHO. The survey protocol was designed according to the characteristics and the scale of the survey. The contents of the protocol included determination of target population and survey sites, calculation of the sample size, design of the random sampling, composition and organization of the survey teams, determination of the examinee, the flowchart of the field work, survey items and methods, diagnostic criteria of blindness and moderate and sever visual impairment, the measures of the quality control, the methods of the data management. The designed protocol became the standard and practical protocol for the survey to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery.

  4. Relationship between Fragmentized Collective Forestland, Farmers Investment and Forest Commodity Output: An Analysis on Nine Provinces Farmers Survey Data in China

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    Kong Fanbin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the relationship between fragmentized collective forestland, farmers investment and forest commodity output to examine the rationality of collective forest right reform after dispersed forestland operation. The data is based on the 2420 farmers’ survey data in nine provinces of China including Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Henan, Shandong and Liaoning. The results show that if S index is used, fragmentized forestland reaches 0.41 and can be ordered (from high to low as Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Liaoning, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangxi and Shandong. Under certain fragmentized intervals (forestland fragmentized ratio lower than 0.22 or higher than 0.51, the higher the forestland fragmentized, the lower the farmers investment. The investment-output model indicates that forest block reflects the negative impacts to forest output while other variables such as labor, tangible inputs and forestland have positive impacts. When bamboo is produced, level of fragmentation has negative impacts on forestland acreage and significant positive impacts on labor used. The study implies that after the land is divided to households, physical investment is the key factor to affect the commodity output and should be considered by the related policies to increase the incentives of farmers. Based on this study, we provide some information and guidance on policy of farmers’ forestland operation in large scale

  5. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

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    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    Shuangcheng City is relatively higher in China Nine Province Survey. Cataract, retinal diseases and un-corrected refractive error are the main causes of the blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment.

  6. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

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    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  7. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

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    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    visual impairment is relatively lower among China Nine Province Survey. The first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment is still cataract.

  8. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

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    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  9. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Ji'an county of Jiangxi province:the China Nine-Province Survey].

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    Yi, Jing-lin; Luo, Rong; Zhao, Jia-liang; Xie, Hui; Bai, Yong-quan; Yang, Hai-jun; Ellwein, Leon B; Lai, Ping-hong; Li, Lan; Huang, Liang; DU, Hong-yan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng; Lu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Ji'an county of Jiangxi province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in 5402 randomly selected individuals aged ≥ 50 years in 28 clusters in Ji'an from September to November 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits. Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and two individuals were enumerated and 5010 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.74%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, 78 persons were diagnosed as blindness, 265 persons were diagnosed as moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment were 1.56% and 5.29% respectively. Ninety-four persons were diagnosed as blindness, 726 persons were diagnosed as moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.88% and 14.50% respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 970.15, P = 0.000), female (χ(2) = 89.81, P = 0.000), and illiterate persons (trend χ(2) = 241.85, P = 0.000). Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases was the

  10. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].

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    Yin, Zheng-qin; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Ping-hua; Ellwein, Leon b; Song, Sheng-fang; Li, Fu-liang; Wang, Ting-gang; Ren, Yi-ming; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5663 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Yongchuan District. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands six hundreds and sixty-three individuals were enumerated and 5390 persons were examined, the response rate was 95.18%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.12% (114/5390) and 5.40% (291/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.49% (134/5390) and 10.71% (577/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 951.32, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 33.35, P = 0.000) and illiterate (trend χ(2) equals; 141.32, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence

  11. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

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    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  12. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  13. Regional anesthesia practice in China: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey; Gao, Huan

    2016-11-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia has been widely used in China. Recently, Chinese anesthesiologists have applied nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. Nationwide surveys about regional anesthesia practices in China are lacking. We surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about regional anesthesia techniques, preference, drug selections, complications, and treatments. A survey was sent to all anesthesiologist members by WeChat. The respondents can choose mobile device or desktop to complete the survey. Each IP address is allowed to complete the survey once. A total of 6589 members read invitations. A total of 2654 responses were received with fully completed questionnaires, which represented an overall response rate of 40%. Forty-one percent of the respondents reported that more than 50% of surgeries in their hospitals were done under regional anesthesia. Most of the participants used test dose after epidural catheter insertion. The most common drug for test dose was 3-mL 1.5% lidocaine; 2.6% of the participants reported that they had treated a patient with epidural hematoma after neuraxial anesthesia. Most anesthesiologists (68.2%) performed peripheral nerve blocks as blind procedures based on the knowledge of anatomical landmarks. A majority of hospitals (80%) did not stock Intralipid; 61% of the respondents did not receive peripheral nerve block training. The current survey can serve as a benchmark for future comparisons and evaluation of regional anesthesia practices in China. This survey revealed potential regional anesthesia safety issues in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Trends of the dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in nine provinces (autonomous region) from 1989 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Bing; DU, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Su, Chang; Ma, Yu-Xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the status and trend of dietary fiber intake and its food sources among Chinese residents aged 18 - 45 years old in 9 provinces (autonomous region), from 1989 to 2006. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of three consecutive days from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) were used. And the 18 - 45 years old subjects with complete information on dietary survey were included. The sample size of these 7 surveys were 5597, 5596, 5323, 5485, 5308, 4144 and 3889, respectively. The trends of dietary fiber intake and food sources by time and sex were studied. From 1989 to 2000, the total of daily dietary fiber intake of 18 - 45 years old healthy residents decreased from 15.1 g/d to 11.6 g/d, insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased from 22.6 g/d to 17.8 g/d. In villages, from 1989 to 2000, the insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased 5.1 g/d in males and 5.2 g/d in females(13.2, 11.8 g in 2000, respectively;18.3, 17.0 g in 1989, respectively). In 2006, the insoluble dietary intake was 12.6 g/d in males and 11.2 g/d in females in villages. In cities, from 1989 to 2006, the insoluble dietary fiber intake was 9.4 - 11.8 g/d in males and 8.3 - 10.8 g/d in females. The total dietary fiber intake was 15.7 - 17.6 g/d in males and 13.5 - 16.4 g/d in females. The difference of insoluble and total dietary fiber intake between city and village was decreasing. In 2006, 70.6% (8.4/11.9) insoluble dietary fiber came from vegetables ((4.1 ± 3.1) g/d), wheat flour and its products ((2.6 ± 3.6) g/d), rice and its products ((1.7 ± 1.3) g/d). Dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in 9 provinces (autonomous region) decreased from 1989 to 2006. Vegetables, wheat flour, rice and their products were the major food sources of insoluble dietary fiber.

  15. China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese

    2009-04-09

    To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. All of China's 2861 counties. Population 1% of the total population, selected to be broadly representative of the total. Sex ratio defined as males per 100 females. 4 764 512 people under the age of 20 were included. Overall sex ratios were high across all age groups and residency types, but they were highest in the 1-4 years age group, peaking at 126 (95% confidence interval 125 to 126) in rural areas. Six provinces had sex ratios of over 130 in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio at birth was close to normal for first order births but rose steeply for second order births, especially in rural areas, where it reached 146 (143 to 149). Nine provinces had ratios of over 160 for second order births. The highest sex ratios were seen in provinces that allow rural inhabitants a second child if the first is a girl. Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males. One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios. In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.

  16. The association between urbanization and reduced renal function: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

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    Inoue, Yosuke; Howard, Annie Green; Thompson, Amanda L; Mendez, Michelle A; Herring, Amy H; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-05-15

    While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health concern in low- and middle-income countries, such as China, few studies have investigated the association between urbanization and the occurrence of CKD in those countries. We investigated the association between urbanization and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), an important CKD risk marker. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey wave 2009, in which we collected fasting serum, individual and household data along with community level urbanization data, which was used to derive a study-specific urbanization measure, in 218 communities across nine provinces. A total of 3644 men and 4154 women participants aged 18 years or older were included in the analysis. Reduced renal function was defined as eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 measured using serum creatinine concentration (mg/dL). After adjusting for socio-demographic (e.g., age, education and household income), a sex-stratified multilevel logistic model revealed that living in a more urbanized community was associated with higher odds of reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38 per one-standard deviation [SD] increase in the CHNS specific urbanization index, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.73 for men; OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.62 for women). After adjusting for behavioral variables (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and diet), as well as obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, the association was attenuated in men (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.98-1.59), but remained statistically significant in women (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.52). Our findings suggest that living in an urban environment is linked with higher odds of reduced renal function independently of behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors, which have been shown to increase along with urbanization.

  17. Anesthesia Quality and Patient Safety in China: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Gao, Huan; Zhou, Xiangyong; Huang, Jeffrey

    There has been no nationwide investigation into anesthesia quality and patient safety in China. The authors surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about anesthesia quality by sending a survey to all anesthesiologist members of the New Youth Anesthesia Forum via WeChat. The respondents could choose to use a mobile device or desktop to complete the survey. The overall response rate was 43%. Intraoperative monitoring: 77.9% of respondents reported that electrocardiogram monitoring was routinely applied for all patients; only 55% of the respondents reported that they routinely used end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring for their patients under general anesthesia. 10.3% of respondents admitted that they had at least one wrong medicine administration in the past 3 months; 12.4% reported that they had at least one case of cardiac arrest in the past year. This is the first anesthesia quality survey in China. The findings revealed potential anesthesia safety issues in China.

  18. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Schizophrenia in China: A National Survey.

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    Li, Qian; Su, Yun-Ai; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shu, Liang; Yu, Xin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Seiner, Stephen J; Chiu, Helen F K; Ning, Yu-Ping; Wang, Gao-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Li, Tao; Sun, Li-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xian-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Yi; Li, Ke-Qing; Si, Tian-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in the treatment of schizophrenia in China. This study examined the frequency of ECT use, its trend between 2006 and 2012, and its independent demographic and clinical correlates in a nationwide survey in China. A total of 5162 inpatients in 45 Chinese psychiatric hospitals/centers were interviewed (2696 in 2006 and 2466 in 2012). Patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Electroconvulsive therapy was used in 6.1% of the whole sample; 4.7% in 2006 and 7.7% in 2012 (P Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia has increased between 2006 and 2012 in China. Its percentage was higher than the figures reported in most other countries. Reasons for the substantial variations in the frequency of ECT across different provinces in China require further investigations.

  19. The reverse environmental gender gap in China: evidence from "The China Survey".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Todd; Zeng, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This article explores gender differences in attitudes about the seriousness of the environment as a problem in China using the “2008 China Survey.” Methods We use generalized ordered logit models to analyze survey respondents’ environmental attitudes. Results Our results indicate that there is indeed a “gender gap” in environmental attitudes in China, but the pattern is reversed from what has been generally found in previous work conducted in the United States and Europe. Chinese men, not women, show a greater concern about environmental problems and the seriousness of the environmental degradation in China. Further, we find that this gender gap is based largely in the substantial economic and educational differences between men and women in contemporary China. Conclusions This study emphasizes the mediating influence of socioeconomic variables in explaining gender attitudes toward the environment in China. Our findings suggest that in different contexts, women may be faced with difficult decisions between immediate economic necessities and long-term environmental concerns. The observed environmental gender gap in China will likely persist unless further economic development results in improved access to education and economic conditions for Chinese women.

  20. Trends in dietary cholesterol intake among Chinese adults: a longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-02

    Dietary cholesterol is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Changes in dietary patterns in China recently might have an impact on the trends of diet-related risk factors of chronic diseases. This study aims to monitor the changes in daily cholesterol intake and its food sources in Chinese adults. A longitudinal study using demographic and dietary data of adults younger than 60 years from eight waves (1991-2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys was conducted. Mixed-effect models were used in this study. The data were derived from urban and rural communities in nine provinces (autonomous regions) in China. There were 21,273 participants (10,091 males and 11,182 females) in this study. The major outcome is daily cholesterol intake amount, which was calculated by using the Chinese Food Composition Table, based on dietary data. The mean daily cholesterol intake in Chinese adults increased from 165.8 mg/day in 1991 to 266.3 mg/day in 2011. Cholesterol consumed by participants in different age (18-39 and 40-59 years), sex and urbanisation groups steadily elevated over time (p<0.0001), as did the proportions of participants with greater than 300 mg/day cholesterol consumption. In each subgroup, cholesterol originating from most of the food groups showed increasing trends over time (p<0.0001), except for animal fat and organ meats. Eggs, pork, fish and shellfish in that order remained the top three sources in 1991, 2000 and 2011, whereas milks were a negligible contributor. Cholesterol from animal fat declined and was insignificant in 2011 in most of the subgroups, while cholesterol being of poultry origin increased and became considerable in 2011. Adults in China consumed increasingly high cholesterol and deviated from the recommended intake level over the past two decades. Adults need to pay more attention to intakes of eggs, pork, fish and shellfish. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  1. Hospital survey on patient safety culture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yanli; Mao, Xuanyue; Cui, Hao; He, Shenghong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Mingming

    2013-06-24

    Patient safety culture is an important measure in assessing the quality of health care. There is a growing recognition of the need to establish a culture of hospital focused on patient safety. This study explores the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for health care workers in China by using a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) questionnaire and comparing it with the psychometric properties of an adapted translation of the HSPSC in Chinese hospitals with that of the US. We used the modified HSPSC questionnaire to measure 10 dimensions of patient safety culture from 32 hospitals in 15 cities all across China. The questionnaire included 1160 Chinese health-care workers who consisted of predominately internal physicians and nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 to conduct the statistical analysis on survey data including descriptive statistics and validity and reliability of survey. All data was input and checked by two investigators independently. A total of 1500 questionnaires were distributed of which 1160 were responded validly (response rate 77%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 36% to 89%. The positive response rate on 5 dimensions (Teamwork Within Units, Organization Learning-Continuous Improvement, Communication Openness, Non-punitive Response and Teamwork Across Units) was higher than that of AHRQ data (P survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach's α = 0.84). The results show that amongst the health care workers surveyed in China there was a positive attitude towards the patient safety culture within their organizations. The differences between China and the US in patient safety culture suggests that cultural uniqueness should be taken into consideration whenever safety culture measurement tools are applied in different culture settings.

  2. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  3. Net Survey--"Religious Freedom" in Modern China: Exploring WWW Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a survey of various Internet sites that focus on the religious practices in modern China (People's Republic of China) listing such sites as: (1) the China Daily Web site; (2) the U.S. Department of State online documents; and (3) the Web site for Human Rights in China. (CMK)

  4. Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Mainland China: Evidence Based on Epidemiological Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Wang, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: ED is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increases with age. More high-quality surveys on ED with larger samples throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. A survey of five Pireneitega species (Agelenidae, Coelotinae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Pireneitega spiders from China are surveyed, of which three are new to science: P. huashanensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, P. lushuiensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀, P. xiyankouensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀. Two known species are redescribed: P. liansui (Bao & Yin, 2004 and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991. The males of P. liansui and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991 are described for the first time. DNA barcodes for five species are documented for future use and as proof of molecular differences between species.

  6. The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, oral English teaching and learning has been the top in English teaching and learning in china. This paper reports a survey conducted at North China Electric Power University on the barriers for learners of oral English learning in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed…

  7. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  8. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-03-18

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  9. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  10. Illiteracy and schizophrenia in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianli; Song, Xinming; Chen, Gong; Buka, Stephen L; Zhang, Lei; Pang, Lihua; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-03-01

    Illiterate people may frequently experience social discrimination and exclusion in our modern society. It has been suggested that social adversity increases risk of schizophrenia. The current study examines the relation between illiteracy and schizophrenia. We utilized data on 1,909,205 representative Chinese people of age 18 years or older collected by the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 (participation rate 99.8%). Experienced clinical psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia among those who were psychiatrically disabled with the ICD-10 symptom checklist. Strikingly high prevalence of schizophrenia was observed among the young illiterates aged 18-29 years (prevalence 1.64%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35, 1.93) and 30-39 years (prevalence 1.51%, 95% CI 1.34, 1.68), much higher than the prevalence estimates for general Chinese population of similar age reported by any of the previous studies in mainland China. Among people aged less than 40 years, we found that the illiterates were 2.08 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than the literates with no school or primary school education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08, 95% CI 1.84, 2.36). The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, household income, and location of residence. Consistently, a strong association between illiteracy and schizophrenia (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.28, 6.11) was found in conditional logistic regression analysis among matched sibling sets aged less than 40 years that further adjusted for genetic confounding. The risk of schizophrenia may have increased among the socially disadvantaged illiterate people.

  11. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge qu...

  12. [A survey of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    To understand the current status of the discipline and work out the developmental tactics of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China. A questionnaire on the status of oral and maxillofacial surgery was designed and dispatched to the departments of stomatology in general hospitals at the level of prefecture or higher, stomatological hospitals and schools of stomatology. The contents of the questionnaire included the scale, manpower, professional extent, amount of clinical work and professional training of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The current status was compared with the previous status 5 and 10 years ago. In the most institutions which were surveyed, the number of oral and maxillofacial surgeons, beds and out-patients increased, the professional extent enlarged, and the clinical level improved. However, the above-mentioned clinical parameters decreased in some basic level institutions. The number of graduate students and trainees of oral and maxillofacial surgery decreased in one-third of institutions. The discipline of oral and maxillofacial surgery is continuously developing, but it is weakened in some basic level institutions. An effective developmental tactics should be carried on to improve the competition capability of the discipline.

  13. [Epidemiological survey of childhood asthma in Kunming City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi-Ye; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Cao, Zhi-Lan; Dai, Mei; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Mo, Ya-Xiong; Lu, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of childhood asthma, and to find the distribution characteristics, precipitating factors, diagnosis and treatment status, and to provide scientific data for improving the prevention and management of asthma in children in Kunming City, China. Children were selected by random cluster sampling. A standardized preliminary questionnaire was used for screening out possible patients in the survey. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by diagnostic criteria in suspected asthmatic children. Asthmatic children were further asked for past diagnosis and treatment with the questionnaire of asthma in children. The total asthma incidence rate was 1.40%. The prevalence of asthma in male and female children was 1.89% and 0.88% respectively (Pasthma (1.69%) than that of school-age children (6-14 years old, 1.21%). In all asthmatic children, 51.3% were previously diagnosed with classical asthma or cough variant asthma, 26.0% were suffered attacks from December to February, and 54.0% were suffered attacks at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection (87.3%) was the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation. Antibiotics were used in 80.0%, bronchodilators in 66.0%, inhaled corticosteroid in 64.0%. A peak flow meter for monitoring lung function was used in 17% of asthmatic children over 5 years old. The prevalence of asthma is associated with age and gender in children aged 0-14 years old in Kunming City. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly in winter and at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection is the most common trigger of asthma exacerbation. Nearly a half of patients with asthma had not been diagnosed with asthma in the early stage. Most asthmatic children use antibiotics and only two-thirds use bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroid in the treatment. The treatment and management of asthma in children awaits improvement as well.

  14. A Survey on College English Writing in China: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junhong; Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    This survey investigates to what degree the Chinese learners know about the discrepancies between Chinese and English thought patterns and their possible effects on English writing. Eighty-one students from North China Electric Power University participate in the survey. Qualitative and quantities approaches, involving the adoption of both…

  15. Online survey data of public subjective well-being on high occupancy vehicle lane in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shunxi Li; Bowen Su; Pang-Chieh Sui; Guofang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and SWB” (Ettema et al., 2010) [1]. The paper provides an online survey questionnaire and data about the public subjective well-being of high occupancy vehicle lanes in China. The survey data are made publicly available to extended analysis.

  16. Consumer satisfaction with tertiary healthcare in China: findings from the 2015 China National Patient Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Guangyu; Ma, Jing; Chen, Yin; Wu, Laiyang; Liu, Qiannan; Hu, Jia; Livoti, Christine; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop understanding of Chinese patient satisfaction with tertiary hospitals. The study draws on data collected from the 2015 China National Patient Survey. A Likert five-point scale was used to formulate the questionnaires. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted. A structured questionnaire was used by 1432 interviewers to interview 27 475 outpatients and 19 938 inpatients in 136 tertiary hospitals from 31 provinces. Outpatients in the dispensing area and inpatients in the discharging area were randomly interviewed. Key domains of the questionnaire include the layout of service functions, environment maintenance, process management, quality of care, humane care and the patient-doctor relationship. Within each domain, several indicators were set, and each indicator was given a statement. The overall satisfaction scores are 4.42 ± 0.68 and 4.67 ± 0.62 for outpatient and inpatient, respectively. The domains with highest satisfaction are 'diagnosis and treatment' for outpatient and 'nursing care' for inpatient. Outpatients were least satisfied with long waiting time, while inpatients were least satisfied with the food. The strongest predictor of overall satisfaction appears to be 'patient-doctor relationship' for both outpatients (OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 3.17-3.92) and inpatients (OR = 7.34, 95% CI: 5.55-9.70). Chinese hospitals need to pay more attention to offering more humane care to patients, hospital environment and process management improvement, reducing waiting times for seeing doctors and outpatient testing, and improving amenity services such as better food in the wards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Income inequalities in China : Evidence from household survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, Athar; Lanjouw, Peter; Stern, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of a household data set, this paper: compares household income inequality in urban and rural China; decomposes inequality into intra-and interprovincial components; and analyzes the contribution of various income sources to total income equality. The main findings of the paper are,

  18. A Survey on Civic Consciousness in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huasheng, Tong

    2012-01-01

    In the current stage of China's modernization construction and social transformation, the cultivation of sound civic consciousness in the context of the servant consciousness lasting for thousands of years is the premise to cultivate citizens with civic rights and responsibilities, the foundation to achieve the modernization of individuals or the…

  19. Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Lihong; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Zhu, Suolangsi; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chamba, Yangzom; Li, Jia Kui

    2017-06-01

    We investigated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China, by using standard assays to test mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. Results confirmed that JEV has spread to these areas. Disease prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to limit spread of JEV in high-altitude regions of Tibet.

  20. [A historical survey of international migration of China population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1987-07-01

    Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attit...

  2. Mercury content in marketed cosmetics: analytical survey in Shijiazhuang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the skin-lightening ingredients in cosmetics as mercury ions are thought to inhibit the synthesis of the skin pigment melanin in melanocyte cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mercury levels of cosmetics currently marketed in Shijiazhuang, a northern city in China. We collected 146 random cosmetic samples and analyzed for mercury concentrations or levels by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the 146 samples, 134 (91.8%) were positive for mercury, and the concentrations of mercury ranged from not detectable to 592 ng/g. Cosmetic samples for children and babies had the highest detection rate (100%), followed by shampoo and hair conditioner (92.3%) and skin-lightening cream (92.0%). All of them were lower than the acceptable limit (1 μg/g) in China. Cosmetics for skin had the highest mean mercury content (45 ng/g), followed by hair products (42.1 ng/g). The concentrations of mercury detected in samples were lower than the current legal limit in China, indicating it may not pose a risk to consumers.

  3. Internet Hospitals in China: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Weimin; Lin, Lingyan; Fan, Si; Lin, Fen; Wang, Long; Guo, Tongjun; Ma, Chuyang; Zhang, Jingkun; He, Yuan; Chen, Yixin

    2017-07-04

    The Internet hospital, an innovative approach to providing health care, is rapidly developing in China because it has the potential to provide widely accessible outpatient service delivery via Internet technologies. To date, China's Internet hospitals have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of China's Internet hospitals, and to assess their health service capacity. We searched Baidu, the popular Chinese search engine, to identify Internet hospitals, using search terms such as "Internet hospital," "web hospital," or "cloud hospital." All Internet hospitals in mainland China were eligible for inclusion if they were officially registered. Our search was carried out until March 31, 2017. We identified 68 Internet hospitals, of which 43 have been put into use and 25 were under construction. Of the 43 established Internet hospitals, 13 (30%) were in the hospital informatization stage, 24 (56%) were in the Web ward stage, and 6 (14%) were in full Internet hospital stage. Patients accessed outpatient service delivery via website (74%, 32/43), app (42%, 18/43), or offline medical consultation facility (37%, 16/43) from the Internet hospital. Furthermore, 25 (58%) of the Internet hospitals asked doctors to deliver health services at a specific Web clinic, whereas 18 (42%) did not. The consulting methods included video chat (60%, 26/43), telephone (19%, 8/43), and graphic message (28%, 12/43); 13 (30%) Internet hospitals cannot be consulted online any more. Only 6 Internet hospitals were included in the coverage of health insurance. The median number of doctors available online was zero (interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 5; max 16,492). The median consultation fee per time was ¥20 (approximately US $2.90, IQR ¥0 to ¥200). Internet hospitals provide convenient outpatient service delivery. However, many of the Internet hospitals are not yet mature and are faced with various issues such as online doctor scarcity and

  4. Attitudes toward neurosciences in medical students in Wuhan, China: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Brorson, James R; Dong, Hongmei; Sherer, Renslow

    2014-01-01

    Neurophobia is a well-described phenomenon among medical students in many countries. Little is reported concerning the perceptions of neurosciences among medical students in China. We surveyed senior medical students in Wuhan, China, on their perceptions of neuroscience. Students' self-assessments of knowledge in various specialties ranked neurology low, but not the lowest. Students' confidence in diagnosing neurological patients and managing neurological patients demonstrated significant correlation. A positive correlation was noted between confidence in these clinical parameters and the likelihood of specializing in neurology. Students reported bedside teaching and small group sessions as having the greatest value in learning neurology. The low, but not the lowest ranking of self-perceived knowledge in neurology by medical students in Wuhan, China, differs from findings reported in other countries. In this exploratory study the investigators hypothesize that the well-described phenomenon of neurophobia may exhibit a less pronounced influence in Wuhan, China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Zhang, Zhangyi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as ...

  7. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced.

  8. Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Z Zhang; J.L. Hanula; J. Sun

    2008-01-01

    A systematic survey of Chinese privet foliage, stems, seeds, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted in China during 2005 and 2006 in order to establish basic information about the insect communities that Chinese privet harbors and to evaluate the abundance and damage caused by these insects. A total of 170...

  9. A Survey of MNC Succession Planning Effectiveness in China, Summer 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Will

    2002-01-01

    Explains succession planning, an organizational management tool used to ensure continuous performance in an organization by identifying key internal people for work activities over time. Describes a survey of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in China that investigated human resource development practices, including localization of the…

  10. The International School Psychology Survey. Data from Australia, China, Germany, Italy and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Graydon, Kelly; Yuen, Mantak; Lam, Shui-Fong; Thurm, Jorg-Michael; Klueva, Nadejda; Coyne, Julia H.; Loprete, Louis; Phillips, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Using the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) this study aims to advance our knowledge of the characteristics, training, roles and responsibilities, challenges and research interests of school psychologists around the world. Data are presented from five countries; Australia, China (Hong Kong), Germany, Italy and Russia. The ISPS…

  11. Relative Income and Happiness in Asia: Evidence from Nationwide Surveys in China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Nozaki, Kayo; Kobayashi, Miki

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to examine relative income effects on perceived happiness in three major Asian countries--China, Japan, and Korea--in comparison with the United Sates, on the basis of largely comparable nationwide surveys in these countries. Consistent with the results from previous studies in Western countries, comparisons with an…

  12. Workplace Victimization and Discrimination in China: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    Workplace victimization and discrimination have been intensively studied in the West, especially on the antecedents and consequences of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, little is known about the incidence and associated health problems of workplace victimization and discrimination in contemporary China. Using a representative nationwide sample of 1,138 Chinese employees conducted in 2015, this study attempted to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of workplace victimization and discrimination in China. It is found that the prevalence rate of preceding 5-year workplace discrimination and victimization was 33% and 12.9%, respectively. Male employees who perceived higher work gains were less likely to experience workplace victimization and those who had higher career efficacy and unemployment anxiety were more likely to experience job discrimination or victimization. Female employees who received tertiary education were less likely to experience job discrimination and being married tended not to experience workplace victimization. Perceived job discrimination had negative impact on male employees' job satisfaction as well as on female employees' happiness. The implications of these findings are finally discussed in the Chinese context.

  13. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikötter, F

    1993-10-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription.

  15. Use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Elton-Marshall, Tara

    2010-10-01

    The existence of less expensive cigarettes in China may undermine public health. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China. Data was from the baseline wave of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey of 4815 adult urban smokers in 6 cities, conducted between April and August 2006. The percentage of smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes (the lowest pricing tertile within each city) at last purchase was computed. Complex sample multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with use of less expensive cigarettes. The association between the use of less expensive cigarettes and intention to quit smoking was also examined. Smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes at last purchase tended to be older, heavier smokers, to have lower education and income, and to think more about the money spent on smoking in the last month. Smokers who bought less expensive cigarettes at the last purchase and who were less knowledgeable about the health harm of smoking were less likely to intend to quit smoking. Measures need to be taken to minimise the price differential among cigarette brands and to increase smokers' health knowledge, which may in turn increase their intentions to quit.

  16. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  17. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  18. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423

  19. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiqi; Bai, Yu; Xie, Pei; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Xiaohua; Tian, Dean; Wang, Chengdang; Liu, Yandi; Sha, Weihong; Wang, Bangmao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Li, Youming; Huang, Minghe; Han, Shengxi; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xu; Xie, Pengyan; Wang, Zhangliu; Cui, Lihong; Sheng, Jianqiu; Luo, Hesheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zou, Yiyou; Xia, Bing; Fan, Zhining; Chen, Zhitan; Lin, Sanren; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-02-07

    Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy.

  20. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  1. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 10 3  kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO 2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Top five medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution [1911]: results of AME survey-002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Xiao, Fan

    2015-06-01

    This survey aims to scrutinize important medical innovations in Chinese mainland since Xinhai (Hsin-hai) revolution in 1911, which marked the end of Manchurian imperial rule and the beginning of China's republican era. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of Dec 29, 2014 to Feb 5, 2015, totaling 37 days. The survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China. An email was sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate in a 5-minute survey. The participants were asked to nominate up to four important medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution. The participant could select 'zero' which means he/she felt there was no important medical innovations, or he/she did not know important medical innovations. It was noted that important medical innovations refer to (I) those with practical and almost immediate significance to improve healthcare; (II) should not only be introducing western technique to China, but those involve major improvement of existing western techniques count; (III) should not be those with important theoretical discovery but did not have almost immediate significance to improve healthcare. In total 1,513 DXY users participated in the voting. Totally 489 (32.3%), 441 (29.1%), 342 (22.6%), 150 (9.9%), 91 (6.0%) participants provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 nominations respectively. (I) Artemisine (Qinghaosu) for malaria treatment (Project 523 team, 1972); (II) arsenic Trioxide (As2O3) for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment (ZHANG Ting-Dong and colleagues, 1970s); (III) limb re-plantation (CHEN Zhong-Wei and colleagues, 1963); (IV) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for APL treatment (WANG Zhen-Yi and colleagues, 1988); and (V) Wu's mask for plague prevention (WU Lien-The, 1910), were voted as the top five innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution, with 375, 96, 91, 53, and 8 votes respectively. In

  3. [Epidemiological survey of childhood asthma in Hefei City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mei; Ni, Chen; Pan, Jia-Hua; Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Li-Lin

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the cumulative prevalence rate, distribution characteristics, epidemic seasons, predisposing factors and current treatment situation of childhood asthma in Hefei City, China. In the investigation, stratified cluster random sampling as well as centralized access and separate home visits were applied, and primary screening forms were filled out. Further confirmation was sought in the primary positive cases, according to the diagnostic criteria for asthma. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cumulative prevalence rate, current treatment situation and predisposing factors for childhood asthma as well as the distribution characteristics of asthma in children of different ages and sexes. The cumulative prevalence rate of childhood asthma was 5.92%, and there was no significant difference between males and females (6.33% vs 5.42%; P>0.05). The cumulative prevalence rate was highest (8.25%) in children aged 3-6 years. Of the children with acute asthma attack, 42.0% suffered attacks during periods of seasonal transition, and 34.4% suffered attacks at midnight. Among the 552 children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, 533 (96.6%) developed asthma due to respiratory tract infection and 312 (56.5%) due to weather change. Most asthmatic children (513/552, 92.9%) received treatment with antibiotics, and 492 asthmatic children (89.1%) were treated with systemic hormones. The cumulative prevalence rate of childhood asthma is 5.92% in Hefei, and the peak age of onset is 3-6 years. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly during periods of seasonal transition and at midnight. Respiratory tract infection and weather change are the main predisposing factors for childhood asthma. Antibiotics and systemic hormones are still widely used in the treatment of asthma.

  4. Planning of an Integrated Acidification Study and Survey on Acid Rain Impacts in China. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, Espen; Angell, Valter; Eilertsen, Odd; Muniz, Ivar P. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway); Larssen, Thorbjoern; Seip, Hans Martin; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D. [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Mulder, Jan

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report from the PIAC project, which was a multidisciplinary survey on acid rain in China. One goal was to document effects of airborne acidifying compounds on vegetation, soil, soil- and surface-water and aquatic biota. Other goals were to exchange knowledge between Chinese and Norwegian scientists, and to visit research sites in highly polluted areas in China and evaluate their need of support in a future collaborative monitoring and research programme. Samples have been collected from over 20 sites in three areas. Negative effects of air pollution are found on all ecosystem levels investigated. The concentration of sulfur in the air in urban and near-urban areas is very high. The concentration of volatile organic compounds is generally high, which means that increased NOx emissions in coming years may increase the ozone problems. Reduced photosynthesis activities were found in some plants and acidification observed in soil and surface water. Aquatic biota also reflect the acidification status of the surface waters investigated. However, it is difficult to assess the degree of damage in these regions because the survey includes too few sites. Surface water acidification is currently not a major environmental problem in China and is unlikely to be one during the next decades. The report includes a status report on acidification in China and a proposed framework for a monitoring programme based on Norwegian experiences. 139 refs., 16 figs., 45 tabs.

  5. Medical expenditure for esophageal cancer in China: a 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yao; Shi, Ju-Fang; Lv, Li-Hong; Bai, Ya-Na; Mao, A-Yan; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Yu-Qin; Song, Bing-Bing; Du, Ling-Bin; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wu, Shou-Ling; Cao, Rong; Lan, Li; Ren, Ying; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Gong; Dai, Min

    2017-09-07

    Esophageal cancer is associated with substantial disease burden in China, and data on the economic burden are fundamental for setting priorities in cancer interventions. The medical expenditure for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer in China has not been fully quantified. This study aimed to examine the medical expenditure of Chinese patients with esophageal cancer and the associated trends. From 2012 to 2014, a hospital-based multicenter retrospective survey was conducted in 37 hospitals in 13 provinces/municipalities across China as a part of the Cancer Screening Program of Urban China. For each esophageal cancer patient diagnosed between 2002 and 2011, clinical information and expense data were extracted by using structured questionnaires. All expense data were reported in Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.155 USD) based on the 2011 value and inflated using the year-specific health care consumer price index for China. A total of 14,967 esophageal cancer patients were included in the analysis. It was estimated that the overall average expenditure per patient was 38,666 CNY, and an average annual increase of 6.27% was observed from 2002 (25,111 CNY) to 2011 (46,124 CNY). The average expenditures were 34,460 CNY for stage I, 39,302 CNY for stage II, 40,353 CNY for stage III, and 37,432 CNY for stage IV diseases (P spending on drugs continued to account for a considerable proportion of the overall expenditure.

  6. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes,

  7. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  8. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Leilei; Ren, Lin; Yan, Hong

    2014-02-05

    Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China's largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. A total of 13,532 children of 0 ~ 36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas.

  9. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-09-23

    No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  10. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  11. A survey of perceived training differences between ophthalmology residents in Hong Kong and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Jhanji, Vishal; Liang, Yuanbo; Congdon, Nathan; Chow, Simon; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Xiujuan; Man, Xiaofei; Yang, Mingming; Lin, Zhong; Yuen, Hunter G L; Lam, Dennis S C

    2015-09-28

    To study the differences in ophthalmology resident training between China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Training programs were selected from among the largest and best-known teaching hospitals. Ophthalmology residents were sent an anonymous 48-item questionnaire by mail. Work satisfaction, time allocation between training activities and volume of surgery performed were determined. 50/75 residents (66.7 %) from China and 20/26 (76.9 %) from HKSAR completed the survey. Age (28.9 ± 2.5 vs. 30.2 ± 2.9 years, p = 0.15) and number of years in training (3.4 ± 1.6 vs. 2.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.19) were comparable between groups. The number of cataract procedures performed by HKSAR trainees (extra-capsular, median 80.0, quartile range: 30.0, 100.0; phacoemulsification, median: 20.0, quartile range: 0.0, 100.0) exceeded that for Chinese residents (extra-capsular: median = 0, p 50 % of time on charts: 62.5 % versus 5.3 %, p vs. 31.6 %, p vs. 5.0 %, p = 0.0001) compared HKSAR residents. In this study, ophthalmology residents in China report strikingly less surgical experience and supervision, and lower satisfaction than HKSAR residents. The HKSAR model of hands-on resident training might be useful in improving the low cataract surgical rate in China.

