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Sample records for china institute of atomic energy

  1. The China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), established in 1950, carries out multidisciplinary research in nuclear science, technology and engineering. It has three research reactors and ten low energy accelerators. The focus of its nuclear energy related R and D is on reactor engineering and technology. In the area of nuclear techniques for applications, R and D is carried out on accelerators, isotope production, nuclear electronics and utilization of radioisotopes and radiation. There is also a strong programme in basic nuclear physics and radiochemistry. New major facilities under construction in CIAE include China Advanced Research Reactor (flux 8x1014n/cm2/sec) and China Experimental Fast Reactor. China has been successfully using the products of its R and D for a variety of applications in medicine, industry, materials science etc. A dynamic research programme is tuned to attract young talent to CIEA and there is good collaboration with the Beijing University. CIEA has been an active participant of RCA programmes of the IAEA and has been a resource for many developing countries. The management expects the Institute to be a leading multidisciplinary institute in the field of nuclear science, technology and engineering. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gongpan; Lin Zhizhou; Xiang Xuyang; Deng Jingting (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-08-01

    Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is described. Calutron, Nier-Bernas and Freeman ion sources were constructed for ion implantation systems. It was found that some enriched isotope samples were contaminated more by lighter than by heavier neighbors. This phenomenon may be explained if the sputtered particles consist of a considerable percentage of ions. A computer inspection system for recording and processing operation data has been designed. (orig.).

  3. Application study of the project management on the nuclear power projects in China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article introduced the actions of foreign and domestic nuclear power technical services in China Institute of Atomic Energy, the project management theory is applied to the organization, implementation and control of the nuclear power projects. It is analyzed the quality, schedule , investment etc of nuclear power projects, the improving measures and suggestions are bring forward on the project management organization, quality assurance, reduce cost etc. It will raise its nuclear power project management level in China Institute of Atomic Energy. (author)

  4. An ISOL test-bench at China Institute of Atomic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    CuiBaoQun; Li Li; Wang Rong; Bao Yi We

    2003-01-01

    An isotope separation on-line (ISOL) test-bench has been built at China Institute of Atomic Energy, an electron beam plasma type target/ion source selected as the ion source of the system. By bombarding selected targets with a proton beam from the HV-13 tandem, low intensity radioactive ion beam can be produced on-line. The first planned ion species is sup 6 sup 2 Zn sup + and it will be used as nuclear probe to investigate the character of solid material by perturbed angular correlation and positive electron annihilation methods. Off-line tests are being carried out. The character of the target ion source and copper target to be used is described in this paper. Finally, a brief introduction of the ISOL design for the Beijing radioactive nuclear beam facility will be given.

  5. An ISOL test-bench at China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope separation on-line (ISOL) test-bench has been built at China Institute of Atomic Energy, an electron beam plasma type target/ion source selected as the ion source of the system. By bombarding selected targets with a proton beam from the HV-13 tandem, low intensity radioactive ion beam can be produced on-line. The first planned ion species is 62Zn+ and it will be used as nuclear probe to investigate the character of solid material by perturbed angular correlation and positive electron annihilation methods. Off-line tests are being carried out. The character of the target ion source and copper target to be used is described in this paper. Finally, a brief introduction of the ISOL design for the Beijing radioactive nuclear beam facility will be given

  6. The development of the high intensity electron cyclotron resonance ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B; Ma, R; Ma, Y; Chen, L; Huang, Q; Liang, H; Cui, B; Jiang, W

    2014-02-01

    High-current microwave ion source has been under development over 15 years for accelerator driven sub-critical system research at China Institute of Atomic Energy, and the beam intensity higher than 140 mA proton beam is produced by this ion source with long lifetime and high reliability. The emittance of high intensity continue-wave and pulse beam is measured on a test-bench in the laboratory. Based on the good performance of this proton ion source, a new 120 mA deuterium ion source is proposed for a high intensity neutron generator. The ion source details and status will be presented. PMID:24593490

  7. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1999. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  8. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 1998. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  9. Study of solid state nuclear track detectors in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main fields of research and achievements in the study of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of China are presented. The contents include (1) Study of parameters of SSNTD's. A method to calibrate the detection efficiencies of SSNTD's for fission fragments by counting correlated fission fragments has been proposed and used. (2) Fast neutron spectrum and dose measurements. The threshold energy (0.3 Mev) and the detection efficiency curve of polycarbonate foil for 0.085 to 18 Mev neutrons by recoil tracks have been calibrated and other methods are used. (3) Studies of nuclear fission. The angular distributions of fission fragments have been studied with SSNTD's. Non-anomalous angular distributions and obvious structures have been observed near threshold energy of 238U(n,2n'f) and 238U(n,f) reactions respectively. (4) Applications in geology, archaeology and analytic chemistry. Muscovite mica, tektites from Hainan Island in China and Peking Man have been dated by fission track method. The contents and microscopic distributions of uranium in minerals and water have been studied. (5) Meteorite study. The track densities and fission track age (3.9 +- 0.3 byr) of Jilin Meteorite were measured and discussed. (author)

  10. The institutions of energy governance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Indeed it might be argued that there is too much information on China's energy sector: too much information and not enough understanding. The premise of this chapter is that an improved understanding of the institutions of governance of China's energy sector will allow us to better appreciate current structures and policies, past policy decisions and outcomes, and the possible trajectories for future policies and policy outcomes. In short, it should provide us with valuable insights into events, trends and behaviors. To address this apparently simple objective requires an examination of a wide range of issues, including the origins and nature of China's institutions of governance, the processes of policy-making and policy implementation, and the priorities and behaviors of actors in the energy sector. This would allow an assessment of how well suited the institutions of governance are to addressing China's current and emerging energy challenges, especially in respect of the formulation and implementation of new policies to address these new challenges in a sustained manner. Attempts to understand the political economy and governance of China's energy sector were first stimulated by the energy crisis of the 1970's. But it was the opening of the energy sector to foreign involvement that brought the first systematic attempt to analyze policy making and implementation, reflected in the classic works of Lieberthal and Oksenberg. The growing global importance of China's energy sector in the first years of the twenty-first century has seen a wave of publications seeking to throw light on the governance of this sector.3 A number of these accounts have explicitly or implicitly drawn on the vocabulary and concepts of new institutional economics, an interdisciplinary field of the social sciences which provides a useful way to analyze institutions of governance. When integrated with an appreciation of the role of ideas on policy, new institutional economics provides a powerful

  11. Monte Carlo Study of a 137Cs calibration field of the China institute of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The MCNP code was used to study the characteristics of gamma radiation field with collimated beam geometry. A close-to-reality simulation model of the facility was used for calculation air-kerma along the whole range of source-detector-distance (SDD) along the central beam and air-kerma off-axis beam profiles at two different source-detector-distance (SDD). The simulation results were tested by the measured results which were acquired in the Radiation Metrology Center of CIAE. Other characteristics such as the individual contributions of photons scattered in collimator, floor, walls, mobile platform and other parts of the irradiation halls to the total air kerma rate on the beam axis were calculated for the purpose of future improvement of metrological parameters in CIAE. Finally, factors which influence the simulation results were investigated, including e.g., detector volume effects or source density effects.

  12. Annual Report 2002 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy described the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 2002 year. The Report contains the information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  13. Annual Report 2003 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual report of the Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (PL), described the results of the research work carried out at the Institute in 2003 year. The report contains detailed information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  14. Some considerations on disposal and management of solid radioactive wastes in the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Atomic Energy was established in 1958; it is a comprehensive institute in the field of nuclear science and technology, and it is also the oldest research centre on nuclear energy in China. At present the main facilities in the institute are: a heavy-water research reactor (HWRR) with thermal power of 15 MW (before reconstruction, the maximum thermal power of the HWRR was 10 MW), a 3 MW swimming pool light-water reactor for material testing, a few zero-power facilities, five accelerators, a nuclear fuel reprocessing technology laboratory, and three radioisotope production workshops, and so on. For the low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive waste produced at the institute, the main management measure is to store the waste in a special reinforced concrete building. The first of that kind of building was put into use in 1961. The annual average amount of low-level waste stored was 40 m3, only a very small share of that was intermediate-level waste. By the end of 1982, the entire capacity viz. 900 m3 of the storage building was used. In 1983, a new storage building with an effective volume of 900 m3 was constructed and put into use. In the operation of the new storage, the experience gained was utilized. As a larger comprehensive research institute in the field of nuclear science and technology and taking part in the nuclear energy development programme in China, the Institute of Atomic Energy is carryng out several research projects of the nuclear power safety of China. There is also a vital interest in the topic of site investigation techniques and assessment methods for underground disposal of radioactive wastes, although these studies in China are in the beginning stages

  15. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  16. The history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute with the title ; rich energy, clean environment and healthy life. It reports the message of publication and congratulatory address, the period of building foundation in 1970s the period of technical independence in 1980s, the period of maturity of technical independence in 1990s the period of advanced technology in 2000s, prospect on research and development on Korea atomic energy, research on atomic reactor for studying, introduction on nuclear reactor for generating energy, safety, radiation, nuclear fuel cycle human resource and international cooperation and general management.