  12. National survey of China's oncologists' knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice patterns on complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Geliang; Lee, Richard; Zhang, Huiqing; Gu, Wei; Yang, Peiying; Ling, Changquan

    2017-02-21

    It is common for cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study was designed to explore China's oncologists' knowledge, attitudes and clinical practices regarding CAM use by their patients. An online survey was conducted of China's oncologists. Among 11,270 participants who completed the online survey, 6,007 (53.3%) were identified as oncologists. Most were men (75.2%), with a mean age of 33.4 (standard deviation: 6.5) years. The 6,007 oncologists discussed with 36.5% of their patients about CAM. Most of them (75.6%) did not want to initiate discussions due to lack of knowledge on CAM. Oncologists estimated that 40.0% of their patients used CAM treatments. Oncologists reported that 28.7% of their patients underwent anticancer therapy with the concurrent use of CAM. Four out of five of the responding oncologists self-reported inadequate knowledge and only 22.0% reported receiving professional education on CAM. Nearly half (44.9%) of the oncologists believed CAM treatment was effective for symptoms and treatment of cancer. Physician factors associated with initiating discussions with patients about CAM use included sex, age (≥ 33 years), medical license for traditional Chinese medicine, enough knowledge and professional education experience. China's oncologists infrequently discussed with their patients about CAM due to lack of knowledge. Most of the oncologists did not encourage CAM use.

  13. Emergence of Wealth Inequality in China: Evidence from Rural Household Survey, 1986 -2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on relatively recent household survey data (1986 2000 in rural China, this paper analyzes the composition and inequality in non-land wealth. We first document the evolution of rural households wealth during the sample period. Our results show that the housing assets have played a dominant role in their wealth composition although the share of the assets tends to decrease during the period. We also observe that financial and fixed assets have become relatively important in their wealth composition. Based on various inequality measures we are able to provide consistent evidence that the inequality of wealth distribution has worsened in rural China. We find that financial asset holdings appear to have significant unequalizing effect on the total non-land wealth distribution, mostly due to the growing differential in rural non-farm opportunities.

  14. Opportunities and barriers to STI testing in community health centres in China: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Peng, Minghui; Zhu, Shanzhu; Lo, Ying-Ru J; Fairley, Christopher K; Kidd, Michael R; Roland, Martin; Jiang, Sunfang; Wong, William C W

    2017-12-01

    China has strengthened its primary care workforce and implemented a wide network of community health centres (CHCs). However, STI testing and management are not currently included in the 'Essential Package of Primary Health Care in China'. Legislation change to encourage STI service delivery would be important, but it is also critical to determine if there are also provider-related opportunities and barriers for implementing effective STI programmes through CHCs if future legislation were to change. A national representative survey was conducted between September and December 2015 in a stratified random sample of 180 CHCs based in 20 cities in China. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) provided information on current experiences of STI testing as well as the barriers and facilitators for STI testing in CHCs. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with PCPs performing STI testing. 3580 out of 4146 (86%) invited PCPs from 158 CHCs completed the survey. The majority (85%, 95% CI 84% to 87%) of doctors stated that STI testing was an important part of healthcare. However, less than a third (29%, 95% CI 27% to 31%) would perform an STI test if the patients asked. Barriers for performing STI testing included lack of training, concerns about reimbursement, concerns about damage to clinics' reputations and the stigma against key populations. Respondents who reported that they would perform an STI test were likely to be younger, received a bachelor degree or higher, received specific training in STIs, believed that STI test was an important part of healthcare or had resources to perform STI testing. There is potential for improving STI management in China through upskilling the primary care workforce in CHCs. Specific training in STIs is needed, and other structural, logistical and attitudinal barriers are needed to be addressed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  15. Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate and Complementary Feeding Indicators in China: A National Representative Survey in 2013

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    Yifan Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381 and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071, 69.8% (7027/10,071, and 27.4% (2764/10,071 among children aged 6–23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice.

  16. The working lives of nurse teachers in mainland China and the United Kingdom: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Li; Gu, Shen; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E; Chen, Guoliang

    2014-05-01

    Nurse education has undergone considerable changes creating new opportunities and challenges for nurse teachers. Limited comparative research of the working lives of nurse teachers has been reported, thus similarities and differences that may exist are unidentified. This paper reports a study of the working lives of nurse teachers in mainland China and the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Census sample of nurse teachers working in four nursing schools in mainland China (n=3) and the United Kingdom (n=1). The overall response rate was 56.8% (China=61, 61.0%, UK=60, 53.1%). Completion of questionnaire specifically developed for the study but comprising six validated tools to collecting data on: job satisfaction, sense of coherence, role conflict and role ambiguity, work empowerment and professional identification. Data on self-reported roles and personal details were also collected. Data were collected between September 2008 and January 2009. Both samples were satisfied with their jobs overall but reported low levels of satisfaction with promotion. Chinese nurse teachers working full-time reported the lowest level for sense of coherence and professional identification. Nurse teachers working full-time in the United Kingdom reported the highest role conflict score. Sense of coherence and work empowerment were significantly and positively correlated to job satisfaction. Role conflict and role ambiguity were negatively correlated (but not always significantly) to job satisfaction and its facets. For respondents in mainland China, professional identification was significantly and positively correlated with overall job satisfaction and its facets. Strategies to improve job satisfaction with promotion opportunities for both samples are indicated. Respondents working full-time in both mainland China and the United Kingdom experienced greater challenges at work than their part-time colleagues. © 2013.

  17. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  18. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China.

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    Hong Xue

    Full Text Available Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data.Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI z-score.Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China.The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively.FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6-18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13-17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75.FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004-2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity.

  19. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Wu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6-18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13-17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004-2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity.

  20. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Setting Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). Subjects The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). Results FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6–18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13–17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004–2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. PMID:26974536

  1. Selection of nursing teaching strategies in mainland China: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HouXiu; Liu, MengJie; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, JingCi

    2016-04-01

    In nursing education, the traditional lecture and direct demonstration teaching method cannot cultivate the various skills that nursing students need. How to choose a more scientific and rational teaching method is a common concern for nursing educators worldwide. To investigate the basis for selecting teaching methods among nursing teachers in mainland China, the factors affecting the selection of different teaching methods, and the application of different teaching methods in theoretical and skill-based nursing courses. Questionnaire survey. Seventy one nursing colleges from 28 provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China. Following the principle of voluntary informed consent, 262 nursing teachers were randomly selected through a nursing education network platform and a conference platform. The questionnaire contents included the basis for and the factors influencing the selection of nursing teaching methods, the participants' common teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the surveyed nursing teachers. The questionnaires were distributed through the network or conference platform, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The surveyed nursing teachers selected teaching methods mainly based on the characteristics of the teaching content, the characteristics of the students, and their previous teaching experiences. The factors affecting the selection of teaching methods mainly included large class sizes, limited class time, and limited examination formats. The surveyed nursing teachers primarily used lectures to teach theory courses and the direct demonstration method to teach skills courses, and the application frequencies of these two teaching methods were significantly higher than those of other teaching methods (P=0.000). More attention should be paid to the selection of nursing teaching methods. Every teacher should strategically choose teaching methods before each lesson, and nursing education training focused on selecting

  2. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. Results A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). Conclusions The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse’s knowledge level on phlebotomy. PMID:29187796

  3. Nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2018-02-15

    In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse's knowledge level on phlebotomy.

  4. Job satisfaction and its related factors: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; While, Alison E; Barriball, K Louise

    2007-05-01

    The widespread nursing shortage is of concern in Mainland China and globally. Factors underpinning the increased mobility of the nursing workforce and their contribution to nurses' turnover thus merit attention. Understanding nurses' job satisfaction is important, as this is a key factor in nurses' turnover. The study aimed to explore nurses' views and experience regarding different components of their working lives in Mainland China. A cross-sectional survey design was selected and 512 nurses working in the medical and surgical departments in two teaching hospitals in Beijing completed questionnaires yielding a response rate of 81%. More than half of nurses (53.7%; n=275) were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 15% (n=77) felt moderate to extreme occupational stress. The majority of the sample reported a high level of organizational commitment (63.7%; n=326) and professional commitment (85.9%; n=440) and only 5.9% (n=30) and 10.0% (n=51), respectively reported role conflict and role ambiguity often or very often. Nurses with a diploma or associate degree reported greater professional commitment and a lower level of role conflict than those with a bachelor degree (porganizational commitment, occupational stress and role ambiguity by educational programme (p>0.05). Hospital nurses' positive feelings regarding their working lives may be influenced by developments in the health care system and the nursing profession in Mainland China. Nurses' educational level is an influencing factor on nurses' views and experiences of their working lives with the findings suggesting the need to develop a clinical career ladder for nursing staff in Mainland China.

  5. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

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    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In previous studies, people’s knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women’s psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment.

  6. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  7. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

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    Li-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%, followed by the lack of time (13.4% and language barrier (15.0%. Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%, advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%, and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%, while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research

  8. Health insurance coverage and impact: a survey in three cities in China.

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    Kuangnan Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China has one of the world's largest health insurance systems, composed of government-run basic health insurance and commercial health insurance. The basic health insurance has undergone system-wide reform in recent years. Meanwhile, there is also significant development in the commercial health insurance sector. A phone call survey was conducted in three major cities in China in July and August, 2011. The goal was to provide an updated description of the effect of health insurance on the population covered. Of special interest were insurance coverage, gross and out-of-pocket medical cost and coping strategies. RESULTS: Records on 5,097 households were collected. Analysis showed that smaller households, higher income, lower expense, presence of at least one inpatient treatment and living in rural areas were significantly associated with a lower overall coverage rate. In the separate analysis of basic and commercial health insurance, similar factors were found to have significant associations. Higher income, presence of chronic disease, presence of inpatient treatment, higher coverage rates and living in urban areas were significantly associated with higher gross medical cost. A similar set of factors were significantly associated with higher out-of-pocket cost. Households with lower income, inpatient treatment, higher commercial insurance coverage, and living in rural areas were significantly more likely to pursue coping strategies other than salary. CONCLUSIONS: The surveyed cities and surrounding rural areas had socioeconomic status far above China's average. However, there was still a need to further improve coverage. Even for households with coverage, there was considerable out-of-pocket medical cost, particularly for households with inpatient treatments and/or chronic diseases. A small percentage of households were unable to self-finance out-of-pocket medical cost. Such observations suggest possible targets for further improving

  9. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Guo-Rong; Bai, Yang-Jing

    2013-01-01

    This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%), followed by the lack of time (13.4%) and language barrier (15.0%). Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%), advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%), and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%), while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research utilization. The BARRIERS Scale should consider funding and

  10. Cancer pain management in China: current status and practice implications based on the ACHEON survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Z

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjun Xia Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, ChinaPurpose: Cancer pain can seriously impact the quality of life (QoL of patients, and optimal management practices are therefore of paramount importance. The ACHEON survey queried physicians and patients from 10 Asian countries/regions to assess current clinical practices in cancer pain management in Asia. This study presents the data obtained for cancer pain management in mainland China, with an emphasis on practices related to opioid drugs.Materials and methods: In several tertiary hospitals across China, 250 patients experiencing cancer pain and 100 physicians were surveyed on questions designed to assess current cancer pain management practices and cancer pain impact on QoL.Results: The patient survey showed that 88% of patients reported moderate-to-severe cancer pain, with a median duration of 6 months. The physician survey showed that medical school/residency training with regard to cancer pain management was inadequate in ~80% of physicians. A total of 80% of physicians and 67.2% of patients reported that pain scale was used during pain assessment; 84% of physicians expressed that physician-perceived pain severity was not completely consistent with actual pain the patient experienced. Of the 147 patients who recalled the medication received, 83.7% were administered opioid prescriptions. Of the 240 patients who received treatment, 43.8% perceived the inadequacy of controlling pain. The primary barriers from physicians perceived to optimal pain management included patients’ fear of side effects (58%, patients’ fear of addiction (53%, patients’ reluctance to report pain (43%, physicians’ reluctance to prescribe (29%, physicians’ inadequacy of pain assessment (27% and excessive regulation of opioid analgesics (47%.Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer pain management should be strengthened among physicians. Quantitative pain assessment and principle-based pain

  11. [Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Lin, J T; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

  12. Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Q

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing Du,1,2 Øyvind Næss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar71Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, infant mortality rate (IMR, and under-five mortality rate (U5MR is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China.Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%, fathers (32.5%, grandmothers (11.1%, grandfathers (9.0%, and other caregivers (1.4%. Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data.Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68 was fewer than in the routine data (94 in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106 was larger than in the routine data (96 in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand. The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand. Indicators related to the

  13. Prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China [2012-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ping; Tian, Yong-Quan; Hai, Yun-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Nan; Cao, Qing-Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of nosocomial infections, the distribution of nosocomial infection sites, the use of antibiotic and the situation of detected nosocomial infection pathogens in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China from 2012 to 2014, to grasp the current conditions of regional nosocomial infections in timely, for the development of infection prevention and control measures to provide a basis for effective hospital. A survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections was conducted in target hospitals using the combination of a bedside survey and medical record review. In total, 101,907 inpatients were surveyed from 2012 to 2014. There were 1,997 cases of nosocomial infections, accounting for an average prevalence of 1.96%. The infection site was mainly the lower respiratory tract. Higher prevalence of nosocomial infections occurred in the comprehensive intensive care unit (ICU), Neurosurgery Department, and Hematology Department. The average rate of antibiotic use was 33.72%, and the average submission rate for bacterial cultures for patients who received therapeutic treatment with antibiotics was 28.26%. The most common pathogens associated with nosocomial infections were Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, and frequently detected bacterial pathogens included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus. The survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections helped to identify problems in the control process of nosocomial infections and to develop targeted measures for the prevention and control of these infections accordingly.

  14. Help-seeking behavior for erectile dysfunction: a clinic-based survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Chinese patients seeking help for erectile dysfunction (ED has not been described in detail. This was an observational study conducted using an outpatient clinic-based questionnaire survey of ED patients. From 2008 to 2009, physicians in 10 medical centers in China enrolled 2693 men (aged 25-70 years diagnosed with ED. The diagnosis was based on the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 Questionnaire. The men completed a survey that asked questions about demographics, marital status, education level and household income as well as help-seeking behavior and awareness of medical therapy. The mean age of the 2693 men was 43.4 ± 5.3 years; 73% were <50-years-old and 49% had a high household income. The mean time between noticing ED and taking the first treatment was 4.3 ± 2.1 months. Of the 2577 respondents, physicians (54% and the internet (52% were most frequently consulted sources for information about ED. Young ED patients preferred using the internet and older patients preferred consulting with physicians. Western medicine (19% and traditional Chinese medicine (16% were most frequently used for treatment. Young ED patients preferred to first search the internet for information, whereas older patients first asked physicians for help. Side effects of treatment were the greatest concern, especially for older patients. Physicians and the internet are frequently consulted for ED information and therapy. On the basis of these survey results, we believe that physicians in China should enhance health education about ED, especially via the internet.

  15. The economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations in China: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Jit, Mark; Leung, Kathy S; Zheng, Ya-Ming; Feng, Lu-Zhao; Wang, Li-Ping; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T; Yu, Hong-Jie

    2015-10-06

    The seasonal influenza vaccine coverage rate in China is only 1.9 %. There is no information available on the economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations at the national level, even though this kind of information is important for informing national-level immunization policy decision-making. A retrospective telephone survey was conducted in 2013/14 to estimate the direct and indirect costs of seasonal influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations from a societal perspective. Study participants were laboratory-confirmed cases registered in the National Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network and Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance Network in China in 2013. Patient-reported costs from the survey were validated by a review of hospital accounts for a small sample of the inpatients. The study enrolled 529 outpatients (median age: eight years; interquartile range [IQR]: five to 20 years) and 254 inpatients (median age: four years; IQR: two to seven years). Among the outpatients, 22.1 % (117/529) had underlying diseases and among the inpatients, 52.8 % (134/254) had underlying diseases. The average total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient visits and inpatient visits were US$ 155 (standard deviation, SD US$ 122) and US$ 1,511 (SD US$ 1,465), respectively. Direct medical costs accounted for 45 and 69 % of the total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient and inpatient visits, respectively. For influenza outpatients, the mean cost per episode in children aged below five years (US$ 196) was higher than that in other age groups (US$ 129-153). For influenza inpatients, the mean cost per episode in adults aged over 60 years (US$ 2,735) was much higher than that in those aged below 60 years (US$ 1,417-1,621). Patients with underlying medical conditions had higher costs per episode than patients without underlying medical conditions (outpatients: US$ 186 vs. US$ 146; inpatients: US$ 1

  16. of health facilities in the nine provinces of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 606. 66. Military. 1 020. 1 072. -52. -5. In the light of these ratios, an appropriate ratio of referral beds to general beds is 0,08. Although this ratio cannot be used indiscriminately, its value is that it provides an indicator of the appropriate ...

  17. Survey of phytophagous insects and foliar pathogens in China for a biocontrol perspective on kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Hua Sun; Zhu-Dong Liu; Ping Cai; David Orr; Judith Hough-Goldstein

    2006-01-01

    A three-year survey of kudzu foliage, seed, stems, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted to establish basic information about the insect communities that kudzu harbors in China and to assess the abundance, diversity and damage caused by these insects. Diseases of kudzu were also surveyed in southern China. A total of 116 phytophagous insect...

  18. Insulin pen injection technique survey in patients with type 2 diabetes in mainland China in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jiajia; Lou, Qingqing

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique. To provide patients with guidance in this area and help patients inject themselves correctly, we must understand how they currently inject; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the current situation of insulin injection technique in patients with diabetes in mainland China. From October 2010 to November 2010, a cross-sectional survey of 380 diabetes patients from 20 centers in mainland China was conducted regarding their daily insulin pen injection practice. Overall, 35.26% of patients had lipohypertrophy; 58.68% of patients had bleeding and bruising, and abdominal lipohypertrophy at injection sites. Bleeding and bruising were more frequent. We found a significant relationship between the frequency of a single needle reuse and lipohypertrophy (r = 0.426, P = 0.000). In addition, there was a significant relationship between the frequency of daily insulin injection and lipohypertrophy (r = 0.146, P = 0.004), between rolling the pen while pulling out the needle after injection and lipohypertrophy (χ(2 )= 7.355, P = 0.007). Bleeding and bruising at injection sites were found to be related to HbA1c levels (r = 0.151, P = 0.003). A few limitations linked with this survey should be noted. Because of the limited budget, the ultrasound was not used to evaluate lipodystrophy and the photographs of lipodystrophy were not taken. On the other hand, specific size of lipodystrophy and the cost of insulin wastage were not evaluated. Furthermore, the population of this survey is limited, and it was only done in general hospitals and not in community hospitals, therefore, a larger study sample is advisable. The insulin injection skill of patients with diabetes in mainland China was poor, and the incidence of lipohypertrophy, bleeding, and needle reuse was high. Frequency of daily insulin injection and needle reuse may relate to the incidence of

  19. Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dizhe; Wang, Yao; Jiang, Dongmei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jun; Wang, Meng

    2017-06-26

    Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg -1 , followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2-4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China.

  20. Factors that determine catastrophic expenditure for tuberculosis care: a patient survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengchao; Long, Qian; Chen, Jiaying; Xiang, Li; Li, Qiang; Tang, Shenglan; Huang, Fei; Sun, Qiang; Lucas, Henry

    2016-01-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) often causes catastrophic economic effects on both the individual suffering the disease and their households. A number of studies have analyzed patient and household expenditure on TB care, but there does not appear to be any that have assessed the incidence, intensity and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) relating to TB care in China. That will be the objective of this paper. The data used for this study were derived from the baseline survey of the China Government - Gates Foundation TB Phase II program. Our analysis included 747 TB cases. Catastrophic health expenditure for TB care was estimated using two approaches, with households defined as experiencing CHE if their annual expenditure on TB care: (a) exceeded 10 % of total household income; and (b) exceeded 40 % of their non-food expenditure (capacity to pay). Chi-square tests were used to identify associated factors and logistic regression analysis to identify the determinants of CHE. The incidence of CHE was 66.8 % using the household income measure and 54.7 % using non-food expenditure (capacity to pay). An inverse association was observed between CHE rates and household income level. Significant determinants of CHE were: age, household size, employment status, health insurance status, patient income as a percentage of total household income, hospitalization and status as a minimum living security household. Factors including gender, marital status and type of TB case had no significant associations with CHE. Catastrophic health expenditure incidence from TB care is high in China. An integrated policy expanding the free treatment package and ensuring universal coverage, especially the height of UHC for TB patients, is needed. Financial and social protection interventions are essential for identified at-risk groups.

  1. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  2. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Xuefei; Liu, Shunqing; Zhao, Mingyu; Tian, Zhanjun; Miao, Yuhu; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Jing; Su, Baoyu; Lu, Yongyin; Li, Xiaobo; Song, Qiwu

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For very-high-resolution solar observations, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau. The project of solar site survey for the next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been launched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard instruments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We introduce the fresh site survey results in this report.

  3. Exploring child car passenger safety practices in China: experience from a parental survey in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuming; Du, Wei; Jiang, Fan; Bilston, Lynne E; Brown, Julie; Shen, Xiaoming

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about child passenger safety practice in China. This study aims to describe child passenger seating and restraint practice in Shanghai. Information on 970 children enrolled in five randomly selected kindergartens in the Songjiang and Pudong districts of Shanghai was collected from a parental survey during 2008-2009. The adjusted rate ratios for optimal (rear-seated alone) versus suboptimal seating position (including front-seated or sitting in adult laps) and restraint use versus non-use of restraints among child passengers were evaluated using multivariate binomial regression. Suboptimal seating position (16.9%) and non-use of restraints (60.8%) was common among child passengers. Younger age (≤4 years) and having parents who are licensed drivers decreased the likelihood of being rear-seated alone; whereas having a tertiary-educated mother increased the likelihood of a child being seated optimally. Compared with unlicensed parents, guardian parents who have a driver's licence were more likely to use restraints for their child passengers. This study suggests restraint non-use and suboptimal seating position are common for child passengers in the Songjiang and Pudong districts of Shanghai, and identifies risk factors influencing restraint use and seating position choice for child passengers. There is an urgent need to improve child passenger safety in China and these findings indicate potential targets for educational interventions in the absence of child restraint laws.

  4. Individuals’ Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV, carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals’ acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals’ acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11–20 km; most participants (47.1% were willing to pay 1–2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China.

  5. Blood service in the Tibetan regions of Garzê and Aba, China: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wu, Z; Yin, Y H; Rao, S Q; Liu, B; Huang, X Q; Liu, X X; Li, W H; Ye, S L; Li, S Y; Yu, X C; Wu, D R; Xu, J; Wang, Z K; Zhang, R; Li, C Q

    2017-12-01

    Garzê and Aba form the second largest Tibetan-inhabited area of China. Blood services have never been reported for this region before. To assess the current situation and analyse whether a safe and adequate blood supply has been developed in both Garzê and Aba. We conducted a longitudinal survey covering the period 2011-2016. The subjects of interest were recruited from non-remunerated voluntary donation, blood testing, clinical transfusion practices and infrastructure of local blood service systems. The donation rate and blood collection volume were below the average levels of both the Sichuan Province and mainland China. Component therapy was widely used, but inappropriate usage of whole blood existed. A lack of national specific standards for people on the plateaus led to local blood transfusions being conducted without full clinical assessment. Endemic and frequently occurring disease, such as hydatid disease and gastrointestinal disease, were inevitable risks for blood utilisation and safety. The potential influence of religious belief and traditions, like 'male-leaving marriages', of Tibetans on donor recruitment and blood safety requires further research. A relatively safe and complete blood service system has been developed in this region. However, there is still an urgent need for comprehensive and effective support from the government in terms of policies and finance. As an epidemic area of hydatid disease and sexually transmitted disease, this region needs to emphasise public health measures, such as blood safety and inappropriate usage of blood products. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7–18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI, hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Yu, Jinyue; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli; An, Lin

    2017-01-18

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7-18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI), hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR) were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  8. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  9. Individuals’ Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Xue, Qingwan; Sun, Li

    2017-01-01

    Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals’ acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR) method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals’ acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11–20 km; most participants (47.1%) were willing to pay 1–2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP) was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL) was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China. PMID:28468318

  10. Survey of student attitudes towards digital simulation technologies at a dental school in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q; Wang, Y; Zheng, Q; Ye, L; Zhou, X D; Zhang, L L

    2017-08-01

    Digital simulation technologies have become widespread in healthcare education, especially in dentistry; these technologies include digital X-ray images, digital microscopes, virtual pathology slides and other types of simulation. This study aimed to assess students' attitudes towards digital simulation technologies at a large, top-ranked dental school in China, as well as find out how students compare the digital technologies with traditional training methods. In April 2015, a custom-designed questionnaire was distributed to a total of 389 students who had received digital technology and simulation-based training in West China Dental School during 2012-2014. Results of a cross-sectional survey show that most students accept digital simulation technology; they report that the technology is stimulating and facilitates self-directed and self-paced learning. These findings, together with the objective advantages of digital technology, suggest that digital simulation training offers significant potential for dental education, highlighting the need for further research and more widespread implementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Individuals' Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Xue, Qingwan; Sun, Li

    2017-05-02

    Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals' acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR) method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals' acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11-20 km; most participants (47.1%) were willing to pay 1-2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP) was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL) was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China.

  12. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  14. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Tao, Cuixiang; Miao, Xiaolou; Wang, Dongsheng; Tangmuke; Dawa; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yaoguang; Pan, Hu

    2012-07-13

    In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestock`s diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  16. Citizen Complaints about Environmental Pollution: A Survey Study in Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses environmental complaints made by citizens living close to industrial polluters in China. Data collected from a questionnaire survey in Suzhou City is used for the analysis. The results confirm a marginal level of citizen environmental complaints in the study area at present. Meaningful findings include the fact that citizens have a tendency to complain collectively, and that perception of the level of environmental information provided by companies significantly determines a citizen’s likelihood of lodging environmental complaints. Therefore, the disclosure of corporate environmental information must be emphasized continuously; citizens must be encouraged to correctly understand the environmental performance of companies so that they might make appropriate complaints. Governments need to show their support for citizen-led environmental complaint initiatives. The successful cases would convince them to keep a closer eye on their neighbouring polluters.

  17. A Survey-Based Exploration of Land-System Dynamics in an Agricultural Region of Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wu, W.; Verburg, P.H.; van Vliet, J.; Yang, P.; Zhou, Q.; Tang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of agricultural systems requires insight into the human-environment interactions. In this paper we used survey data to analyze land system change and its relation to farmer's attitudes in a typical agricultural region of Northeast China, focusing on land tenure, crop

  18. College Student Entrepreneurship in China: Results from a National Survey of Directors of Career Services in Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, You; Zhu, Feifei; Ding, Xiaohao

    2017-01-01

    As the number of college graduates increases dramatically in recent years in China, the Chinese Central government encourages college graduates to partake in entrepreneurial activities. The current study uses data from a nationwide institutional survey of directors of career services of 840 Chinese colleges and universities to study the current…

  19. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  20. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years.

  1. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Li-Li; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2017-06-20

    Mental disorders are strongly associated with disabilities. National survey on disability could provide a reliable basis for policymaking in care and rehabilitation of disabled persons. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence rates attributed to mental disorders, their distribution by sociodemographic factors, and utilizations of service. This study is a secondary data analysis of the Second National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006. The disability and severity were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Mental disorders were diagnosed according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Using descriptive and analytic epidemiological methods, prevalence rates of disability attributed to mental disorders and service use were calculated. Data of 2,526,145 respondents were analyzed. The disability prevalence rate attributed to mental disorders in China was 6.3‰, accounting for 9.9% of all disabled people. Regarding disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders, it showed that gender, residential area, marital status, education level, and economic area were related to the prevalence distributions. The proportions of mild disability were highest in the disabled people with onset age of 18-64 years, while the proportion of extremely severe disability was highest in the disabled people with onset age of 65 years and above. Only 58.6% of disabled people attributed to mental disorders used some of the services. There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  2. Student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Tian, Yan; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2015-07-01

    The world's population is aging, and the need for nurses is increasing. Working with older adults, however, has always been an unpopular career choice among student nurses. It is important to understand student nurses' motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career and to identify the associated factors among student nurses. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were last-semester student nurses from 7 universities offering nursing undergraduate programs in Shandong, China. Of the 1290 student nurses, 916 completed the survey (a response rate of 71.0%). The outcome variable was the motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career. This was measured using a motivation questionnaire that included expectancy and value subscales. Other instruments included the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz I, the Geriatrics Attitudes Scale, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, a clinical practice environment questionnaire and a self-administered general information questionnaire. Student nurses' expectancy and value aspects of motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career were both at a moderate level; the highest value they held was of personal interest. Clinical practice environment, anxiety about aging and the attitudes about geriatrics were the main factors influencing student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China. It is imperative for nurse educators to improve the gerontological nursing clinical practice environment for student nurses. Moreover, cultivating student nurses' positive attitudes about geriatrics and relieving anxiety about aging could be beneficial. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Zhang, Zhangyi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-20

    Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9%) participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9%) claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2%) of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1-3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications for future

  4. National survey on turnaround time of clinical biochemistry tests in 738 laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fei, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Minqi; Chen, Bingquan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-02-01

    This survey was initiated to estimate the current status of turnaround time (TAT) monitoring of clinical biochemistry in China, provide baseline data for establishment of quality specifications and analyze the impact factors of TAT. 738 laboratories were included. Questionnaires involved general information and data of related indicators of TAT during 1 week were provided to participating laboratories. Nine quality indicators were covered, which were medians, 90th and outlier rates of pre-examination, examination, and post-examination TAT. The 25th percentile, median, and 75th percentile of TATs were calculated as optimum, desirable, and minimum quality specifications. Percentages and sigma values were used to describe the outlier rates. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to identify the potential impacts of TAT. Response rate of this survey was 46.44%. More than 50% of the laboratories indicated they had set up target TATs in three time intervals and monitored TATs generally. The post-examination TAT of most laboratories was 0min, while the pre-examination and examination TAT varied. Sigma values of outlier rates for 45%~60% of laboratories were above 4, while 15%~20% of labs whose sigma values were below 3. Group comparisons suggested nurse or mechanical pipeline transportation, link laboratory information system with hospital information system, and using computer reporting instead of printing report were related to shorter TATs. Despite of the remarkable progresses of TATs in China, there was also room to improve. Laboratories should strengthen the construction of information systems, identify reasons for TAT delay to improve the service quality continuously. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Survey on child leprosy patients and problems resulted from the disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liangbin; Shen, Jianping; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Guocheng

    2015-03-01

    To understand the situation of child leprosy patients in the low prevalence situation pertaining in China. A retrospective survey by questionnaire was carried out in all 32 provinces of mainland of China in 2011. All data concerning child cases detected from January 2005 to December 2009 were collected by professional health workers working at county level. During the study, only 165 questionnaires were collected for analysis. Among 165 child cases, 96 were boys, 69 were girls with an average age of 11-7 years old. 80% of child cases were members of families with other leprosy affected people. 145 (85%) child cases took their MDT secretly (nobody outside the family knew the child suffered from leprosy), and three (1.8%) children died, one each from dapsone syndrome, suicide and severe pneumonia. During follow-up, four child cases developed new disability increasing the Grade 2 disability rate to 13.3% (22/165). At end of the study, 8.2% of children had discontinued their study at school, and 7.5% had moved to a remote place to do casual work, while 6.3% stayed at home. 31% of child patients thought that leprosy caused a negative impact on their daily life. Two children had a hostile attitude toward society due to the stigma caused by leprosy. In both high and low endemic areas, as long as there is an infectious source of leprosy in the family, there is a possibility for children to develop leprosy. Contact surveys should be done to detect early disease, especially when there are children in the household.

  6. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health

  7. Community-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Wang, Jinwei; Su, Tao; Qu, Zhen; Zhao, Minghui; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) in China based on a nationwide survey about AKI. Cross-sectional and retrospective study. A national sample of 2,223,230 hospitalized adult patients from 44 academic/local hospitals in Mainland China was used. AKI was defined according to the 2012 KDIGO AKI creatinine criteria or an increase or decrease in serum creatinine level of 50% during the hospital stay. Community-acquired AKI was identified when a patient had AKI that could be defined at hospital admission. The rate, cause, recognition, and treatment of community-acquired AKI were stratified according to hospital type, latitude, and economic development of the regions in which the patients were admitted. All-cause in-hospital mortality and recovery of kidney function at hospital discharge. 4,136 patients with community-acquired AKI were identified during the 2 single-month snapshots (January 2013 and July 2013). Of these, 2,020 (48.8%) had cases related to decreased kidney perfusion; 1,111 (26.9%), to intrinsic kidney disease; and 499 (12.1%), to urinary tract obstruction. In the north versus the south, more patients were exposed to nephrotoxins or had urinary tract obstructions. 536 (13.0%) patients with community-acquired AKI had indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT), but only 347 (64.7%) of them received RRT. Rates of timely diagnosis and appropriate use of RRT were higher in regions with higher per capita gross domestic product. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 7.3% (295 of 4,068). Delayed AKI recognition and being located in northern China were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality, and referral to nephrology providers was an independent protective factor. Possible misclassification of AKI and community-acquired AKI due to nonstandard definitions and missing data for serum creatinine. The features of community-acquired AKI varied substantially in different regions of China and were closely

  8. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  9. FY 2000 Survey report. Survey on the technologies required for the China-Japan recycling networks; 2000 nendo Nicchu recycle network ni motomerareru gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey is conducted for feasibility of establishing the resources recovering networks useful for the both countries, viewed from effective utilization of resources. The treatment situations of wasted home electrical appliances in the both countries are surveyed. The results indicate that there are already large demands for these appliances in the both countries and that the wasted quantities are increasing year by year. Necessity for establishing the China-Japan recycling networks is pointed out, based on the predicted waste quantities of these appliances and treatment cost, among others, in the both countries, which lead to prediction of shortage of iron, copper and aluminum in China, and increased treatment cost in Japan. Of the recycling network scenarios analyzed, the economically and environmentally adequate ones include the case in which Japan is responsible for the steps up to the third step of crushing and screening, and China is responsible for the last step of recycling the material scraps into the stock materials, and the case in which Japan is responsible for the steps up to the second step of compression and cutting treatment of the wastes, and exporting the resultant scraps to China. (NEDO)

  10. Marine debris surveys on four beaches in Rizhao City of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with USA, UK, Brazil, Indonesia, Australia, etc., marine debris research in China has received less attention and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this paper, the abundance, composition and source of beached marine debris, and debris collection system and frequency as well as dustbins’ conditionwere investigated in Duodaohai, Wanpingkou, Shanhaitian and National Forest Park beaches of Rizhao City from June 1 to 10, 2013. Based on these surveys, following conclusions were obtained: In four coastal beaches surveyed, the mean number and weight densities were 25.91 items/100m2 and 341.39 g/100m2, respectively. Most of the BMD in the aforementioned beaches originated directly from land sources. There were two kinds of debris collection systems in these beaches at present; dustbins sometimes were not enough to be used in the swimming period.We hope that our study will be helpful to raise the level of environmental consciousness among people and to expand their anti-debris activities.

  11. Hospital organizational environment and staff satisfaction in China: A large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shu; Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Cai, Baota; Yu, Min

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study are to explore the satisfaction of health-care staff in Chinese public hospitals with different aspects of their organizational environment and to identify factors affecting this satisfaction. The satisfaction of hospital staff members with organizational environment could be associated with the quality of patient care and patients' satisfaction. The design of the study is in the form of a survey. A questionnaire survey was performed from April to November 2008 to collect demographic characteristics of hospital staff members and analyse which organizational environment factors (hospital security policy and professional care, environmental security, safety of operations and management of human resources) influence staff satisfaction. Hospital members' satisfaction scores were high for hospital security policy and professional care but lower for safety of operations, the security of the environment and management of the human resources (lowest). Multivariate analysis identified that hospital size (large hospitals scoring highest), department (non-clinical department such as administrative or logistics department), professional title (student), position (administration) and years of employment (China, hospital staff members were mostly dissatisfied with the administration and management of human resources. The organizational environment of hospitals should be improved to improve staff satisfaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  13. English language usage pattern in China mainland doctors: AME survey-001 initial analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J

    2015-02-01

    English is the most widely used language in medical community worldwide. Till now there is no study yet on how English language is being used among mainland Chinese doctors. The present survey aimed to address this question. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of 23 Oct 2014 to 13 November 2014, totaling 22 days. This survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China with registered medical doctor users of slightly more than one million. E-mails were sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate the survey which lasts approximately five-minute. The questionnaire included three major aspects: (I) the demographic characteristics of participants; (II) English reading pattern; and (III) paper publishing experience in international journals. To accommodate the complexity of relationships among variables, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to build the model. In total 1,663 DXY users completed the survey, which counted for ≈1% of the total registered medical doctor users. There were more participants from relatively economically developed eastern coast areas. The age of participants was 33.6±7.4 years. There were 910 respondents from teaching hospitals (54.72%), followed by tertiary care hospitals (class-III hospital, 22.37%). Mainland Chinese doctors were more likely to consult medical materials in Chinese (63.5%) when they encounter clinical difficulties. Participants who were able to list English journals of their own specialty up to four were 44.02% for 0, 13.77% for one journal, 13.89% for two journals, 9.26% for three journals, and 19.06% for four journals. Most participants (82.86%) have read at least one English paper or one professional book in English, while 17.14% responded they never read a single English paper or professorial book in English. About 30.42% participants published at least one paper in English

  14. Benzene exposure in the shoemaking industry in China, a literature survey, 1978-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laiming; Zhou, Yimei; Liang, Youxin; Wong, Otto; Armstrong, Thomas; Schnatter, A Robert; Wu, Qiangen; Fang, Jinbin; Ye, Xibiao; Fu, Hua; Irons, Richard D

    2006-11-01

    This article presents a summary of benzene exposure levels in the shoemaking industry in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1978 and 2004. A comprehensive search identified 182 papers reporting such exposure data. These papers could be classified into two categories: benzene poisoning case reports and industrial hygiene surveys. From each paper, the following information was abstracted whenever available: location and year of occurrence, occupation and/or task involved, benzene content in adhesives/solvents, work environment, working conditions, working hours, diagnosis, and air monitoring data of benzene. A total of 333 benzene measurements (88 averages, 116 minimums, 129 maximums) in the shoemaking industry were reported in the 182 papers identified. The data were analyzed in terms of geographical location, time period, type of ownership (state, township, or foreign), type of report (benzene poisoning reports vs. industrial hygiene surveys), and job title (work activity) or process. The reported data covered a wide range; some measurements were in excess of 4500 mg/m(3). Thirty-five percent of the reported benzene concentrations were below 40 mg/m(3), which was the national occupational exposure limit (OEL) for benzene between 1979 and 2001. The remaining 65% measurements, which exceeded the national OEL in effect at the time, and were distributed as follows: 40-100 mg/m(3), 11%; 100-300 mg/m(3), 21%; 300-500 mg/m(3), 13%; and 500+ mg/m(3), 20%. However, only 24% of the reported measurements after 2002 were below 6 mg/m(3), i.e., Permissible Concentration-Time Weighted Average (PC-TWA) and 10 mg/m(3), i.e., Permissible Concentration-Short Term Exposure Limit (PC-STEL), the newly amended benzene OELs in effect after May 2002. The data demonstrated that the majority of the facilities in the shoemaking industry reported in the literature were not in compliance of the OEL for benzene in effect at the time. Overall, the data show a clear downward

  15. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant workers into a general cardinal ill-health score. Determinants associated with migrant worker health included but were not limited to age, marital status, income, and education, among other factors. Concentration index, concentration curve, and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in migrant workers' health. Prorich inequality was found in the health of migrant workers. The concentration index was -0.0866, as a score indicator of ill health. Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that the factors most contributing to the observed inequality were income, followed by gender, age, marital status, and smoking history. It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  16. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  17. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  18. Inequalities in health status among rural residents: EQ-5D findings from household survey China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y

    2014-05-19

    This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.

  19. Asthma with allergic rhinitis management in China: a nationwide survey of respiratory specialists at tertiary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Lin, Jiangtao; Liu, Guoliang; Yin, Kaisheng; Zhou, Xin; Shen, Huahao; Chen, Ping; Chen, Rongchang; Liu, Chuntao; Wu, Changgui; Zhao, Jianping; Lin, Yanping

    2015-03-01

    Many asthmatic patients have coexisting allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aims to investigate the compliance of physicians with respiratory medicine specialty (PRMs) to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines during the management of their asthma-AR patients. This cross-sectional questionnaire study surveyed the diagnostic methods and treatment patterns for asthma-AR comorbidity by PRMs from 98 hospitals across China. PRMs reported an estimated prevalence of asthma-AR comorbidity of >30% at their clinics. PRMs with greater work experience and a higher professional title estimated treating a significantly higher proportion of patients with AR within the previous month (p = 0.002 and p PRMs with ≥11 years work experience prescribed nasal steroids for AR as compared to those with 1 to 10 years experience (56.9% vs 44.7%, p = 0.002). A greater proportion of chief physicians used leukotriene modifiers and a lower proportion used antihistamine H1 -receptor blockers for AR as compared to residents (resident vs assistant chief: 27.5% vs 11.6%, p = 0.002; and resident vs chief PRMs: 27.5% vs 9.5%, p = 0.001). PRMs in China demonstrated an up-to-date comprehension of asthma management (>90%); however, knowledge gaps existed in their concepts of AR and asthma-AR comorbidity. Thus, further education is warranted for PRMs regarding the importance of AR in asthma patients, definitive diagnosis (allergy tests), classifications of AR, and treatment guidelines for the asthma-AR comorbidity. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. A Survey of Graduates' Employment and New Venture Creation in China in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyi

    2009-01-01

    "Graduates employment" is always the focus of society in China. At present, the hardness of graduates employment is an important issue for the development of China's higher education, which has already aroused more attentions from the Communist Party of China and the government. Graduates' views on career-choosing, family backgrounds,…

  1. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  2. Research integrity in greater China: surveying regulations, perceptions and knowledge of research integrity from a Hong Kong perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sara R; Gray, Phillip W

    2013-12-01

    In their 2010 article 'Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects', Zeng and Resnik challenge others to engage in empirical research on research integrity in China. Here we respond to that call in three ways: first, we provide updates to their analysis of regulations and allegations of scientific misconduct; second, we report on two surveys conducted in Hong Kong that provide empirical backing to describe ways in which problems and prospects that Zeng and Resnik identify are being explored; and third, we continue the discussion started by Zeng and Resnik, pointing to ways in which China's high-profile participation in international academic research presents concerns about research integrity. According to our research, based upon searches of both English and Chinese language literature and policies, and two surveys conducted in Hong Kong, academic faculty and research post-graduate students in Hong Kong are aware of and have a positive attitude towards responsible conduct of research. Although Hong Kong is but one small part of China, we present this research as a response to concerns Zeng and Resnik introduce and as a call for a continued conversation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  5. Application of Hymap image in the environmental survey in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Yang, Xiaomao; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral HyMap image with synchronous in-situ spectral data were used to survey the environmental condition in Shenzhen of South China. HyMap image was measured with 3.5m spatial resolution and 15nm spectral resolution from 0.44μm-2.5μm and corrected with Modtran5 model and synchronous solar illuminance and atmospheric visibility to the ground. The spectra of rocks, soils, water and vegetation were obtained by ASD spectrometer in reflectance. Both the fresh granite and eroded sandy soil was found with absorption at 2200nm+/-in-situ spectra, but the weathered granite and sandy soil have another absorption at 880nm 940 nm. Polluted water with high ammonia nitrogen and phosphorous and BOD5 get the strongest reflectance at 550 570nm, while polluted water of high CODcr and heavy metal ions content get the peak reflectance at 450 490nm. The in-situ spectra was resampled in wavelength range and spectral resolution to that of Hymap sensor for image classification with SAM algorithm, the unpaved granite among cement the paved mine pits , the newly excavated land surface and the eroded soil was mapped out with the accuracy over 95%. We also discriminate the artificial forest from the natural with the spectral endmember extracted from the image.

  6. Nurse burnout in China: a questionnaire survey on staffing, job satisfaction, and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minmin; Ruan, Hui; Xing, Weijie; Hu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The investigators examined how nurse staffing affects nurse job satisfaction and quality of care. Inadequate nurse staffing is a worldwide issue with profound effects on nurse job satisfaction and quality of care. Few studies have examined the relationship between nurse staffing and job satisfaction and quality of care in China. A cross-sectional design was adopted, wherein 873 nurses were surveyed on demographics, nurse staffing, job-related burnout, job dissatisfaction, intent to leave, and quality of care. The median patient-nurse ratio was five; 45.1% nurses reported high levels of job-related burnout, and 55.6%, job dissatisfaction. In adjusted regression models, patient-nurse ratios of four or less were related to a decrease in the odds of job dissatisfaction (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.85) and increase in the odds of quality of care (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.82). Nurse staffing is associated with job dissatisfaction and quality of care. Nurse managers should maintain an adequate level of nurse staffing, referring to the patient-nurse ratio. They should create new initiatives to increase job satisfaction among nurses and to evaluate their effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Survey of economic burden of hepatitis B-related diseases in 12 areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q S; Liang, S; Xiao, H W; Zhang, S X; Zhuang, G H; Zou, Y H; Tan, H Z; Liu, J C; Zhang, Y H; Xu, A Q; Zhang, L; Feng, X X; Hu, D S; Wang, F Z; Cui, F Q; Liang, X F

    2017-07-10

    Objective: Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China, so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the direct, indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China. Methods: The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study. All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases. The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost. The indirect expenditure, including work loss of patients and caregivers, were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas. The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament. The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis. Results: A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey. A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed, the overall response rate was 77.7 % . The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case, in which the highest proportion (61.2 % ) was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)]. The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness, which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively, with the ratio of 3.85 ∶ 1. The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)]. It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest

  8. Survey on prevalence and related factors of migraine in underwater operation personnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-yan PAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical features and related factors of migraine in underwater operation personnel in China.  Methods A total of 308 underwater operation personnel sampled by a cluster sampling method were visited by door-to-door calling and surveyed using the structured questionnaire including sociodemographic data, diagnostic questions on headache, life quality and sleep quality.  Results Seventy-three (23.70% cases suffered from headache in the past one year, among whom 64 cases presented primary headaches (20.78%, including 19 cases of migraine (6.17% manifesting unilateral pain (14/19, pulsatile pain (15/19 and moderate or severe pain (18/19. Phonophobia (14/19 and photophobia (12/19 were the most common accompanying symptoms. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors including age, education, residence, marital status, length of sevice and identity, had no significant differences from migraine prevalence (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Migraine has a high prevalence in underwater operation personnel and exerts serious impact on their work and life quality. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.013

  9. Use of Chinese Herb Medicine in Cancer Patients: A Survey in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Guo Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herb medicine (CHM is the most commonly reported traditional Chinese medicine (TCM modality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CHM use in cancer patients in southwestern China. Cancer patients from eleven comprehensive cancer centers were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Of 587 available replies, 53.0% used CHM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that educational level, stage of disease, duration of cancer since diagnosis, marital status, and previous use of CHM were strongly associated with CHM use after cancer diagnosis. The source of information about CHM was mainly from media and friends/family. CHM products were used without any consultation with a TCM practitioner by 67.5% of users. The majority used CHM to improve their physical and emotional well-beings and to reduce cancer therapy-induced toxicities. About 4.5% patients reported side effects of CHM. This survey revealed a high prevalence of CHM use among cancer patients. However, these patients did not get sufficient consultation about the indications and contradictions of these drugs. It is imperative for oncologists to communicate with their cancer patients about the usage of CHM so as to avoid the potential side effects.

  10. A survey of senile dementia in the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Su Gasaki, H.; Yang Yuhua

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term low dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposure on the prevalence rate of senile dementia, further assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on central nervous system and study the pathogen of senile dementia, and provide direct observational data of human beings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of senile dementia was carried out in high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in two stages. For the initial screening, Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) was used for all subjects. In the second stage, the stage of diagnosis, special questionnaires of healthy state of old people were sued. The final diagnoses were made according to the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) of American Psychiatric Association. Results: 1018 inhabitants aged 65 years and over, including 513 persons in HBRA and 505 in CA were observed. According to DSM III-R, 61 cases (31 cases in HBRA and 30 cases in CA) of senile dementia were diagnosed. The prevalence rates of senile dementia are 6.04% in HBRA and 5.94% in CA, the total prevalence rate being 5.99%. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference in the prevalence rate of senile dementia between the two areas was found, suggesting that the prevalence rate of senile dementia in these areas is not associated with the high background radiation exposure

  11. Clinic characteristics of psoriasis in China: a nationwide survey in over 12000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Wang, Gang; Jin, Hongzhong; Xu, Jinhua; Zhu, Xuejun; Zheng, Min; Gu, Heng

    2017-07-11

    Psoriasis is a worldwide chronic inflammatory disease, involving both skin and joints. In order to characterize psoriasis in Han Chinese population, we conducted this nationwide prospective and hospital based survey, in which 56 hospitals with departments of dermatology participated, located in 33 cities across China. A total of 12,031 outpatients with psoriasis were registered during 2009 to 2010, which the data was collected by standard questionnaires. The main data acquisition included demographics, family history, disease status and other comorbidities. Physical and dermatological examination, including body surface area (BSA) and psoriasis area severity index (PASI) were applied to evaluate the disease severity. Descriptive statistics, 2 tailed t-test and chi-square test were used appropriately for the statistical analysis. From the study, we found that the male and female ratio of the patients was 1.49:1. Mean age of onset was 30.2 ± 14.5 years for males and 27.1 ± 15.6 years for females (P psoriasis and the majority was psoriasis vulgaris (96.5%). Among 12,031 patients, 23.1% had a family history of psoriasis,16.1% had comorbidities, and 29.9% had nail changes. The most important aggravation factor was season change (60.2%), followed by psychological stress (34.5%), and there significant differences between genders on trigger factors. In conclusion, this study characterizing psoriasis in Han Chinese population, could be used as basic data for future study.

  12. Nurse teachers' working lives: a questionnaire survey of nursing schools in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, L; While, A E; Chen, G; Barriball, K L; Gu, S

    2011-12-01

    The study aimed to explore Chinese nurse teachers' views and experience regarding different components of their working lives. A cross-sectional survey of 18 schools of nursing offering nationally accredited baccalaureate nursing programmes across Mainland China was conducted. A total of 227 nurse teachers completed questionnaires yielding a response rate of 72%. The sample comprised mainly female, married lecturers younger than 44 years with an average teaching experience of about 10 years. The respondents were satisfied with their overall job, work, supervision and co-workers, but dissatisfied with their pay and promotion opportunities. There were statistically significant differences in several facets of job satisfaction across the respondents of different age groups, education levels, job titles and those working in the schools of different sizes. The respondents perceived their work environment to be only somewhat empowering. Their average level of professional identification was relatively high, but their overall role conflict, role ambiguity and sense of coherence were relatively low. Chinese nurse teachers had a positive feeling towards their working lives, but strategies should be developed to enhance their sense of coherence and professional commitment. It is worth noting that there is still much adjustment to be made towards the new higher education roles, but the findings may only be generalizable to similar settings. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  13. [A survey on the condition of bike lanes in 12 cities, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yayun; Qin, Chenxi; Liang, Baojing; Wu, Chaoqun; Lyu, Jun; Li, Liming

    2015-04-01

    To explore the condition on bike lanes and the relationship with GDP of the related cities, residential of regions and prosperity of streets in 12 selected cities in China. Eexistence and maintenance of bike lanes were examinedin in all the streets under survey in 333 blocks of 12 cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Qingdao, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Suzhou, Nantong, Zhenjiang, Chengdu, Xining and Harbin). Data were collected on GDP of the related cities, together with the sizes of population and proportion of the 333 blocksand the numbers of stores and restaurants in those streets. A total of 4 202 streets were included in the study. In the 12 cities, 32.6% of the streets were equipped with bike lanes. Bike-lane-equipmentsseemed better in Nantong (46.5%), Tianjin (39.6%) and Shanghai (39.4%), but the scores were lower in Xining (2.0%), Qingdao (5.4%), and Harbin (27.1%). The higher GDP was, the better bike lanes were equipped. In the meantime, the isolation of bike lanes were worse and the streets more crowded. Density of the residential area was negatively correlated with the score on bike lane-equipments. Differences of the condition of bike lanes in the 12 cities indicated that improvement should be made on bike lanes. More attention should be paid to those cities with high GDPs and crowded residential regions on setting up the isolated bike lanes and reasonable equipments.

  14. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the “average person” for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities.

  15. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F.

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the “average person” for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities. PMID:26264013

  16. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

    2015-07-31

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the "average person" for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities.

  17. Protocol for a nationwide survey of primary health care in China: the China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) MPP (Million Persons Project) Primary Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Zhang, Qiuli; Lu, Jiapeng; Li, Xi; Tian, Na; Wang, Yun; Yip, Winnie; Cheng, Kar Keung; Mensah, George A; Horwitz, Ralph I; Mossialos, Elias; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-08-28

    China has pioneered advances in primary health care (PHC) and public health for a large and diverse population. To date, the current state of PHC in China has not been subjected to systematic assessments. Understanding variations in primary care services could generate opportunities for improving the structure and function of PHC. This paper describes a nationwide PHC study (PEACE MPP Primary Health Care Survey) conducted across 31 provinces in China. The study leverages an ongoing research project, the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) Million Persons Project (MPP). It employs an observational design with document acquisition and abstraction and in-person interviews. The study will collect data and original documents on the structure and financing of PHC institutions and the adequacy of the essential medicines programme; the education, training and retention of the PHC workforce; the quality of care; and patient satisfaction with care. The study will provide a comprehensive assessment of current PHC services and help determine gaps in access and quality of care. All study instruments and documents will be deposited in the Document Bank as an open-access source for other researchers. The central ethics committee at the China National Centre for Cardiovascular Disease (NCCD) approved the study. Written informed consent has been obtained from all patients. Findings will be disseminated in future peer reviewed papers, and will inform strategies aimed at improving the PHC in China. NCT02953926. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. How the public uses social media wechat to obtain health information in china: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingting; Wen, Dong; Liang, Jun; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-07-05

    On average, 570 million users, 93% in China's first-tier cities, log on to WeChat every day. WeChat has become the most widely and frequently used social media in China, and has been profoundly integrated into the daily life of many Chinese people. A variety of health-related information may be found on WeChat. The objective of this study is to understand how the general public views the impact of the rapidly emerging social media on health information acquisition. A self-administered questionnaire was designed, distributed, collected, and analyzed utilizing the online survey tool Sojump. WeChat was adopted to randomly release the questionnaires using convenience sampling and collect the results after a certain amount of time. (1) A total of 1636 questionnaires (WeChat customers) were collected from 32 provinces. (2) The primary means by which respondents received health education was via the Internet (71.79%). Baidu and WeChat were the top 2 search tools utilized (90.71% and 28.30%, respectively). Only 12.41% of respondents were satisfied with their online health information search. (3) Almost all had seen (98.35%) or read (97.68%) health information; however, only 14.43% believed that WeChat health information could improve health. Nearly one-third frequently received and read health information through WeChat. WeChat was selected (63.26%) as the most expected means for obtaining health information. (4) The major concerns regarding health information through WeChat included the following: excessively homogeneous information, the lack of a guarantee of professionalism, and the presence of advertisements. (5) Finally, the general public was most interested in individualized and interactive health information by managing clinicians, they will highly benefit from using social media rather than Internet search tools. The current state of health acquisition proves worrisome. The public has a high chance to access health information via WeChat. The growing popularity of

  19. A Cross-sectional Survey of Disability Attributed to Mental Disorders and Service Use in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Shang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.

  20. Closing the knowledge gap in secondhand smoke exposure among children: employment of a five-minute household survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, W; Phillips, M R; Xu, Y Q; Wang, X H; Li, H

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease study unexpectedly reports no health burden associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in children 5-17 years of age. One possible reason for this error is that children under 13 years of age are not considered in standard community surveys of SHS exposure. This study aims to use a 5-min household survey to estimate the prevalence of SHS exposure among children in urban and rural China. Cross-sectional survey. A multi-stage stratified sample of 1120 urban and rural households with 3073 residents from the Ningbo, China, was identified and one adult member from each household was administered a brief survey about the demographic characteristics and smoking status of all household residents. Adjusting for the sampling design and clustering within households, 63% of children less than 7 years of age, 53% of the children 7-12 years of age, and 54% of the children 13-17 years of age were living in households with daily smokers. Controlling for the number of male residents, significantly more households with daily smokers were located in rural areas (p < 0.001) and the average education level of adults in households with daily smokers was significantly lower than that among adults in households without daily smokers (p = 0.007). The heavy household exposure of children in China to SHS is an unrecognized public health problem that demands urgent policy and programmatic responses. The brief household survey developed for this study is an easy method for monitoring the prevalence of SHS exposure of children over time that could be useful in community-based tobacco control initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A questionnaire survey on the management of Graves' orbitopathy in China: A comparison with Europe and Latin-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hang Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO continues to be a challenge to clinical endocrinologists. In the last few years, surveys on GO management have succeeded in elucidating trends in Europe and Latin America. To determine how endocrinologists in China assess and treat patients with GO and gain insight into how to make the management of this disease more uniform and standardized. Methods: Based on the questionnaire used in the European survey on GO, a questionnaire in China was drafted and circulated to the members of Chinese Society of Endocrinology (CSE during the annual meeting. Results: A total of 124 valid responses were analysed. Almost all respondents (94.4% claimed that a multidisciplinary approach for GO management was valuable. Over 80% of the participants advocated the assessment of exophthalmometry, vision, visual fields by perimetry, eye movements, and fundoscopy. Glucocorticoids were preferred as the first-line therapy by 92.7% of respondents, among them, 59.7% choose the intravenous route. The treatment strategy for GO with intravenous glucocorticoids therapy still remains debatable. Anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs were the most common choice (72.6% for first-line therapy of coexisting hyperthyroidism. Treatment options for GO were very similar among Chinese, Latin-American and European respondents, whereas radioactive iodine and surgical treatment were more often indicated for co-existing hyperthyroidism in China. Conclusion: The appropriate treatment for patients with GO is controversial even among thyroid specialists. Further training of thyroid specialists, easier access of patients to multidisciplinary centres and establishment of practice guidelines are required for the management of this condition in China. Keywords: Graves' orbitopathy, Thyrotoxicosis, Questionnaire survey

  2. Differential associations of urbanicity and income with physical activity in adults in urbanizing China: findings from the population-based China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Samantha M; Howard, Annie-Green; Herring, Amy H; Zhang, Bing; Du, Shufa; Aiello, Allison E; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-12-12

    High urbanicity and income are risk factors for cardiovascular-related chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries, perhaps due to low physical activity (PA) in urban, high income areas. Few studies have examined differences in PA over time according to income and urbanicity in a country experiencing rapid urbanization. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort of Chinese adults (n = 20,083; ages 18-75y) seen a maximum of 7 times from 1991-2009. We used sex-stratified, zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine occupational, domestic, leisure, travel, and total PA in Chinese adults according to year, urbanicity, income, and the interactions among urbanicity, income, and year, controlling for age and region of China. We showed larger mean temporal PA declines for individuals living in relatively low urbanicity areas (1991: 500 MET-hours/week; 2009: 300 MET-hours/week) compared to high urbanicity areas (1991: 200 MET-hours/week; 2009: 125 MET-hours/week). In low urbanicity areas, the association between income and total PA went from negative in 1991 (p Leisure PA was the only domain of PA that increased over time, but >95% of individuals in low urbanicity areas reported zero leisure PA at each time point. Our findings show changing associations for income and urbanicity with PA over 18 years of urbanization. Total PA was lower for individuals living in more versus less urban areas at all time points. However, these differences narrowed over time, which may relate to increases in individual-level income in less urban areas of China with urbanization. Low-income individuals in higher urbanicity areas are a particularly critical group to target to increase PA in China.

  3. Behind the Scenes of Music Education in China: A Survey of Historical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how the government of mainland China values Chinese nationalism as a component of its historical memory and traces its relationship with music education from the twentieth century to the global age within broader social contexts. In a rapidly commercializing and modernizing China, nationalism remains the main driving force…

  4. [A cross sectional survey on the prevalence of food intolerance and its determinants in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Xiao-yong; Zheng, Yan-song; Zhao, Jing-mei; Hao, Wei

    2011-03-01

    To study the prevalence of food intolerance among attendants in a general hospital and to learn its related determinants in Beijing, China. An cross sectional survey, from August 1st, 2008 to June 30th, 2009, was carried out, including 12 766 adults from Health Sciences Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Data for epidemiological analysis were entered (double entry) into computer and organized by EpiData 3.0. Non-conditional logistic regression model was used for odd ratio (OR) and 95%CI calculation, with statistic analysis through SPSS 13.0. The three leading intolerance food items were egg, crab and milk, and the prevalence rates were 28.5%, 24.5% and 24.5% respectively. Prevalence of food intolerance increased along with aging. Levels and the kinds of food intolerance were associated with age, sex and appeared a linear correlation tendency (P food intolerance in females (67.3%) was higher than that in males (56.2%). Data from multiple regression analysis showed that, comparing with age group under 40 and 40 years, the OR (95%CI) of age group 41 - 50, 51 - 60, and above 60 were 1.125 (1.027 - 1.233), 1.307 (1.176 - 1.452) and 1.536 (1.275 - 1.849) respectively. Compared to males, the OR (95%CI) of females was 1.602 (1.475 - 1.741). When compared with normal weights, the OR (95%CI) of people with low weight was 1.772 (1.207 - 2.602). Food intolerance was associated with age, sex and body mass index. Health education should be carried out according to the related characteristics of age and sex. Suggesting that reducing the risk of food intolerance, keeping the suitable weight was necessary.

  5. Correlates of Untreated Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults: A Community-Based Household Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Zaman, M. Justin; Wang, Jingjing; Peacock, Janet L.; Chen, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in older adults and less treated, but little is known about correlates of untreated hypercholesterolemia. Using a standard interview method we examined a random sample of 7,572 participants aged ≥60 years in a community-based household survey across 7 provinces of China during 2007–2012, and documented 328 cases of hypercholesterolemia from self-reported doctor diagnosis. Compared to participants with normal cholesterol, older adults with hypercholesterolemia had higher socioeconomic position and larger body mass index. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, 209 were not treated using lipid-lowering medications (63.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.5%–68.9%). Untreated hypercholesterolemia was significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95%CI 1.17–3.89), current smoking (3.48, 1.44–8.44), heavy alcohol drinking (3.13,1.11–8.84), chronic bronchitis (2.37,1.14–4.90) and high level of meat consumptions (2.85,1.22–6.65). Although having coronary heart disease exposed participants for treatment, half of participants with coronary heart disease did not receive lipid-lowering medications. Among hypercholesterolemia participants with stroke, hypertension or diabetes, more than half of them did not receive lipid-lowering medications. The high proportion of untreated hypercholesterolemia in older, high-risk Chinese adults needs to be mitigated through multi-faceted primary and secondary prevention strategies to increase population opportunities of treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26161751

  6. A socio-ecological survey in Jalantai Area, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Orioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns with new and traditional practises in agriculture in Alxa League in the Inner Mongolia of China. For such a purpose, the DISPAA Department of University of Florence (Italy collaborated with the University of Tuscia (Italy, which has been one of the Italian executives for the Beijing Wind Dust Control Project under the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Programme on Environmental Protection. In the context of ADAM Project, the Inner Mongolia was indicated as a potential hot-spot due to the combination of climatic change, human activities and the general phenomenon of desertification, which is an ongoing process in this area. During the past centuries, arid and semi-arid general environmental characteristics of Inner Mongolia’s landscape have conditioned the main course of economic development in rural areas. Into the Alxa League, a sub-case study situated around Jarantai City in the Alxa Left Banner was selected. During 2005-06, the work analysed the agricultural activities of the local rural population to evaluate if these might be able to cope with desertification and, more in general, with climatic change impacts. In particular, field surveys were implemented among local peasants, which were old herders or new farmers immigrated in the area, following a non-structured interview approach where the length of the interview was calibrated on the characteristics of the single interviewed. The interviews showed that soil fertility and water requirement (e.g. water drawdown and high evaporation rate that cause superficial salt crust formation are yet the main constraints to social and economic development of agriculture.

  7. Cross-sectional survey of detectable rate of subclinical hypothyroidism in different people in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shanhui; Liu Peng; Liu Lixiang; Liu Shoujun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detectable rates of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) of children aged 8-10 years, adults aged 18-45 years, breast feeding women and pregnant women, and analyze the differences of the detectable rates in different people with different levels of urinary iodine concentrations and immune status in order to provide new indexes for prevention and treatment of iodine deficiency disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in four kinds of 1999 target people (633 children aged 8-10 years, 703 adults aged 18-45 years, 334 breast feeding women and 329 pregnant women) in six different areas in China from the April 2009 to April 2010. The morning blood samples and three urine samples selected randomly of different people were collected and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid microsome antibody (TMAb), thyroid globulin antibody (TGAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. Results: The detectable rates of subclinical hypothyroidism of children aged -10 years old, adults aged 18-45 years old, breast feeding women and pregnant women were 10.43% , 4.84% , 4.19% , and 3.95% , respectively. The detectable rate of SH in children group was significantly higher than that in adults group (P<0.01). There was no significant differences of the detectable rates of SH between children children whose urinary iodine were normal and children whose urinary iodine were elevated (P>0.05). The positive rates of TMAb and TGAb of people with SH were significantly higher than those of people with normal thyroid function (P<0.01). Conclusion: The detectable rate of SH of children aged 8-10 years is higher than those in other three groups, which indicates that the index of SH should be used in routine monitoring of iodine disorder control in children. (authors)

  8. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2016-08-05

    Personality disorders can lead to some disability. However, little is known about the disability prevalence and function impairments. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution, impairments of daily activities and social functions, and risk factors in China. Using a descriptive and analytic epidemiological method, data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 were analyzed. The disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution in different people and regions, and risk factors were statistically calculated. Respondents included 1,909,205 adults. The disability prevalence rate attributed to personality disorders in China was 5.9/100,000. The disability rate attributed to personality disorders of males was higher than that of females (P = 0.012), while the rate of the unemployed was higher than that of the employed (P employment, and higher education were protective factors of disability. The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  9. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Hong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality disorders can lead to some disability. However, little is known about the disability prevalence and function impairments. This study aimed to describe the disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution, impairments of daily activities and social functions, and risk factors in China. Methods: Using a descriptive and analytic epidemiological method, data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 were analyzed. The disability prevalence attributed to personality disorders, its distribution in different people and regions, and risk factors were statistically calculated. Results: Respondents included 1,909,205 adults. The disability prevalence rate attributed to personality disorders in China was 5.9/100,000. The disability rate attributed to personality disorders of males was higher than that of females (P = 0.012), while the rate of the unemployed was higher than that of the employed (P personality disorders, mild disability accounted for a majority or 60% of the respondents. The data showed that disability mainly impaired respondents’ ability to engage in daily activities, get along with people, and participate in social situations. According to the case-control study, marriage, employment, and higher education were protective factors of disability. Conclusions: The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population. PMID:27453222

  10. National survey of therapeutic orientation and associated factors of counselors and psychotherapists in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Cao, Yuping; Shi, Qijia; Jiang, Changqing; Liu, Jianxin; Wei, Hong; Ma, Xueyao; Wan, Jianqun; Lv, Shuyun; Hu, Li; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Chunying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the most commonly used and primary psychotherapeutic orientations adopted by Chinese practitioners and to examine the factors associated with the choice of orientation. A nationwide survey using multi-stage convenience sampling without replacement was conducted. A total of 1,232 respondents out of the 1,325 participants selected completed the survey, which corresponds to an overall response rate of 93.0%. The respondents were practitioners who were providing consultations and psychotherapy in China at the time. The main outcome measures were the most commonly used and primary psychotherapeutic orientations. A Chi-square test was used to examine the factors associated with therapeutic orientation. The most commonly used psychotherapies were cognitive therapy (59.2%), behavioral therapy (38.1%) and the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic model (29.4%). The primary orientations were cognitive therapy (41.6%), the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic model (15.7%) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (10.3%). Gender had no effect on the orientation choice. Cognitive therapy was used significantly more by respondents who were ≤30 years old (50.5%), who had been in practice ≤3 years (45.9%), received continuing education ≤64 h (47.2%) and accepted no clinical supervision (53.1%). Those who were ≥31 years old (18.4%), had been in practice ≥7 years (21.0%), received continuing education ≥65 h (23.6%), worked full-time (20.2%) and accepted clinical supervision (20.6%) used the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic model significantly more. The respondents who used cognitive-behavioral therapy had graduated from the medical profession (14.1%) and were not licensed (15.8%). Cognitive therapy and the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic model were the two most popular orientations adopted by Chinese counselors and psychotherapists. Age, years of practice, graduate profession, continuing education, working hours (full/part-time), licensure and supervision

  11. The Application of Gravity and CSAMT Survey on Baishan Molybdenum Deposit, Hami, Xinjiang,China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Lu, H.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Baishan molybdenum deposit is located in the eastern Tianshan Carboniferous rift at Hami, Xinjiang, China, where exposed upper Carboniferous Gandun formation. Molybdenum ore appeared at thermal contact metamorphism hornfelsed banded quartz stockwork in the concealed porphyritic granite top, Potassium and metal sulfide mineralization existed in the top of concealed rockbody.The Baishan molybdenum ore bodies were delineated 2700 meters long and 40 meters thickness, with molybdenum @ 0.59%. The main orebody shows in stratoid, small orebody appears in lenticular and vein.In order to predict potential resources, we proposes a combined method of CSAMT and GS technology,and has applied it to the survey of concealed molybdenum deposit in the Baishan.This combind method can explore to larger depths, discriminate anomalies well and has higher resolution to deep objects, thus it is an efficient tool for surveys.By drilling, we found there exsit a hidden granite body in 1400 meters deep of Hami Baishan molybdenum mine, it confirmed that Baishan molybdenum mine is a porphyry molybdenum ore. Cataclastic hornfelsed zone in the coping granite are the product of heat contact metamorphism, the ore materials are mainly derived from deep magma hydrothermal solution. The CSAMT and Gravity Survey were able to reflect the space and intrusive boundary in rough of buried granite body clearly, deep hidden granite showed high-resistivity and high-gravity anomaly and the low-resistivity anomaly distributied around them, drilling verified that 200-2500Ω low-resistivity anomaly range at top of high-resistivity corresponded to the molybdenum ore horizon. Line 15 of southern section shows two low resistance anomaly zone, and the surface of them is corresponding to the granite and intrusive contact parts,inferring it was caused by the fault structure.In granite gravity anomaly is obviously high and the width is about 560m,Δg residual value is 400 × 10-8m/s2. According to the control of

  12. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: a large scale school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K

    2008-09-29

    Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  15. Survey of hepatitis B knowledge and stigma among chronically infected patients and uninfected persons in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaxin; Guan, Mary L; Balch, Jeremy; Wu, Elizabeth; Rao, Huiying; Lin, Andy; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection carries substantial stigma in China. We surveyed HBV knowledge and stigma among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and persons without HBV infection in Beijing, China. Four hundred and thirty five CHB patients and 801 controls at Peking University People's Hospital were surveyed. Chronic hepatitis B patients were older (mean 46 vs. 39 years) and more often men (71 vs. 48%) than controls. Mean knowledge score was 11.9/15 for CHB and 9.3/15 for control patients (P employment HBV testing, and 29% of these individuals thought that they lost job opportunities because of their disease status. 16% of CHB patients regretted disclosing their HBV status and disclosure was inversely associated with stigma. Higher stigma was associated with older age, lower education and lower knowledge score among controls; and with lower education, younger age, having undergone pre-employment HBV testing and regret disclosing their HBV status among CHB patients. Despite high prevalence of CHB in China, our study shows knowledge is limited and there is significant societal and internalized stigma associated with HBV infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Knowledge of human papillomavirus vaccination and related factors among parents of young adolescents: a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zheng, Quan-Qing; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related knowledge and factors associated with the knowledge among parents of young adolescents in China. The study was based on data of a survey carried out in seven geographic regions of China. Parents of students in junior middle school were surveyed during parents' meetings. A total of 2895 parents were included in the analyses. Of parents, 38.3% responded with "yes" to more than three of the six knowledge questions, among whom only 4.5% of them correctly answered all six questions. Social benefit programs (41.3%), doctors and/or nurses (39.7%), and newspapers and/or magazines (36.5%) were selected as the top three sources of HPV-related knowledge. Mothers, parents who work in the health care sector, and parents with a higher annual income or with vaccination experience outside the expanded program on immunization showed a better knowledge base. Parents who consented to sex education for children or showed fear of cervical cancer were likely to have more HPV-related knowledge. In particular, the knowledge level of parents with prior consultation regarding HPV vaccines was higher. Parents of young adolescents in China possessed a low level of HPV vaccine-related knowledge. Findings highlight the need for tailored health education through different channels to improve HPV-related knowledge among parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient satisfaction between primary care providers and hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Wang, Pingping; Kong, Xuan; Liang, Hailun; Zhang, Xiumin; Shi, Leiyu

    2016-06-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care between primary care providers and secondary/tertiary hospitals, and to examine its association with socio-demographic characteristics and type of institution, based on self-reported survey data. Cross-sectional survey. Healthcare facilities within Jilin province, China. In total, 993 outpatients and 925 inpatients aged ≥15 years old were recruited. Patient satisfaction with the care experience. Patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care was significantly associated with type of healthcare delivery setting in Jilin, China. Seeking outpatient care from community health centers (CHCs) was significantly associated with a higher ratio of patient satisfaction. Patients of county and tertiary hospitals complained about long-waiting times, bad attitudes of health workers, high expense of treatment, and their overall satisfaction towards outpatient care was lower. In the terms of inpatient care, patients were more satisfied with treatment expense in CHCs compared with county hospitals. CHCs and hospitals face different challenges regarding patient satisfaction. Further healthcare reform in China need to adopt more measures (e.g. increasing quality of primary care, setting up a referral medical system etc.) to improve patient satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  18. A survey of the enteral nutrition practices in patients with neurological disorders in the tertiary hospitals of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying-Ying; Gao, Dai-Quan; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Sha, Rui-Juan; Niu, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Chang-Qing; Zhou, Dong; Jiang, Wen; Cui, Fang; Yang, Yi; Pan, Su-Yue; Zhang, Xu; Li, Lian-Di; Gao, Liang; Peng, Bin; Zhong, Chun-Long; Liu, Zhen-Chuan; Li, Li-Hong; Tan, Hong; Lv, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With the development of enteral nutrition in patients with neurological disorders in China, related guidelines were published in 2011. The Chinese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition conducted a survey to evaluate the status quo of enteral nutrition practices in these patients. This multicenter prospective investigation was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 and involved 18 tertiary hospitals in China. The survey using standardized questionnaires sought information about the basic protocols for enteral nutrition (devices and staffing) and specific information about patients with neurological conditions who received nutrition by way of enteral feeding. In the 18 hospitals from 13 provinces, 83.3% patients were configured with an enteral nutrition infusion pump, 77.8% had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) device, and 88.9% had a clinical nutrition support group. Four hundred four patients participated in this survey (259 men, 145 women; mean age 61.3±14.7 years), 85.7% had suffered a stroke, 83.9% had impaired consciousness, and 98.0% had dysphagia. Of the 10 guidelines for enteral nutrition practices, setting the energy target, choosing the enteral nutrition tube, and monitoring the patient received unsatisfactory ratings were in poor compliance (56.2%, 30.0% and 38.9%, respectively); the remaining seven guidelines were in good compliance (each >75%). The survey suggested that configuration of the enteral nutritional devices and staffing was adequate in China's tertiary hospitals. However, some associated practices had not yet reached the desired levels of competency, indicating a need for this to be understood and for improved training.