  17. A synopsis of the activities on neutron standard reference data at the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of neutron standard reference data including neutron standard cross section measurements, 252Cf spontaneous fission nubar and neutron energy spectrum measurements, neutron flux measurements, neutron source strength calibrations and neutron standard data evaluations carried out at the Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing are presented. Some experimental results and recommended values are given

  18. History for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduces establishment, foundation, technical independent, puberty and preview of KAERI. It is divided six chapters, which deals with research and development on nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, cycle of nuclear fuel and research of nuclear safety, nuclear business and technical development, activity on nuclear safe regulation like establishment and role module for nuclear safety center and check of the safety of nuclear power plant, study of radio therapeutics and cancer treatment, development of human resources for nuclear power and training, general management about regulations, organization, person, contract, facility and building, welfare and establishment and activity of labor union.

  19. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI has conducted nuclear safety research in conformity with the national five year plan for safety research on nuclear installations, radioactive waste management and environmental radiation, and the research on engineering safety and environmental safety is described. In the research on high temperature engineering, the construction of the high temperature test reactor, the research on its fuel and materials, the reactor engineering, high temperature structures, safety and heat transfer, and nuclear heat application are reported. On the research and development of nuclear fusion, core plasma, core engineering technology and so on have been studied, and the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor are in progress. On the research and development of radiation application, radiation processing, advanced radiation application and radioisotope production have been researched. The experiment on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' was completed, and the research on the design of improved marine reactors has been advanced. Fundamental and related researches on various subjects are also reported. (K.I.)

  20. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  1. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research on atomic energy utilization in national institutions were begun in 1956, and valuable results have been produced in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, thus those have accomplished great roles for the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. Atomic energy technology synthesizes various advanced technologies over wide technical domains, therefore at the time of its research and development, it is important to place emphasis on the creative and innovative regions which cause large technical innovation and in which the effect spreading to general science and technology can be expected. In addition to the test and research according to such recognition, also the basic technology of atomic energy field has been studied. At present foreign countries request Japan to contribute to the development of the world by creating the new technology and knowledge on atomic energy, and national institutions must meet the request. This is the report No.29, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, the countermeasures to cancer, agriculture, forestry and fishery, medicine, mining and industry, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis and advanced basic research, carried out in 1988 are summarized. (K.I.)

  2. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test and research regarding the utilization of atomic energy carried out in national institutions have produced many valuable results in diverse fields so far, such as nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation and medicine, since the budget had been appropriated for the first time in 1956. It has accomplished large role in the promotion of atomic energy utilization in Japan. This report is volume 28, in which the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization carried out by national institutions in fiscal year 1987 are summarized. It is hoped that the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization is further promoted by this report. The contents of this report are nuclear fusion; the research on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety; food irradiation; the countermeasures against cancer; fertilized soil, the improvement of quality, the protection of plants and the improvement of breeding in agriculture and fishery fields; diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene and the application to physiology and pathology in medical field; radiation measurement and process analysis in mining and industry fields; nuclear reactor materials and nuclear-powered ships; civil engineering; radioactivation analysis; the research on the prevention of injuries; and the basic researches on materials and acessment and reduction of irradiation risk. (J.P.N.)

  4. Training course for border guards organized by the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danger of illegal trade in radioactive and fissile material has recently increased due to disintegration of the former Soviet Union. A substantial part of these materials is suspected to be smuggled through Poland to Western Europe. Proper countermeasures like establishing radiation detecting gates at border crossings and specific training programs for border guards have been set up by Polish authorities. On request of Polish Border Guard Command the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) has prepared a series of training courses for border guard officers. The courses covered both theoretical and practical subjects concerned with radiation safety and were focused on detection and safeguarding of radioactive or fissile material at border crossings. (author)

  5. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  6. Science Hall of Atomic Energy in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Science Hall of Atomic Energy was built as a subsidiary facility of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The purpose of this facility is to accept outside demands concerning the application of the research reactor. The building is a two story building, and has the floor area of 901.47 m2. There are an exhibition room, a library, and a big lecture room. In the exhibition room, models of the Kyoto University Research Reactor and the Kyoto University Critical Assembly are placed. Various pictures concerning the application of the reactor are on the wall. In the library, people from outside of the Institute can use various books on science. Books for boys and girls are also stocked and used for public use. At the lecture room, various kinds of meeting can be held. (Kato, T.)

  7. Integrated library system in the library of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated library system has been developed using a stand-alone mini-computer in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute library. This system consists of three subsystems for serials control, books acquisition and circulation control. Serials control subsystem deals with subscription, acquisition, claiming and inquiry of journals. This has been operating since the beginning of 1985. Book acquisition sub-system, which has been started since April 1986, deals with accounting and cataloguing of books. Circulation control sub-system deals with circulation, statistics compilation, book inventory and retrieval, which has been operating since April 1987. This system contributes greatly not only to the reduction of the circulation work load but also to the promotion of the library services. However, the convenience in circulation processing should be improved for materials without catalogue information stored in the computer. The pertinence for maximum number of books retrieved has to be also reconsidered. (author)

  8. Nuclear calculation for employing medium enrichment in reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel used for the research reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is presently highly enriched uranium of 93%. However, the U.S. government (the supplier of fuel) is claiming to utilize low or medium enriched uranium from the viewpoint of resistivity to nuclear proliferation, and the availability of highly enriched uranium is becoming hard owing to the required procedure. This report is described on the results of nuclear calculation which is the basis of fuel design in the countermeasures to the reduction of enrichment. The basic conception in the reduction of enrichment is three-fold: to lower the latent potential of nuclear proliferation as far as possible, to hold the present reactor performance as far as possible, and to limit the reduction in the range which is not accompanied by the modification of reactor core construction and cooling system. This time, the increase of the density and thickness of fuel plates and the effect of enrichment change to 45% on reactivity and neutron flux were investigated. The fuel of UAl sub(x) - Al system was assumed, which was produced by powder metallurgical method. The results of investigations on JRR-2 and JMTR reactors revealed that 45% enriched fuel does not affect the performances much. However, deterioration of the performances is not neglegible if further reduction is needed. In future, the influence of the burn-up effect of fuel on the life of reactor cores must be investigated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 31 December 1998. Pursuant to Article 10 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the date on which the Agency received from China written notification that China's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force have been met, i.e. on 28 March 2002

  10. Researches carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of works, accomplished by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, related to evaluation of the nuclear facilities effect on the environmental medium, are considered. The analytical results of studies on the environmental radioactivity with an account of meteorological aspects, evaluation of the nuclear facilities impact on the environmental medium are presented. Studies on the radionuclide behavior in the environmental medium cover large range of problems: distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in the surface medium and their migration; evaluation of the human radiation doses on the account of radionuclides; environmental medium protection and risk evaluation. The method for measuring the 90Sr concentrations with application of ion-exchange tars and a simple method for determining the radon activity with application of liquid scintillators were developed in the process of the study on creation of the environmental medium monitoring. The studies, related to the content and behavior of tritium, Pu, 137Cs, 247Am, as well as mercury and other heavy metals in the environmental medium were carried out. The methods for evaluating the NPPs radiation effect on the population with an account of the radioactive substances releases both by normal operation and in the emergency situations, were developed. Attention is also paid to research programs and developed codes