  19. How the public uses social media wechat to obtain health information in china: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xingting; Wen, Dong; Liang, Jun; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-01-01

    Background On average, 570 million users, 93% in China?s first-tier cities, log on to WeChat every day. WeChat has become the most widely and frequently used social media in China, and has been profoundly integrated into the daily life of many Chinese people. A variety of health-related information may be found on WeChat. The objective of this study is to understand how the general public views the impact of the rapidly emerging social media on health information acquisition. Methods A self-a...

  20. An extensive field survey combined with a phylogenetic analysis reveals rapid and widespread invasion of two alien whiteflies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; De Barro, Paul; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jia; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2011-01-21

    To understand the processes of invasions by alien insects is a pre-requisite for improving management. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most invasive pests worldwide. However, extensive field data to show the geographic distribution of the members of this species complex as well as the invasion by some of its members are scarce. We used field surveys and published data to assess the current diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in China and relate the indigenous members to other Asian and Australian members of the complex. The survey covered the 16 provinces where indigenous B. tabaci occur and extends this with published data for the whole of China. We used molecular markers to identify cryptic species. The evolutionary relationships between the different Asian B. tabaci were reconstructed using Bayesian methods. We show that whereas in the past the exotic invader Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was predominant across China, another newer invader Mediterranean is now the dominant species in the Yangtze River Valley and eastern coastal areas, and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 is now predominant only in the south and south eastern coastal areas. Based on mtCO1 we identified four new cryptic species, and in total we have recorded 13 indigenous and two invasive species from China. Diversity was highest in the southern and southeastern provinces and declined to north and west. Only the two invasive species were found in the northern part of the country where they occur primarily in protected cropping. By 2009, indigenous species were mainly found in remote mountainous areas and were mostly absent from extensive agricultural areas. Invasions by some members of the whitefly B. tabaci species complex can be rapid and widespread, and indigenous species closely related to the invaders are replaced.

  1. An extensive field survey combined with a phylogenetic analysis reveals rapid and widespread invasion of two alien whiteflies in China.

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    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To understand the processes of invasions by alien insects is a pre-requisite for improving management. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most invasive pests worldwide. However, extensive field data to show the geographic distribution of the members of this species complex as well as the invasion by some of its members are scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used field surveys and published data to assess the current diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in China and relate the indigenous members to other Asian and Australian members of the complex. The survey covered the 16 provinces where indigenous B. tabaci occur and extends this with published data for the whole of China. We used molecular markers to identify cryptic species. The evolutionary relationships between the different Asian B. tabaci were reconstructed using Bayesian methods. We show that whereas in the past the exotic invader Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was predominant across China, another newer invader Mediterranean is now the dominant species in the Yangtze River Valley and eastern coastal areas, and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 is now predominant only in the south and south eastern coastal areas. Based on mtCO1 we identified four new cryptic species, and in total we have recorded 13 indigenous and two invasive species from China. Diversity was highest in the southern and southeastern provinces and declined to north and west. Only the two invasive species were found in the northern part of the country where they occur primarily in protected cropping. By 2009, indigenous species were mainly found in remote mountainous areas and were mostly absent from extensive agricultural areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Invasions by some members of the whitefly B. tabaci species complex can be rapid and widespread, and indigenous species closely related to the invaders are replaced.

  2. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

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    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  3. Factor Structure of Content Preparation for E-Business Web Sites: Results of a Survey of 428 Industrial Employees in the People's Republic of China

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    Guo, Yinni; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    To better fulfil customer satisfaction, a study of what content e-business web sites should contain is conducted. Based on background literature, a content preparation survey of 70 items was developed and completed by 428 white collar employees of an electronic company in mainland China. The survey aimed at examining the significant content…

  4. Depression among Congestive Heart Failure Patients: Results of a Survey from Central China

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    JPMS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabish Hussain, Li Yu Shu, Xiang Cheng, Tumenjavkhlan Sosorburam, A.Seid Adji, Sara Tajammul, Aamra Sartaj (Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China (pages 38-42

  5. A survey of perceived training differences between ophthalmology residents in Hong Kong and China

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alvin L.; Jhanji, Vishal; Liang, Yuanbo; Congdon, Nathan; Chow, Simon; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Xiujuan; Man, Xiaofei; Yang, Mingming; Lin, Zhong; Yuen, Hunter GL; Lam, Dennis SC

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study the differences in ophthalmology resident training between China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).Methods: Training programs were selected from among the largest and best-known teaching hospitals. Ophthalmology residents were sent an anonymous 48-item questionnaire by mail. Work satisfaction, time allocation between training activities and volume of surgery performed were determined.Results: 50/75 residents (66.7 %) from China and 20/26 (76.9 %) fro...

  6. Male Singlehood, Poverty and Sexuality in Rural China: An Exploratory Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shuzhuo; Zhang Qunlin; Yang Xueyan; Isabelle Attané

    2010-01-01

    In China, marriage is still a highly valued social norm, and until the 1990s, practically everyone was able to marry. The situation has changed, however, and a rising proportion of men, in rural areas especially, will experience prolonged and even permanent singlehood due to the growing shortage of women on the marriage market. In the cultural context of China, singlehood is a state of frustration, and even of deprivation, for which it is difficult to find socially acceptable compensations. T...

  7. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009

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    Yang Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71 and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threatens of the other enteroviruses, our study genetically characterized specimens from different regions of China and yielded novel information concerning the circulating and phylogenetic characteristics of enteroviral strains from HFMD cases. Findings A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4% HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected. Conclusions The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.

  8. Forgone care among middle aged and elderly with chronic diseases in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Survey

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    Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Zhonghua; Si, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Objective In general, published studies analyse healthcare utilisation, rather than foregone care, among different population groups. The assessment of forgone care as an aspect of healthcare system performance is important because it indicates the gap between perceived need and actual utilisation of healthcare services. This study focused on a specific vulnerable group, middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases, and evaluated the prevalence of foregone care and associated factors among this population in China. Methods Data were obtained from a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals (≥45 years), the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and the prevalence of foregone care. Andersen’s healthcare utilisation and binary logistic models were used to evaluate the determinants of foregone care among middle-aged and elderly individuals with chronic diseases. Results The prevalence of foregone outpatient and inpatient care among middle-aged and elderly people was 10.21% and 6.84%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of foregone care for physical examinations was relatively high (57.88%). Predisposing factors, including age, marital status, employment, education and family size, significantly affected foregone care in this population. Regarding enabling factors, individuals in the highest income group reported less foregone inpatient care or physical examinations compared with those in the lowest income group. Social healthcare insurance could significantly reduce foregone care in outpatient and inpatient situations; however, these schemes (except for urban employee medical insurance) did not appear to have a significant impact on foregone care involving physical examinations. Conclusion In China, policy-makers may need to further adjust healthcare

  9. Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

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    Lin, Min; Han, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Yue; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Liu, Jing-Bo; Yan, Zhi-He; Zheng, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Jia-Kun; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a total of 10,297 healthy people selected from a regional hospital were screened. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, complete blood cell (CBC) count, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, reverse dot-blot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect Hb variants, thalassemias and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH). Two thousand and twenty-one adult subjects were screened for thalassemia, five cases were identified as α-thalassemia (α-thal) carriers including three cases of the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion, one case of the - -(SEA) deletion and one case of β-thal [IVS-II-654 (C>T), (HBB: c.316-197C>T)]. The incidence of Hb variants, thalassemia and HPFH/δβ-thal were 0.136% (14/10,297), 0.25% (5/2021) and 0.0001% (1/10,297), respectively. Eight genotypes of Hb variants were found, including Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp (GGC>GAC); HBB; c.170G>A], Hb G-Coushatta [β22(4)Glu→Ala (GAA>GCA); HBB: c.68A>C], Hb Queens [α34(B15)Leu→Arg (CTG>CGG) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.104T>G (or HBA1)], Hb I [α16(A14)Lys→Glu, AAG>GAG (α1); HBA1: c.49A>G], Hb Beijing [α16(A14)Lys→Asn (AAG>AAC or AAT) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.51G>C (or HBA1) or 51G>T (or HBA1)], Hb Ube-2 [α68(E17)Asn→Asp (AAC>GAC) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.205A>G (or HBA1)] and Hb G-Taipei [β22(B4)Glu→Gly (GAA>GGA); HBB: c.68A>G]. A Sicilian δβ(0)-thal, identified for the first time in Asia, was also found in this survey.

  10. Visceral adiposity index, hypertriglyceridemic waist and risk of diabetes: the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009.

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    Du, T; Sun, X; Huo, R; Yu, X

    2014-06-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (the simultaneous presence of waist circumference (WC)≥90/80 cm for men/women and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥1.7 mmol l(-1) for both genders) have been identified as good indicators of visceral adiposity, which is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The Chinese population is characterized by a predominance of visceral fat accumulation despite having comparatively low weight. These two surrogate markers of visceral adiposity might effectively identify Chinese adults who are at risk of getting diabetes. We aimed to examine the association between VAI and risk of diabetes or between the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and diabetes risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7639 Chinese men and women aged ≥18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations. For men, compared with participants in the lowest quartile of VAI scores, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (with 95% confidence intervals) for diagnosed diabetes were 1.1 (0.7-1.7), 1.9 (1.3-2.8) and 3.6 (2.5-5.3) for those in the second, third, and top quartile of VAI scores, respectively. For women, the corresponding figures were 0.9 (0.5-1.4), 1.7 (1.1-2.6) and 2.8 (1.9-4.2), respectively. The multivariate-adjusted ORs (with 95% confidence intervals) for diabetes in men with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype compared with men with both WC and TG measurements below the defined cut points were 3.7 (2.6-5.4). For women, the corresponding figure was 3.7 (2.4-5.5). For both men and women, the associations between the 4th quartile of VAI scores and risk of diabetes or between the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and risk of diabetes were consistently seen in various subgroups. Among Chinese adults, high VAI scores and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype are strongly associated with diabetes risk.

  11. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

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    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  12. Correlates of unequal access to preventive care in China: a multilevel analysis of national data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey.

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    Huang, Chi; Liu, Chao-Jie; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Liu, Xiang; Li, Ning-Xiu

    2016-05-12

    Preventive care has an essential role in reducing income-related health inequalities. Despite a general consensus of the need of shifting focus from disease treatment to wellness and prevention, little is known about inequalities in access to preventive care in China. Our study aimed to explore the inequalities in preventive care usage and factors that were associated with such inequalities among Chinese adults. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed using national data from the 2011 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey. The study sample comprised 13,483 adults who were covered by Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). We analyzed individual socioeconomic status (marital status, education attainment, annual household income per capita, and medical insurance) and contextual factors for their influence on preventive care usage (region of residence and type of community) after controlling for health needs (age, sex, and health condition). Out of the participants, 6.9 % received preventive care services over the past four weeks and 3.9 % went for a general physical examination prior to the survey. We noted regional disparities in the overall use of preventive care and specific use of general physical examination, with residents from central and northeastern regions less likely to use preventive care including general physical examination than in the more affluent eastern region. Lower levels of education and income were associated with reduced use of preventive care. Subscriptions to less generous social medical insurance programs such as Urban Resident-based Medical Insurance Scheme or New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme were associated with decreased specific use of general physical examinations, but not overall use of preventive care. Inequalities in preventive care usage were evident in China, and were associated with health needs and socioeconomic characteristics. Current health insurance arrangements may fail to reduce inequalities relating to

  13. The Disability Rate of 5-Year Post-Stroke and Its Correlation Factors: A National Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Shuo; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Chun-Xue; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Few studies on long-term functional outcome have been conducted in post-stroke patients in China. The objective of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey in China to investigate the 5-year prevalence of post-stroke disability and its correlation factors. A total of 893 patients with ischemic stroke were included. Demographic, clinical and neuro-imaging information were collected with standardized instruments that assessed stroke severity, depression, cognitive impairment, stroke recurrence and physical disability. Disability was assessed with the modified Ranking Score (mRS), of which a cutoff score ≥2 indicates disability. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, two independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney U test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The frequency of disability in this study population was 45%. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age, lower education level, previous history of stroke, stroke severity at admission, depression, cognitive impairment at 3 months, and stroke recurrence within 5 years follow up were all significantly associated with post-stroke disability. The disability rate in 5-year post-stroke was high in Chinese patients. Treatment of depression, secondary prevention of stroke and rehabilitation may benefit disabled patients with stroke in China.

  14. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

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    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  15. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, ...

  16. Medical expenditure for liver cancer in urban China: A 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu-Qi; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Mao, A-Yan; Huang, Hui-Yao; Hu, Guang-Yu; Dong, Pei; Bai, Fang-Zhou; Yan, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Bai, Ya-Na; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Lin; Mai, Ling; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Song, Bing-Bing; Liu, Yu-Qin; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Shou-Ling; Cao, Rong; Qi, Xiao; Lan, Li; Ren, Ying; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Qu, Chunfeng; Dai, Min

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the medical expenditure for liver cancer during 2002-2011 in urban areas of China. This is a retrospective study. Based on a stratified cluster sampling method, a medical expenditure survey collected basic personal information from related medical records. Two-tailed independent sample t-test, variance analysis, and Student-Newman-Keuls Tests were used in cost analysis for the corresponding data types. A total of 12,342 liver cancer patients were included in the analysis. Overall average medical expenditure per case for liver cancer diagnosis and treatment in China has increased from ¥21, 950 to ¥40, 386 over the study period. For each liver cancer patient diagnosed between 2009 and 2011, the average expenditures were 29,332 CNY for stage I, 35,754 CNY for stage II, 34,288 CNY for stage III, and 30,275 CNY for stage IV diseases (P < 0.001). Pharmaceuticals accounted for the biggest part of the medical expenditure and it rose from 48.01% to 52.96% during these ten years, and the share of nursing fee expenses was the lowest (around 1%). Over the entire 10-year data period, the per capita expenditure of the east region (32,983 CNY) was higher than that of the west region (26,219 CNY) and slightly higher than the central region (31,018 CNY, P < 0.001). As a major cancer in China, liver cancer accounts for a large portion of health economic burden and its medical expenditure is heavy for families. Early diagnosis and treatment for liver cancer will save medical expenditure. The economic burden of liver cancer is high in China and related medical expenditure has increased.

  17. Usual source of care and the quality of primary care: a survey of patients in Guangdong province, China.

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    Du, Zhicheng; Liao, Yu; Chen, Chien-Chou; Hao, Yuantao; Hu, Ruwei

    2015-07-31

    Usual source of care (USC) refers to the provider or place a patient consults when sick or in need of medical advice. No studies have been conducted in China to compare the quality of primary care provided with or without USC. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap in the literature by examining the quality of primary care provided between those having a USC and those without. Results of the study would provide implications for policymakers in terms of improving primary care performance in China, and help guide patients in their health care seeking behaviors. A cross-sectional survey with patients was conducted in Guangdong province of China, using the Chinese validated Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT). ANOVA was performed to compare the overall and ten domains of primary care quality for patients with and without USC. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between USC and quality of primary care attributes while controlling for sociodemographic and health care characteristics. The study added evidence that having a USC can provide higher quality of primary care to patients than those without a USC. Results of this study showed that the PCAT score associated with those having a USC was significantly higher than those not having a USC. Moreover, the study showed that having a usual provider of care was also independently and significantly associated with patients' satisfaction with care. This study added evidence that in China, patients with a USC reported higher quality of medical care experiences compared with those without a USC. The efforts to improve quality of care should include policies promoting USC.

  18. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Aerosol contamination survey during dust storm process in Northwestern China using ground, satellite observations and atmospheric modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonchyk, Mikalai; Yan, Haowen; Shareef, Tawheed Mohammed Elhessin; Yang, Shuwen

    2018-01-01

    The present survey addresses the comprehensive description of geographic locations, transport ways, size, and vertical aerosol distribution during four large dust events which occurred in the Northwest China. Based on the data from 35 ground-based air quality monitoring stations and the satellite data, emission flows for dust events within the period of 2014 to 2017 have been estimated. The data show that maximum peak daily average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 380 and 150 μg/m3, respectively, and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio was ranging within 0.12-0.66. Both satellite data and simulation data of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) coincide with location and extension of a dust cloud. The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) found dust at 0 to 10 km altitude which remained at this level during the most part of its trajectory. The vertical aerosol distribution at a wave of 532 nm total attenuated backscatter coefficient range of 0.0025-0.003 km-1 × sr-1. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Terra) Collection 6 Level-3 aerosol products data show that aerosol optical depth (AOD) at pollution epicenters exceeds 1. A comprehensive data survey thus demonstrated that the main sources of high aerosol pollutions in the territory were deserted areas of North and Northwest China as well as the most part of the Republic of Mongolia, where one of the largest deserts, Gobi, extends.

  20. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

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    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  1. Trends in injury morbidity in China, 1993-2013: A longitudinal analysis of population-based survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Peishan; Cai, Min; Cheng, Peixia; Zhang, Yaoguang; Schwebel, David C; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xunjie; Gao, Yuyan; Ling, Xu; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-04-01

    Understanding long-term trends in injury morbidity is critical to prevention and intervention planning. The aim of this study was to assess long-term trends in injury morbidity rates in China from 1993 to 2013. Using data from the National Health Service Survey (NHSS), which is conducted every five years, crude and age-standardized prevalence during the previous two weeks and hospitalization rates in the last 12 months with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Rao-Scott Chi-square test examined injury morbidity differences across the five survey years by location (urban/rural), sex, age group, and household income. Percent changes in morbidity rate were approximated using logistic regressions. Sampling weights were applied to all analyses. In 2013, crude two-week injury prevalence in China was 0.46% (95% CI: 0.40%, 0.52%) and 12-month crude hospitalization rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.63%, 0.77%). Age-standardized injury prevalence increased 31.4% (95% CI: 7.6%, 60.6%) between 1993 and 2013 (29.4%, 95% CI: 6.7%, 56.9% from 1993-2003; 1.6%, 95% CI: -14.8%, 21.0% from 2003-2013), and age-standardized hospitalization rates rose 107.2% (95% CI: 75.1%, 145.2%) from 1993 to 2013 (-9.5%, 95% CI: -24.6%, 8.6% from 1993-2003 and 129.0%, 95% CI: 93.9%, 170.4% from 2003-2013). Subgroup analyses showed similar trends over time. The leading cause of injury was dislocation, sprain or strain for prevalence, and fractures for hospitalization. In conclusion, injury morbidity increased substantially from 1993 to 2013 in China. Inconsistent changes in two-week prevalence and 12-month hospitalization rate merit attention from researchers and policy-makers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  3. Motorized Transportation, Social Status, and Adiposity The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Background: Increased dependence on motorized transportation may contribute to obesity. Countries in rapid socioeconomic transitions, such as China, provide an opportunity to investigate such an association. Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the hypotheses that increased dependence on

  4. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  5. Does Curriculum Practical Training Affect Engineers' Workplace Outcomes? Evidence from an Engineer Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun; Li, Manli

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing attention to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), hands-on Curriculum Practical Training (CPT) has been expanding rapidly worldwide as a requirement of the undergraduate engineering education. In China, a typical CPT for undergraduate engineering students requires several weeks of hands-on training in the…

  6. Who Smokes in Smoke-Free Public Places in China? Findings from a 21 City Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included…

  7. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  8. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  9. China's Contribution to Anesthesiology Research: A 10-Year Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guohao; Zhang, Kai; Wood, Chris; Hoeft, Andreas; Liu, Jin; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-05-01

    Anesthesiology has advanced in China over the past decade. We compared the trends in publication of anesthesiology articles from China between 2005 and 2014 with the trends in 5 developed countries. We included all journals listed in the ''Anesthesiology'' category of Journal Citation Reports. Anesthesiology-related publications from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the PubMed and Web of Knowledge online databases. The total number of articles, publication type categories, number of citations, and citation rate (number of citations/years since publication) were analyzed. The sample size was the n = 10 years for all confidence intervals and P values. We additionally evaluated the total number of articles published in the 10 top-ranking journals. From 2005 to 2014, 41,344 articles were published in anesthesiology journals. Of these, 3.07% were contributed by authors from Chinese institutions. Although this contribution was less than the Unites States, Great Britain, Germany, France, or Japan, publications from Chinese institutions grew at an annual rate of 13% (95% confidence interval: 3.08%-23.38%, P reports than clinical investigations. China ranked before Great Britain (221 articles) and France (245 articles) in basic research, with 448 basic researches publications during the study period. The articles from China averaged 2.24 citations per year, comparable to the articles from the United States (2.71, P = 0.545), Great Britain (2.57, P = 0.999), Germany (2.35, P = 0.999), France (1.50, P = 0.520), and Japan (1.24, P = 0.065). In the 10 highest impact anesthesiology journals, China published 780 articles during the decade. The 3 journals with the most publications from Chinese institutions were Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anesthesiology, and Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. In the studied decade, anesthesiology research published by Chinese institutions lagged behind publications from developed countries. There was a steady increase in the number of articles

  10. Forgone care among middle aged and elderly with chronic diseases in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Zhonghua; Si, Lei

    2018-03-16

    In general, published studies analyse healthcare utilisation, rather than foregone care, among different population groups. The assessment of forgone care as an aspect of healthcare system performance is important because it indicates the gap between perceived need and actual utilisation of healthcare services. This study focused on a specific vulnerable group, middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases, and evaluated the prevalence of foregone care and associated factors among this population in China. Data were obtained from a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals (≥45 years), the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and the prevalence of foregone care. Andersen's healthcare utilisation and binary logistic models were used to evaluate the determinants of foregone care among middle-aged and elderly individuals with chronic diseases. The prevalence of foregone outpatient and inpatient care among middle-aged and elderly people was 10.21% and 6.84%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of foregone care for physical examinations was relatively high (57.88%). Predisposing factors, including age, marital status, employment, education and family size, significantly affected foregone care in this population. Regarding enabling factors, individuals in the highest income group reported less foregone inpatient care or physical examinations compared with those in the lowest income group. Social healthcare insurance could significantly reduce foregone care in outpatient and inpatient situations; however, these schemes (except for urban employee medical insurance) did not appear to have a significant impact on foregone care involving physical examinations. In China, policy-makers may need to further adjust healthcare policies, such as health insurance schemes

  11. Airborne Survey Capacity Building of National Nuclear Safety Administration (MEP) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shanbiao; Li Hongyu; Yuan Zhilun; Yue Huiguo

    2015-01-01

    Airborne survey is being paid more and attention in the nuclear radiation environment monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially after the nuclear accident of Fukushima Japan. Thus, National Nuclear Safety Administration is strengthening to build airborne survey capacity. The administration has set up an advanced airborne survey system and established expert team. This airborne survey system here is fixed under a capable helicopter, which has a monitoring volume of 75.6 liters, independent advanced digital spectrometer and intelligent data processing functions. In this paper, a way that is applied for wireless data real-time transmission is presented, and our research works on calibration and the survey methods are also included. The airborne survey system can be widely used in the nuclear and radiation accidents monitoring and relative radiation monitoring in NORM. (author)

  12. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  13. Risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China: a multicentric survey based on birth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hong, Yan; Zhu, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Lv, Qin; Zhou, Qin; Ruan, Miaohua; Chen, Chao

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in China. 178 709 singletons weighing ≥ 2500 g with gestational ages of 37-44 weeks were included. We compared the macrosomia group (with birth weight (BW) ≥ 4000 g) with the nornosomic control group (weighting 2500-3999 g). The total prevalence of macrosomia was 8.70%. The strongest risk factors correlated with macrosomia were maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The risks of obstetric and neonatal complications increased when infants had a BW of ≥4000 g. Obesity and GDM are the most prominent risk factors for macrosomia, and macrosomia is associated with adverse maternal and neonate outcomes. Therefore, monitoring and controlling maternal weight and blood glucose could decrease the prevalence of macrosomia or improve its poor outcomes.

  14. A survey of potential huperzine A natural resources in China: the Huperziaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqiang; Tan, Changheng; Zhu, Dayuan; Gang, David R

    2006-03-08

    The Huperziaceae is comprised of two genera, Huperzia and Phlegmariurus. Because of the content of Lycopodium alkaloids like huperzine A, which are used to treat a number of human ailments, plants of the Huperziaceae are experiencing a rapid decline in China, mostly due to over-harvesting. Because of this trend, we engaged from 1995 to 2001 in an investigation of the natural resources of the Huperziaceae in China. The main objectives of this study were: to catalog Huperziaceae plant resources including the occurrence, general distribution, and abundance of the various Huperziaceae species in China; and to determine traditional use and pharmaceutical values of each species. Twenty-nine species, 2 varieties, and 2 forma of Huperzia and 19 species of Phlegmariurus were identified through field investigation, collection, visits with local traditional doctors, and review of specimens in herbaria and of the literature. Ethnobotanical studies of these plants revealed that 33 of these species are used by the local communities for medicinal purposes. One species, Huperzia serrata, is one of the most popular. As a result, it is observing the greatest decline, mandating a change in collection practice and general attitude towards these plants. Introduction of conservation plans and training of the local communities regarding appropriate collection practices of these plants and their marketing in China are required to reverse the trend of decline among these species. In addition, development of cultivation or other propagation practices, such as in vitro propagation, would have the added benefits of socio-economic uplift of the local communities and sustainability of this important source of huperzine A.

  15. Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) data was used to investigate internet use and mobile phone ownership in older Chinese adults and examine digital divide and social economic status and mobile technology adoption and health outcomes associations. Results suggest a significant digital divide associated with not only individual characteristics, but also neighborhood resources. Future eHealth programs should consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for different social groups.

  16. Who smokes in smoke-free public places in China? Findings from a 21 city survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free...

  17. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  18. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (pcarotenoids α- and β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  19. Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) among Kindergarten Teachers in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Reis, Cesar; Sharma, Manoj; Yuan, Jun; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Yong

    2018-03-28

    Kindergarten teachers play an important role in providing kindergarten children with education on nutrition. However, few studies have been published on nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese kindergarten teachers. This study aimed to assess the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. Thus, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured KAP model questionnaire administered to 222 kindergarten teachers, who were senior teachers from 80 kindergartens in 19 districts and 20 counties in Chongqing. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors. Among the participants, 54.2% were familiar with simple nutrition-related knowledge; only 9.9% of them were satisfied with their knowledge of childhood nutrition; and 97.7% of them had a positive attitude to learn nutrition-related knowledge. Only 38.7% of the participants had attended pediatric nutrition knowledge courses or training. Multiple regression analysis confirmed significant independent effects on the nutrition knowledge score ( p kindergarten, body mass index(BMI), professional training of kindergarten teachers, behavior of having ever participated in childhood nutrition education knowledge courses or training, and behavior of having ever paid attention to children's nutrition knowledge. The model indicated that independent variables explained 45.4% (adjusted R²) of the variance found in the knowledge scores of respondents. While there were low levels of nutrition knowledge and training, it was still encouraging to note that there were positive attitudes towards acquiring nutrition-related knowledge among kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. These findings provide some implications that necessary training measures need to be carried out to improve the nutrition-related knowledge level among kindergarten teachers in China.

  20. Chinese companies’ awareness and perceptions of the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Evidence from a national survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Fengyu; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    China announced the launch of a national Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in 2017; however, companies appear show little enthusiasm for participation in the ETS in China. This paper identifies the factors affecting companies’ awareness and perceptions of ETS by conducting a national survey based on an online questionnaire from May to November 2015 in seven carbon trading pilots. The results indicate that companies’ attitudes towards the ETS are positively influenced by government regulations and policy, public relations management and estimated economic benefit. Of these, public relations management is the decisive factor and estimated economic benefit is confirmed to be a relatively weak predictor. A company's environmental and energy strategy exerts insignificant effects on its preference for the ETS, although the sampled companies are very willing to save energy and reduce emissions. There exists an inverted U-shape relationship between a company's level of mitigation technologies and its attitudes towards the ETS. The carbon price fails to stimulate companies to upgrade mitigation technologies. The majority of companies treat participation in the ETS only as a means of improving ties with governments, as well as of earning a good social reputation, rather than as a cost-effective mechanism to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • This paper provides a timely study of companies’ awareness of ETS in China. • ETS is not approved by companies as a cost-effective mitigation tool. • External pressure is the most important indicator. • Carbon price fails to promote companies to upgrade mitigation technologies.

  1. There is a long way to go: a nationwide survey of professional training for mental health practitioners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong; Liu, Yanmei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Qian, Mingyi; Huang, Xiting

    2010-04-01

    This nationwide survey of professional training for mental health practitioners (i.e., psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and the counselors working in industry, prisons, and schools) investigated sociodemographic characteristics, training experiences, and training perceptions of mental health service providers in China. Participants included service providers recruited from hospitals, universities, high/middle schools, private mental health service organizations and counseling centers operated by government, prisons or corporations from 25 provinces and four cities directly under the Central Government in China. In order to obtain a broad and representative sample, stratified multi-stage sampling procedures were utilized. From a total of 2000 questionnaire packets distributed via regular mail, the final sample comprised of 1391 respondents (525 men, 866 women). About 70% of the sample had a bachelor's level education or lower degree, only 36.4% majored in psychology, and nearly 60% were employed part time. Fewer than half of participants were certified and nearly 40% reported no affiliation with any 'professional' association. Training and continuing education programs were reported to be primarily short term and theory-based with limited assessment and follow-up. A high proportion of respondents reported having received no supervision or opportunities for case conferences or consultations. With respect to perceptions of and satisfaction with training, many agreed that training had been very helpful to their work but quality of supervision and the capability of supervisors were common issues of concern. In light of these findings, three general recommendations were made to improve the quality of training among mental health service providers in China. First, increased input from professional organizations of various disciplines involving mental health service provision is needed to guide training and shape policy. Second, universities and

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingling Chen

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.

  3. Survey on the use of mental health services and help-seeking behaviors in a community population in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ni, Chun-Ping; Yang, Ping; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2018-04-01

    There is little research into the patterns of mental health services use, related factors, and barriers in help-seeking behaviors among the community population in northwestern China. We conducted a community-based survey among the general population in Xi'an City with the stratified two-stage systematic selection scheme using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 computer-assisted personal interview (CIDI-CAPI 3.0). We interviewed 2447 individuals aged 16 years or older. The lifetime prevalence estimate of mental disorders was 21%. However, the lifetime use rate of mental health services of the 2447 responding subjects was 2.45% and 4.67% among those subjects who reported a mental disorder. Several variables were associated with lower use of mental health services: rural residence and divorced or unmarried. Among the group with mental disorders, 15/21 sought help from non-mental health specialty services such as a general physician (13/21). The high prevalence rate of mental disorders but low rate of mental health services use raises a significant public health issue in northwestern China. Reduction in the resource gap and encouraging people to seek treatment remain a challenge to the mental health services system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingya; Lin, Senlin; Liang, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-09-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Our results showed that internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The years of living in the city of residence were positively associated with the utilization of public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces significantly reduced the probability of using health records (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on non-communicable diseases (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through the Internet (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). This study concludes that public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsidies. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.

  5. Survey of Attitudes and Ethical Concerns Related to Gene Therapy Among Medical Students and Postgraduates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangcheng; Xiao, Lihong; Gou, Zhongping; Li, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Haiping; Feng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy is becoming an important treatment modality for gravely ill patients, and today's medical students and postgraduates are both potential consumers and future providers of gene therapy. Therefore, their attitudes and concerns about gene therapy may directly influence its long-term development and implementation in the clinic. We performed a cross-sectional survey of medical students and postgraduates at West China Medical School of Sichuan University. A custom-designed questionnaire was distributed to 600 students, and 579 were valid (96.98% response). Most respondents (84.46%) indicated little prior knowledge about gene therapy. The proportion of respondents considering gene therapy as acceptable ranged from 63.73% for serious illness to 17.72% for genetic enhancement. Adverse side effects were the most frequent concern among respondents when asked to imagine that they would receive gene therapy to treat a severe brain-related illness. These results suggest that medical students in China consider gene therapy's acceptability to be rather low, and are most concerned about its adverse side effects.

  6. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  7. Use of humour in medical education: a survey of students and teachers at a medical school in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Sun, Lei; Wu, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Cun-Tai; Zhou, Hong-Lian; Quan, Xiao-Qing

    2017-11-28

    Humour is a powerful resource in medical education. The purpose of this study is to investigate what students and teachers think about the use of humour. What challenges do teachers face in using humour and how they address them are also the subject of the present study. Separate cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. Tongji Medical College and Tongji Hospital in China. 327 students at Tongji Medical College and 165 physician teachers at Tongji Hospital in China. The primary study outcome was assessed by proportion. 87% of student and teacher respondents agreed with using humour in the didactic setting. They felt humour fostered a positive didactic atmosphere. Interesting clinical case was the most frequently used humour type by teachers and considered the most effective by students. Lack of humorous materials related to the lecture subject was the main challenge to humour use cited by teachers. Collecting humorous materials in teacher's daily work and life, observing teachers with a reputation for successfully using humour, and efficiently using the internet-enhanced humour use ability. The present study confirms that most medical students and physician teachers support the use of humour in medical didactics, with particular strategies aiding its use and positive impact. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Dong, Fei; Deacon, Claire; Chen Huojun; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. - Altering rice shoot phosphorus status is a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic.

  9. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Ying [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Dong, Fei [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Chen Huojun [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Raab, Andrea [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A., E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.u [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. - Altering rice shoot phosphorus status is a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic.

  10. A sub-nationwide survey of outdoor and indoor 222Rn concentrations in China by passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yihe; Ikebe, Y.; Iida, T.

    1996-01-01

    From Nov. 1988 to Mar. 1993, cooperated by China and Japan, a survey of outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations in 10 cities which were highly populated in China was carried out by means of passive method. the annual mean of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in 10 cities was 8.8 Bq·m -3 . The highest of 13.5 Bq·m -3 was in Wuhan, the lowest of 3.3 Bq·m -3 was in Chongming Island of Shanghai; and there were no significant differences among the different years in the same areas. During the northwest wind seasons, about 50% of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in Taiwan was contributed by the airflow from the mainland. Typical apartment houses and offices built of brick and concrete were also surveyed for indoor 222 Rn concentration. The annual mean of indoor 222 Rn concentration in the 10 cities was 19.5 Bq·m - 3. The highest of 33.9 Bq·m -3 was observed in Guiyang, the lowest of 9.0 Bq·m -3 was observed in Chongming Island of Shanghai. The outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations showed a clear seasonal pattern with the minimum in summer and the maximum in winter. And they also showed a clear geographic distribution tendency; they were higher in inland than in seashores, and higher in the south than in the north. The ratios of indoor to outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were from 1.1 to 4.6. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations amounted to about 0.64 mSv·a -1 . The highest was in Guiyang, and the lowest was in Nantong, being 1.12 and 0.39 mSv·a -1 , respectively

  11. A survey of factors associated with the utilization of community health centers for managing hypertensive patients in Chengdu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For decades the development of community health services has been emphasized in China to cope with the growing burden of chronic diseases by providing basic medical services. This survey aims at investigating factors associated with the use of Community Health Centers (CHCs for the management of hypertensive patients in Chengdu, China. METHODS: We used a systematic sampling method to select 2,030 patients with hypertension or diabetes registered in 29 CHCs in Chengdu in 2007. Researchers interviewed patients who consented to participate at their home. This paper reports findings from the survey of 1,716 hypertensive patients with completed questionnaires. Univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors influencing the use of CHCs for the management of hypertensive patients. RESULTS: 81.4% of hypertensive patients regularly used CHCs for hypertension monitoring and treatment in Chengdu. Univariate analyses indicated that use of CHCs was associated with the education level, occupation, types of medical insurance, Body Mass Index(BMI, patients' knowledge on hypertension, awareness of CHCs functions, satisfaction of the service of CHCs. Multiple regression analyses found that use of CHCs was positively associated with the following factors: the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance(URBMI, knowledge on blood pressure, awareness of the sites in CHCs to measure blood pressure, awareness of having to take life-long antihypertensive medicine once the treatment started, awareness of the health records registration in CHCs, regular follow up, improved convenience of seeing doctor. Patients with professional job were less likely to use the services of CHCs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of CHCs for hypertension management could be increased by improving residents' knowledge on the monitoring and treatment of hypertension, and the awareness of CHCs functions. The CHCs could play an important role in

  12. China's research status in emergency medicine: a 15-year survey of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Jiang, Ting; Li, Chunyu; Chen, Jun; Cao, Kejiang; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Baoli; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the research status of emergency medicine in China through literature search of international emergency medicine journals and retrospectively compare the outputs of emergency medicine articles of the 3 major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK). Emergency medicine journals were selected category from Science Citation Index Expand. Articles from the ML, TW, and HK were retrieved from PubMed database. The total number of articles, publication types, research contents, impact factors (IF), and articles published in each journal were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. A total of 1760 articles from 19 emergency medicine journals were searched, of which 395 were from ML, 1210 from TW, and 155 from HK. Accumulated IF of articles from TW (2451.109) was much higher than that of ML (851.832) and HK (328.579), whereas the average IF of articles from TW (2.02) was the lowest. The number of case reports was the highest, which was, 69 from ML, 637 from TW, and 25 from HK, respectively. Although emergency medicine was involved with multiple organs and multiple systems, the reports of trauma accounted for 25% of the research contents. The total number of articles from both China and the rest of the world increased significantly from 2000 to 2014, especially ML. The total number of articles from TW was still much more than that of ML and HK, whereas the quality of articles from TW was not as good as ML and HK. Case report had the highest share of publication types, whereas the proportions of meta-analysis and observational study were the lowest. As for research contents, the proportion of trauma was still the highest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Chen, Yu; Yao, Hongyan; Wu, Ming; Cui, Mengjing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Cong; Li, Zhen; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 1,422 farm vehicle drivers in southern China. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes that occurred from December 2013 to November 2014 were investigated. Data on farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes and related factors were collected by face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among the investigated drivers was 7.2%. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes were significantly associated with self-reported vision problem (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86-10.87), self-reported sleep disorders (AOR = 10.03, 95% CI, 6.28-15.99), self-reported stress (AOR = 20.47, 95% CI, 9.96-42.08), reported history of crashes (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI, 3.47-8.42), reported history of drunk driving (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI, 2.97-8.65), and reported history of fatigued driving (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.73-8.78). The number of road traffic crashes was highest in the daytime and during harvest season. In over 96% of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes, drivers were believed to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included improper driving, careless driving, violating of traffic signals or signs, and being in the wrong lane. Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  14. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  15. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Xu, Jia-Ke; Wu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Hong-Yan; Kou, Cheng-Kun; Liu, Na; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE) risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies. A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n) and percentage (%) of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff) was performed using chi-square test. A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff). Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003), and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004). In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0%) had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1%) had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies. The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore, specific

  16. Treatment and Management of Osteoporotic Fractures: A Nation-wide Survey of 484 Senior Orthopaedists in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Pan, Wei; Lu, Jin; Li, Sen-Yuan; Zhang, Pian; Guo, Jun-Zhe; Yu, Shu-Fang; Zhang, Bei; Xiao, En; Zhang, Chao; Zuo, Wei; Jin, He-Juan; Chen, Yi; Wu, Bin; Shi, Xiao-En; Hong, Di; Liu, Xun; Gao, Ying-Xu; Li, Jing; Yin, Lu; Xue, Qing-Yun

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the treatment given to osteoporotic fracture patients by orthopaedists at major hospitals in China. A 25-item quantitative questionnaire survey, categorized into five domains, including primary purpose of osteoporosis treatment, anti-osteoporosis therapy, calcium and vitamin D supplement, monitoring of osteoporosis, and knowledge of osteoporosis treatment, was designed to elicit information on orthopaedists' views on the treatment of osteoporotic fracture. A pre-survey test was conducted with a sample of 40 orthopaedic specialists to confirm the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Each interview of the survey took approximately 15 min and did not directly involve any patients. The survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews at 119 tier 3 hospitals in 28 cities across Mainland China. A total of 484 valid responses were received. Seven in ten respondents have ≥10 years of professional practice. While two-thirds believed that osteoporosis treatment was to prevent fractures or re-fractures, 95.0% agreed that anti-osteoporosis medication should be administered to patients with a history of fragility fractures. Three in four would prescribe anti-osteoporosis medication perioperatively. Of these, 79.0% regarded bisphosphonates as the first-line drug. Approximately 86.0% of the 21-30 years cohort chose bisphosphonates compared to 71.4% for those with ≤10 years. More of the younger (≤10 years) cohort chose calcitonin compared to their older (21-30 years) colleagues (25.7% vs 11.6%). The most commonly prescribed daily dose is 800 IU for vitamin D supplements and 600 mg/day for calcium. Our respondents generally adhered to guidelines for the treatment and management of osteoporosis. A significant number had recommended lower dosages of vitamin D and calcium. Some differences exist between the younger cohort and their older colleagues in the prescription of pharmacological therapies. The criteria for initiating therapy

  17. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  18. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  19. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addre...

  20. A survey of TB knowledge among medical students in Southwest China: is the information reaching the target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Ehiri, John; Li, Daikun; Luo, Xingneng; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis (TB) control in schools is a concern in low-income and middle-income countries with high TB burdens. TB knowledge is recognised as important for TB control in China, which has one of the highest TB prevalence in the world. Accordingly, National TB Control Guideline in China emphasised TB-health education in schools as one of the core strategies for improving TB knowledge among the population. It was important to assess the level of TB knowledge in schools following 5-year implementation of the guideline, to determine whether the information was reaching the targets. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods and study setting This survey assessed TB knowledge and access to TB-health information by questionnaire survey with 1486 undergraduates from two medical universities in Southwest China. Results Overall, the students had inadequate TB knowledge. Only 24.1%, 27.2% and 34.1% of the students had knowledge of TB symptoms of cough/blood-tinged sputum, their local TB dispensaries and free TB treatment policy, respectively. Very few (14.5%) had heard about the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS), and only about half (54%) had ever accessed TB-health education information. Exposure to health education messages was significantly associated with increased knowledge of the five core TB knowledge as follows: classic TB symptoms of cough/blood-tinged sputum (OR (95% CI) 0.5(0.4 to 0.7)), TB modes of transmission (OR (95% CI) 0.4(0.3 to 0.5)), curability of TB (OR (95% CI) 0.6(0.5 to 0.7)), location and services provided by TB local dispensaries (OR (95% CI) 0.6(0.5 to 0.8)) and the national free TB treatment policy (OR (95% CI) 0.7(0.5 to 0.8)). Conclusions The findings pose the question of whether it is time for a rethink of the current national and global approach to TB-health education/promotion which favours promotion of awareness on World TB Days rather than regular community sensitisation efforts. PMID:24056486

  1. Floristic Survey of Summer Aspect in Chosen China Clay Pits in Western Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Botková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different china clay pits in the western part of the Czech Republic were explored and plant species were determined. These chosen pits were: Hájek-western part, Chlumčany, Horní Bříza, Otovice and Podlesí II. China clay pits with active excavation represent a specific environment concerning both physical and chemical characteristics. This article is presenting a list of the higher plants which were found within active excavation or former excavation areas. Species with a protection status according to the Czech legislation are presented in more detail. 189 different species have been found in total, including 2 species from category C4 – potentially vulnerable taxa, 6 species from category C3 – endangered taxa and 1 species from the C1 – critically threatened taxa from the Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. 28 different species occurred at each of the five sites. Predominant species favour sandy substratum and bare surface.

  2. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhou, Jingbo; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2010-12-15

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. First survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in diarrhoeic children from Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Fan, Yingying; Koehler, Anson V; Ma, Guangxu; Li, Tao; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-07-01

    Intestinal protozoan pathogens cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, to date, there has been limited genetic study of the intestinal pathogens Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in humans in China, with the exception of research in a small number of cities/provinces. In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterise these protistan parasites from 500 children with a history of diarrhoea in Wuhan and environs, Hubei province, China. Genomic DNAs from faecal samples were screened for the particular protists by PCR utilising regions in the small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60), the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and/or the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes as markers. Cryptosporidium meleagridis subtype IIIb (10/500, 2.0%), Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (7/500, 1.4%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (1/500, 0.2%) were identified in small percentages of the 500 samples. No significant gender- or age-associated differences in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections were found. Future studies might focus on the occurrence of these protists in children as well as animals, with an emphasis on Cryptosporidium meleagridis in pets and agriculturally important birds, in different parts of Hubei province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey on difficulties and desires of breast-feeding women in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Su, Min; Redding, Sharon R

    2016-06-01

    exclusive breast feeding in China is relatively low and no research has been conducted to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese lactating mothers. Currently, Chinese women turn to massage therapists to increase breastmilk volume, implying that many breast-feeding women faced problems but had few support mechanisms.This study aimed to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese breast-feeding women and to propose strategies for increasing the rate of exclusive breast feeding. three hundred and seventy-five primiparous women were recruited from two randomized cluster communities in Wuhan following ethical approval. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 76 of the participants to collect data on their infants' feeding status, duration of exclusive breast feeding, reasons for stopping, difficulties encountered, and sources of support for lactation. the breast feeding initiation rate was 93.6%, but exclusive breast feeding was only 6.2% at six months. The most frequently cited reason for giving up exclusive breast feeding was perceived breastmilk insufficiency. Women cited a desire for professional and individualised instruction from following resources: (1) lactation consultants in hospital and communities; (2) Qualified cuirushi; (3) breast feeding website;(4) Relatives, friends and peers;(5) Telephone hotline. to improve the rate and duration of exclusive breast feeding in China, effective and available resources must be available. Timely,professional and face-to-face lactation counselling such as lactation consultant, qualified cuirushin is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors.

  6. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  7. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  8. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  9. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  10. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: a multi-campus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-08-22

    China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  11. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  12. A design of strategic alliance based on value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hong; Huang, Xianfeng

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we use value chain and strategic alliance theories to analyzing the surveying and mapping Industry and enterprises. The value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises is highly-contacted but split by administrative interference, the enterprises are common small scale. According to the above things, we consider that establishing a nonequity- Holding strategic alliance based on value chain is an available way, it can not only let the enterprises share the superior resources in different sectors of the whole value chain each other but avoid offending the interests of related administrative departments, by this way, the surveying and mapping enterprises gain development respectively and totally. Then, we give the method to building up the strategic alliance model through parting the value chain and the using advantage of companies in different value chain sectors. Finally, we analyze the internal rule of strategic alliance and prove it is a suitable way to realize the development of surveying and mapping enterprises through game theory.

  13. The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Jit, Mark; Zheng, Yaming; Feng, Luzhao; Liu, Xinxin; Wu, Joseph T; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-10-16

    Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in China, but its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been previously measured. We conducted a retrospective telephone survey to assess the impact of influenza on the HRQoL among outpatients and inpatients using the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L instrument. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection registered by the National Influenza-like-illness Surveillance Network in 2013. We interviewed 839 of 11,098 eligible influenza patients. After excluding those who were unable to complete the HRQoL for the registered influenza episode, 778 patients were included in the analysis. Both outpatients (n = 529) and inpatients (n = 249) most commonly reported problems with pain/discomfort (71.8% of outpatients and 71.9% of inpatients) and anxiety/depression (62.0% of outpatients and 75.1% of inpatients). For individual influenza outpatients, the mean health utility was 0.6142 (SD 0.2006), and the average quality adjusted life days (QALD) loss was 1.62 (SD 1.84) days. The HRQoL of influenza inpatients was worse (mean health utility 0.5851, SD 0.2197; mean QALD loss 3.51 days, SD 4.25) than that of outpatients (p < 0.05). The presence of underlying medical conditions lowered the HRQoL for both outpatients and inpatients (p < 0.05). Influenza illness had a substantial impact on HRQoL. QALD loss due to an acute influenza episode in younger children was comparable to that due to enterovirus A71-associated hand, foot and mouth disease. Our findings are key inputs into disease burden estimates and cost-effectiveness evaluations of influenza-related interventions in China.

  14. Prevalence of diabetes among Han, Manchu and Korean ethnicities in the Mudanjiang area of China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.

  15. [Warning symptoms of asthma attack and asthma self-management: a national asthma control survey from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.

  16. Perceptions of stigma and its correlates among patients with major depressive disorder: A multicenter survey from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jie, Feng; Hong-Mei, Gao; Li, Wang; Bin-Hong, Wang; Yi-Ru, Fang; Gang, Wang; Tian-Mei, Si

    2017-09-01

    The stigma of major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important public health problem. This study evaluated stigma in MDD patients in China using explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) questionnaire and the demographic and clinical symptom factors associated with the stigma of these patients. A total of 158 MDD patients from domestic 3 mental health centers were surveyed. We used the EMIC questionnaire to assess stigma of these patients, Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) to assess depressive severity, self-reporting inventory (SCL-90) to assess mental health level, Sheehan disability scale (SDS) to assess social function, and fatigue severity scale (FSS) to assess degree of fatigue. The stigma scores were significantly higher in the 18- to 30-year-old (z = 2.875, P = .024) and 31- to 40-year-old (z = 3.204, P = .008) groups than the 51- to 65-year-old group; in the full-time employment group than the retired group (z = 3.163, P = .016). The stigma scores exhibited significant negative correlation with age (r = -0.169, P = .034) but positive correlations with the scores of MADRS (r = .212, P = .007), total scores (r = .273, P = .001) and subscales of interpersonal sensitivity (r = .233, P = .003), depression (r = .336, P employment status, fatigue, and depressive severity are closely associated with the perceived stigma of MDD patients and may be important factors considered for stigma interventions of MDD in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. A Cross-sectional Survey of Growth and Nutritional Status in Children With Cerebral Palsy in West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Cai, Qianyun; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Huayin; Li, Na; Ma, Dan; Wang, Qiu; Luo, Rong; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    We describe the growth and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (2 to 18 years old) in West China and to explore the correlation between the nutritional status and age, gender, and gross and fine motor function. We performed a cross-sectional survey of children registered as having cerebral palsy in the China Disabled Persons' Federation branch in Chengdu. Growth (height and weight) and nutritional (body mass index) status were recorded. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were used to determine gross and fine motor function, respectively. The association between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels was evaluated. We enrolled 377 children (53.6% male), among whom 160 (42.4%) were stunting, 48 (12.7%) underweight, 81 (21.5%) thin, and 70 (18.5%) overweight and obese. Thinness was the main nutritional problem in older patients (12 to 18 years), whereas overweight and obesity were the major issues in younger patients (2 to 12 years). Growth deviation and malnutrition were significantly more prevalent in patients with severe motor impairments. A significant negative correlation was found between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels, and between growth and GMFCS and MACS levels. Growth abnormality is common in children with cerebral palsy. Malnutrition and overnutrition both exist in children with cerebral palsy. Characteristics at different age stages and motor functional levels should be taken into consideration in the management of growth and nutrition in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among sonographers in China: results from a national web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danying; Huang, Hanlin

    2017-11-25

    The aims of present study were to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) among sonographers in China and to provide evidence for appropriate intervention measures to be taken. A self-reported questionnaire was used to screen WRMSDs experienced by sonographers during the past 12 months. This questionnaire survey was created and hosted on the WeChat official account platform for sonographers. In the present study, 567 sonographers from 521 medical institutions completed the questionnaire. The vast majority (99.3%) of respondents reported experiencing symptoms of WRMSDs for at least one body region during the past 12 months. Work-related musculoskeletal pain or discomfort was most frequently reported for the neck (95.1%), right shoulder (84.1%), lower back (82.4%), right wrist/hand (81.0%), upper back (78.1%), right forearm/elbow (72.0%), and left shoulder (66.1%). Scanning hours per day, number of patients per day, and years of experience were positively associated with the occurrence and frequency of experiencing WRMSDs of some common and specific anatomical regions. Taking a regular rest break during the scanning working day was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the right shoulder and right wrist/hand. Adopting a sitting posture while performing scanning was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs, particularly for the lower back and the neck. Performing regular physical activity during leisure time was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the neck. The prevalence of WRMSDs among sonographers in China was extremely high. It is necessary and essential to reduce the number of scanning hours and patients per day, adopt a sitting posture while performing scanning, schedule regular rest breaks during the scanning working day, and encourage performance of regular physical activity during leisure time to alleviate this WRMSD issue experienced by sonographers.

  19. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  20. Cross-sectional survey of the relationship of symptomatology, disability and family burden among patients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuoqiu; Deng, Hong; Chen, Ying; Li, Shuiying; Zhou, Qian; Lai, Hua; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Ling; Shen, Wenwu

    2014-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that leads to high rates of disability and high levels of family burden but the interactive relationship between these variables remains unclear, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the vast majority of patients live with their families. Assess the symptom severity, level of disability, and family burden among clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China. A total of 101 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia who had a median duration of illness of five years were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0 (WHODAS II), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve Index scale (APGAR); and their caregivers were surveyed using the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS). Among the 101 patients, 92 lived with their immediate family members, 74 had clinically significant disability, and 73 were unemployed. The level of disability was associated with the severity of symptoms (r=0.50, pDisability was also associated with the overall level of family burden (r=0.40, pdisability in the stepwise multivariate linear regression: duration of illness, severity of symptoms, patient satisfaction with family support, and the overall burden of the illness on the family. Even after adjusting for the severity of patients' symptoms, patient disability is independently associated with family burden. This highlights the importance of targeting both symptoms and disability in treatment strategies for this severe, often lifelong, condition. In countries like China where most individuals with schizophrenia live with their families, family burden is an important component of the impact of the illness on the community that should be included in measures of the relative social and economic importance of the condition.

  1. Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2013-07-11

    Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  4. The second national survey of oral health status of children and adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hong-Ying; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Jin-You

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the oral health status of Chinese children and adults at national level in relation to location and province and to highlight changes in dental caries experience. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, oral epidemiological survey based on WHO methodology, clinical examinations....... SETTING: National survey by National Committee for Oral Health. SUBJECTS: Representative samples of provinces, districts, townships; cluster sampling including subjects aged 5,12,15,18, 35-44 and 65-74. Each age group consisted of 23,452 participants, i.e. total of 140,712 individuals. RESULTS: At age 5...... prevalence in children varied by province and age. Among adolescents and young adults caries levels were high in urban areas while caries experience was high for old-age people of rural areas. At national level, changes in dental caries prevalence of 12- and 15-year-olds were small. However, some provinces...

  5. Inequities and psychiatry disability in transition among the elderly population from 1987 to 2006 in China: Data based on national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-09-01

    The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China.In this study, we investigated psychiatry disability transitional association behind China rapid development from 1987 to 2006 among the 60 and older population. Data used 2 nationally represented, population-based data from the China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. The sample size of the current study was 140,008 in 1987 and 354,859 in 2006, respectively. Associations between socioeconomic factors and psychiatry disability were determined by using a logistic regression model.The prevalence of psychiatric disabilities increased from 1987 to 2006. In both surveys, the most common psychiatric disabilities were schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders, and they presented the same associations with age increase. Socioeconomic inequities, such as current employment status and marital status, were associated with psychiatry disability in both surveys. These associations remained even after these 2 surveys were combined.The rapidly rising prevalence of psychiatric disorders expected warrants strategies to reduce the burden of these disabilities among females and rural residents.

  6. Legal Professionals' Knowledge of Eyewitness Testimony in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang

    Full Text Available To examine legal professionals' knowledge of a wide range of factors that affect eyewitness accuracy in China.A total of 812 participants, including 210 judges, 244 prosecutors, 202 police officers, and 156 defense attorneys, were asked to respond to 12 statements about eyewitness testimony and 3 basic demographic questions (i.e., gender, age, and prior experience.Although the judges and the defense attorneys had a somewhat higher number of correct responses than the other two groups, all groups showed limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. In addition, the participants' responses to only four items (i.e., weapon focus, attitude and expectations, child suggestibility, and the impact of stress were roughly unanimous within the four legal professional groups. Legal professionals' gender showed no significant correlations with their knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Prior experiences were significantly and negatively correlated with the item on the knowledge of forgetting curve among judges but positively correlated with two items (i.e., attitudes and exposure time among defense attorneys and with 4 statements (i.e., the knowledge of attitudes and expectations, impact of stress, child witness accuracy, and exposure time among prosecutors.The findings suggest that knowledge of the factors that influence eyewitness accuracy must be more effectively communicated to legal professionals in the future.

  7. Legal Professionals' Knowledge of Eyewitness Testimony in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lina; Luo, Dahua

    2016-01-01

    To examine legal professionals' knowledge of a wide range of factors that affect eyewitness accuracy in China. A total of 812 participants, including 210 judges, 244 prosecutors, 202 police officers, and 156 defense attorneys, were asked to respond to 12 statements about eyewitness testimony and 3 basic demographic questions (i.e., gender, age, and prior experience). Although the judges and the defense attorneys had a somewhat higher number of correct responses than the other two groups, all groups showed limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. In addition, the participants' responses to only four items (i.e., weapon focus, attitude and expectations, child suggestibility, and the impact of stress) were roughly unanimous within the four legal professional groups. Legal professionals' gender showed no significant correlations with their knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Prior experiences were significantly and negatively correlated with the item on the knowledge of forgetting curve among judges but positively correlated with two items (i.e., attitudes and exposure time) among defense attorneys and with 4 statements (i.e., the knowledge of attitudes and expectations, impact of stress, child witness accuracy, and exposure time) among prosecutors. The findings suggest that knowledge of the factors that influence eyewitness accuracy must be more effectively communicated to legal professionals in the future.

  8. Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a Tibetan population in southeast Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen-Hai; Wang, Hu; Wu, Xian-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Pei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Mei; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2008-05-01

    An epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in Jiuzhi County of Qinghai Province, western China. Ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the Tibetan population. The morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and Buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). The ultrasound images showed a coexistence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), occupying 69 and 31% of the cases, respectively. An Echinococcus Western blot assay was performed as a serological backup test for differentiating CE and AE. The assay revealed that serum samples from most cases with a positive AE image showed a specific antibody against antigen bands at 16/18 kDa. Autopsy proved that 9 out of 12 stray dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus (n = 8) and E. multilocularis (n = 1). Inspection at the abattoirs demonstrated a hydatid rate of 78.5% in yaks and 82.6% in sheep. The data indicate that Jiuzhi County is an important endemic area for both CE and AE, in both human and animal populations.

  9. Survey and discussion of history of prospecting in the oil and gas basin Tszyankhan. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is made of the history of prospecting for oil and gas which started in the first half of the 1950's. The oil and gas basin Tszinkhan is located in the central part of Eastern China, and southwest of Ukhan. A large number of oil and gas reserves are confined to the mass of lake-saline deposits which were formed in the late Paleogene under conditions of isolated groove basins. The greatest part of the reserves is confined to the northern part of the asymmetrical basin Tszyantsyan. Accumulation of oil here was controlled by sandstones of alluvial fans (Tszyantsyan series) and saline-cupola structures associated with eddy tectonic systems (specific type of structure isolated by the Chinese geologists for which concentric arrangement of the structural axes is characteristic). This special type of trap was isolated for the first time in this oil and gas basin. Initially, until the role of sandy bodies in the ancient alluvial fans was established in controlling oil content, prospecting encountered great difficulties.

  10. Suicidal ideation at 1-year post-stroke: A nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Shuo; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Chun-Xue; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    Few studies on suicidal ideation have been conducted in post-stroke patients in China. This national study examined suicidal ideation at 1-year post-stroke and explored its demographic and clinical correlates. A total of 1418 patients with ischemic stroke were included in 56 hospitals nationwide. Demographic, clinical characteristics and neuro-imaging information were collected with standardized instruments, including assessment of stroke severity, depression, cognitive impairment, stroke recurrence, physical disability and insomnia. Suicidal ideation was measured using item 3 of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The frequency of suicidal ideation in this study was 6.6%. Multivariate analyses revealed that disability (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.09-3.05), stroke recurrence (OR=4.13, 95% CI=1.74-9.77) and insomnia early (OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.03-3.39), middle (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.46-4.85) and late (OR=2.35, 95% CI=1.31-4.19) at the 1-year follow-up and post-stroke depression (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.23-3.82) were significantly associated with post-stroke suicidal ideation. Post-stroke depression, disability, insomnia and stroke recurrence are possible risk factors of suicidal ideation that warrant attention in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Walkaway-VSP survey using distributed optical fiber in China oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Yu, Gang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yanpeng; Cai, Zhidong; Chen, Yuanzhong; Liu, Congwei; Zhao, Haiying; Li, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a new type of replacement technology for geophysical geophone. DAS system is similar to high-density surface seismic geophone array. In the stage of acquisition, DAS can obtain the full well data with one shot. And it can provide enhanced vertical seismic profile (VSP) imaging and monitor fluids and pressures changes in the hydrocarbon production reservoir. Walkaway VSP data acquired over a former producing well in north eastern China provided a rich set of very high quality data. A standard VSP data pre-processing workflow was applied, followed by pre-stack Kirchhoff time migration. In the DAS pre-processing step we were faced with additional and special challenges: strong coherent noise due to cable slapping and ringing along the borehole casing. The single well DAS Walkaway VSP images provide a good result with higher vertical and lateral resolution than the surface seismic in the objective area. This paper reports on lessons learned in the handling of the wireline cable and subsequent special DAS data processing steps developed to remediate some of the practical wireline deployment issues. Optical wireline cable as a conveyance of fiber optic cables for VSP in vertical wells will open the use of the DAS system to much wider applications.

  12. [Health survey of painting and coating workers in an automobile manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Xiao, Lyuwu; Wu, Lin; Zhou, Hao; Tan, Xiayou; Lin, Yimin

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the health status of painting and coating workers in an automobile manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou, China and analyze the influential factors for the health status of these workers, and to provide health intervention measures and strategies. Typical sampling was used to select an automobile manufacturing enterprise; according to whether the subjects were in contact with paint and coatings, paint spraying workers in the painting workshop were selected as the exposed group, and the staff in the administration, procurement, and marketing departments as the control group. Physical examination was performed by doctors among these subjects. The exposed group had significantly higher positive rates of dizziness, headache, bleeding gums, chest tightness, and skin itching than the control group (P 0.05), but the exposed group had a significantly higher incidence of various blocks (P = 0.020) and significantly lower leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, and male workers' hemoglobin level (P automobile manufacturing enterprise, so regular physical examination should be performed to strengthen health interventions and improve health.

  13. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfa Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005. To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002 but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089 level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  14. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought in China and its impact on agriculture during 1982-2011 by using PDSI indices and agriculture drought survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Jun-Bang; Lu, Hou-Quan; Guo, An-Hong; Zhu, Zai-Chun; Myneni, Ranga B.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by concerns of the effects of a warming climate, drought variation and its impacts have gained much attention in China. Arguments about China's drought persist and little work has utilized agricultural drought survey area to evaluate the impact of natural drought on agriculture. Based on a newly revised self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) model driven with air-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E0 (PDSIARTS; Yan et al., 2014), spatial and temporal variations of drought were analyzed for 1982-2011 in China, which indicates that there was nonsignificant change of drought over this interval but with an extreme drought event happened in 2000-2001. However, using air temperature (Ta)-based Thornthwaite potential evaporation (EP_Th) and Penman-Monteith potential evaporation (EP_PM) to drive the PDSI model, their corresponding PDSITh and PDSIPM all gave a significant drying trend for 1982-2011. This suggests that PDSI model was sensitive to EP parameterization in China. Annual drought-covered area from agriculture survey was initially adopted to evaluate impact of PDSI drought on agriculture in China during 1982-2011. The results indicate that PDSIARTS drought area (defined as PDSIARTS successfully detected the extreme agriculture drought in 2000-2001 during 1982-2011, i.e., climate factors dominated the interannual changes of agriculture drought area, while PDSITh and PDSIPM drought areas had no relationship with the agriculture drought-covered area and overestimated the uptrend of agriculture drought This study highlights the importance of coupling PDSI with drought survey data in evaluating the impact of natural drought on agriculture.

  15. A Survey of the Perceived Risk for Stroke among Community Residents in Western Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Miao, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Xingxiu; Hao, Ling; Lou, Jinhe; Guo, Huijuan; Li, Nan; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persons who perceive their risk for stroke can promote the intervention of stroke risk factors and reduce the risk of stroke occurrence. Our purpose was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and the level of perceived risk for stroke. METHODS: In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ≥18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. The kno...

  16. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia among adults in Northwestern China: the cardiovascular risk survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang, China. Method Stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of the general population including Chinese Han, Uygur, and Kazak in this geographic area. Seven cities were chosen. Based on the government records of registered residences, one participant was randomly selected from each household. The eligibility criterion for the study was ≥ 35 years of age. Results A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Han, 4,767 Uygur, and 4,094 Kazak), were randomly selected from 26 villages in 7 cities. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 52.72% in the all participants. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher in Han than that in the other two ethnic (58.58% in Han, 48.27% in Uygur, and 49.60% in Kazak, P dyslipidemia was higher in men than that in women (56.4% vs. 49.3%, P dyslipidemia, the proportion of those who aware, treat, control of dyslipidemia were 53.67%, 22.51%, 17.09% in Han, 42.19%, 27.78%, 16.20% in Uygur, 37.02%, 21.11%, 17.77% in Kazak. Conclusion Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The proportion of participants with dyslipidemia who were aware, treated, and controlled is unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve the prevention, detection, and treatment of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang. PMID:24393232

  17. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  18. Survey of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Intensive Care Units in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhan, Qing Yuan; Wang, Chen

    2016-09-01

    In mainland China, there are no special care centers (long-term acute care, weaning, chronic care facilities) for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Our goal was to characterize the prevalence and outcome of patients undergoing PMV in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs). A prospective 1-d prevalence study was performed at 55 ICUs, with 28-d follow-up. On the observation day, 622 adult patients occupied ICU beds. Enrollment criteria were met by 302 subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, of which 109 (36.1%) had received ventilation for more than 21 d (median 51, 21-3,419), which was defined as PMV. During the following 28 d, another 45 subjects were classified as receiving PMV, but only 5% (3/58) of the subjects who were newly admitted to the ICU on the study day received PMV. Thirty-six (22.9%) of the 157 subjects receiving PMV were weaned, and 81 (51.6%) continued ventilation in the ICU. In the logistic regression analysis, age >74 y (odds ratio = 2.78, 95% CI 1.05-7.40, P = .041) and chronic congestive heart failure (odds ratio =12.23, 95% CI 1.48-101.05, P = .020) were associated with failure to wean in 28 d, while acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as the reason for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio = 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.52, P = .003) was associated with successful weaning. The number of subjects receiving PMV was surprisingly high in this cross-section of Chinese ICUs. In the following 28 ICU days, only a small proportion of these subjects were weaned. Age and chronic heart dysfunction were high risk factors for weaning failure. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-05-14

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  20. A survey of parabens in commercial pharmaceuticals from China and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Li; Zhao, Xue; Lin, Zhong-Yang; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives during pharmaceutical production. However, little information is available regarding the occurrence of parabens in commercial pharmaceuticals and their implications for human exposure. In this study, six commonly used parabens were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with 100 commercial pharmaceuticals collected from China. Almost all of the pharmaceutical samples contained at least one kind of parabens with the detection frequency of 97%. The concentrations of Σ6parabens (sum of the six parabens) ranged from below MDL to 1256ng/g, with mean and median values of 94.8 and 119ng/g, respectively. Methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP) and propyl paraben (PrP) were the predominant compounds. Significant positive correlation was observed between concentrations of MeP and PrP, indicating their co-applications in pharmaceuticals. Levels of Σ6parabens varied in different categories of pharmaceuticals and increased with their shelf lives. Based on the measured concentrations and daily ingestion rates of pharmaceuticals, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of parabens was calculated. The median values of EDIpharmaceutical for male adults, female adults and children were 4.05, 4.75 and 9.73ng/kg-bw/day, respectively, which were three orders of magnitude lower than those from foodstuffs and personal care products (PCPs). It was firstly reported that the total exposure dose was 0.326mg/kg-bw/day via foodstuffs, PCPs, and pharmaceuticals for Chinese female adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  2. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  3. Association between Body Mass Index and Migraine: A Survey of Adult Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both migraine and obesity are prevalent disorders in the general population, which are characterized by disability and impaired quality of life. Although so many researches had studied the association between migraine and obesity, there are still no full knowledge of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and migraine, especially chronic migraine (CM. In this study, we analyzed a previous epidemiological survey data of primary headache patients in Chongqing, which surveyed consecutive neurological outpatients through face-to-face interview with physicians using a headache questionnaire. 166 episodic migraine (EM patients and 134 chronic migraine (CM patients were included in the study out of 1327 primary headache patients. And 200 healthy adults from the physical examination center were included as a control group. Finally, we found that the patients with migraine (EM and CM were more likely to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese compared to those in the healthy group. Significant difference was found between BMI and frequency of migraine attacks but not severity or duration of headache onset. And no significant difference was found in severity and duration of headache onset between episodic and chronic migraine among different BMI classifications. Such may update our knowledge about the clinical features of migraine and BMI, revealing that the frequency of attacks may be associated with being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in patients with migraine and that the extent of being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in CM patients was lower than that in EM patients.

  4. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing

    2014-05-19

    The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students' attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases.

  5. Which factors are effective for farmers’ biogas use?–Evidence from a large-scale survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei; Tu, Qin; Bluemling, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government since 1995 has carried out programs for the construction of household biogas digesters in the Chinese countryside. Despite the large governmental spending in the building of household biogas digesters, only 12.16% of the households suitable to produce and use biogas, have built a digester (Li, 2009). This article asks which factors on the household level may be important for the decision whether or not to build a biogas digester. Based on a survey with 1227 households from Guangxi, Hubei, Shandong and Gansu provinces, results of a binary Probit Model show that the governmental promotion of biogas has a significant effect on households’ decision. The question arises which households may, if governmental programs were to be running out, be most likely to construct a household biogas digester? The household head′s age, the number of household members staying at home, the total household income and the subjective discount rate of the respondents are significant factors in a farm household′s decision to build a biogas digester. However, also agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive, which is why technical solutions for tackling the low productivity of biogas digesters in cold regions may need to be further considered. - Highlights: • A binary Probit Model is used to test important factors of household biogas implementation in rural China. • The analysis is based on a survey of 1227 households from four provinces. • The promotion of government has very big and significant effects on household′s decision-making. • The agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive. • Many household characteristics including the subjective discount rate are significant factors

  6. China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people: survey methods, baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Peto, Richard; Wu, Fan; Li, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Large blood-based prospective studies can provide reliable assessment of the complex interplay of lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors as determinants of chronic disease. The baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank took place during 2004-08 in 10 geographically defined regions, with collection of questionnaire data, physical measurements and blood samples. Subsequently, a re-survey of 25,000 randomly selected participants was done (80% responded) using the same methods as in the baseline. All participants are being followed for cause-specific mortality and morbidity, and for any hospital admission through linkages with registries and health insurance (HI) databases. Overall, 512,891 adults aged 30-79 years were recruited, including 41% men, 56% from rural areas and mean age was 52 years. The prevalence of ever-regular smoking was 74% in men and 3% in women. The mean blood pressure was 132/79 mmHg in men and 130/77 mmHg in women. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.4 kg/m(2) in men and 23.8 kg/m(2) in women, with only 4% being obese (>30 kg/m(2)), and 3.2% being diabetic. Blood collection was successful in 99.98% and the mean delay from sample collection to processing was 10.6 h. For each of the main baseline variables, there is good reproducibility but large heterogeneity by age, sex and study area. By 1 January 2011, over 10,000 deaths had been recorded, with 91% of surviving participants already linked to HI databases. This established large biobank will be a rich and powerful resource for investigating genetic and non-genetic causes of many common chronic diseases in the Chinese population.

  7. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ka; Du, Shufa; Xun, Pengcheng; Sharma, Sangita; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry

    2011-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action. The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight. Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective open-cohort, ongoing nationwide health and nutrition survey, consisting of 10,095 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18-65 y at entry from 1991 to 2006. Diet, including MSG and other condiments, was assessed with a weighed food inventory in combination with three 24-h recalls. Incident overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) ≥ 25 or ≥23 based on World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate change in BMI, and Cox regression models with gamma shared frailty were used to determine the incidence of overweight. The mean follow-up was 5.5 y. The cumulative mean (±SD) MSG intake of 2.2 ± 1.6 g/d was positively associated with BMI after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects at different levels (individual, household, and community). The adjusted hazard ratio of overweight was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.75; P for trend total energy intake, and other major lifestyle factors. MSG consumption was positively, longitudinally associated with overweight development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.

  8. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shufa; Xun, Pengcheng; Sharma, Sangita; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action. Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight. Design: Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective open-cohort, ongoing nationwide health and nutrition survey, consisting of 10,095 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 y at entry from 1991 to 2006. Diet, including MSG and other condiments, was assessed with a weighed food inventory in combination with three 24-h recalls. Incident overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ≥ 25 or ≥23 based on World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate change in BMI, and Cox regression models with gamma shared frailty were used to determine the incidence of overweight. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.5 y. The cumulative mean (±SD) MSG intake of 2.2 ± 1.6 g/d was positively associated with BMI after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects at different levels (individual, household, and community). The adjusted hazard ratio of overweight was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.75; P for trend < 0.01) for participants in the highest quintile of MSG intake compared with those in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other major lifestyle factors. Conclusions: MSG consumption was positively, longitudinally associated with overweight development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:21471280

  9. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-06-01

    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Migration in the urban-rural hierarchy of China: insights from the microdata of the 1987 National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Liaw, K L; Zeng, Y

    1997-04-01

    Microdata from the 1987 National Population Survey are used to analyze internal migration in China in the 1980s. The focus is on the impact of migration policies on rural-urban migration. "There are two main findings. First, although the migration policy resulted in a very low migration level and systematic distortions in migration schedules, its encouragement of downward migrations was very ineffective, whereas its control on rural-to-urban migrations was partially weakened by the strong upward aspirations of rural families awakened by recent economic reform. Consequently, net in-migration contributed substantially to the growth both of city and of town populations. Second, although the level of education had a strong positive effect on the migration propensities both of males and of females in general, it had a strong negative effect on the migration propensities of females at the time of marriage, a finding which suggests that the families at subsistence income level tended to marry their daughters to grooms in other communities in order to reduce the risk of familial income shortfalls." excerpt

  11. Family characteristics and the use of maternal health services: a population-based survey in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xue, Chengbing; Wang, Youjie; Zhang, Liuyi; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the benefits of maternal health services, these services are often underutilized, especially in the developing countries. The aim of the present study is to provide insight regarding factors affecting maternal health services use from the family perspective. We use data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Jiangsu province of Eastern China to investigate the effect of family characteristics on the use of maternal health services. Family characteristics included whether or not living with parents, age of husband, husband's education, and husband's work status as well as family economic status. Demographic variables, social and environmental factors, and previous reproductive history were taken as potential confounders. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the independent effects of the family characteristic variables on maternal health service utilization. The data indicate that the percentages of prenatal care, postnatal visits and hospital delivery were 85.44, 65.12 and 99.59 % respectively. Living with parents was associated with less use of prenatal care and husband's age, education and employment status had no effect on the use of prenatal care after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Our findings suggest that maternal health education (especially the role of prenatal care) needs to be extended beyond the expectant mothers themselves to their parents and husbands. The difference of health care delivery as a result of traditional family culture may highlight the differences in factors influencing the use of postnatal visits and those influencing the use of prenatal care; which may be worthy of further study.