  11. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and researches on the development and utilization of atomic energy in national laboratories were begun in 1956, and have accomplished the great role for the advance of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan by having produced many valuable results so far. Atomic energy has been utilized not only in the field of nuclear power but also in diverse fields, and in national laboratories, the research for expanding the development and utilization of atomic energy in medicine, agriculture, forestry, fishery, radioactivation analysis and others in addition the basic research on nuclear fusion have been advanced. Further expecting the pervasive effect to general science and technology, the development of integrated research are promoted from the viewpoint of new technical innovation and creative technology. The safety research of nuclear facilities have been carried out to keep them high level on the basis of the yearly program enacted by Nuclear Safety Commission. This is the report No. 33, in which the results of the test and research in the fields of nuclear fusion safety research, food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine, mining and manufacture, power utilization, construction, radioactivation analysis carried on in fiscal 1992 are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  12. An empirical study on the institutional factors of energy conservation and emissions reduction: Evidence from listed companies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporate excessive energy consumption and emissions are negative externality problems, with the basic countermeasure of establishing a series of institutional programs to promote corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. This paper analyzes the influence of institutional factors such as laws, tax policies, credit policies, government subsidies, media supervision and marketization degree on corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction from the institutional perspective. The data, from 84 listed Chinese chemical and steel companies from 2006 to 2010, was analyzed using both a fixed effect model and the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. The empirical results demonstrate that these institutional factors positively affect corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. Specifically, four factors – tax policies, government subsidies, credit policies and media supervision – have a significant positive relationship with corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction; whereas laws and marketization degree exhibit no significant effects. The research findings are theoretically and practically significant to the Chinese government with regard to improving the institutional environment and promoting corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical analysis of the influence of institutional factors based on NIE. ► Empirical analysis of the influence of institutional factors on ECER by regression. ► Economic measures and public opinions have positive influence on ECER in China. ► Laws and the degree of marketization have weak influence on ECER in China

  13. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major nuclear research institutes in Japan are the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), National Research Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). In the 50s and 60s JAERI concentrated on the introduction of nuclear technology from overseas. Energy security issues led to the development of a strong nuclear power programme in the next two decades resulting in Japan having 50 light water cooled nuclear power plants in operation. Japan also worked on other reactor concepts. The current emphasis of JAERI is on advanced reactors and nuclear fusion. Its budget of 270 million US$ supports five research establishments. JAERI has strong collaboration with industry and university system on nuclear and other advanced research topics (neutron science, photon science). In many areas Japan has strong international links. JAERI has also been transferring know-how on radioisotope and radiation applications to the developing countries particularly through IAEA-RCA mechanisms. (author)

  14. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 23rd report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1982 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 12 researches on engineering safety, 5 researches on environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 5 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 8 researches on soil fertilization, 4 researches on quality improvement, 7 researches on crop protection, 5 researches on the improvement of breeding, 8 researches on diagnosis and treatment, 8 researches on pharmaceuticals, 10 researches on the application to pathology, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on underground water, 6 researches on activation analysis and 3 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy by national organizations, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956. Since then, many valuable results of research have been produced in the diverse fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, food irradiation, medicine and others, in this way, the test and research have played large roles in the promotion of the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. This is the 24th report, in which the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out in fiscal year 1983 by national organizations are summarized. 5 researches on nuclear fusion, 19 researches on engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, 3 researches on food irradiation, 6 researches on the countermeasures to cancer, 19 researches on agriculture, forestry and fishery, 30 researches on medicine, pharmaceuticals and environmental hygiene, 6 researches on mining and industry, 6 researches on power reactors and nuclear ships, 1 research on agricultural water, 7 researches on activation analysis and 4 researches on injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Summary and statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data in the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Katsuhiro; Kitano, Kyoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sibanuma, Yukio; Takasaki, Koichi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1998-03-01

    In the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the environmental monitoring has been conducted for about 29 years since April 1968. The results are discussed for evaluation of long-term and short-term fluctuation in the radiological conditions in the Oarai area. This report summarises the data of the environmental monitoring in Oarai, and statistical analyses were made of the data collected from 1985 through 1994. (author)

  17. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  18. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  19. National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report covers the research and commercial activities of the National Nuclear Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2014. Also listed are the scientific and technical publications issued by staff.

  20. The history for thirty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives description of history for thirty years of KAERI. It contains five chapters, which reports the process and development of KAERI, embryonic stage with nuclear energy for peace, the process of establishment of KAERI and building of the KAERI in 1960s, period of growth with change of international situation and measurement of KAERI and launching for KAERI in 1970s, period of technical independence for safe regulation and establishment nuclear safe center in 1980s and prospect on technical development of nuclear energy research like basic R and D.

  1. The Institutional Foundations of China's Market Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian

    1999-01-01

    April 1999 This paper intends to properly account for China's two decades of market transition by examining its institutional foundations. The journey of transition is analyzed as a two-stage process. In the first stage (1978-93), the system was reformed to unleash the standard forces of incentives, hard budget constraints, and competition, but the underlying institutional forms and mechanisms are far from conventional: reforming government through regional decentralization; entry and expansi...

  2. Nuclear Materials Management at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures for nuclear material control are reviewed, based on the experiences at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Nuclear materials to be discussed here include: - Both natural and enriched uranium for research; - Imported enriched nuclear fuel elements for JRR-2 (10-MW CP-5), JRR-4 (1-MW swimming pool), JPDR (12.5-MW(e) BWR), and the critical assemblies for JMTR (50-MW light-water moderated) and for the propulsion reactor; - Domestically-fabricated natural uranium fuel elements for JRR-3 (10-MW heavy-water moderated); - Domestically-fabricated fuels for the critical assemblies manufactured from imported enriched uranium oxides; - Domestically-fabricated enriched fuel elements for JPDR and for the propulsion reactor manufactured from imported enriched uranium hexafluoride. Both thorium and plutonium are also under control, but excluded from the present paper. Entire administrative pattern for nuclear material control is first presented. The emphasis is placed on the domestic fabrication of enriched fuel elements from imported enriched uranium, and the details of the control procedures during and after the fabrication process are discussed. The control procedures include the chemical analysis for purity check, isotopic assay by mass spectrometry, physical and mechanical tests of fabricated products, and the careful prevention in the diversion of nuclear materials. Administrative problems being attributed to Japanese domestic situation are presented; for example, the segregation, collection and efficient recovery and practical uses of residual uranium from the fabrication process. Methods for keeping records on the storage and uses of nuclear materials are also discussed. More satisfactory control procedures for other nuclear materials such as thorium and heavy water are under progress. (author)

  3. Radiation Protection Institute,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Protection Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to provide scientific and technical support for executing the operational functions of the Radiation Protection Board. The 2014 Annual Report highlights the operational activities of Institutes. Also presented is a list of research projects, publications and abstracts of technical reports.

  4. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying-Kai; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Wu, Wen-Shi; Chang, Ming-Shia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Shu, Shih-Lin

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic were found to be 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without γ-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25°C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any of fungicides has significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10°C but not 25°C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky. Rhyzopertha dominica. Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice.

  5. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses were found to be, 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without γ-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 250C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any fungicides have significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 100C but not 250C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice. (author)

  6. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.K.; Tsai, C.M.; Wu, W.S.; Chang, M.S.; Chang, Y.N.; Shu, S.L. (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, China)

    1981-01-01

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses were found to be, 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without ..gamma..-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25/sup 0/C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any fungicides have significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10/sup 0/C but not 25/sup 0/C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice.

  7. Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute was established in 2009, as the forth research institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. This Annual Report provides an overview of the major activities of the Institutes in the year 2014. Major items covered in the report include: Strategic objectives; Collaborations; Personnel and Organisational Structure; Facilities and Technical Services; Summary of Research and Development Projects; Human Resource Development; Publications and Technical Reports.

  8. Report of results of joint research using facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total themes of the joint research in fiscal year 1987 were 127. These are shown being classified into the general joint research in Tokai and Takasaki, neutron diffraction research and cooperative research. The general joint research is the standard utilization form using research reactors JRR-2 and JRR-4, Co-60 gamma irradiation facilities in Tokai and Takasaki, an electron beam irradiation facility in Takasaki, an electron beam linear accelator and hot laboratories, which are opened for common utilization by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The cooperative research is carried out by concluding research cooperation contracts between the researchers of universities and JAERI. In the general joint research, radioactivation analysis, radiation chemistry, irradiation effect, neutron diffraction and so on are the main themes, and in the cooperative research, reactor technology, reactor materials, nuclear physics measurement and others are the main themes. The total number of visitors was 2629 man-day, and decreased due to the stop of JRR-2. Also other activities are reported. The abstracts of respective reports are collected in this book. (Kako, I.)

  9. Review of technological elaborations in innovation activity in Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most important directions of IAE activity is works on safety substantiation of perspective reactors on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer. Hard conditions of reactor and out-of pile experiments have required the elaboration of series of special measurement systems. Realized system parameters allow to use them not only in the experiments above, but in other industrial fields. One of the basic controlled experiment parameters is short-time pressure impulse appeared under melt hitting of fuel composition into metallic heat-transfer. The original measurement system of pressure impulse in liquid sodium was elaborated. System operating conditions are as follows: influence of reactor gamma radiation; operating temperatures span 273-673 K; pressure measurement span 5 MPa and 20 MPa; transfer temperature in impulse 273-1500 K; sizes in power point are no more than diameter 50 mm; At the same time the system should provide pressure measurement error no high than 6 %. Block of factors data did not allow using state or pressure impulse measurement systems offered at the market. During system elaboration a number of difficult technical problems were solved. As the result the pressure impulse measurement system in liquid sodium for reactor experiments with models of reactor channels on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer under temperature up to 400 deg.C was elaborated. The system includes a pressure sensor, thermo protective device consisting of a membrane unit and impulse line with metallic extended with boiling temperature higher than 1000 deg. C. The line length is up to 5 m. A generator of pressure impulses for pressure impulse measurement system control was elaborated. The generator allows to form the regulated pressure impulse with amplitude up to 60 MPa and leading edge duration up to 5 ms. Impulse duration is from 20 to 100 ms.The operation results can be used during elaboration of fast operating pressure impulse

  10. Characteristics of internal and external exposures to workers by job in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is useful to investigate the characteristics of exposure to radiation workers by job category for the reassessment of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the monitoring method and radiation protection practice. As a first step, the annual collective dose to workers in JAERI has been analysed by job category and type of exposure for the years 1969 to 1986

  11. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1980 through March 31, 1981. The latest report, for 1980, is JAERI-M 9214. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  12. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1976 through March 31, 1977. The latest report, for 1976, is JAERI-M 6702. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (auth.)

  13. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1978 through March 31, 1979. The latest report, for 1978, is JAERI-M 7949. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  14. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1982 through March 31, 1983. The latest report, for 1982, is JAERI-M 82-192. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, water and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  15. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980. The latest report, for 1979, is JAERI-M 8569. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  16. Measurement of thermal neutron spectra using LINAC in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact grasp of thermal neutron spectra in a core region is very important for obtaining accurate thermal neutron group constants in the calculation for the nuclear design of a reactor core. For the accurate grasp of thermal neutron spectra, the capability of thermal neutron spectra to describe the moderator cross-sections for thermal neutron scattering is a key factor. Accordingly, 0 deg angular thermal neutron spectra were measured by the time of flight (TOF) method using the JAERI LINAC as a pulsed neutron source, for light water system added with Cd and In, high temperature graphite system added with boron, and light water-natural uranium heterogeneous multiplication system among the reactor moderators of light water or graphite systems. First, the equations to give the time of flight and neutron flux by TOF method were analyzed, and several corrections were investigated, such as those for detector efficiency, background, the transmission coefficient of air and the Al window of a flight tube, mean emission time of neutrons, and the distortion effect of re-entrant hole on thermal neutron spectra. Then, the experimental system, results and calculation were reported for the experiments on the above three moderator systems. Finally, the measurement of fast neutron spectra in natural uranium system and that of the efficiency of a 6Li glass scintillator detector are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Studies of high-level waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI studies on the properties of the glass and ceramic waste forms, which have been done in the last several years, are described briefly. For the long-term evaluation of glass waste form performance under repository condition, leachability has studied from the standpoints of understanding of alteration layers, effects of groundwater and effects of redox condition using the radioactive or non-radioactive glass samples. The studies revealed that (1) the reactions in the alteration layers, such as crystal growth, continue after the apparent release of elements from the glass almost ceases, (2) under somewhat reducing conditions, Fe dissolves easily into leachates, and hydrated silicate surface layer tends to dissolve more easily with Fe in reduced synthetic groundwater than in deionized water, (3) precipitation of PuO2·xH2O(am) is controlling the leaching of soluble species of Pu under both redox conditions, and the dominant soluble species is Pu(OH)40 under reducing condition. Ceramics are considered as most promising materials for the actinide-rich wastes arising from partitioning and transmutation processes because of their outstanding durability for long term. In the present study, α-decay damage effects on the density and leaching behavior of perovskite (1 of 3 main minerals forming Synroc) were investigated by an accelerated experiment using the actinide doping technique. A decrease in density of Cm-doped perovskite reaches 1.3% at a dose of 9x1017 α-decays·g-1. The leach rate of perovskite increases with an increase in accumulated α-decay doses. Application of zirconia- and alumina-based ceramics for incorporating actinides was also investigated by inactive laboratory tests with an emphasis on crystallographic phase stability and chemical durability. The yttria-stabilized zirconia is stable crystallographically in the wide ranges of Ce and/or Nd content and have excellent chemical durability. (author)

  18. Studies of high-level waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Kamizono, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Inagaki, Yahohiro

    1998-02-01

    The JAERI studies on the properties of the glass and ceramic waste forms, which have been done in the last several years, are described briefly. For the long-term evaluation of glass waste form performance under repository condition, leachability has studied from the standpoints of understanding of alteration layers, effects of groundwater and effects of redox condition using the radioactive or non-radioactive glass samples. The studies revealed that (1) the reactions in the alteration layers, such as crystal growth, continue after the apparent release of elements from the glass almost ceases, (2) under somewhat reducing conditions, Fe dissolves easily into leachates, and hydrated silicate surface layer tends to dissolve more easily with Fe in reduced synthetic groundwater than in deionized water, (3) precipitation of PuO{sub 2}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(am) is controlling the leaching of soluble species of Pu under both redox conditions, and the dominant soluble species is Pu(OH){sub 4}{sup 0} under reducing condition. Ceramics are considered as most promising materials for the actinide-rich wastes arising from partitioning and transmutation processes because of their outstanding durability for long term. In the present study, {alpha}-decay damage effects on the density and leaching behavior of perovskite (1 of 3 main minerals forming Synroc) were investigated by an accelerated experiment using the actinide doping technique. A decrease in density of Cm-doped perovskite reaches 1.3% at a dose of 9x10{sup 17} {alpha}-decays{center_dot}g{sup -1}. The leach rate of perovskite increases with an increase in accumulated {alpha}-decay doses. Application of zirconia- and alumina-based ceramics for incorporating actinides was also investigated by inactive laboratory tests with an emphasis on crystallographic phase stability and chemical durability. The yttria-stabilized zirconia is stable crystallographically in the wide ranges of Ce and/or Nd content and have excellent

  19. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993) are described. The research activities were conducted under the two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  20. Development of radioactive waste management at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main efforts in the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste have gone into reducing the volume of waste. For high-level waste, studies are being carried out on solidification and partitioning techniques, in preparation for completion of the fuel cycle in Japan. For marine disposal of low-level wastes planned by the JAEC, significant information has been obtained on the integrity and leaching behaviour of cement-solidified wastes. The paper describes the present state of development of the techniques. For the treatment of low- and medium-level wastes: (1) An incinerator with two-stage ceramic filters has been tested, and the decontamination factor was found to be 104 for various nuclides. (2) The reverse osmosis method with a cellulose acetate membrane has been tested for laundry liquid waste. More than 99% of the 60Co was removed together with detergents. (3) Solidification products of spent ion-exchange resin with polyethylene have been proved superior to asphalt products in mechanical properties, water resistance and volume reduction. Homogeneous cement-solidified waste in 200-litre sealed drums did not form any cracks or defects under high hydrostatic pressure. The leaching ratio of 137Cs for the first year was estimated to be lower than 0.3%. For the treatment of high-level wastes: (1) Vitrification using natural zeolite has been developed and the properties of the products proved to be excellent. (2) A partitioning procedure consisting mainly of solvent extraction and ion exchange has been studied. Reduction of the amount of alkaline agent by introducing the denitration technique and reduction of the resin volume by adopting porous type resin was achieved. (author)

  1. Studies of waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI studies on the properties of the glass and ceramic waste forms, which have been done in the last several years, are described briefly. For the long-term evaluation of glass waste form performance under repository condition, leachability has been studied from the standpoints of understanding alteration layers, the effects of groundwater and the effects of redox conditions using radioactive or non-radioactive glass samples. The studies revealed that (1) the reactions in the alteration layers, such as crystal growth, continue after the apparent release of elements from the glass almost ceases, (2) under somewhat reducing conditions, Fe dissolves easily into leachates, and the hydrated silicate surface layer tends to dissolve more easily with Fe present than in deionized water, (3) precipitation of PuO2·xH2O(am) controls the leaching of soluble species of Pu under both redox conditions, and the dominant soluble species is Pu(OH)40 under reducing condition. Ceramics are considered as the most promising materials for immobilizing the actinide-rich wastes arising from partitioning and transmutation processes because of their outstanding long-term durability. In the present study, a-decay damage effects on the density and leaching behavior of perovskite (one of three main minerals forming Synroc) were investigated by an accelerated experiment using the actinide doping technique. A decrease in density of Cm-doped perovskite reaches 1.3 % at a dose of 9 x 1017 α-decays··g-1. The leach rate of perovskite increases with an increase in accumulated a-decay dose. Zirconia- and alumina-based ceramics for incorporating actinides were also investigated by inactive laboratory tests with an emphasis on crystallographic phase stability and chemical durability. The yttria-stabilized zirconia is stable crystallographically over wide ranges of Ce and/or Nd content and has excellent chemical durability. (author)

  2. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (no. 20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987. The latest report, for 1985, is JAERI-M 87-046. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  3. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 18)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1984 through March 31, 1985. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 84-239. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  4. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no.19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1985 through March 31, 1986. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 86-051. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  5. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1987 through March 31, 1988. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: (i) studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  6. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (No. 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities in Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the one year period from April 1, 1974 through March 31, 1975. The major research field covers the following subjects: studies related to reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization studies under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers; fundamental studies on polymerization, degradation, crosslinking, and grafting. (auth.)