  12. A primary liver cancer death's survey and risk factors analysis of the workers in China nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shouchen; Chang Xuezhang; Gao Zenglin; Xiong Jinlian; Zhang Xuzong; Zhang Zhongren

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate primary liver cancer death in the workers of China nuclear industry and to discuss the risk factors probably for making protection and cure measures, the workers of 11 units are surveyed from the time of foundation to the end of 1990 by groups, trades and sex, and the results are analyzed with the relevant physical examinations, the results in laboratory test, and some clinic epidemiological data concerned. The accumulative rough mortality is 19.20 x 10 -5 , standard mortality 10.09 x 10 -5 , the most is at the age of 35 to 54. SMR 1.00 (P > 0.05), RR value in uranium mines is 3.67 (P < 0.01) and others does not increase. The incidence of hepatomegalia and GPT rising are lower than or about 10%, while the incidence of HBsAg is lower than 8%, a middle-levelled infection in the country. And HBsAg incidence in liver cancer cases is 61.6% and chronic hepatitis in liver cancer cases is 53.4%. The liver cancer case increase in the workers in nuclear industry is not found, but significant increase is found in uranium mine workers; whereas there is no evidence that can be attributed to radiation operation, and the death risk may be considered mainly to be related to HBV infection, then chronic hepatitis or environment factors

  13. Adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with uterine fibroids in China: A multicenter survey involving 112,403 deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Liying; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Yi; Li, Changdong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the association between uterine fibroids and adverse obstetric outcomes. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 112,403 deliveries from 14 provinces and 39 different hospitals in 2011 in mainland China. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with and without uterine fibroids who underwent detailed second trimester obstetric ultrasonography during 18 to 22 weeks. Obstetric outcomes include cesarean delivery, breech presentation, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes and neonatal birthweight. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Of 112,403 women who underwent routine obstetric survey, 3,012 (2.68%) women were identified with at least 1 fibroid. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the presence of uterine fibroids was significantly associated with cesarean delivery (Adjusted odds radio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.0), breech presentation (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4). The size of uterine fibroids and location in uterus had important effect on the mode of delivery. The rates of PPH were significantly higher with increasing size of the uterine fibroid (Pobstetric outcomes through different ways. Such detailed information may be useful in risk-stratifying pregnant women with fibroids.

  14. Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling-ling; Wang, Yu-xia; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Bian, Che; Wang, He; Du, Shufa; Suo, Lin-na

    2014-11-01

    This study examines gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in Chinese. Based on a nationwide, population-based China Health and Nutrition survey this study included 8564 men and women aged 18 years or older. Anthropometric and fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, and transferrin data were collected. Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55 ± 3.6 versus 80.46 ± 1.64 ng/mL, p obesity, and overweight were 8.05, 8.97, 4.67, 25.88% among men and 14.23, 6.58, 5.81, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p gender difference in associations between ferritin and MetS, obesity, and diabetes in Chinese adults. Further evaluations of the variation in gender on these associations are warranted to understand the mechanisms behind gender differences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Social and psychological survey on paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patients in China

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    Wo-tu TIAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD is a rare involuntary movement disorder characterized by transient and recurrent dystonic or choreoathetoid attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movements. Since 2011, progress in genetics and pathophysiology has been made. Our study aimed to investigate and analyze the characteristics of social behavior, quality of life and related factors in patients with PKD in China. Methods A cross.sectional study was conducted regarding health.related behaviors in 188 patients with PKD by using the Chinese Version of Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 (WHOQoL -100 questionnaires. Psychometric symptoms, mental health, quality of life and related factors were all investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 120 valid questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Compared with Chinese norm, patients with PKD showed significantly higher scores in global severity index (GSI, P = 0.000 and SCL-90 scores (somatization, obsessive . compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism; P = 0.000, for all. Patients with PKD also showed significantly lower scores than Chinese norm in general quality of life (P = 0.000 and four domains of WHOQoL -100 (physiological domain, psychological domain, independence domain, social relationship domain; P = 0.000, for all. Pearson and partial correlation analysis showed that quality of life of PKD patients was in positive correaltion with complex PKD and remission (P = 0.016, 0.000, while was in negative correaltion with somatization, obsessive.compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism (P = 0.000, for all. The results of multiple linear regresssion analysis showed that lower quality of life was in association with remission (P = 0.024 and depression (P = 0.000. The degree of impact was R2

  16. Insulin prices, availability and affordability: a cross-sectional survey of pharmacies in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Chaojie; Ewen, Margaret; Zhang, Zinan; Liu, Guoqin

    2017-08-24

    Poor access to affordable insulin results in serious and needless complications and premature deaths for those with diabetes who need this essential medicine. To help address this issue, we assessed insulin availability, prices, affordability and price components in Hubei Province as China has the heaviest burden of diabetes globally. In 2016, insulin availability and price data was collected in the capital and five other cities. A total of 30 public sector outlets (hospitals and primary care institutions) and 30 private pharmacies were sampled, using an adaptation of the World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology, Data was collected for all human and analogue insulins in stock, then analyzed by type (prandial, basal or pre-mixed) and duration of action. Prices were expressed as Median Price Ratios (MPRs) to Australian PBS prices. Price components were tracked for five insulin products in two cities.. Affordability was assessed as the number of days' wages of the lowest paid unskilled government worker needed to purchase 10 ml 100 IU/ml (approximately 30 days' supply). Mean availability was highest in public hospitals for prandial (70%), basal (80%) and pre-mixed insulin (90%). In primary care institutions and private pharmacies mean availability ranged from 10% to 33%. Median prices of all insulin types were higher that Australian PBS prices in all three sectors for human and analogue insulins (ranging from1.36-2.59 times). Patients have to pay 4 to 16 days' wages to purchase a month's treatment depending on the insulin type and sector. The largest component of the patient price was the manufacturers' selling price (60%). Taxes in the form of import duties and VAT are applied in some sectors. The availability of insulin in primary care institutions and private retail pharmacies was very low in Hubei. Only public hospitals had good insulin availability. Insulin prices were high in all sectors making this life-saving medicine unaffordable

  17. [Epidemiological survey and risk factor analysis of asthma in children in urban districts of Zhengzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Song, Gui-Hua; Gu, Hua-Qian; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan-Rong

    2014-12-01

    To study the epidemiological features, treatment status, and risk factors for asthma in children in Zhengzhou, China. Questionnaires for primary screening were issued using the method of multi-stage stratified sampling. Suspected asthmatic children were given a second questionnaire, physical examination, medical history review, and auxiliary examination to confirm the diagnosis. Age- and sex-matched non-asthmatic children were randomly recruited to the control group. The number of valid questionnaires was 10 616 (5 444 males and 5 172 females). There were 308 confirmed asthma cases and the overall prevalence was 2.90%. The prevalence in boys was higher than that in girls (3.4% vs 2.4%). The prevalence in children under 3 years of age was 10.2%, which was higher than that in other age groups. The top three triggers for asthma attack in children were respiratory infection (94.2%), weather changes (89.0%), and exercise (35.1%). The most common asthma attack was moderate (71.8%), followed by mild (22.7%). Inhaled corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics were applied to 94.8% (292 cases), 74.7% (230 cases), and 90.9% (280 cases) of all patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated the following major risk factors for asthma: history of allergic rhinitis (OR=150.285, 95% CI: 31.934-707.264), history of eczema (OR=10.600, 95% CI: 1.054-106.624), history of atopic dermatitis (OR=31.368, 95% CI: 3.339-294.683), food allergies (OR=27.373, 95% CI: 2.670-280.621), method of birth (OR=2.853, 95% CI: 1.311-6.208), age of first antibiotic use (OR=0.384, 95% CI: 0.172-0.857), frequency of antibiotic use within 1 year of age (OR=9.940, 95% CI: 6.246-15.820), use of wall decorating materials (OR=2.108, 95% CI: 1.464-3.036), and use of heat supply in winter (OR=6.046, 95% CI: 1.034-35.362). The prevalence of childhood asthma is associated with age and gender in Zhengzhou. Most asthma attacks are moderate, often triggered by

  18. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668

  19. [Changes on patterns of sleep duration: findings from China Health and Nutrition Survey in population in 9 provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D H; Du, S F; Chen, B Y; Liu, J W; Fu, Z X; Wang, H J

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the changes on patterns of sleep duration of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort in 9 provinces from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Four rounds of CHNS data were used. Urban/rural, age and gender specific insufficient sleeping rates and excessive sleeping rates were analyzed. Results: In 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, a total of 274, 281, 329 and 304 children aged 3-5 years; 874, 806, 768 and 742 children aged 6-12 years; 789, 529, 426 and 367 children aged 13-17 years; 9 568, 9 530, 9 942 and 9 609 adults aged ≥18 years were surveyed respectively. The lowest insufficient sleeping rate was 53.9 % (200/371) in 3-17 years old children in rural area in 2006, the highest insufficient sleeping rate was 77.2 % (44/57) in 3-5 years old children in urban area in 2004. The insufficient sleeping rate increased in rural 3-5 years old children from 2004 to 2011. For the adults aged ≥18 years, the insufficient sleeping rate ranged from 4.2 % (82/1 954) in females aged 18-44 years in 2004 and 2009 to 20.8 % (211/1 015) in urban residents aged > 60 years in 2011. The insufficient sleeping rate in age-groups 44-59 years and ≥60 years increased in both males and females and in both urban area and rural area from 2004 to 2011. The gender specific excessive sleeping rate in 3-17 years old children was very low in both urban area and rural area and no difference was found in different rounds of survey. The excessive sleeping rate in adults ranged from 18.4 % (569/3 093) in urban population in 2011 to 32.5 % (1 617/4 969) in females in 2004. The excessive sleeping rate of adult decreased from 2004 to 2011. Conclusion: We should pay attention to the fact that the insufficient sleeping rate in adolescents is high and in increase in rural 3-5 years old children and adults aged ≥45 years.

  20. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  1. A questionnaire survey on road rage and anger-provoking situations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yan; Peng, Zhongyi; Chen, Qun

    2018-02-01

    This paper surveys the reactions of Chinese drivers when encountering anger-provoking situations, including traffic congestion, pedestrians crossing the street illegally, being flashed by the high beams of cars traveling in the opposite direction, aberrant overtaking by other cars and when the car ahead drives slowly. A questionnaire survey found that 69.4% of participants wait when encountering traffic congestion and that 71% of drivers tolerate pedestrians crossing the street illegally; moreover, 61.3% of drivers are "angry but tolerant" when encountering aberrant overtaking. However, 51.3% of drivers become enraged when flashed by the high beams of cars traveling in the opposite direction, and 34.1% of participants turn on their own high beams to fight back. Moreover, 61.4% of participants are dissatisfied when the car ahead drives slowly or fails to move when a traffic light turns green, and 53% of participants honk or flash their lights to prompt the driver of the car ahead. The results show that males become irritated more easily than females in all situations, except those in which pedestrians cross the street illegally. Age is a factor only when drivers are flashed by high beams or overtaken by other cars illegally. Driving experience has an effect when drivers encounter traffic congestion, are flashed by high beams, or are overtaken by other cars illegally or when the car ahead drives slowly; novices with fewer than two years of driving experience display greater tolerance for these events. The occupation of a driver acts on his/her responses when he/she is overtaken by other cars illegally or flashed by high beams or when pedestrians cross the street illegally. For the most effective measures to prevent road rage, 53.64% of participants chose "plan the trip in advance", 57.14% chose "strengthen law enforcement", and 71.5% chose "improve public transportation". Females, young people, and novices pay more attention to these measures. Copyright © 2017

  2. Experience and levels of satisfaction with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in China: a prospective multicenter survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuping Zhao,1 Jihong Deng,2 Yan Wang,3 Shiliang Bi,4 Xiaoye Wang,5 Wen Qin,6 Zirong Huang,7 Li Li,8 Xin Mi,9 Liping Han,10 Qing Chang,11 Jian Li12 1The Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College Qingdao University, Qingdao, 2Kunming Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Kunming, 3Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan, 4West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 5Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 6Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, 7The Affiliated Women’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 8Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou, 9Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Shunyi District, Beijing, 10The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan, 11Southwest Hospital, Chongqing City, Chongqing, 12Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although surveys conducted in Western countries have shown that the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena® is well accepted by European women, its acceptance by Chinese women is not yet clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences and levels of satisfaction with Mirena among Chinese women living in 12 different cities. Methods: In total, 1,021 women who attended 21 medical centers for insertion of Mirena were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their contraceptive decision at baseline (preinsertion, and two further questionnaires on their experience and satisfaction with Mirena at 3–6 months and 1 year after insertion. Results: At baseline, 36% of women self-reported heavy or very heavy menstrual bleeding, while 41% reported normal bleeding. The majority of women (98% were satisfied with the preinsertion counseling, during which contraceptive reliability was identified as the most important reason for

  3. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Shelley, Mack; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-03-07

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design ( n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45). Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being ( p fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  4. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS with a cross-sectional study design (n = 7970, we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45. Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being (p < 0.05. However, respondents’ preferences regarding fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  5. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4% and apathy (45.0%. As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%. In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH.

  6. Assessing the evolution of scientific publications in orthopedics journals from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan: a 12-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Nong, Bingjin; Yang, Lijing; Zong, Shaohui; Zhan, Xinli; Wei, Qingjun; Xiao, Zengming

    2016-06-17

    In China, the field of orthopedics has experienced significant growth over the past 12 years. However, the recent status of research on orthopedics among individuals in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan is unknown. In this study, we investigated characteristics and trends of orthopedics publications from these three regions. Between 2003 and 2014, all articles published in 63 orthopedics journals originating from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan were identified via Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. A survey was conducted to systematically analyze the published orthopedics articles from the three regions according to the numbers of articles, study design, impact factors (IFs), citations, most prolific authors, and institutions. Additionally, we evaluated global trends in orthopedics publications, and ranked top 10 countries in terms of the total number of published articles over 12 years and the number of published articles per year. A total number of 123,317 articles were published in the 63 orthopedics journals between 2003 and 2014. The worldwide number of annually published orthopedics articles tended to increase during the study period. The total number of orthopedics publications from the three regions, especially in mainland China, increased markedly from 2003 to 2014. The annual number of orthopedics articles from mainland China increased from 6 in 2003 to 813 in 2014, Hong Kong increased from 32 in 2003 to 71 in 2014, and Taiwan increased from 68 in 2003 to 168 in 2014. For accumulated IFs and total citations of articles, mainland China ranked the first place, followed by Taiwan and Hong Kong. However, publications from Taiwan had the highest average citations per article, and publications from Hong Kong had the highest average IFs. Among the top 10 most prolific authors and institutions, 4 authors and 4 institutions were from Taiwan, 3 authors and 4 institutions were from mainland China, and 3 authors and 2 institutions were from

  7. [Constituent and workload of service providers engaged in cancer screening: findings and suggestions from a multi-center survey in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z X; Shi, J F; Lan, L; Mao, A Y; Huang, H Y; Lei, H K; Qiu, W Q; Dong, P; Zhu, J; Wang, D B; Liu, G X; Bai, Y N; Sun, X J; Liao, X Z; Ren, J S; Guo, L W; Zhou, Q; Yang, L; Song, B B; Du, L B; Zhu, L; Gong, J Y; Liu, Y Q; Ren, Y; Mai, L; Qin, M F; Zhang, Y Z; Zhou, J Y; Sun, X H; Wu, S L; Qi, X; Lou, P A; Cai, B; Zhang, K; He, J; Dai, M

    2018-03-10

    Objective: To understand the constituent and workload of service providers engaged in cancer screening in China and provide evidence for the assessment of the sustainability of national cancer screening project. Methods: Using either questionnaire or online approach, the survey was conducted in 16 provinces, where Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) was conducted, from 2014 to 2015. The medical institutes surveyed included hospitals [71.1% were class Ⅲ(A) hospitals], centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) and community centers where cancer screening was undertaken during 2013-2015. The questionnaire survey was conducted among the staffs responsible for the overall coordination, management and implementation of the screening project to collect the information about the allocation, workload and compensation of the service providers from different specialties. Results: A total of 4 626 staffs were surveyed in this study, their average age was (37.7±9.5) years, and males accounted for 31.0%. Human resources allocated differed with province. The number of senior staff ranged from 6 (Chongqing) to 43 (Beijing) among the 8 comparable provinces. Among the staffs surveyed, 2 192 were from hospitals, 431 were from CDCs and 1 990 were from community centers, and the staffs who complained heavy workload accounted for 19.9%, 24.6% and 34.1% respectively ( P management staffs and 3 908 staffs for implementation, those who complained heavy workload accounted for 23.6%, 22.3% and 28.2% respectively ( P human resources allocation indicated the differences in screening project's organizing pattern and capability. It is suggested to conduct routine cancer screening (using specialized staffs), reduce the workload of the first line and community staffs and increase the compensation for the service providers for the sustainability of cancer screening project in China.

  8. Job satisfaction and intention to leave: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Shanghai of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui; Zhang, Lingjuan; Ye, Wenqin; Zhu, Jianying; Cao, Jie; Lu, Xiaoying; Li, Fengping

    2012-01-01

    To explore nurses' views and experiences regarding job satisfaction and their intention to leave in Shanghai. The widespread nursing shortage and nurses' high turnover rate has become a global issue. Job satisfaction is the most consistent predictor of nurses' intention to leave and has been reported as explaining most of the variance on their intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample of nurses was recruited from 19 large general hospitals in Shanghai and the research assistants distributed 2850 questionnaires to nurses. The response rate of this study was 78·95%, and 2250 nurses completed the questionnaire. Regarding the overall job satisfaction, 50·2% nurses were dissatisfied and 40·4% nurses reported that they had intention to leave the current employment. Respondents' characteristics had an impact on job satisfaction and their intention to leave. The results showed that age, marital status, work experience, overall job satisfaction, job satisfaction: extrinsic rewards, interaction, praise/recognition and control/responsibility were significant factors contributing to nurses' intention to leave. The finding may be a cause of concern for hospital management and highlights the importance of the two concepts (job satisfaction and intention to leave) in Shanghai. Innovative and adaptable managerial interventions need to be taken to improve nurses' job satisfaction and to strengthen their intention to stay. Our findings outline some issues contributing to these problems and provide nurse administrators with information regarding specific influences on nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave in Shanghai and innovative and adaptable managerial interventions that are needed. Our findings may also provide direction for nurse managers and healthcare management to implement strategies to improve nurses' job satisfaction and their intention to stay. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A completive survey study on the feasibility and adaptation of EVs in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lishan; Huang, Yuchen; Liu, Shuli; Chen, Yanyan; Yao, Liya; Kashyap, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EVs have been greatly developed with a series of encouraging policies. • The maxi mileages and braking performance still needs further improvement. • More residential and public charging piles should be in the plan and design. • APP oriented information of charging station need to be researched and developed. - Abstract: The private motor vehicles are significantly important means of transportation in modern lifestyle, however, these also contribute to a large proportion of the total air pollution and primary energy consumption. In order to develop green transportation system, it becomes imperative to use integrated technologies to achieve reduced emissions and utilize renewable energy. Electric vehicles (EVs) have been considered as one of these technologies to transform the traditional vehicle mix. However, the uptake of EV has been debated on factors like cost, performance (autonomous mileage), charging point infrastructure construction, energy saving, policy and end users’ adaptation. Present study investigates the technology feasibility (which usually refer to EVs’ cost, EV charging, supplier’s customer services quality, EV travel performance) and users’ adaptation of EV in Beijing, which is a key driver for the EV uptake into the Beijing transportation system. The relevant data have been collected and analyzed in the form of questionnaire survey around all of these factors. While considering the user perception and satisfaction, safety of charging and energy bills have also been investigated. According to the data analysis, it has been found the policy of ‘No traffic restrictions for EVs’ (the traffic restrictions means for certain date, from Monday to Friday the motor vehicles with the last register number of 1 and 6, 2 and 7, 3 and 8, 4 and 9, 5 and 0, are restricted to travel, respectively), the availability of the charging infrastructure and technical support are the most significant factors affecting the users

  10. Prevalence of macrosomia and its risk factors in china: a multicentre survey based on birth data involving 101,723 singleton term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Kong, Lijun; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Li; Fan, Ling; Zou, Liying; Chen, Yi; Ruan, Yan; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Macrosomia, defined as a birthweight at least 4000 g, is a public health problem because of its adverse influences on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Studies show that there is an increasing prevalence of macrosomia births in developing countries. However, information on the epidemiology of macrosomia is limited in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and geographic variability of macrosomia in China and risk factors that can be targeted for intervention. A hospital-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 14 provinces in China, covering a wide range of geographic areas. The medical records of 101,723 singleton term infants born in 39 hospitals during 2011 were reviewed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between demographic characteristics and the risk of macrosomia. The total prevalence of macrosomia was 7.3%. The prevalence varied between provinces, ranging from 4.1% to 13.4%. The prevalence of macrosomia in northern China (8.5%) was significantly higher than that in southern China (5.6%). Logistic regression analyses showed that risk of macrosomia was positively associated with maternal age, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), gravidity, parity, maternal height, gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and male fetal sex. Maternal BMI, gestational week, and GWG were the three risk factors most strongly associated with macrosomia. The prevalence of macrosomia varied dramatically between different areas of China. High pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG represent main modifiable risk factors for macrosomia and need more attention from health care providers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The associations between family characteristics and depressive symptoms in older adults: a community-based survey in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanhong; Wen, Xiaopiao; Guan, Chaoping; Wang, Zhiqing; Liang, Yuan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the associations between family characteristics and depressive symptoms, and provide new evidence and recommendations for prevention and intervention in the depressive symptoms of older adults. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted door-to-door, utilizing a sample of 1,317 individuals aged 60 years and above in rural China. The five family characteristic variables recorded were: living with spouse, living with descendant, support of family members, self-reported family economic status in the previous year, and family-related negative life events that occurred anytime in the past with a continuous psychological effect during the past 12 months. Gender, age, years of schooling, and self-rated physical health status were taken as potential confounders. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine independent effects on depressive symptoms. In addition to the potential confounders, only family-related negative life events, support of family members, and self-reported family economic status had significant effects on depressive symptoms in older adults. Experiencing a family-related negative life event was the most significant variable (OR = 11.70, 95% CI: 7.72-17.73), the second was support of family members (OR = 6.93, 95% CI: 3.26-14.70), while family economic status was less important than support of family members (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.08-5.25). This study, from the perspective of family characteristics on depressive symptoms in older adults, showed a strong correlation between being exposed to harmful family environments and depressive symptoms among the elderly. Efforts to address family risk factors and strengthen family cohesiveness deserve a higher priority, given the importance of these factors, compared with other efforts such as promoting economic development.

  12. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45–53 Years Old: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537 reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05. Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05. In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in

  13. Survey on Tuberculosis Patients in Rural Areas in China: Tracing the Role of Stigma in Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minlan; Markström, Urban; Lyu, Juncheng; Xu, Lingzhong

    2017-10-04

    Depressed patients had risks of non-adherence to medication, which brought a big challenge for the control of tuberculosis (TB). The stigma associated with TB may be the reason for distress. This study aimed to assess the psychological distress among TB patients living in rural areas in China and to further explore the relation of experienced stigma to distress. This study was a cross-sectional study with multi-stage randomized sampling for recruiting TB patients. Data was collected by the use of interviewer-led questionnaires. A total of 342 eligible and accessible TB patients being treated at home were included in the survey. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Experienced stigma was measured using a developed nine-item stigma questionnaire. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the variables related to distress, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to present the strength of the associations. Finally, the prediction of logistic model was assessed in form of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). According to the referred cut-off point from K10, this study revealed that 65.2% (223/342) of the participants were categorized as having psychological distress. Both the stigma questionnaire and the K10 were proven to be reliable and valid in measurement. Further analysis found that experienced stigma and illness severity were significant variables to psychological distress in the model of logistic regression. The model was assessed well in predicting distress by use of experienced stigma and illness severity in form of ROC and AUC. Rural TB patients had a high prevalence of psychological distress. Experience of stigma played a significant role in psychological distress. To move the barrier of stigma from the surroundings could be a good strategy in reducing distress for the patients and TB

  14. Welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction of Chinese physicians: A national survey of public tertiary hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Ma, Jing; Hu, Guangyu; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Changzheng; Si, Wen; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-07-01

    Little national data are available on Chinese physicians' welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction. We conducted a self-administered smartphone-based national survey in early 2016 of 17 945 physicians from 136 tertiary hospitals across 31 provinces in China. In addition to collecting the physicians' basic information, we also measured 5 domains (the ethical and working environments, welfare, wellness, and job satisfaction). Half of the physicians reported a hospital-based annual income of less than RMB 72 000 ($10 300), and 60.31% of them did not think that the current medical pricing system reflects physicians' value. More than half (58.64%) of them did not have or did not know about medical malpractice insurance. These physicians worked long hours (an average of 10 h) and slept short hours (average 6 h). Only 35.78% of them thought that they were in good health, and 51.03% were in good mental health. Approximately, a quarter of them had helped to pay medical bills for patients who could not afford care, and 1 in 7 has been penalised for seeing patients who generated bad debts. Only 33.42% of them thought that their occupation receives social recognition and respect, and 70.98% would not encourage their children to pursue a medical career. The top 3 factors that may influence physician job satisfaction as chosen by the physicians were as follows: (1) the income distribution policy (45.92%), (2) working environment safety (25.86%), and (3) public trust and respect for their job (16.10%). In conclusion, we found that Chinese physicians bear heavy physical, mental, and financial stress, and many of them lack confidence that they receive trust and respect from society. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with uterine fibroids in China: A multicenter survey involving 112,403 deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhao

    Full Text Available To estimate the association between uterine fibroids and adverse obstetric outcomes.This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 112,403 deliveries from 14 provinces and 39 different hospitals in 2011 in mainland China. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with and without uterine fibroids who underwent detailed second trimester obstetric ultrasonography during 18 to 22 weeks. Obstetric outcomes include cesarean delivery, breech presentation, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes and neonatal birthweight. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.Of 112,403 women who underwent routine obstetric survey, 3,012 (2.68% women were identified with at least 1 fibroid. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the presence of uterine fibroids was significantly associated with cesarean delivery (Adjusted odds radio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.0, breech presentation (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5 and postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4. The size of uterine fibroids and location in uterus had important effect on the mode of delivery. The rates of PPH were significantly higher with increasing size of the uterine fibroid (P<0.001. And the location of fibroid (intramural, submucosal or subserosal also have a statistically significant impact on the risk of PPH (5.6% [subserosal] vs 4.7% [submucosal] vs 8.6% [intramural].Pregnant women with uterine fibroids are at increased risk for cesarean delivery, breech presentation and postpartum hemorrhage. And different characteristics of uterine fibroids affect obstetric outcomes through different ways. Such detailed information may be useful in risk-stratifying pregnant women with fibroids.

  16. Disease burden of community acquired pneumonia among children under 5 y old in China: A population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; An, Zhijie; Yin, Dapeng; Liu, Yanmin; Huang, Zhuoying; Ma, Yujie; Li, Hui; Li, Qi; Wang, Huaqing

    2017-07-03

    To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012. The overall incidence of clinically diagnosed pneumonia in children under 5 y old was 2.55%. The incidence in urban area was 7.97%, higher than that in rural areas (1.68%). However, no difference was found in the incidences of chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia between urban and rural areas (1.67% vs 1.23%). X-ray confirmed cases in rural and urban areas respectively accounted for 73.45% and 20.93% of all clinically diagnosed pneumonia. The hospitalization rate of all cases was 1.40%. Incidence and hospitalization rate of pneumonia decreased with age, with the highest rates found among children younger than one year and the lowest among children aged 4 (incidence: 4.25% vs 0.83%; hospitalization: 2.75% vs 0.36%). The incidence was slightly higher among boys (2.92% vs 2.08%). The total cost due to pneumonia for the participants was 1138 733 CNY. The average cost and median cost was 5722 CNY and 3540 CNY separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the only factor related to higher cost was hospitalization. The disease burden was high for children under 5 y old, especially the infant. PCV has not been widely used among children, and thus further health economics evaluation on introducing PCV into National Immunization Program should be conducted.

  17. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL. A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old, were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China.

  18. Price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand during urbanization: An empirical analysis based on the household-level survey data in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, one of the most obvious characteristics of economic growth in China, has an apparent “lock-in effect” on residential energy consumption pattern. It is expected that residential sector would become a major force that drives China's energy consumption after urbanization process. We estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand using data from China's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS) that covers households at different income levels and from different regional and social groups. Empirical results from the Almost Ideal Demand System model are in accordance with the basic expectations: the demands for electricity, natural gas and transport fuels are inelastic in the residential sector due to the unreasonable pricing mechanism. We further investigate the sensitivities of different income groups to prices of the three types of energy. Policy simulations indicate that rationalizing energy pricing mechanism is an important guarantee for energy sustainable development during urbanization. Finally, we put forward suggestions on energy pricing reform in the residential sector based on characteristics of China's undergoing urbanization process and the current energy consumption situations.

  19. Patterns and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban and rural China: a community-based survey of 25 000 adults across 10 regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Davis, Kourtney J; Hubert Lam, Kin Bong; Guo, Yu; Vaucher, Julien; Bennett, Derrick; Wang, Jenny; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Li, Liming; Clarke, Robert; Chen, Zhengming

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide, with COPD deaths in China accounting for one-third of all such deaths. However, there is limited available evidence on the management of COPD in China. A random sample of 25 011 participants in the China Kadoorie Biobank, aged 38-87 years, from 10 regions in China was surveyed in 2013-2014. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires on the diagnosis ('doctor-diagnosed' or 'symptoms-based') and management of COPD (including use of medication and other healthcare resources), awareness of diagnosis and severity of symptoms in COPD cases. Overall, 6.3% of the study population were identified as COPD cases (doctor-diagnosed cases: 4.8% and symptom-based cases: 2.4%). The proportion having COPD was higher in men than in women (7.9% vs 5.3%) and varied by about threefold (3.7%-10.0%) across the 10 regions. Among those with COPD, 54% sought medical advice during the last 12 months, but management were limited.

  20. [Survey on fungi contamination and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in 94 corn feed ingredients collected from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X M; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Xu, W J; Liu, D; Jiang, T; Xu, J; Li, F Q

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate fungi contamination and the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn feed ingredients collected from China. Methods: A total of 94 corn feed ingredient samples were collected from 8 Chinese provinces(i.e., Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong)in February 2014. A tandem ultra-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was used for simultaneous detection of twelve kinds of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin(AF), type A and type B tricothecenes, and zearalenone(ZEN). Contaminated fungi were also identified and counted. Results: AF was detected in 36.2%(34/94)of samples; the concentration of AFB 1 was the highest in the four AFs with the range: 0.3~181.3 μg/kg; and then followed by AFB 2 (range: 1.0-74.3 μg/kg). There were 7 samples(7.5%)with AFB 1 concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 50 μg/kg. The concentration of type A tricothecenes in all samples was lower(0.1-10.5 μg/kg). DON had the most serious contamination than other kind of type B tricothecenes(range: 0.7-606.6 μg/kg; median: 66.3 μg/kg). The DON concentration in all samples was below the tolerance limit of 1 000 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 76.6%(72/ 94)of samples(median: 36.9 μg/kg), with 3 samples having ZEN concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 500 μg/kg. The survey on fungi contamination showed that all samples were contaminated by fungi(range: 5.0-1.4×10 5 CFU/g). There were 18 and 3 samples with quantities of fungi higher than the tolerance and forbidden limits, respectively. The Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Trichoderma and Mucor genuses were the predominant fungi in corn feed ingredients, with detection rates of 71.3%(67), 60.6%(57), 71.3%(67), 27.7%(26), and 24.5%(23), respectively. The detection rate of Fusarium moniliforme , 73.4%(69/94)was higher than that of Aspergillus flavus , 41.5%(39/94). Conclusion: In this survey, the corn feed ingredients were not seriously

  1. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenyi Shao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation.

  2. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G W K; Mahesh, P A; Ogorodova, L; Leung, T F; Fedorova, O; Holla, A D; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Clare Mills, E N; Kummeling, I; van Ree, R; Yazdanbakhsh, M; Burney, P

    2010-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for studies in the European Union. The epidemiological surveys of the project were designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy and to compare the data with different European countries. Random samples of primary schoolchildren were recruited from urban and rural regions of China, Russia and India for screening to ascertain possible adverse reactions to foods. Cases and controls were then selected to answer a detailed questionnaire designed to evaluate the possible risk factors of food allergies. Objective evidence of sensitisation including skin-prick test and serum specific IgE measurement was also collected. More than 37 000 children from the three participating countries have been screened. The response rates for the screening phase ranged from 83% to 95%. More than 3000 cases and controls were studied in the second phase of the study. Further confirmation of food allergies by double blind food challenge was conducted. This will be the first comparative study of the epidemiology of food allergies in China, India, and Russia using the same standardized methodology. The findings of these surveys will complement the data obtained from Europe and provide insights into the development of food allergy.

  3. The effect of prenatal education curriculum on mother's prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode and recovery status: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Dongxu; Yuan, Yanfei; Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Qingqi; Chang, Chun

    2015-11-01

    To examine the participation, implementation, and effect of the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals in China, and to provide evidence for the improvement of prenatal education. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the hospitals in Hunan Province, China. Mothers aged 20-45 years who had given birth between 1 May 2011 and 1 May 2012 and not diagnosed with pregnancy-related complications were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to examine the effect of prenatal education curriculum on prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode, and recovery status from delivery. Among the total 604 respondents, only 175 (29.1 %) surveyed mothers participated in prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals during their latest delivery. These mothers had a higher rate of attending all the required prenatal examinations (57.9 vs. 48.3 %), and a higher rate of recovering very well and well (80 vs. 73.7 %) from the latest delivery, than those who did not participate in prenatal education curriculum (P curriculum provided by hospitals. Prenatal education is indispensable for the improvement of maternal and child health, and thus should be advocated. In China, a standard and convenient specification prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals and their doctors is appropriated for providing prenatal education to pregnant women.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  5. Effectiveness of Adherence to Standardized Hypertension Management by Primary Health Care Workers in China: a Cross-sectional Survey 3 Years after the Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Jing Lei; Zhang, Xiao Chang; Liu, Dan; Shi, Wen Hui; Liang, Xiao Feng; Wu, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The standardized hypertension management provided by primary health care workers is an important part of China's recent health care reform efforts. Investigating 5,116 hypertensive patients from a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, this study found that adherence to standardized hypertension management is associated with positive effects on hypertension- related knowledge, healthy lifestyle behavior, antihypertensive medical treatments, and blood pressure control. It will be necessary to provide primary health care workers with sufficient training and reasonable incentives to ensure the implementation and effectiveness of hypertension management. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  7. The Prevalence and Correlates of Frailty in Urban and Rural Populations in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Prina, A Matthew; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velasquez, Ivonne Z; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Prince, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India. We assessed weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low energy consumption, but not hand grip strength. Therefore, frailty phenotype was defined on 2 or more of 4 of the usual 5 criteria. We surveyed 17,031 adults aged 65 years and over. Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (95% confidence inteval 14.6%-15.7%). Prevalence was low in rural (5.4%) and urban China (9.1%) and varied between 12.6% and 21.5% in other sites. A similar pattern of variation was apparent after direct standardization for age and sex. Cross-site variation in prevalence of frailty indicators varied across the 4 indicators. Controlling for age, sex, and education, frailty was positively associated with older age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia, disability and dependence, and high healthcare costs. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of frailty and its indicators across sites in Latin America, India, and China. Culture and other contextual factors may impact significantly on the assessment of frailty using questionnaire and physical performance-based measures, and achieving cross-cultural measurement invariance remains a challenge. A consistent pattern of correlates was identified, suggesting that in all sites, the frailty screen could identify older adults with multiple physical, mental, and cognitive morbidities, disability and needs for care, compounded by socioeconomic disadvantage and catastrophic healthcare spending. Copyright © 2017. Published

  8. Distribution and Risk Factors of Disability Attributed to Personality Disorders: A National Cross-sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability attributed to personality disorders is low in China and always leads to mild disability. The distribution of disability attributed to personality disorders also varies in the Chinese population.