  7. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. April 1992 to March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    JAERI has conducted nuclear safety research in conformity with the national five year plan for safety research on nuclear installations, radioactive waste management and environmental radiation, and the research on engineering safety and environmental safety is described. In the research on high temperature engineering, the construction of the high temperature test reactor, the research on its fuel and materials, the reactor engineering, high temperature structures, safety and heat transfer, and nuclear heat application are reported. On the research and development of nuclear fusion, core plasma, core engineering technology and so on have been studied, and the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor are in progress. On the research and development of radiation application, radiation processing, advanced radiation application and radioisotope production have been researched. The experiment on the nuclear ship `Mutsu` was completed, and the research on the design of improved marine reactors has been advanced. Fundamental and related researches on various subjects are also reported. (K.I.).

  8. Operation beam switching at the FAKEL accelerator of the Kurchatov's Institute for Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of operative beam switching system development for the FAKEL accelerator with five electron-optical channels are presented. A single there structure is used in the pulsed magnet. A pulse generator is based on the method of multiplication in a capacitor. The pulse magnet with 3 deg bending angle is arranged at the accelerator axis in front of the magnet with a constant field. The magnetic screen is arranged inside the magnet with a constant field. An electron beam is bended from the accelerator axis, when current pulse is applied to the magnet, and hits the field of the permanent magnet, but during current pulse it hits the magnetic screen. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Spontaneous ignition of natural uranium in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At P.M. 7:23, May 30, 1989, a fire alarm functioned in the uranium enrichment laboratory building, and immediately investigation was carried out, as the result, smoke was confirmed in the nuclear fuel storage. In the nuclear fuel storage, there were five plastic bottles containing natural uranium chips, and smoke arose from three of them. Immediately fire fighting was carried out with powder extinguishers and others, the uranium chips which were regarded as the heat generating source were moved into stainless steel cans, and air was cut off with extinguishing sand, as the result, around P.M. 9:50, heat generation ceased. At present the detailed cause is being investigated, but it is considered that the uranium chips contained in plastic bottles reacted with air by some cause, and generated heat in the form of spontaneous ignition, as the result, the plastic bottles and the vinyl sheets placed under them smoked. The stack dust monitor in the uranium enrichment laboratory building showed the normal value, and there was not the effect to surrounding environment. The workers who did fire fighting with whole face masks were not affected by smoke. (K.I.)

  10. Report of evaluation on socio-economic effects of R and D results in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted nuclear energy research aiming at long-term and stable supply of energy supporting the basis of national existence, advanced nuclear science and engineering leading to increase in Japanese industrial competitive power, etc. Through these undertaking, JAERI has produced a lot of remarkable achievements to contribute the national requests mentioned above. In total, about 1.8 trillion-yen of national funds and over 60,000 person · years of researchers and technical staffs have been invested in the R and D's for the past 45 years. Recently it has been argued and recognized to evaluate how the profits of R and D results in public research institutes supported by national funds are returned to the Japanese people as taxpayers and society as part of an administrative and financial reform. Then, seeing its 45th anniversary, JAERI has tried to evaluate the effects of the R and D achievements on the Japanese society and economy apart from the reviews on the management of the organization and research results by the ex-house experts from the viewpoints of specialty and technical aspects. In order to execute the aforementioned evaluation, JAERI established the in-house Ad hoc Committee for Evaluation of R and D Achievements where decision of the evaluation plan is made, in July 2001, and executed the evaluation followed by assembling the necessary database collected from individual branches. Results obtained from these activities were finally summarized in the Ad hoc Committee. Because a methodology for quantitative evaluation of the economical effects, i.e. cost-benefit effects of R and D's was not established yet, the evaluation was prudently carried out with the assistance of three think tanks and under advices by three ex-house experts. R and D's in JAERI are not limited to the ones where benefits corresponding to profits can be

  11. Order of 2 November 1976 setting up an Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety within the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute was set up within the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) by Order of the Minister of Industry and Research. Its main purpose, in accordance with the Government's general policy on nuclear safety and general co-ordinating measures adopted by the Interministerial Committee on Nuclear Safety is to undertake studies, research and work on protection and nuclear safety as directed by the Ministerial departments and organisations concerned. At administrative and operational level, creation of this new institute merges the protection department and the nuclear safety department in the CEA. (NEA)

  12. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    support further improvements in efficiency and scale up renewable generation at an acceptable level of cost and reliability. Chapter 6 examines energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use, arguing that energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China are high relative to other countries because of China's historical support for small and medium-sized enterprises using domestic technology; its continued provision of energy subsidies to fertilizer producers; and its lack of a well-functioning agricultural extension system. The case studies illustrate the limits of energy and climate policy in China without institutional reform. China's leaders have historically relied on economic growth to defer the difficult changes in political economy that accompany economic and social transition. However, many of the challenges of energy and climate policy require political decisions that reallocate resources among stakeholders. For instance, restructuring the Chinese economy away from heavy industrial investment and toward a higher GDP share of consumption will require financial sector reforms, such as interest rate liberalization or higher dividend payments for state-owned enterprises, that reallocate income from the industrial sector to households. Increasing power system flexibility will require price reforms that reallocate revenues and costs among generators, between generators and the grid companies, between producers and ratepayers, among ratepayer classes, and between and among provinces. Strong public interest institutions are needed to make these changes, which suggests that China's energy and GHG emissions trajectories will be determined, to a large extent, by the politics of institutional reform.

  13. Grid-connected renewable energy in China: Policies and institutions under gradualism, developmentalism, and socialism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication displays some of our on-going research on the incompleteness of China's advances toward “best practice” in policy-making and institution-building for renewables. In particular, this paper: (1) summarizes how Chinese policies and institutions for the deployment of renewable electricity are only partially compliant with what is internationally recognized as “best practice”; and (2) contextualizes Chinese policies and institutions for renewables in the broader picture of China's political economy. Much as a political economy perspective has aided the understanding of why Chinese economic reforms were partial and unique, the said contextualization might help explain why China's policies and institutions for renewables diverge from “best practice”. Further, given that China proved successful in promoting its economic growth with partial and unique reforms, the partiality and uniqueness of its renewables policies and institutions need not impede the rapid development of renewable electricity. This on-going research has so far combined a review of specialized literature and the business press with semi-structured interviews held with relevant actors in policy, business, and research related to renewable energies.

  14. Communication of 30 October 1997 from the government of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 30 October 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the People's Republic of China concerning the nuclear export procedures of China

  15. Inquiry relating to safety due to modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (establishment of waste safety testing facility) in Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application was made to the director of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) for the license relating to the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (the establishment of waste safety testing facility) from the director of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on November 30, 1978. After passing through the safety evaluation in the Nuclear Safety Bureau of STA, inquiry was conducted to the head of the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on June 6, 1979, from the director of the STA. The head of AESC directed to conduct the safety examination to the head of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Specialist Committee on June 7, 1979. The content of the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material is the establishment of waste safety testing facility to study and test the safety relating to the treatment and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes due to the reprocessing of spent fuel. As for the results of the safety examination, the siting of the waste safety testing facility which is located in the Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the test plan of the glass solidification of high level radioactive liquid are presented as the outline of the study plan. The building, main equipments including six cells, the isolation room and the glove box, the storage, and the disposal facilities for gas, liquid and solid wastes are explained as the outline of the facilities. Concerning the items from the viewpoint of safety, aseismatic design, slightly vacuum operation, shielding, decay heat removal, fire protection, explosion protection, criticality management, radiation management and environmental effect were evaluated, and the safety was confirmed. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Communication of 9 June 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China made on 8 June 1996, received by the Director General of the IAEA on 10 June 1996 from the Resident Representative of China. The Statement refers to the nuclear test conducted by China on 8 June 1996

  17. The Fundamental Institutions of China's Reforms and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chenggang Xu

    2011-01-01

    China's economic reforms have resulted in spectacular growth and poverty reduction. However, China's institutions look ill-suited to achieve such a result, and they indeed suffer from serious shortcomings. To solve the "China puzzle," this paper analyzes China's institution—a regionally decentralized authoritarian system. The central government has control over personnel, whereas subnational governments run the bulk of the economy; and they initiate, negotiate, implement, divert, and resist r...

  18. The law for the Independent Administrative Institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Law no.155 of 3 Dec. 2004(the latest revision, Law no.87 of 26 July 2005) is the law to define the objective, scope of activities, etc. of the independent administrative institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The agency is established under the atomic energy basic law to make comprehensive research and development associated with nuclear energy and establishment of nuclear fuel cycle and to contribute to promote research, development and utilization of it. The agency has its main office in Ibaraki prefecture and its capital is the amount of contributions by the government and persons other than the government. The officers are consisted of a president, an executive vice president, less than 7 executive directors and 2 auditors. The president is appointed by the Minister of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the president is from the day of the appointment to the end of midterm goal period and that of auditors is 2 years. Activities of the agency include basic and application research of nuclear energy, technical establishment of nuclear fuel cycle (R and D of Fast Breeder Reactor, nuclear fuel for FBR, reprocessing and treatment and disposal of HLW), promotion of application of R and D results of above areas, utilization sharing of facility and equipment, human resource development of nuclear energy field, collection, arrangement and dissemination of nuclear information and study and analysis requested by the government. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Metrology assurance of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metrology assurance of the Kozloduy NPP is at a satisfactory level. The assessment is carried out following the requirements of both the authorized bodies and the recent acting documents. Considering the future development of the nuclear energy and the new demands towards nuclear safety, the metrology assurance of atomic energy needs some improvement. A thorough set of measures should be developed as: preparing of standard documentation, personnel education, purchase of new highly accurate appliances, and providing conditions for the fulfillment of some qualified metrology activities. This will take an extremely difficult and long period of time with respect to the country circumstances, the energy generation and the variety of reorganizations in all management spheres. Prerequisite for this are: the metrologist' desire to fulfill the above tasks, the NPP administration concern and actions to solve the metrology assurance problems, the understanding from the authorized bodies and other scientific institutions and the assistance on the part of some western countries, mainly France. A leading part in fulfilling this problems should be played by the NEC-SA - Kozloduy NPP. (author)

  20. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Global energy markets and climate change in the twenty first century depend, to an extraordinary extent, on China. China is now, or will soon be, the world's largest energy consumer. Since 2007, China has been the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite its large and rapidly expanding influence on global energy markets and the global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumption and GHG emissions in China are low relative to developed countries. The Chinese economy,...

  1. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, annual report. April 1998 to March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the leading and comprehensive R and D institute in the field of nuclear energy in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is pursuing the R and D activities set forth in the Atomic Energy Commission's 'Long-term Program for the Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy', which was adopted in June, 1994. These activities include studies on neutron science, photon science, synchrotron radiation science, advanced computational science, and advanced fundamental science. Engineering safety research for establishing LWR power generation infrastructure, high-temperature engineering experimentation research, nuclear fusion research, radiation utilization research, and other objects striving for nuclear energy breakthroughs are also under their advancements. In addition, JAERI pursues cooperation and provides efficient R and D supports among industries, academia, and governments, both domestic and international. In this annual report from April, 1998 to March, 1999, advanced photons and synchrotron radiation research, neutron science, R and D of radiation applications, computational science and engineering, advanced science research, nuclear fusion R and D, nuclear energy system research, material science, high temperature engineering test research, safety research, health physics, decommissioning and waste management technology, operation management and safety management, production of radioisotopes, international collaboration, joint-use and cooperative research, and so forth are described on their annual activities in each item. (G.K.)

  2. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  3. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  4. Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goal of the 21. century is for society to pursue 'sustainable economic development and prosperous life by recycling resources', thus rejecting 'development based on the waste of resources'. For Japan, which has limited energy resources, it is important to secure safe, inexpensive, environmentally friendly energy resources having long-term availability. To contribute to long-term energy security and solve global environmental issues, and to create advanced competitive science and technology, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established by integrating the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in October 2005. JAEA is endeavoring to establish nuclear fuel cycles, to contribute to social improvement through hydrogen production initiated by atomic energy, and to pursue research and development of thermonuclear fusion and quantum beam technology. This paper reviews the main R and D activities of JAEA. The structure of the paper is the following: 1. Introduction; 2. Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 3. Efforts to Commercialize the Fast Reactor Cycle; 4. Monju Progress; 5. Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste R and D; 6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor System R and D; 7. Fusion Research and Development; 8. LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing Technology; 9. Quantum Beam Technologies; 10. Nuclear Safety Research and Regulatory Applications; 11. Basic Science and Engineering Research; 12. Contribution to the Enhanced International Nonproliferation Regimes; 13. Conclusions. To summarize, JAEA will promote the above R and D activities, addressing the following commitments: - On problems that atomic energy faces, we shall extend technical assistance in response to the government and the industrial sectors. - We shall produce technical options to attain political goals to secure medium to long-term stable energy supplies and to solve global environmental issues. - With the high potentials of atomic

  5. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  6. On the Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Dai, Zhongxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues concerning the internalization of higher education institutions in China. Internationalization of a university involves the internationalization of the curriculum, the administration and management, collaborative academic research, and exchange of students and staff.

  7. Communication of 30 October 1997 from the Government of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA on 30 October 1997 from the Resident Representative of the People's Republic of China (PRC) concerning the nuclear export procedures of the PRC

  8. The development of atomic energy in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

  9. Communication of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China providing a White Paper on the nuclear non-proliferation policy and measures of the People's Republic of China. In light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the letter and the White Paper are attached hereto

  10. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1980 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  11. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1978 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committees on Reactor Physics and in Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  12. Communication of 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China regarding China's nuclear policies and practices. In the light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the Note Verbale is attached hereto

  13. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three sources of energy security risks, namely sovereignty, robustness and resilience, affect China’s energy chains. • Energy security issues in China both have shaped and at the same time were shaped by ideas and institutions. • China remains rigid with equating ‘security’ with ‘national security’ and the notion of “national” is socially constructed. • Powerful actors, such as Chinese NOCs, inclined to interpret the problem so that it fits their preferred solution. • Securitization of any energy supply chains results from their historical roots, system properties and institutional agents. - Abstract: Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framework for explaining China’s energy security policies in their historic evolution. We pay specific attention to explaining how particular energy supply chains are constructed and securitized. We draw data from over 300 Chinese and over 100 English publications and 30 interviews with energy officials and experts in China. We demonstrate that China’s focus on vulnerabilities of its oil supply chain at the expense of improving the reliability of domestic electricity supply is not accidental. It has its roots in historic events, properties of energy systems, as well as the presence of powerful institutional agents interested in securitizing the oil supply chain but not other vital energy systems. We suggest that this focus on the oil supply chain is likely to be maintained in the future, possibly accompanied by increasing concerns over natural gas

  14. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  15. Estimate of atomic nuclear energy related expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the increases in world population and energy consumption, limited natural sources, environmental problems on the earth as well as the trends of international society were taken into consideration and the global society in the 21st century was surveyed, it is thought important to steadily progress the development of nuclear energy. Based on these aspects, the nuclear energy development of Japan in 1996 was designed aiming at stable secure of energy and qualitative rising of the standard of life and improvement of welfare in human society on the conditions of sticking to peaceful use and safety secure. The fundamental policies were confirmed as follows: 1) development of nuclear energy policies. 2) establishment of an integrated system for light water reactor typed nuclear power generation. 3) development of recycling system of nuclear fuel. 4) development of atomic energy technology and enforcement of its basic research. Based on these principles, the expenses necessary to perform the above policies were estimated to be ca. 5000 x 108 yen in total. The expenses for major facilities concerned were as follows; Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute 1280 x 108 yen, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation 2384 x 108 yen, National Institute of Radiological Science 171 x 108 yen, National Facilities for Developmental Scientific Research 24 x 108 yen and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research 126 x 108 yen. (M.N.)