  9. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  10. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Lu; Xie, Yaojie; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-27

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error ( SE ) = 0.016, p women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = -0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035), and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = -0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.42-0.74). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy ( OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). Conclusions: The high prevalence rate of prolonged TV, computer, and mobile phone viewing times was common for pregnant women in their first and second pregnancy. This study preliminarily explored the relationship between

  11. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  12. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error (SE = 0.016, p < 0.001 and computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.053, SE = 0.022, p = 0.015. Pregnant women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001 and long computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.049, SE = 0.020, p = 0.015 were likely have long mobile phone viewing times. Pregnant women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = −0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035, and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = −0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.42–0.74. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (OR 1.25, 95

  13. Hospital-acquired infection rate in a tertiary care teaching hospital in China: a cross-sectional survey involving 2434 inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Bin Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A single-day hospital-acquired infections (HAIs point prevalence study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in China. The overall prevalence rate of HAIs was 3.53% (95% confidence interval 2.80–4.26% among 2434 inpatients surveyed. Respiratory system infection was the most common type of HAI (49.43%, followed by surgical site infection (22.99%. The pathogen detection results for 50 patients showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to account for 24.00% of isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.00% and Escherichia coli (14.00%.

  14. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptions of malaria control and prevention in an era of climate change: a cross-sectional survey among CDC staff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-31

    Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change. A majority (79.8%) of CDC staff were concerned about climate change and 79.7% believed the weather was becoming warmer. Most participants (90.3%) indicated climate change had a negative effect on population health, 92.6 and 86.8% considered that increasing temperatures and precipitation would influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases including malaria. About half (50.9%) of the surveyed staff indicated malaria had re-emerged in recent years, and some outbreaks were occurring in new geographic areas. The main reasons for such re-emergence were perceived to be: mosquitoes in high-density, numerous imported cases, climate change, poor environmental conditions, internal migrant populations, and lack of health awareness. This study found most CDC staff endorsed the statement that climate change had a negative impact on infectious disease transmission. Malaria had re-emerged in some areas of China, and most of the staff believed that this can be managed. However, high densities of mosquitoes and the continuous increase in imported cases of malaria in local areas, together with environmental changes are bringing about critical challenges to malaria control in China. This study contributes to an understanding of climate change related perceptions of malaria control and prevention amongst CDC staff. It may help to formulate in-house training guidelines, community health promotion

  16. Experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in a national general population health survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sun; Chen, Jiaying; Kind, Paul; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang; Burström, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of deriving experience-based visual analogue scale (VAS) values for EQ-5D-3L health states using national general population health survey data in China. The EQ-5D-3L was included in the National Health Services Survey (n = 120,709, aged 15-103 years) to measure health-related quality of life. The respondents reported their current health status on a VAS and completed the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, enabling modelling of the association between the experience-based VAS values and self-reported problems on EQ-5D dimensions and severity levels. VAS values were generally negatively associated with problems reported on the EQ-5D dimensions, and the anxiety/depression dimension had the greatest impact on VAS values. A previously obtained value for dead allowed the values for all 243 EQ-5D-3L health states to be transformed to the 0-1 scale (0 = dead, 1 = full health). This study presents the feasibility of deriving an experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in China. The analysis of these VAS data raises more fundamental issues concerning the universal nature of the classification system and the extent to which Chinese respondents utilise the same concepts of health as defined by this classification system.

  17. A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD has yet to be investigated using the symptomatic threshold criteria recommended by the Montreal Definition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD across five regions of China, and to investigate variables associated with GERD. Methods A representative sample of 18 000 adults (aged 18-80 years were selected equally from rural and urban areas in each region (n = 1800. According to the Montreal Definition, GERD is present when mild symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥2 days a week, or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥1 day a week. Results In total, 16 091 participants completed the survey (response rate: 89.4% and 16 078 responses were suitable for analysis. Applying the Montreal criteria, the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD was 3.1% and varied significantly (p Conclusions This population-based survey found that the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD in China was 3.1%, which is lower than that found in Western countries.

  18. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p<0.05 for all. In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p<0.05 for all. Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients’ health.

  19. How the built environment affects change in older people's physical activity: A mixed- methods approach using longitudinal health survey data in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiling; Grady, Sue C; Chen, Guo

    2017-11-01

    Although the general population in China is physically active, only 45% of older adults meet the World Health Organization's recommendation for weekly moderate-to-vigorous exercise, to achieve health benefits. This percentage is even lower (9.8%) in urban China. It is, therefore, important to understand the pathways by which physical activity behaviors are impacted by the built environment. This study utilized a mixed methods approach-interviews (n = 42) and longitudinal (2010-2015) health survey data (n = 3094) for older people residing in three neighborhoods in Huainan, a mid-sized city in Anhui Province, central eastern China. First, a content analysis of interview data was used to identify individual and built environment factors (motivators and barriers) that impacted physical activity within older people's activity spaces. Second, a multilevel path analysis was conducted using the health survey data to demonstrate the pathways by which these motivators and barriers contributed to the initiation, regulation, and maintenance of physical activity. This study found (a) that the liveliness of an apartment building and its proximity to functional spaces (fast-food stores, farmer's markets, supermarkets, pharmacies, schools, hospitals, PA facilities and natural and man-made water bodies) were important factors in attracting sedentary older people to initiate physical activity; (b) the social networks of apartment neighbors helped to initiate, regulate, and maintain physical activity; and housing closeness to functional spaces was important in maintaining physical activity, particularly for those older people with chronic diseases. To increase older people's overall physical activity, future interventions should focus on residential form and access to functional spaces, prior to investing in large-scale urban design interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Associated Behaviors, and Weight-related Perceptions in a National Survey of Primary School Children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhai, Yi; Feng, Xiao Qi; Li, Wei Rong; Lyu, Yue Bin; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhao, Peng Yu; Shi, Xiao Ming

    2018-01-01

    To in vestigate potential gender differences in the odds of overweight/obese, weight-related perceptions, and behaviors among Chinese school children. Height, weight, and a survey of weight-related perceptions and behaviors were measured in a nationally representative survey of 12,811 children in primary schools in China. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess gender differences, adjusting for confounders. Boys had higher odds of being overweight/obese compared to girls within both urban [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.65] and rural areas (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.20). Girls reported healthier diets (e.g., daily vegetables OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85) whereas boys consumed fried food (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.38) and sugar-sweetened drinks more often (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.65). Gender differences included higher odds of boys perceiving themselves as overweight if they had more highly educated mothers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68), less educated fathers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99), and if they frequently consumed carbonated drinks (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.05). Childhood obesity prevention in China should be gender-focused, particularly for boys who reported an unhealthier diet but were less likely to see they were fat, even though more boys were overweight or obese than girls. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of the collection and research of airborne radiometric survey data in China and opinions on their secondary development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baichuan

    1995-01-01

    The author comprehensively and emphatically introduces the status of the collection and research of airborne radiometric survey data and the important achievements obtained, and presents directive opinions on the secondary development of airborne gamma spectrometric survey data and materials

  2. Assessment of Intercultural Communicative Competence in FL Education: A Survey on EFL Teachers' Perception and Practice in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaole

    2016-01-01

    The intercultural approach to language teaching, intercultural communicative language teaching, has emerged in response to the limitations of communicative language teaching. As a result, the ultimate goal of foreign language (FL) education is being shifted from communicative competence to intercultural communicative competence (ICC). In China,…

  3. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiqing; Yin, Ping; Newman, Ian M; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F; Yuen, Lok-Wa

    2017-09-22

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People's Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV) compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  4. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu, either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People’s Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  5. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  6. A survey on the developmental intestinal microbiota research in China: The history, funding, and frontiers of gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui Min; Liu, Xiao Wei; Sun, Rui Juan; Fang, Jing Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Up to 100 trillion bacteria are harbored in the human intestine with a mutualistic and interdependent relationship with the host during a long period of co-evolution. The so-called intestinal microbiota (IM) fulfill important metabolic tasks and the impaired stability may lead to IM-related diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), metabolic syndrome (MS), liver diseases, and so on. Here, we review the past and development of IM research in China, including the achievements that Chinese researchers have made both in basic and clinical scientific field. Moreover, we evaluate the contributions of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the 973 National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), the 863 National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), and funds from the public health industry in the field of IM research. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yu Fang, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: The National Natural Science Fund (71103141/G0308, the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62, the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066, and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship.

  8. Perceived-Target-Language-Use Survey in the English Classrooms in China: Investigation of Classroom-Related and Institutional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Edith M. Y.; Fung, Irene Y. Y.; Liu, Lili; Huang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the extent and contexts of target language (TL) use in English language classrooms. Participants were 2,906 students from seven secondary schools and four universities in the more developed cities in southern China. They were put into five groups according to their educational stage and whether their content…

  9. The EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Identity: A Survey of "Zhuangang" and "Non-Zhuangang" Primary School Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Xiong, Xiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    "Zhuangang" (literally means "transferring post") English teachers, usually in the primary schools of rural areas in China, refer to the English teachers who used to teach school subjects other than English. Some of them may at the same time still teach other subjects in addition to English. They are a part of the solutions to…

  10. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality issues associated with vital registration of cause of death[3-5] and derived updated estimates of the levels and causes of mortality for 1997 - 2012 for 140 specific causes, 23 categories and four broad cause groups.[6] Estimates have been ...

  11. Expenditure and financial burden for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China: a hospital-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Yao; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Bai, Ya-Na; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Le; Song, Bing-Bing; Du, Ling-Bin; Zhu, Lin; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Yu-Qin; Cao, Rong; Mai, Ling; Lan, Li; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Ying; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Wang, Yuan-Zheng; Qi, Xiao; Lou, Pei-An; Shi, Dian; Li, Ni; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2017-04-28

    The increasing prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China and the paucity of information about relevant expenditure highlight the necessity of better understanding the financial burden and effect of CRC diagnosis and treatment. We performed a survey to quantify the direct medical and non-medical expenditure as well as the resulting financial burden of CRC patients in China. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey in 37 tertiary hospitals in 13 provinces across China between 2012 and 2014. Each enrolled patient was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. All expenditure data were inflated to the 2014 Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.163 USD). We quantified the overall expenditure and financial burden and by subgroup (hospital type, age at diagnosis, sex, education, occupation, insurance type, household income, clinical stage, pathologic type, and therapeutic regimen). We then performed generalized linear modeling to determine the factors associated with overall expenditure. A total of 2356 patients with a mean age of 57.4 years were included, 57.1% of whom were men; 13.9% of patients had stage I cancer; and the average previous-year household income was 54,525 CNY. The overall average direct expenditure per patient was estimated to be 67,408 CNY, and the expenditures for stage I, II, III, and IV disease were 56,099 CNY, 59,952 CNY, 67,292 CNY, and 82,729 CNY, respectively. Non-medical expenditure accounted for 8.3% of the overall expenditure. The 1-year out-of-pocket expenditure of a newly diagnosed patient was 32,649 CNY, which accounted for 59.9% of their previous-year household income and caused 75.0% of families to suffer an unmanageable financial burden. Univariate analysis showed that financial burden and overall expenditure differed in almost all subgroups (P financial burden varied among subgroups, especially among patients with different clinical stages of disease, which suggests that, in China, CRC screening might be cost-effective.

  12. Orthopedics research output from China, USA, UK, Japan, Germany and France: A 10-year survey of the literature.

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    Xin, Z; Jin, C; Zhengrong, G; Liehu, C; Weizong, W; Quan, L; Xiao, C; Jiacan, S

    2016-11-01

    In the past decade, researchers have made great progress in the field of Orthopedics. However, the research status of different countries is unclear. To summarize the number of published articles, we assessed the cumulative impact factors in top orthopedic journals. The aims of the study were to measure: 1) the quality and quantity of publications in orthopedics-related journals from China and other five counties, 2) the trend of the number of publications in orthopedics-related journals. The related journals were selected based on the 2014 scientific citation index (SCI) and articles were searched based on the PubMed database. To assess the quantity and quality of research output, the number of publications including clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, case reports, reviews, citations, impact factors, number of articles in the top 10 journals and most popular journals were recorded. A total of 143,138 orthopedics articles were published from 2005 to 2014. The USA accounts for 24.9% (35,763/143,138) of the publications, followed by UK (7878/143,138 (5.5%)), Japan (7133/143,138 (5.0%)), Germany (5942/143,138 (4.2%)), China (4143/143,138 (2.9%)) and France (2748/143,138 (1.9%)). The ranking for accumulated impact factors as follows: USA, UK, Japan, Germany, France and China. The mean impact factor's order is USA, China, Germany, Japan, France, UK, and interestingly the mean impact factors in Japan is similar to the Germany in 2005-2014. The USA had the highest percentage of articles in the top 10 journals, while China owns the least. The USA had the highest number of average citations, while Japan had lowest number of average citations. According to this study, we can conclude that the USA has had been leading the orthopedics research in the past 10 years. Although China still falls behind, it has made considerable progress in the orthopedics research, not only in quantity but also quality. IV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson

  13. Demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease in China: A multicenter survey from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dantao; Shi, Zhihong; Xu, Jun; Shen, Lu; Xiao, Shifu; Zhang, Nan; Li, Yi; Jiao, Jinsong; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuling; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Xiao; Gu, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Ce-Ce; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Bin; Tang, Beisha; Wang, Jinhuan; Yu, Tao; Ji, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. AD diagnosis, progression, and treatment have not been analyzed nationwide in China. The primary aim of this study was to analyze demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in AD patients treated at outpatient clinics in China.We performed a retrospective study of 1993 AD patients at 10 cognitive centers across 8 cities in China from March 2011 to October 2014. Of these, 891 patients were followed for more than 1 year.The mean age at diagnosis was 72.0 ± 10.0 years (range 38-96 years), and the mean age at onset of AD was 69.8 ± 9.5 years. Most patients (65.1%) had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination at diagnosis was 15.7 ± 7.7. AD patients showed significant cognitive decline at 12 months after diagnosis. Having more than 9 years of formal education was an independent risk factor related to rapid cognitive decline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.11-2.91]. Early-onset AD patients experienced more rapid cognitive decline than late-onset patients (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09-3.06).Most AD patients in China had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis and experienced significant cognitive decline within 1 year. Rapid cognitive decline in AD was related to having a higher educational level and younger age of onset.

  14. Pathological research output in China and other top-ranking countries: 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Wan, Xiaohua; Lu, Aiping; Li, Xianghong; Li, Jiyou

    2010-12-15

    The present study was designed to study the research output in pathology journals from the United States (USA), Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and China between 2000 and 2009. Articles published in 67 pathology-related journals were retrieved from the PubMed database. US-American publications, which rank first, accounted for 30.9% of the total world's output and for 35.4% in the top 10% journals with impact factor (IF) scores. Chinese publications accounted for 2.8% of a total of 67 journals, and for 2.0% in the top 10% journals with IF scores. Our analysis investigated the research output of these six countries and revealed a positive trend in China for the period 2000-2009. Also, in contrast to other top-ranking countries, our results imply that China's research in the field of pathology falls behind that of the developed countries, and appropriate steps should be taken to improve the role of pathologists in clinical activity and to gear up for high-quality pathological studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  16. Analysis of the causes and clinical characteristics of jejunoileal hemorrhage in China: a multicenter 10 year retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Da-lei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A retrospective study was performed to assess the causes, diagnostic methods for, and clinical features of, jejunoileal hemorrhage in Shandong province, China and to derive recommendations for management of this condition from these data. Methods We performed a retrospective systematic collection of data from between January 1999 and December 2008 in seven cities in Shandong province, China, identified 72 patients with jejunoileal hemorrhage and analyzed the relevant clinical data. Results Overall, tumors were the most common cause of jejunoileal hemorrhage (42 patients, 58.3%. The causes of this condition were significantly different (P  Conclusion Tumor, enteritis and angiopathy and diverticular disease are the most common causes of jejunoileal hemorrhage in Shandong province, China. The main clinical manifestations are bloody stools, most commonly in the form of melena, with or without abdominal pain. We recommend that female patients over the age of 40 with jejunoileal hemorrhage accompanied by abdominal pain should undergo urgent further assessment because of the strong probability of jejunoileal tumor.

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: a cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Min; Li, Xiu-De; Li, Xiang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Tong, Fei; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. All women were interviewed in the form of a standardized questionnaire. We found that 32.0% (16,800) of these women had had at least one induced abortion: 21.1% (11,090) of women had had one; 7.6% (3976) of women had had two; and 4.1% (1734) of women had had at least three. The number of induced abortions per 100 pregnancies was found to be 22.0. Multivariate analysis showed that education, the age of a woman at her first marriage, number of total births, number of total pregnancies, and contraceptive methods were significant predictors for induced abortion after controlling for women's current age, employment and family yearly income. The study shows that the prevalence of induced abortion is still very high among married women in rural China, and highly effective methods of contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device) decrease women's recourse to induced abortion. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Disease characteristics and management of hospitalised adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a retrospective multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Fei; Li, Hui; Xing, Xiqian; Han, Xiudi; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Chunxiao; Suo, Lijun; Wang, Jingxiang; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Guangqiang; Yao, Xuexin; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Xue, Chunxue; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yanli; Xiao, Ying; Cui, Xiaojing; Li, Lijuan; Uyeki, Timothy M; Wang, Chen; Cao, Bin

    2018-02-15

    To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. 13 teaching hospitals in northern, central and southern China from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 PARTICIPANTS: Information on hospitalised patients aged ≥14 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia with illness onset in the community was collected using standard case report forms. Resource use for CAP management. Of 14 793 patients screened, 5828 with radiographically confirmed CAP were included in the final analysis. Low mortality risk patients with a CURB-65 score 0-1 and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class I-II accounted for 81.2% (4434/5594) and 56.4% (2034/3609) patients, respectively. 21.7% (1111/5130) patients had already achieved clinical stability on admission. A definite or probable pathogen was identified only in 12.7% (738/5828) patients. 40.9% (1575/3852) patients without pseudomonal infection risk factors received antimicrobial overtreatment regimens. The median duration between clinical stability to discharge was 5.0 days with 30-day mortality of 4.2%. These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China. NCT02489578; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-06-05

    It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey. Heilongjiang Province, China. The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-02-22

    Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β -0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was -0.186 (pturnover intention was -0.094 (pjob satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention was -0.092 (pturnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Obesity and overweight prevalence and its association with undiagnosed hypertension in Shanghai population, China: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Xu, Jiying; Yao, Haihong; Guo, Yanfei; Chen, Minna; Lu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese subjects in the Shanghai population of China and its association with undiagnosed hypertension, by taking age, gender and place of residence (urban or suburban) into account. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 2007. The sample included 13,359 participants aged 15-69 years.Weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and information about gender, age and place of residence was obtained. Overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated by the body mass index (BMI) definition recommended by Working Group on Obesity in China (normal weight, 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 24-27.9 kg/m(2); obesity, ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Undiagnosed hypertension was defined by China criteria in accord with that of WHO-ISH (subjects with systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of overweight or obesity with undiagnosed hypertension by adjusting for age, gender and place of residence. The overall overweight, obesity, and undiagnosed hypertension prevalence were 27.6% (95% CI: 26.8-28.4), 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2-7.0), and 15.5% (95% CI: 14.9-16.1), respectively. Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects who were overweight and had hypertension was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.10-2.59); that for obesity and hypertension was 4.27 (95% CI: 3.66-4.99). These data suggest that overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with undiagnosed hypertension are high in our study population.

  3. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730

  4. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. Design and methods This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Setting and participants Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. Results P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β −0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was −0.186 (pturnover intention was −0.094 (pturnover intention was −0.092 (pturnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers. PMID:28399513

  5. Hematology oncology practice in the Asia-Pacific APHCON survey results from the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference: bridging the gap 2015, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao Jun; Liu, Kaiyan; Ritchie, David; Andersson, Borje; Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Burguera, Adolfo de la Fuente; Wang, JianXiang; Yeoh, Allen; Yan, Chenhua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Kim, Dong Wook; Wu, Depei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Kornblau, Stephen; Neelapu, Sattava; Hongeng, Suradej; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Hagemeister, Frederick; Westin, Jason; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Orlowski, Robert Z; Chim, Chor Sang; Mulligan, Stephen; Sanz, Miguel; Ozawa, Keiya; Parmar, Simrit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-06-20

    This report serves as a snapshot of the state-of-knowledge in the Asia Pacific (APAC) Hematology Oncology community, and establishes a baseline for longitudinal investigations to follow changes in best practices over time. The objective of this study was to understand the approach to hematologic diseases, common standards of care and best practices, issues that remain controversial or debated, and educational or resource gaps that warrant attention. We used mobile application to disseminate and distribute questionnaires to delegates during the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference hosted by the APAC Hematology Consortium at Beijing, China. User responses were collected in an anonymous fashion. We report survey results in two ways: the overall responses, and responses as stratified between Chinese physicians and "Other" represented nationalities. Overall geographical concordance in survey responses was positive and strong. Perhaps more interesting than instances of absolute agreement, these data provide a unique opportunity to identify topics in which physician knowledge or opinions diverge. We assigned questions from all modules to broad categories of: patient information; diagnosis; treatment preference; transplantation; and general knowledge/opinion. On average, we observed a geographic difference of 15% for any particular answer choice, and this was fairly constant across survey modules. These results reveal utility and need for widespread and ongoing initiatives to assess knowledge and provide evidence-based education in real time. The data will be made more valuable by longitudinal participation, such that we can monitor changes in the state of the art over time.

  6. Narrowing urban-suburban rural disparities in physical growth among children in China: findings from the 5th national survey in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have reported a narrowing tendency in urban-suburban rural differences for height, but almost no tendency of narrowing for weight in Chinese children between 1975-2005. To examine urban-suburban rural disparities for both height and weight in a recent 10-year period. A representative sample of 161,643 children under 7 years old was obtained from the 5th national survey conducted in urban and suburban rural areas of the nine cities in China in 2015. Trends in urban-suburban rural differences were assessed from 1975-2015. Generally, urban boys and girls were taller or heavier than their suburban rural counterparts. By 2015, there were almost no obvious differences for urban-suburban rural height differences for children under 3. Urban-suburban rural weight differences narrowed sharply in the 10-year period. There were no obvious differences for urban-suburban rural height differences among the 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles; however, the weight differences at the 97th percentile were larger than at the 50th percentile for children over 3. The narrowing urban-suburban rural disparities in China suggest the physical growth inequality may be eliminated, along with the sustained improvement of socioeconomic status and the acceleration of urbanisation process in suburban rural areas.

  7. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

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    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  8. Dietary Pattern during 1991-2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Shi, Zumin

    2017-11-06

    Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991-2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES). "Traditional" pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and "Modern" pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. "Traditional" pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from -0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.18, -0.12) for hypertension to -0.67 (95% CI: -0.73, -0.60) for impaired glucose control. "Modern" pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17) for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49) for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  9. Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES. “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.18, −0.12 for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60 for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17 for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49 for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  10. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-12

    Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descriptive statistics were reported for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, level of work stress, coping strategies, and job performance. Regression analysis was conducted to test the interaction between work stress and coping strategies on job performance. Three subscales of work stress were negatively related to job performance. Positive coping strategies moderated Patient Care and job performance while negative coping strategies moderated Workload and Time and performance, and between Working Environment and Resources and performance. Positive coping strategies reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress on job performance and negative coping strategies increased the negative effects.

  11. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Mental health among left-behind preschool-aged children: preliminary survey of its status and associated risk factors in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xu-Wei; Guan, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ya-Ru; Fan, Zhao-Yang

    2014-02-01

    A large proportion of preschoolers have been left behind due to parental migration in rural China. We conducted a preliminary cross-sectional survey to investigate the mental health of these left-behind preschool-aged children (LBPC) and associated risk factors. A total of 750 LBPC, comprising 217 and 433 children left behind as a result of migration of either or both parents, respectively, and 100 controls were enrolled from two counties in Anhui province, China. Their caregivers completed questionnaires on demographics, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Self-efficacy Scale and the Preschool-aged Child Mental Health Scale. There were no significant differences in mental outcomes among the three groups. However, male LBPC who were younger, fostered by caregivers with lower levels of life satisfaction and parenting efficacy, and came from poorer families with less social support, experienced more mental health problems than other children. LBPC did not have worse mental well-being than their control counterparts, but some subpopulations were at potential risk of mental health problems compared with other LBPC. More research on other underlying factors and strategies to prevent the development of psychopathology is urgently needed.

  13. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  14. Questionnaire survey about use of an online appointment booking system in one large tertiary public hospital outpatient service center in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, MinMin; Zhang, CongXin; Sun, QinWen; Cai, QuanCai; Yang, Hua; Zhang, YinJuan

    2014-06-09

    As a part of nationwide healthcare reforms, the Chinese government launched web-based appointment systems (WAS) to provide a solution to problems around outpatient appointments and services. These have been in place in all Chinese public tertiary hospitals since 2009. Questionnaires were collected from both patients and doctors in one large tertiary public hospital in Shanghai, China.Data were analyzed to measure their satisfaction and views about the WAS. The 1000 outpatients randomly selected for the survey were least satisfied about the waiting time to see a doctor. Even though the WAS provided a much more convenient booking method, only 17% of patients used it. Of the 197 doctors surveyed, over 90% thought it was necessary to provide alternative forms of appointment booking systems for outpatients. However, about 80% of those doctors who were not associated professors would like to provide an 'on-the-spot' appointment option, which would lead to longer waits for patients. Patients were least satisfied about the waiting times. To effectively reduce appointment-waiting times is therefore an urgent issue. Despite the benefits of using the WAS, most patients still registered via the usual method of queuing, suggesting that hospitals and health service providers should promote and encourage the use of the WAS. Furthermore, Chinese health providers need to help doctors to take others' opinions or feedback into consideration when treating patients to minimize the gap between patients' and doctors' opinions. These findings may provide useful information for both practitioners and regulators, and improve recognition of this efficient and useful booking system, which may have far-reaching and positive implications for China's ongoing reforms.

  15. Current treatment status and barriers for patients with chronic HCV infection in mainland China: A national multicenter cross-sectional survey in 56 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Hai-Yang; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Mei; Duan, Carol; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ting; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhao; Zheng, Su-Jun; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. China, as the country with the largest number of HCV infections in the world, plays a significant role in eliminating hepatitis C. Due to different financial situations and education background, hepatitis C patients take different actions for their disease treatment and management. Therefore, antiviral treatment status should be attached great importance to learn the medical demand of patients. A nationwide, multicenter survey was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016. Of 1798 inpatients and outpatients with chronic HCV from 56 hospitals participated in the survey. Each patient completed the questionnaire with questions about his/her antiviral therapy status, perception of treatment barriers, and expectations for future treatment. In total 1622 patients, including 1241 with chronic hepatitis C, 344 with cirrhosis, and 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, fulfilled data collection requirements and finally were included in analysis. Overall, up to 30.7% of the patients had not or currently does not intend to receive antiviral therapy. The main reason was expecting more potent and well-tolerance medication (31.5%), followed by the fear of interferon related side effects (27.5%). Multiple regression analysis showed that the patient's annual income, the severity of HCV, and comorbidity were independent predictors of not receiving antiviral therapy. The whole patients were expecting more potent and well tolerance medication available soon. In summary, Peg-IFN/RBV treatment regimen cannot meet the need of patients well, and safe and efficient direct-acting antivirals are urgently needed in mainland China.

  16. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  17. Health system reforms, violence against doctors and job satisfaction in the medical profession: a cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-12-31

    To explore the factors influencing doctors' job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor-patient relationship. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors' workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors' salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  18. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyan Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV. This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18–54 months in rural Guangxi. Methods: Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011–2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Weighted Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1 and second (MCV2 doses of the vaccine. Results: A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%–62.0% for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%–80.0% for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%–51.0%. The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27–38 days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118–195 days for MCV2. Conclusions: The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China.

  19. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methodological reporting quality of randomized controlled trials: A survey of seven core journals of orthopaedics from Mainland China over 5 years following the CONSORT statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Chen, X; Zhu, Q; Cui, J; Cao, L; Su, J

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of orthopaedics is increasing in Mainland China. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are inclined to bias if they lack methodological quality. Therefore, we performed a survey of RCT to assess: (1) What about the quality of RCTs in the field of orthopedics in Mainland China? (2) Whether there is difference between the core journals of the Chinese department of orthopedics and Orthopaedics Traumatology Surgery & Research (OTSR). This research aimed to evaluate the methodological reporting quality according to the CONSORT statement of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in seven key orthopaedic journals published in Mainland China over 5 years from 2010 to 2014. All of the articles were hand researched on Chongqing VIP database between 2010 and 2014. Studies were considered eligible if the words "random", "randomly", "randomization", "randomized" were employed to describe the allocation way. Trials including animals, cadavers, trials published as abstracts and case report, trials dealing with subgroups analysis, or trials without the outcomes were excluded. In addition, eight articles selected from Orthopaedics Traumatology Surgery & Research (OTSR) between 2010 and 2014 were included in this study for comparison. The identified RCTs are analyzed using a modified version of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), including the sample size calculation, allocation sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and handling of dropouts. A total of 222 RCTs were identified in seven core orthopaedic journals. No trials reported adequate sample size calculation, 74 (33.4%) reported adequate allocation generation, 8 (3.7%) trials reported adequate allocation concealment, 18 (8.1%) trials reported adequate blinding and 16 (7.2%) trials reported handling of dropouts. In OTSR, 1 (12.5%) trial reported adequate sample size calculation, 4 (50.0%) reported adequate

  1. Mental health status and work environment among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises in Guangdong, China-a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2014-11-12

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young

  2. A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ∑OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ∑BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 μg/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 μg/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics.

  3. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  4. [Comparative analyze on hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys among population aged 1-29 years in different epidemic regions of China in 1992 and 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Sun, X J; Bi, S L; Liang, X F; Wang, H Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95 % CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95 %CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting. Results: 34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95 %CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95 % CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95 %CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95 % CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95 %CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95 % CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born

  5. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  6. Survey on basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yinghua; Sun Quanfu; Du Weixia; Lei Suwen; Lei Shujie; Li Xiaoying; Zhang Shouzhi; Qian Yekan; Su Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China. Methods: 2836 workers from 24 mines in 9 provinces/regions were face-to-face interviewed to collect information including age at exposure,exposure duration, cigarette smoking among others. Results: Age of the investigated non-uranium miners ranged from 17 to 72 (36.9 ± 8.0) years. The miners received low and poor education, 3% of them were illiterate, 58% with primary and middle school education, only 7% with junior college and higher education. Seventy-five percent of the uranium miners are migrant rural workers. Ethnic minority miners accoungted for 16% of all the investigated miners. Among the migrant rural workers age at initial exposure was estimated to be 29.6 ± 8.0 years. By the time of the investigation, 46.7% of the miners had worked in the mine for five years and longer, working years in the mine was 6.7 ± 6.8 years with a median of 4.1 years. 3.4% of the non-uranium miners began the initial radon exposure in mines before their 18 years of old. 17.5% of the investigated miners reported working more than 8 h every working day. Among the males, 58.0% were current smokers with a median of 16 cigarettes per day. Age to begin the cigarette smoking was 20 years on average. Current smoking rate was age-dependent, the rate as high as 69.2% for the males aged 15-19 years. Current smoking rate was significantly statistically lower in coal mines than that in other mines, 49.0% vs 62.5%. Compared with other miners, more frequent mechanical ventilations were reported by coal miners, Conclusions: In China non-uranium mines, 75% were migrant rural workers, by the time of the investigation about half of them had worked in the mines for at least five years. Non-uranium miners began their mining at 30 years on average, with a very small percentage of 3%, exposed to the mining radon before their 18 years. Current cigarette smoking rate in non-uranium male miners

  7. Survey, Culture, and Genome Analysis of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Tibetan Boarding Primary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Le; Lu, Xinxin; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, Tao; Luo, Shengdong; Sun, Zhihui; Duan, Qing; Wang, Ningli; Song, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is an ancient human disease. Its existence in China can be traced back to as early as the twenty-seventh century BC. In modern China, the overall prevalence of trachoma has dramatically reduced, but trachoma is still endemic in many areas of the country. Here, we report that 26 (8%) of 322 students from two rural boarding schools of Qinghai province, west China, were identified as having ocular C. trachomatis infection; and 15 ocular C. trachomatis strains were isolated from these trachoma patients. Chlamydiae in 37 clinical samples were genotyped as type B based on ompA gene analyses. Three ompA variants with one or two in-between SNP differences in the second or fourth variable domain were found. C. trachomatis strains QH111L and QH111R were from the same patient's left and right conjunctival swabs, respectively, but their ompA genes have a non-synonymous base difference in the second variable domain. Moreover, this SNP only exists in this single sample, suggesting QH111L is a newly emerged ompA variant. Interestingly, chromosomal phylogeny analysis found QH111L clusters between a branch of two type B strains and a branch of both A and C strains, but is significantly divergent from both branches. Comparative chromosome analysis found that compared to sequences of reference B/TZ1A828/OT strain, 12 of 22 QH111L's chromosomal genes exhibiting more than nine SNPs have the best homology with reciprocal genes of UGT strains while 9 of 22 genes are closest to those of type C strains. Consistent with findings of UGT-type genetic features in the chromosome, the QH111L plasmid appears to be intermediate between UGT and classical ocular plasmids due to the existence of UGT-type SNPs in the QH111L plasmid. Moreover, the QH111L strain has a unique evolutionarily older cytotoxin region compared to cytotoxin regions of other C. trachomatis strains. The genome analyses suggest that the QH111L strain is derived from

  8. Cross-sectional survey of prevalence and personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction in Wenzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deguo; Zhu, Sheng; Ye, Minjie; Lin, Chongguang

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet addiction can seriously affect the social functioning and studies of college students in China but measures for addressing this problem have not yet been developed or tested. Objective Assess the personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction. Methods Two self-report scales, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), were administered to a stratified random sample of 697 college students from colleges and vocational schools in Wenzhou, China. The characteristics of 48 subjects who meet Chen's criteria for internet addiction (score of 64 or greater out of 100 on the CIAS) were compared to those of 649 subjects who did not meet criteria for internet addiction. Results The prevalence of internet addiction in the sample was 6.9% (95% CI=5.1-9.1%). Compared to students without internet addiction, those with internet addiction were more likely to be male, of Han ethnicity, to have a history of substance use (primarily tobacco and alcohol), and to be a student at a technical college. Students with internet addiction had higher mean (sd) scores on the novelty-seeking subscale of the TPQ [17.9 (1.2) v. 13.0 (1.6), t=16.75 p<0.001] and on the harm-avoidance subscale [17.2 (1.9) v. 14.6 (1.1), t=15.14, p<0.001] but lower scores on the reward-dependence subscale [14.6 (1.4) v. 18.3 (1.7), t=-7.64, p<0.001]. Logistic regression found that the most important independent predictors of internet addiction were Han ethnicity (OR= 5.52, 95% CI=2.00-15.32), male gender (4.40, 1.97-9.81), and substance use (1.08, 1.02-1.15). After adjustment for other variables personality measures were not significantly associated with internet addiction. Conclusion The prevalence of internet addiction among college students in Wenzhou is similar to that in other parts of China. Significant differences in the personality characteristics assessed by the TPQ between university students with and without

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  10. Multiple linear regression model for bromate formation based on the survey data of source waters from geographically different regions across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; Liu, Juan; An, Wei; Wang, Yongjing; Zhang, Junzhi; Wei, Wei; Su, Ming; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total of 86 source water samples from 38 cities across major watersheds of China were collected for a bromide (Br(-)) survey, and the bromate (BrO3 (-)) formation potentials (BFPs) of 41 samples with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1) were evaluated using a batch ozonation reactor. Statistical analyses indicated that higher alkalinity, hardness, and pH of water samples could lead to higher BFPs, with alkalinity as the most important factor. Based on the survey data, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model including three parameters (alkalinity, ozone dose, and total organic carbon (TOC)) was established with a relatively good prediction performance (model selection criterion = 2.01, R (2) = 0.724), using logarithmic transformation of the variables. Furthermore, a contour plot was used to interpret the influence of alkalinity and TOC on BrO3 (-) formation with prediction accuracy as high as 71 %, suggesting that these two parameters, apart from ozone dosage, were the most important ones affecting the BFPs of source waters with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1). The model could be a useful tool for the prediction of the BFPs of source water.

  11. A cross-sectional survey on the health status and the health-related quality of life of the elderly after flood disaster in Bazhong city, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Li, Tong; Li, Xiaoshan; Sun, Huamin; Chow, Eric P F; Lu, Yihua; Tian, Tian; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qi; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-19

    Flood is common in China and causes extensive loss of property and human lives. Elderly is a vulnerable population prone to the detrimental impacts of floods. This survey aims to investigate the health status and the HRQoL of the elderly in Bazhong city after a major flood in 2011. A total of 1183 elderly (aged > 60) were surveyed through random sampling from eight villages in Bazhong city. Two-week healthcare-seeking rate and chronic diseases prevalence were recorded anonymously. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors of poor HRQoL. The two-week healthcare-seeking rate among post-flood Bazhong elderly was significantly higher than the references rate among rural elderly in Sichuan province (59.3% versus 55.7%, χ2 = 5.134, p = 0.013), but Bazhong elderly demonstrated a significantly lower prevalence of chronic disease (33.2% versus 44.4%, χ2 = 48.847, p singlehood, poor sleep patterns, and chronic diseases and so on. A marked decline in health status among elderly in Bazhong after the 2011 flood. Post-flood management targeting elderly need to be sensitive to their age, gender, married status and status of chronic diseases.