  16. Renewable Energy Legislation in China:Political and Institutional Strategy for Effective Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Dongming; Joanna Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Chinese government has developed several plans regulations and policy measures related to the development of renewable energy technologies and has implemented a series of pilot projects. Chinese policymakers have spent several years studying how renewable energy policy models that have been used internationally could be implemented in China. Programs are currently underway to implement pilot renewable portfolio standards, or mandatory market shares (MMS) for renewable energy, in several provinces.This paper examines the primary institutions that are involved in promoting renewable policies in China, the structure of the policies that currently are being drafted, and the status of the complementary,national-level renewable energy law being drafted to provide a legal basis for ongoing local and nationallevel policies. It then examines the legal requirements for promoting renewable energy legislation under the Chinese law-making system. Finally, it provides recommendations for strategies to ensure the smooth implementation of a multi-faceted national renewable energy policy and legal framework.

  17. Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI),Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2013/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the structure as well as the research projects of the newly established Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission from January to December 2014. Research projects listed are in the areas of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Remote Sensing; Electronics and Instrumentation; and Satellite Communication.

  18. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli

    2014-01-01

    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  19. Changes in plan for installation of reactor in No. 1 nuclear ship of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (change in description of its cool shutdown state) (report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    In response to the request from the Prime Minister, the Nuclear Safety Commission made adequate deliberations on the proposed changes in the plan for the installation of the reactor in the No.1 nuclear ship of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The subject matter is related with the shift of the reactor from a cool shutdown state to a shutdown state at the Ominato Port. The Nuclear Safety Commission started examinations at the 29th meeting of the Commission held on September 3, 1985, and made a conclusion at its 30th meeting held on September 10 of the same year. It was confirmed that if the reactor is shifted into a hot shutdown state, all control rods will continue to be in the inserted state while the clutch current in the control rod drive system will be cut to maintain the reactor in a subcritical state. It was concluded that the proposed change in the installation plan will not affect the safety of the relevant nuclear reactor facilities and can meet the provisions under Article 24 Paragraph 1 of Law Concerning Regulations on Nuclear Materials, Nuclear Fuel Substances and Nuclear Reactors. The conclusion was reported to the Prime Minister as of September 10, 1987. (Nogami, K.).

  20. Agreement of 20 September 1988 between the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains two parts. The first part stipulates the agreement of China to accept IAEA safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in peaceful nuclear facilities to be designated by China within its territory with a view to enabling the Agency to verify that such material is not withdrawn, except as provided for in this Agreement, from those facilities while such material is subject to safeguards under this Agreement. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  1. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), a national nuclear research institute in the Republic of Korea, celebrated its fortieth anniversary last April. It has played a key role in the Korean nuclear history such that it: initiated and promoted the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the Republic of Korea; maintained nuclear expertise on whole spectrum of nuclear field through conducting nuclear R and D programs, operating nuclear research facilities, and training and educating specialized nuclear personnel; founded a cornerstone of Korean nuclear industry by participating in the establishment of a nuclear engineering company and a nuclear fuel company and localizing nuclear fuel and reactor technology; and contributed to nuclear safety regulation by incubating a specialized nuclear regulatory body. Recently, to concentrate on nuclear R and D on advanced technology, KAERI went through management reform such as: the transfer of nuclear engineering divisions responsible for NSSS design and nuclear fuel design to nuclear industry in 1996; and the downsizing of manpower in 1998. Currently KAERI is in the challenging stage in terms of its missions and manpower. In the coming 21st century, KAERI is required to maintain the current R and D momentum and also to conduct priority-based research requiring concentrated effort. (author)

  2. State of dismantling of reactor facilities (JPDR) in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (fiscal year 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to this dismantling work, the contents of the notice on the dismantling and the policy of administration offices to deal with it were reported to the Nuclear Safety Commission beforehand, and after the approval was obtained, it has been executed. Based on the talk of the chairman of Nuclear Safety Commission on January 6, 1983, the state of dismantling is reported. In fiscal year 1986, the second stage dismantling was begun in December, and it was confirmed that the works were carried out safety. In order to ensure the place required for dismantling and removing in-core structures and the pressure vessel, the pressure vessel upper cover and its heat insulator were removed from the third story of the containment vessel. A part of the facilities installed on the second and third stories of the containment vessel was also dismantled and removed. In order to utilize as the place for the temporary preservation and decontamination of dismantled things, a part of the facilities installed in the dump condenser building was dismantled and removed. The control building was reconstructed for smoothly carrying out the entrance control of workers. 36 spent fuel assemblies were carried away for reprocessing. The exposure dose of workers was below the detectable limit of film badges. The dismantled wastes were about 171 t of metals and 34 t of concrete. (Kako, I.)

  3. Annual reports of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 23, 24, 25)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during three year period from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1992 are described. The latest report. for 1988, is JAERI-M 91-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, polymerization and modification of polymers by electron beam, and electron beam dosimetry. (author) 77 refs

  4. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)

  5. New data and new tools for the nuclear libraries of reactor physics models in AERI (Atomic Energy Research Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-shielded group constants for U-235 and U-238 nuclei in their resolved and unresolved resonance regions have been calculated from the data of ENDF/B-VI file by means of the codes NJOY and PEACO. These constants have been used in the program MGCP. For the sake of comparison, some criticality calculations have been performed with the new constants and with the older ones which have had originated from ENDF/B-IV data. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of wind farm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power development should be subject to rational policy change and institutional adjustment. It discusses the incentive mechanisms and institutional frameworks for future development. Particular importance is attributed to market incentives for wind power to reach the objectives of industrialization and commercialization. A number of cost-competitive incentive measures and policies are recommended: (i) introducing market based mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) establishing effective investment policies and regulations to attract private investment; (iii) promoting localization of wind turbine production; (iv) adjusting tax and subsidy policies; and (v) reforming governmental institutions to make clear rules and responsibilities for policymaking, and enhancing communication/coordination between relevant government agencies in order to formulate uniform and effective policies. (Author)

  7. Technical report on the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducts Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA) under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purpose of these tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the light water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. Presently piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic fracture mechanics method is being done. Until now annual reports concerning the proving tests were produced and submitted to STA, whereas this report summarizes the test results done during these 16 years. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the light water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location even if it ruptured suddenly. To attain these objectives (i) pipe fatigue tests, (ii) unstable pipe fracture tests, (iii) pipe rupture tests and also the analyses by computer codes were done. After carrying out these tests, it is verified that the piping is reliable throughout the service period. The authors of this report are T. Isozaki, K. Shibata, S. Ueda, R. Kurihara, K. Onizawa and A. Kohsaka. The parts they wrote are shown in contents. (author)

  8. Progress Report. Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Heavy Ion Physics. 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of the research and development activities carried out in the Department of Heavy Ion Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, during the period January 1992 to December 1993 is presented. The main topics concern nuclear structure models and methods, heavy-ion-induced reactions, and general properties of nuclei and nuclear energy levels. Also, works dealing with particle detection, measuring instruments and methods are reported. The report contains two sections. The first covers the research in progress in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, atomic physics, accelerator, instrumentation, methods and computer codes. The second one, the appendix, contains the list of publications of the Department staff in journals and proceedings, books, and preprints, the conference contributions, the academic degrees awarded, the scientific exchanges, and the list of scientific personnel

  9. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the 21st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  10. On the bankruptcy of private higher education institutions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guoping; XIE Zuoxu

    2007-01-01

    In recent years,closing down private higher education institutions (HEIs)has become a serious problem in China.It seems that doubt is cast on the rationality of private HEIs and severe competition contributes a lot to their development.Many problems in the process of self-development are caused by both internal and external factors.From the perspective of sustainable development and the healthy development of students,priority should be given to the evolution of an idea to provide a positive environment for the development of private HEIs.This paper is an effort to deal with the statement that higher education in China is a seller's market and aims to do an objective estimate of the development space for private HEIs.In addition,it shows a clear understanding of establishing the prediction system for relevant issues of private higher education to guarantee the sound development of private HEIs.