  12. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very

  13. Population-based survey of refractive error among school-aged children in rural northern China: the Heilongjiang eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Xu, Keke; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Jia; Jin, Di; Song, Zhen; Wang, Zhongliang; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of refractive error in the north of China is unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of refractive error in school-aged children in a rural area of northern China. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. A total of 1700 subjects of 5 to 18 years of age were examined. All participants underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Refraction was performed under cycloplegia. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, and education was analysed. The main outcome measure was prevalence rates of refractive error among school-aged children. Of the 1700 responders, 1675 were eligible. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 6.3%, 3.0% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of myopia was 5.0% (84/1675, 95% CI, 4.8%-5.4%) and of hyperopia was 1.6% (27/1675, 95% CI, 1.0%-2.2%). Astigmatism was evident in 2.0% of the subjects. Myopia increased with increasing age, whereas hyperopia and astigmatism were associated with younger age. Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were more common in females. We also found that prevalence of refractive error were associated with education. Myopia and astigmatism were more common in those with higher degrees of education. This report has provided details of the refractive status in a rural school-aged population. Although the prevalence of refractive errors is lower in the population, the unmet need for spectacle correction remains a significant challenge for refractive eye-care services. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. A Survey of Congenital Heart Disease and Other Organic Malformations Associated with Different Types of Orofacial Clefts in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Tian, Hua; Wang, Changqian; Yin, Ping; Zhu, Yaqin; Chen, Xianghua; Tang, Zhengde

    2013-01-01

    Background A high incidence of orofacial clefts is reported in China, but no data has shown the relation between cleft types and the incidence of other defects so far. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of congenital heart diseases and other organic defects associated with different types of orofacial clefts. Methodology and Principal Findings All children with orofacial clefts, which were sought out from the Health Information System of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between 1st Jan 2009 and 30th Dec 2011, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent a thorough examination and grouped by the cleft phenotype. The numbers and types of other organic defects were recorded and analyzed statistically using SPSS 17.0. Of 2180 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 657 (30.1%) had other congenital abnormalities, which were significantly more common in cleft palate (47.9% (329/687)) than that in cleft lip (10.6% (80/755)) or cleft lip and palate (33.6% (248/738)) (Pmalformation was congenital heart disease, which counted 45.1% (296/657) of all malformations. Disorders of the central nervous system (14.3%(94/657)) and Skeletal anomalies (13.1%(86/657)) were also frequently associated. Additionally, the most common defect in heart was atrial septal defect, which was 39.7% (118/296) of all congenital heart diseases. Conclusions and Significance As the high incidence of heart defects and other organic abnormalities in the children with cleft palate in Eastern China, special attention should be paid to them and echocardiography should be a proposed examination in the evaluation of children with cleft palate before any surgical correction being executed. PMID:23349958

  15. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  16. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

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    Xiaoming Sun

    Full Text Available The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China.A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model.We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM. The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance.It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  17. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective—the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one’s actions—is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. Methods The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005–2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Results Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ2(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pstatus across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions. PMID:23587205

  18. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p < .001. This bivariate relationship between time perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, p<.001). These findings establish time perspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

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    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  20. Endorsement of the CONSORT statement by high-impact medical journals in China: a survey of instructions for authors and published papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qian; Tao, Kun-ming; Zhou, Qing-hui; Moher, David; Chen, Hong-yun; Wang, Fu-zhe; Ling, Chang-quan

    2012-01-01

    The CONSORT Statement is a reporting guideline for authors when reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It offers a standard way for authors to prepare RCT reports. It has been endorsed by many high-impact medical journals and by international editorial groups. This study was conducted to assess the endorsement of the CONSORT Statement by high-impact medical journals in China by reviewing their instructions for authors. A total of 200 medical journals were selected according to the Chinese Science and Technology Journal Citation Reports, 195 of which publish clinical research papers. Their instructions for authors were reviewed and all texts mentioning the CONSORT Statement or CONSORT extension papers were extracted. Any mention of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM) developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) or 'clinical trial registration' was also extracted. For journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, their most recently published RCT reports were retrieved and evaluated to assess whether the journals have followed what the CONSORT Statement required. Out of the 195 medical journals publishing clinical research papers, only six (6/195, 3.08%) mentioned 'CONSORT' in their instructions for authors; out of the 200 medical journals surveyed, only 14 (14/200, 7.00%) mentioned 'ICMJE' or 'URM' in their instructions for authors, and another five journals stated in their instructions for authors that clinical trials should have trial registration numbers and that priority would be given to clinical trials which had been registered. Among the 62 RCT reports published in the six journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, 20 (20/62, 32.26%) contained flow diagrams and only three (3/62, 4.84%) provided trial registration information. Medical journals in China endorsing either the CONSORT Statement or the ICMJE's URM constituted a small percentage of the total; all of these journals used

  1. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  2. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  3. Endorsement of the CONSORT statement by high-impact medical journals in China: a survey of instructions for authors and published papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CONSORT Statement is a reporting guideline for authors when reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs. It offers a standard way for authors to prepare RCT reports. It has been endorsed by many high-impact medical journals and by international editorial groups. This study was conducted to assess the endorsement of the CONSORT Statement by high-impact medical journals in China by reviewing their instructions for authors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 200 medical journals were selected according to the Chinese Science and Technology Journal Citation Reports, 195 of which publish clinical research papers. Their instructions for authors were reviewed and all texts mentioning the CONSORT Statement or CONSORT extension papers were extracted. Any mention of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE or 'clinical trial registration' was also extracted. For journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, their most recently published RCT reports were retrieved and evaluated to assess whether the journals have followed what the CONSORT Statement required. Out of the 195 medical journals publishing clinical research papers, only six (6/195, 3.08% mentioned 'CONSORT' in their instructions for authors; out of the 200 medical journals surveyed, only 14 (14/200, 7.00% mentioned 'ICMJE' or 'URM' in their instructions for authors, and another five journals stated in their instructions for authors that clinical trials should have trial registration numbers and that priority would be given to clinical trials which had been registered. Among the 62 RCT reports published in the six journals endorsing the CONSORT Statement, 20 (20/62, 32.26% contained flow diagrams and only three (3/62, 4.84% provided trial registration information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Medical journals in China endorsing either the CONSORT Statement or the

  4. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. Methods A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. Results A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32 pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7% were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%, Dichlorvos (8.7%, and Dimethoate (8.1%. Conclusion The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  5. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among 13473 patients with diabetes mellitus in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in six provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Song, Yifan; Tao, Liyuan; Qiu, Weiqiang; Lv, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Mingzhou; Li, Xuemin

    2017-01-09

    To describe the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening DR (STDR) among Chinese adults with diabetes. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey across Mainland China (N=13 473). Participants were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus by physicians and transferred to our screening clinics (1/3 from hospital patients, 1/3 from city residents, the other 1/3 from rural residents). 2 fundus photographs were taken of each eye with a colourful, non-mydriatic and non-stereoscopic camera and were graded according to the UK guidelines. The prevalence and severity of DR and STDR. Of the 13 473 participants with diabetes participating in the study, 4591 had DR and 1769 had STDR, for an overall prevalence of 34.08% (95% CI 33.28% to 34.88%) and 13.13% (95% CI 12.56% to 13.70%), respectively. Among these, gradable photographs were available for 12 780 participants (94.86%). Participants who were aged >65 years were less likely to suffer from DR or STDR (p0.05). Participants with STDR suffered from more severe visual impairment compared with those without STDR (pprevalence of DR and STDR in the northern region was higher than in the southern region (pprevalence of DR was closely related to duration of disease (OR 2.63; 95% CI 2.42 to 2.86; pdiabetes onset age (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.41; pprevalence of DR and STDR in Mainland China appeared a little high, and varied according to area. Non-proliferative DR was more common, but STDR needed prompt treatment, especially in economically less developed areas. This study highlights the necessity for DR screening and treatment in Mainland China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Community engagement in sexual health and uptake of HIV testing and syphilis testing among MSM in China: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiange P; Liu, Chuncheng; Han, Larry; Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Tang, Songyuan; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-04-03

    HIV and syphilis testing rates remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community engagement has been increasingly used to promote HIV testing among key populations in high-income countries, often in settings with stronger civil society. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic, behavioural, and community engagement factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing among MSM in China. MSM ≥16 years old who had condomless sex in the past three months were recruited nationwide to complete a cross-sectional online survey in November 2015. Data were collected on socio-demographics, sexual behaviours, HIV testing, syphilis testing, and community engagement in sexual health. We defined community engagement in sexual health using six items assessing awareness and advocacy of sexual health programmes. The underlying factor structure of a 6-item community engagement scale was determined through exploratory factor analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions identified correlates of HIV and syphilis testing. 1189 MSM were recruited. 54% (647/1189) of men had ever tested for HIV and 30% (354/1189) had ever tested for syphilis. Factor analysis suggested three levels of community engagement (minimal, moderate, and substantial) and this model explained 79.5% of observed variance. A quarter (26%, 312/1189) reported none to minimal engagement, over one half (54%, 644/1189) reported moderate engagement, and a fifth (20%, 233/1189) reported substantial engagement. Multivariable logistic regression showed that MSM with greater community engagement in sexual health were more likely to have ever tested for HIV (substantial vs. no engagement: aOR 7.91, 95% CI 4.98-12.57) and for syphilis (substantial vs. no engagement: aOR 5.35, 95% CI 3.16-9.04). HIV and syphilis testing are suboptimal among MSM in China. Community engagement may be useful for promoting testing in China and should be considered in intervention

  7. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  8. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Luo, Yun; Sun, Ming-Shuo; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi

    2017-03-23

    Dyslipidemia is an important independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to explore the current prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia and its associated influence factors in northeast China. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we adopted a multi-stage, stratified sampling method to obtain a representative sample of 4052 permanent residents aged 40 years and over from different urban and rural regions in Dehui City of Jilin Province. All subjects completed a questionnaire and were examined for risk factors. Continuous data were presented as means ± standard deviations (SD) and compared using the Student's t-test. Categorical variables were presented as proportions and compared using the Rao-Scott-χ 2 test in different subgroups. The associated influence factors for the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1% overall, with 33.5, 43.9, 0.6, and 8.8% for high total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of subjects who were aware, treated, and controlled was 14.4, 33.9, and 19.9%, respectively. Overweight or obesity (OR = 2.156; 95% CI: 1.863, 2.533), hypertension (OR = 1.643; 95% CI: 1.425, 1.893), or diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.173; 95% CI: 1.661, 2.844) increased the prevalence of dyslipidemia, also these participants were more likely to be aware of their condition, however, this did not increase the likelihood of treatment and control. Living in urban areas and higher education level also increased the awareness of dyslipidemia. Personal history of coronary heart disease was the strongest influence factors associated with better awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia. Overweight or obesity (OR = 0.404; 95% CI

  9. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

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    Derong eDong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/µl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C, a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-encoding gene blaKPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening

  10. Health-related quality of life in residents aged 18 years and older with and without disease: findings from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-09-03

    Published research has not considered acute diseases and injuries in assessing the impact of varying disease counts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We used Chinese value sets of EQ-5D-3L to examine the relationship between the number of diseases individuals had (including chronic diseases, acute diseases and injuries) and their HRQoL. A total of 19 387 individuals aged 18 years and older were included in the study. Using data from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, HRQoL was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L scale, a standardized instrument developed by the EuroQoL group. The EQ-5D-3L utility score was calculated using the Chinese EQ-5D-3L value set. This survey coded disease using the list of 133 conditions that was defined by the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, based on the 10th International Classification of Diseases. 126 conditions were disease-related and were therefore included in data analysis. Of 15 245 respondents, urban residents and male constituted 53.0% and 48.2%, respectively. 19.3% of respondents had one disease and 5.0% had at least two diseases. Of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L, the pain/discomfort dimension had the highest proportion of moderate or serious problems among the respondents (14.4%, 95% CI 10.5% to 18.2%). The average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and utility score were 78.0 (95% CI 76.9 to 79.1) and 0.958 (95% CI 0.946 to 0.970), respectively. Residents with 1 and ≥2 diseases had higher proportions of moderate or serious problems in five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L scale during the previous 2 weeks than those without disease after controlling for location (urban/rural), sex, age, education level and household income, respectively (adjusted ORs: 3.1-3.7 and 4.4-6.6, respectively). The mean of the EQ VAS score was 8.4 and 13.6 points lower in respondents with 1 and ≥2 diseases than in respondents without disease; the corresponding mean score difference was 0

  11. Barriers to Research Utilization among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

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    Fen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As there might be relevant differences with regard to research utilization in the general hospitals, we aimed to study research utilization among registered nurses working in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. Methods. A total of 648 registered nurses from 4 tertiary-level hospitals in China were recruited for participation. A modified BARRIERS Scale and self-designed questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation analysis. Results. Overall, items which belong to the subscale “Research” were identified as the most important barriers. Among the individual items, the lack of time on the job was ranked as the top barrier, followed by the lack of knowledgeable colleagues and by overwhelming research publications. Clinical experience, working pressure, job satisfaction, and research experience could be identified as associated factors for barriers to research utilization. Conclusions. Registered nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals felt high barriers to research utilization. Reducing registered nurses’ working pressure, promoting their positive attitude to nursing, and improving research training might be helpful for increasing research utilization. Close cooperation between clinical and nursing schools or academic research centres might facilitate the necessary change in nursing education and routine.

  12. A survey of fermentation products and bacterial communities in corn silage produced in a bunker silo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Han, Hongyan; Gu, Xueying; Yu, Zhu; Nishino, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the current practice of corn silage management in China, samples of bunker-made silage were collected from 14 farms within a 500-km radius of Beijing for the analysis of fermentation products and bacterial communities. Mean values for dry matter (DM) content were as low as 250 g/kg in both corn stover (St) and whole crop corn (Wc) silages, and pH values averaged 4.48 and 3.73, respectively. Only three of the 14 silages exhibited a lactic-to-acetic acid ratio > 1.0, indicating that the presence of acetic acid was predominant in fermentation. Although 1,2-propanediol content was marginal in most cases ( 25 g/kg DM. In contrast, 3 St silages had large amounts (> 10 g/kg DM) of butyric acid, and two of the three butyrate silages also had high concentrations of 1-propanol. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the bacterial community appeared similar in 10 out of the 14 silage samples. Bands indicating Lactobacillus buchneri, L. acetotolerans and Acetobacter pasteurianus were found in both the St and Wc silages, accounting for the high acetic acid content found across silage samples. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  14. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  15. Interaction of diabetes and smoking on stroke: a population-based cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Heqing; Dong, Zongmei; Zhang, Pan; Shao, Xiaoping; Li, Ting; Zhao, Chunyan; Zhang, Xunbao; Lou, Peian

    2018-04-04

    Diabetes and smoking are known independent risk factors for stroke; however, their interaction concerning stroke is less clear. We aimed to explore such interaction and its influence on stroke in Chinese adults. Cross-sectional study. Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. A total of 39 887 Chinese adults who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. Participants were selected using a multistage stratified cluster method, and completed self-reported questionnaires on stroke and smoking. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) was assessed by fasting blood glucose or use of antidiabetic medication. Interaction, relative excess risk owing to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion (AP) and synergy index (S) were evaluated using a logistic regression model. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, family history of stroke, alcohol use and blood lipids, the relationships between DM2 and stroke, and between smoking and stroke, were still significant: ORs were 2.75 (95% CI 2.03 to 3.73) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.10), respectively. In subjects with DM2 who smoked, the RERI, AP and S values (and 95% CIs) were 1.80 (1.24 to 3.83), 0.52 (0.37 to 0.73) and 1.50 (1.18 to 1.84), respectively. The results suggest there are additive interactions between DM2 and smoking and that these affect stroke in Chinese adults. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Parental migration and smoking behavior of left-behind children: evidence from a survey in rural Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Li, Cuicui; Zhou, Chengchao; Jiang, Shan; Chu, Jie; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-08-05

    Parental migration is most an important factor affecting children's behaviors. Few studies have addressed the association between parental migration and children's smoking behavior in China. This study aims to estimate the current smoking prevalence among children, evaluate the association of parental migration and the smoking behavior of children and identify factors associated with smoking behavior among left-behind children (LBC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 cities in Anhui province during July and August, 2012. All participants were interviewed face-to-face using a standardized questionnaire. Only children 10 to 14 years old that live in rural villages for at least 6 months during the previous year were included in the study. A total of 1343 children met the sampling criteria and participated in the study. Of these, 56 % are LBC and 44 % live with both parents. The average rate of smoking is 3.4 %. The rate of smoking is statistically higher for LBC with both parents out (rate = 6.1 %; OR = 5.59, P parents (1.4 %). Similarly, the rate of LBC with father home only (rate = 5.0 %; OR = 5.60, P = 0.005) is also statistically higher than for children living with both parents when controlling other variables. Factors affecting the smoking behavior of LBC, include gender (i.e., boys), (perceived) school performance and primary caregiver. Parental migration is associated with a significant increase in smoking behavior among children. Intervention studies that target LBC would help to develop strategies to reduce smoking among rural children. Gender-specific strategies and anti-smoking education also appears to be needed to reduce tobacco use among rural LBC.

  17. A survey of power density of light-curing units used in private dental offices in Changchun City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinqing; Luo, Meng; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Song

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated power density and relevant information related to light-curing units used in private dental offices in Changchun City, China. The power density of 196 light-curing units used in private dental offices in Changchun City was measured using a simple random sampling method. Relevant information included the brand, type, years of operation, frequency of use, model numbers and types of light guide, resin buildup on the light guides, damage caused by the light guides, required maintenance of the curing lights, and ratio of the unit and chair number. There were 132 quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) units and 64 light-emitting diode units. The power density range was defined as 0-1,730 mW/cm(2). The mean power density was 453.1 mW/cm(2). The mean years of operation of the light-curing units were 3.96. The majority of dentists never tested the power density of the light-curing units and a considerable number of light guide surfaces showed resin buildup and damage. In Changchun City, the majority of light-curing units were QTH. Some units needed to be replaced due to aging. The majority of dentists were not aware that the light-curing units require periodic testing and maintenance. The data herein indicate the importance of periodic testing of the power density of light-curing units and timely replacement of the components and then guarantee the quality of medical services and their benefits to patients.

  18. Mental health literacy survey of non-mental health professionals in six general hospitals in Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuxia; Luo, Xiaoyang; Chen, Shubao; Qi, Chang; Long, Jiang; Xiong, Yifan; Liao, Yanhui; Liu, Tieqiao

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness has brought great economic burden related to misdiagnosis by non-mental health professionals in general hospitals. The aim of this study was to explore non-mental health professionals' conceptions related to the identification of mental illness and perceived treatments, first aid and prognosis. In 2014-2015, we presented 1123 non-mental health professionals from six general hospitals in Hunan Province with one of three vignettes describing a person with schizophrenia, depression, or generalized anxiety disorder. Identification rates, beliefs about various interventions, best methods, and the prognosis with or without treatment were measured. Less than 60% of the non-mental health professionals could identify the mental disorders correctly. Psychiatrists and psychologists were considered to be the people who would be most helpful in all vignettes. Over 70% of participants identified the correct medication for each vignette. Participants gave higher ratings to lifestyle interventions than to psychological and medical interventions, especially in the depression and generalized anxiety disorder vignettes. For the question about how the person could best be helped, about half of the participants rated listening or talking with the person more highly than accompanying the person to professional help or encouraging the person to visit a psychiatrist or psychologist. Participants believed that, with professional help, the people in the vignettes would fully recover but that problems would probably reoccur and that, without professional help, the people described would get worse. The beliefs that non-mental health professionals hold about mental disorders are inadequate to provide appropriate help. There is an urgent need for mental health education campaigns to improve non-mental health professionals' mental health knowledge in mainland China in order to provide better support for mental health service users.

  19. Severe and uncontrolled asthma in China: a cross-sectional survey from the Australasian Severe Asthma Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Fang; Gibson, Peter G; Guo, Michael; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Harvey, Erin S; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Severe asthma is largely unexplored in the Chinese population. Patients with asthma underwent systematic evaluation, by investigating the characteristics of uncontrolled asthma and of asthma treated with three different controller therapies. This multi-centre, real-world study was conducted from March 2014 to September 2015. Adults with stable asthma underwent assessment of medication use, asthma control, quality of life, psychological symptoms, work productivity and activity impairment, bronchodilator response and sputum induction. Participants (n=379) had a mean (SD) age of 47.4 (14.0) years, and 57.0% were female. There were 14.8% (n=56) of patients receiving treatment with Step 4/5 as severe asthma, but only 13 (3.4%) met ERS/ATS severe refractory asthma criteria. The patients with severe asthma usually used triple controller therapy: ICS/LABA, additional leukotriene modifier or theophylline, and reported better asthma control. Two fifths of patients (n=147) had uncontrolled asthma, with worse symptoms, psychological symptoms (both P<0.001), health-related work productivity and activity impairment, increased eosinophilic inflammation in sputum [1.68% (0.0, 17.1%) vs. 0.2% (0.0, 1.3%), P<0.0001] and more exacerbations (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that triple controller therapy significantly reduced the risk of uncontrolled asthma [OR =0.32, 95% CI =(0.14, 0.75)]. Although there is a relatively low proportion of severe refractory asthma based on ERS/ATS criteria, two of five patients with asthma in China are uncontrolled, displaying more psychological symptoms and reduced work productivity. Substantial gain in asthma control is obtained by triple controller therapy and this may be a promising therapeutic option for persistent asthma.

  20. [Epidemiological survey of asthma among children aged 0-14 years in 2010 in urban Zhongshan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Huang, Dong-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Xiong; Fu, Si-Mao; Luo, Cui-Mei; Zeng, Guan; Wang, Ye-Hong; Wang, Ke-Ming; Ruan, Jian; Zhen, Bo-Qiang; Li, Min; Li, Lan; Cui, Bi-Yun; Huang, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Gui-Lan; Rong, Jia-Yan; Huang, Jian-Mei; Xiao, Qiong-Qing; Guo, Xiao-Ling

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease, among children aged 0-14 years in 2010 in urban Zhongshan, China. A total of 10 336 children aged 0-14 years were selected from urban Zhongshan by cluster random sampling. The Third National Childhood Asthma Epidemiological Questionnaire 2010 was used to analyze the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of childhood asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease. Asthma was diagnosed in 179 cases (1.73%). The prevalence of asthma in male children was significantly higher than that in female children (2.25% vs 1.16%; Pattacks were common in 104 cases (58.1%), 110 cases (61.5%) had slow onset, 102 cases (57.0%) had gradually relieved conditions, 61 cases (34.1%) suffered from asthma during seasonal transition, and 150 cases (83.8%) developed asthma due to respiratory tract infection. Among all asthmatic children, 71.5% had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 71.5% had been treated with bronchodilator. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a history of penicillin allergy, a family history of allergy, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, cesarean delivery, family mould, and perinatal passive smoking were independent risk factors for childhood asthma. The prevalence of childhood asthma in urban Zhongshan is on a high level, and is associated with gender. The treatment of asthma has been standardized, but still needs further improvement. The onset of asthma attack is influenced by various factors.

  1. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  3. A Changing Healthcare System Model: The Effectiveness of Knowledge, Attitude, and Skill of Nursing Assistants Who Attend Senile Dementia Patients in Nursing Homes in Xi'an, China - A Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Kaye, Aaron Joshua; Kaye, Alan David; Bueno, Franklin Rivera; Pei, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, China had an elderly population of 1.78 billion people. As in other societies around the world, China is facing a growing challenge in providing care for its elderly citizens. Ensuring the highest quality of care for elderly patients, many of whom have senile dementia, is directly related to the performance of nursing assistants. Methods With the goal of investigating the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of nursing assistants who care for senile dementia patients in nursing homes in Xi'an, China, we distributed a survey and analyzed the responses. Results Nursing assistants showed dedication and sincerity in their care for senile dementia patients. However, their performances in the categories of life nursing and mental nursing reveal room for improvement. Further, the nursing assistants did not display adequate knowledge about senile dementia. Based on survey results, the knowledge of the nursing assistants concerning nursing safety was comparatively adequate. Conclusion Nursing assistants who care for senile dementia patients in nursing homes in Xi'an, China, require further training that expands their knowledge and increases their capabilities. We recommend that nursing homes in Xi'an offer a standardized professional nurse/nurse assistant training course that focuses on care for elderly patients with senile dementia. PMID:25249797

  4. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Han Lee; Mack Shelley; Ching-Ti Liu; Yen-Chang Chang

    2018-01-01

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Surve...

  5. A cross-sectional survey of nutrition labelling use and its associated factors on parents of school students in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhong; Zhu, Zhenxin; Chen, Xiao; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Huansheng; Zhang, Yuyan; Zang, Jiajie

    2018-03-07

    To understand parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling and to explore its associated factors. Cross-sectional survey. Two schools providing a nine-year educational programme in Putuo District, Shanghai, China, were selected for the study. Information was included on demographic data and knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda. Students and their parents (n 1770) participated in a questionnaire survey. Of questionnaires, 1766 were completed (response rate 99·8 %). Utilization rate of nutrition labelling was 19·3 %. Among 624 parents knowing nutrition labelling, 22·1 % understood all the information included, 70·7 % understood it partially and 7·2 % could not understand it at all. Use of nutrition labelling by parents was related to the following factors (OR; 95 % CI): high educational level of parent (1·465; 1·165, 1·841), parent's knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda (1·333; 1·053, 1·688), parent's consumption of top three snacks which are unhealthy (1·065; 1·023, 1·109), parent's assumption that nutrition labelling would affect their choice of food (1·522; 1·131, 2·048), student's willingness to learn about labels (1·449; 1·093, 1·920) and student's knowledge and use of labels (2·214; 1·951, 2·513). Parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling are still at a lower level, and some information included in the nutrition labels is not understood by parents. The forms of the existing nutrition labelling need to be continuously improved to facilitate their understanding and usefulness. It is necessary to establish nutrition projects focusing on education and use of nutrition labels which help parents and their children make the right choices in selecting foods.

  6. [Mobile internet based survey of current status of HIV test and related factors in men who have sex with men in college students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y Y; Xu, J; Jiang, Z; Wu, Z Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To assess the current status of HIV test during the past year and related factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in college students in China. Methods: Based on a MSM website, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 500 MSM in college students aged 18-25 years, who were selected based on the estimated HIV detection rate of 50 % in this population, by means of mobile phone questionnaire survey. χ (2) test and non-conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify the factors related with HIV test, respectively. Results: The mean age of MSM in college students was 20.99 (±0.04) years and the HIV test rate during the past year was 47.1 % (652/1 384). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that active factors associated with HIV test included awareness of HIV test ( OR =6.37, 95 %CI : 3.592-11.300), willing to receive regular HIV testing ( OR =2.64, 95 %CI : 1.191-2.631) well-knowing or not knowing of the HIV infection statues of their regular sex partners ( OR =3.58, 95 %CI : 2.138-5.996), ( OR =2.25, 95 %CI : 1.479-3.422), respectively. The negative factors associated with HIV test included believing their regular sex partners not being infected with HIV ( OR =0.65, 95 %CI : 0.445-0.938), having only one regular sex partner during the past year ( OR =0.37, 95 %CI : 0.232-0.589). Conclusion: The survey indicated that the HIV test rate in MSM in college students during the past year was low. The MSM in college students are usually sexual active, but less of them received HIV test due to the trust between them and less number of sexual partners. Close attention should be paid to the AIDS intervention in this population.

  7. A CROSS-PROVINCE ANALYSIS OF URBAN AND RURAL INDOOR PM2.5 EXPOSURE IN CHINA USING TIME USE SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoko; Guo, Minna; Kurata, Gakuji; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    In developing countries in Asia and other parts of the world, most energy sources used in the home are solid fuels such as coal and biomass (firewood, crop residue and animal dung). Particulate matter 2.5, consisting of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 um or less, produced through combustion of these fuels inside the residence for cooking and heating has an adverse impact on people's health. We estimated PM2.5 exposure concentration in indoor microenvironment for each cohort of urban and rural area in ten provinces of China, using statistical data on time use survey and domestic energy consumption. The study found that, in each province, the exposure concentration in rural area was higher than in urban area, unemployed women between the ages of 60 and 64 had the highest estimate for exposure concentration at 3027 μg/m3. The study also found that the exposure concentration for individual cohorts in each province was greatly affected by people's use of time indoors, fuel consumption such as coal or biomass and floor space.

  8. Problematic Internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Yau, Yvonne H C; Chai, Jingxin; Guo, Jinhua; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Given the prevalence of Internet use among youth, there is concern that a subset of Internet-using youth may exhibit problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. The present study examines the association between problematic Internet use (PIU), demographic variables, and health-related measures among Chinese adolescents. Survey data from 1552 adolescents (male=653, mean age=15.43years) from Jilin Province, China, were collected. According to the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), 77.8% (n=1207), 16.8% (n=260), and 5.5% (n=85) showed adaptive, maladaptive, and problematic Internet use, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and family income per month differed between youth showing problematic and adaptive patterns of Internet use. Well-being, self-esteem, and self-control were related to severity of problematic Internet use, with greater severity typically associated with poorer measures in each domain. The findings that severity of problematic Internet use is associated with specific socio-demographic features and temperamental and well-being measures suggest that specific groups of youth may be particularly vulnerable to developing problematic Internet use. Early prevention/intervention programs targeting at-risk groups may help improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A 2-year follow-up survey of 523 cases with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-qing; Zhang, Li-hai; Liu, Xian-fei; Tang, Pei-fu

    2015-01-01

    We performed a 2-year follow-up survey of 523 patients with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, China. Nerve injuries were classified into three types: type I injuries were nerve transection injuries, type II injuries were nerve compression injuries, and type III injuries displayed no direct neurological dysfunction due to trauma. In this study, 31 patients had type I injuries involving 41 nerves, 419 had type II injuries involving 823 nerves, and 73 had type III injuries involving 150 nerves. Twenty-two patients had open transection nerve injury. The restoration of peripheral nerve function after different treatments was evaluated. Surgical decompression favorably affected nerve recovery. Physiotherapy was effective for type I and type II nerve injuries, but not substantially for type III nerve injury. Pharmacotherapy had little effect on type II or type III nerve injuries. Targeted decompression surgery and physiotherapy contributed to the effective treatment of nerve transection and compression injuries. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for nerve injury severity declined with increasing duration of being trapped. In the first year after treatment, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for grades 3 to 5 nerve injury increased by 28.2% to 81.8%. If scores were still poor (0 or 1) after a 1-year period of treatment, further treatment was not effective. PMID:25883624

  10. Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015: Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

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    Jian Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid nutrition transition in China, dietary intake and nutritional status of women has gained more and more attention in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intakes among Chinese adult females. The longitudinal data are from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991–2015. Information on the intake of energy and macronutrient was obtained from consecutive three-day dietary recall techniques and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. Mixed-effect models were performed to evaluate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intake. From 1991 to 2015, a significant reduction in daily energy, protein and carbohydrate intakes was seen among all adult females (p < 0.001. Daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, the proportion of females consuming more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrate were observed significant increment in the present study (p < 0.001. In 2015, the proportion met the DRI for energy and protein intakes were 47.0% and 48.0%, respectively; the proportion with lower carbohydrate and higher fat intakes compare with the DRI were 45.5% and 66.9%, respectively. Further nutritional education and policy interventions still needed to improve nutrition status for Chinese females.

  11. Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qu Jian; Hesketh, Therese

    2006-08-19

    To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Data were obtained from 39,585 women, with a total of 73,202 pregnancies and 56,830 live births. The average fertility rate in women over 35 (n = 17,078) was 1.94 (2.1 in rural areas and 1.4 in urban areas) and for women under 35 (n = 11,543) 1.73 (1.25 and 1.79). Smaller families were associated with younger age, higher level of education, and living in an urban area. The male to female ratio was 1.15 and rose from 1.11 in 1980-9 to 1.23 for 1996-2001. Most women wanted small families: 35% preferred one child and 57% preferred two. Since the one child family policy began, the total birth rate and preferred family size have decreased, and a gross imbalance in the sex ratio has emerged.

  12. Prevalence and Gender-Specific Influencing Factors of Hypertension among Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Nanchang, China

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    Hui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has become the leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among Nanchang adults are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and gender-specific influencing factors of hypertension in adults in Nanchang, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2722 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above between May and September 2016, with a response rate of 92.4% (2516/2722. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in this study. Data on prevalence and influencing factors were obtained from a standard questionnaire and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the influencing factors. The age-standardized prevalence was 19.8% (18.2–21.3 (male: 19.5% (18.0–21.1; female, 20.01% (18.5–21.6. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were past smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM, and overweight and obesity in both genders. Abdominal obesity and family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were risk factors only in males; sleeping time and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were related to the prevalence of hypertension only in females. These findings will form the baseline information for the development of more effective approaches to enhance current prevention and control management of hypertension.

  13. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  14. Access to paediatric essential medicines: a survey of prices, availability, affordability and price components in Shaanxi Province, China.

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    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. METHODS: Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days' wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. FINDINGS: The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs and lowest-priced generics (LPGs were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day's wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer's selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. CONCLUSIONS: The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system.

  15. A time-lapse gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field, China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Blake, Kelly

    2018-04-19

    We have conducted a gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field to continue the time-lapse gravity study of the area initiated in 1991. In this report, we outline a method of processing the gravity data that minimizes the random errors and instrument bias introduced into the data by the Scintrex CG-5 relative gravimeters that were used. After processing, the standard deviation of the data was estimated to be ±13 microGals. These data reveal that the negative gravity anomaly over the Coso geothermal field, centered on gravity station CER1, is continuing to increase in magnitude over time. Preliminary modeling indicates that water-table drawdown at the location of CER1 is between 65 and 326 meters over the last two decades. We note, however, that several assumptions on which the model results depend, such as constant elevation and free-water level over the study period, still require verification.

  16. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  17. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

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    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal dietary plants used by the Naxi People in Lijiang Area, Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yu; Pei, Shengji; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Chen; Yuhua, Wang

    2015-05-12

    Food and herbal medicinal therapy is an important aspect of Chinese traditional culture and traditional Chinese medicine. The Naxi are indigenous residents of the Ancient Tea Horse Road, and the medicine of the Naxi integrates traditional Chinese, Tibetan, and Shamanic medicinal systems, however, little is known about the medicinal dietary plants used by the Naxi people, or their ethnobotanical knowledge. This is the first study to document the plant species used as medicinal dietary plants by the Naxi of the Lijiang area. Ethnobotancial surveys were conducted with 89 informants (35 key informants) from 2012 to 2013. Three different Naxi villages were selected as the study sites. Literature research, participatory investigation, key informant interviews, and group discussions were conducted to document medicinal dietary plants and the parts used, habitat, preparation methods, and function of these plants. The fidelity level (FL) was used to determine the acceptance of these medicinal dietary plants. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Surveys at the study sites found that 41 ethnotaxa corresponded to 55 botanical taxa (species, varieties, or subspecies) belonging to 24 families and 41 genera. Overall, 60 % of documented plants belonged to seven botanical families. The most common families were Compositae (16.4 %) and Rosaceae (10.9 %). Roots (34.1 %) were the most common part used. Wild-gathered (68.3 %), semi-domesticated (17.1 %), and cultivated (14.6 %) were the most common habitats of medicinal dietary plants. Stewing plants with meat was the most common preparation and consumption method. The plants were used to treat 21 major health conditions; alleviating fatigue (42.8 %) was the most common. The maximum FL of 100 was found for 68.3 % of the medicinal dietary plants The medicinal dietary plants used by the Naxi people are diverse and are used to treat a wide spectrum of body disorders. Further studies focusing on safety

  19. The interaction effects of risk factors for hypertension in adults: a cross-sectional survey in Guilin, China.

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    Yu, Jian; Zou, Di-Sha; Xie, Meng-Ting; Ye, Yao; Zheng, Tian-Peng; Zhou, Su-Xian; Huang, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Xun, Jing-Qiong; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-23

    The prevalence of hypertension in adults is increasing each year and has become a main public health issue worldwide. We must consider the impact of both individual factors and interactions among these factors on hypertension in adults. This study was designed to elucidate the clinical and metabolic characteristics of the prevalence of hypertension in adults and to explore the risk factors and interactions among these factors in adults with hypertension. We used overall random sampling to conduct a cross-sectional survey of 6660 individuals undergoing a health check from July to November 2012, the subjects were aged 20 to 89 years, including 3480 men and 3180 women. The survey content included a questionnaire, anthropometry, laboratory measurements, and liver Doppler ultrasonography. The clinical and metabolic characteristics were compared between the cases (adult hypertensive patients) and the controls (normotensives). The classification tree model and the non-conditional logistic regression were used to analyze the interactions of risk factors for hypertension in adults. In total, 1623 adult hypertensive patients (940 men and 683 women) were detected. The results showed that adult hypertensive patients were older and had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, uric acid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (P < 0.001). The classification tree model comprising 5 layers, 39 nodes, and 20 terminal nodes showed that two variables, age and BMI, were closely related to hypertension in adults. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification tree model was 81.6 % (95 % CI: 80.6 % ~ 82.5 %). Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that advanced age and high BMI had a significant positive interaction in terms of hypertension in adults. After

  20. Chronic disease prevalence and care among the elderly in urban and rural Beijing, China - a 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional survey

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    Sousa Renata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing is occurring at an unprecedented rate in China. Chronic diseases and their disabling consequences will become much more common. Public policy has a strong urban bias, and older people living in rural areas may be especially vulnerable due to limited access to good quality healthcare, and low pension coverage. We aim to compare the sociodemographic and health characteristics, health service utilization, needs for care and informal care arrangements of representative samples of older people in two Beijing communities, urban Xicheng and rural Daxing. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey of all those aged 65 years and over was conducted in urban and rural catchment areas in Beijing, China. Assessments included questionnaires, a clinical interview