  11. Environmental Radioactivity Studies Within The Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute During The Time Period 1980 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results of the monitoring activities for natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment such as in surface soil, in surface and groundwater, in the atmosphere and food of Viet Nam that have been conducted by the staff of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI) since the first day of its foundation. Among natural radionuclide, uranium/radium, thorium, potassium-40 in surface soils and 222Rn in the atmosphere are of particular interest for estimating the annual effective dose resulted from gamma radiation and inhalation to the public. The total annual effective dose (outdoor and indoor dose) from gamma radiation of natural radioactivity (U, Th, 40K) in surface soil to the public of all the 63 provinces over Viet Nam was estimated as high as 0.54 mSv that is in 10% higher than those reported in the UN SCEAR-2000. The annual effective dose due to inhalation with the air containing 222Rn to the habitant in the Ha Noi city was found to be as high as 1.13 mSv that is in the range of the dose reported for the Asian region. The anthropogenic radionuclides under the monitoring are 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239+240Pu originated from nuclear weapon tests during the 1950-1960. Concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide in surface soil gives an idea about the fall-out inventory of the radio-isotopes from the nuclear explosion in the past. This information would be necessary for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Nuclear Power Construction Project in Viet Nam. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring activities of the VAEI has been composed in twelve scientific papers published in numerous International Scientific Journals like J. Environ. Radioact. and Radiat. Prot. Dosim. Two books entitled: Radioactivity in the Environment and Radioactivity Measurement Applied in the Environmental Researches has been drafted and submitted to the Science and Technique Publisher for printing out soon. (author)

  12. Horia Hulubei, father founder of the Institute of Atomic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horia Hulubei (b. November 15, 1896, Jassy, d. November 22, 1972, Bucharest) enrolled in 1915 at the University of Jassy, but his studies were interrupted by the WW I. He volunteered first on the Eastern Front, and then in France as a fighter pilot. Wounded and decorated with Legion d'Honneur, he came back to Romania and worked in the field of civil aviation. He graduated in 1926 from the same University with Magna cum Laudae. In 1927, Hulubei went in Paris with a fellowship at the Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Sorbonne and took his Ph. D. in 1933 with Jean Perrin in the field of X-rays spectroscopy, a domain in which he became one of the best specialists of the time. His papers treat a large area of subjects from the multiple Compton effect (predicted and experimentally discovered by him), Raman spectra, the X-ray spectra of gases (obtained for the first time by him in collaboration with Mademoiselle Yvette Cauchois), the identification of elements by X spectroscopy etc. Winner of two prizes of Paris Academy of Sciences, he was elected Corresponding Member of this prestigious French institution. He was also a Directeur de Recherches at the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS). Back in Romania at the beginning of WW II, Hulubei became Professor of Physics, and in 1941, Rector of Bucharest University. After the war, Professor Hulubei dedicated himself to the organization of Romanian research in the field of Physics. The foundation of the Institute of Atomic Physics (IAP) in 1949 in Bucharest was the realization of his dream to build a modern institution of Western type in his own country, tightly connected with the rest of scientific world by international cooperation. Horia Hulubei was practically removed from his directorship of IAP in 1968, following his nomination in a honorary duty, but he remained in a permanent contact with the people formed by him and with the directions of research initiated by him and continued by his followers. The

  13. Long-term nuclear knowledge management (NKM) of innovative nuclear energy systems (INES). A case study of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within JAERI, funds invested in a 45-year study of LWR totaled 4.2b$ for research and 3.4b$ (34,718 man years) for personnel. The benefits to taxpayers from this JAERI work were estimated to be about 6.3b$ , resulting in a favorable cost-benefit ratio of 1.5 (6.3/4.2). JAERI is a national research institute and this figure may be regarded as sufficiently high, and many high risk and complex tasks were completed successfully. Funds invested in the 32-year study of HTGR were 1.5b$ for R and D and 0.3b$ (2966 man years) for personnel. Commercialized HTGR will result in a cost reduction of electricity during power generation. Retail cost is 0.36b$/year and the share of JAERI (MCP) is 0.018b$/year. Funds invested in the 32-year study of FR were 5.4b$ for R and D and 0.6b$ (6331 man years) for personnel. Estimate is that after commercialization in 2050, a FR will generate revenue from electricity as high as 1687b$ during the period 2050-2100, or 34b$/year - which is greater than that of LWR. However, there is substantial uncertainty in these estimates. To achieve long-term INES, it is necessary to develop the sustainable scenarios and the long-term robust NKM, as shown in the present study. (author)

  14. Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to

  15. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  16. Energy Wave Model of Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍细如

    2015-01-01

    proton emits energy wave, electron could sits any position away from nucleus, but be the most stable just when it sits at the trough of energy wave, and this position accords with Bohr radius and Schr?dinger equation.

  17. Impact Factors of Energy Productivity in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chu; Shen Manhong

    2007-01-01

    This article developed a decomposition model of energy productivity on the basis of the economic growth model. Four factors were considered which may influence China's energy productivity according to this model: technology improvement, resource allocation structure, industrial structure and institute arrangement. Then, an econometric model was employed to test the four factors empirically on the basis of China's statistical data from 1978 to 2004. Results indicated that capital deepening contributes the most (207%) to energy efficiency improvement, and impact from labor forces (13%) is the weakest one in resource factor; industrial structure (7%) and institute innovation (9.5%) positively improve the energy productivity.

  18. Institutional aspects of the energy centers concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, George H.

    1977-03-01

    Information is presented concerning the socio-economic impacts of nuclear energy centers; equity considerations relating to taxation and revenue distribution; report on jurisdictional authorities of state and local government related to centralized and decentralized alternative energy systems; federal-state conflicts and cooperation in the siting of nuclear energy facilities; the energy park experience in Pennsylvania; and a socio-economic institution summary of energy centers in Washington State.

  19. Institutional aspects of the energy centers concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning the socio-economic impacts of nuclear energy centers; equity considerations relating to taxation and revenue distribution; report on jurisdictional authorities of state and local government related to centralized and decentralized alternative energy systems; federal-state conflicts and cooperation in the siting of nuclear energy facilities; the energy park experience in Pennsylvania; and a socio-economic institution summary of energy centers in Washington State

  20. Communication of 1 August 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of The People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Statement made on 29 July 1996 by the Government of the People's Republic of China about the latest test of a nuclear weapon conducted by china and its announcement of a nuclear testing moratorium. The document was received on 2 August 1996 by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the People's Republic of China

  1. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, A.L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  2. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  3. History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations

  4. Department of Atomic Energy [India]: Annual report 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the research establishments, projects undertaken and public sector undertakings of the Department of Atomic Energy during the financial year 1979-80 is surveyed. The research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay, the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Bombay, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta and the Tata Memorial Centre at Bombay are described. An account of the progress of heavy water production plant projects, the Madras and Narora Atomic Power Projects, the MHD project and the 100 MW thermal research reactor R-5 Project at Trombay is given. Performance of the Tarapur and Rajasthan Atomic Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED (the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products) at Bombay, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad is reported. (M.G.B.)

  5. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  6. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  7. Flinders University of South Australia, Institute for Atomic Studies annual progress report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Atomic Studies was established in 1976 to act as a focus for the interaction of scientists and graduate students and for circulation of research reports in a wide variety of disciplines involving the study of the structure and interaction of quantum systems. In this, the first annual progress report, research being conducted in the following areas is reviewed: experimental and theoretical atomic reaction physics, low and intermediate energy nuclear theory, quantum field theory, statistical physics, molecular physics, quantum processes at solid surfaces and quantum chemistry. (J.R.)

  8. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1- Reasons for its creation. The Electricite de France, and industries interested in the development of atomic energy, have requested the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to train scientists who will be able to study pile planning and to be in charge of their construction. 2- Recruiting and enrolment fees. The demand for enrolment has always exceeded the possibilities. This year the courses have been attended by 74 permanent students, including 20 foreigners, and some hundred part-time listeners. All students are already scientists or have high university qualifications. Enrolment fees: 250 000 F for students, 125 000 F for part-time attendance. 3- Organisation of the teaching. This consists of two branches: physics and chemistry, and in each branch: some hundred lectures, some thirty sessions of practical work, periods of work in the departments, study of a reactor project by a group of 4 or 5 students. The course takes place during the university year 1 november to 14 july. 4- Qualifications. A final examination, combining the results from two theoretical tests, from the practical work, from the period of work in the establishment and from the reactor project leads to a diploma in atomic energy. In reality new scientists are not produced, a new mention is merely added to a diploma already held. Results have always been excellent; the percentage of failures is very small. 5- Placing of graduates. They all return to their original industries, who have paid their salaries and enrolment fees whilst giving up their services during the 9 months duration of the course. 6- Similar ventures. A similar course has been created at the C.F.N. Grenoble. Whilst the Saclay course is particularly for scientists already working, that at Grenoble is destined in principle for young scientists leaving college. 7- Conclusion. This organization is satisfactory both for the students and the industries. The C.E.A. works towards yearly improvement, and hopes to welcome large numbers of

  9. Neutral atom analyzers for diagnosing hot plasmas: A review of research at the ioffe physicotechnical institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.

    2009-07-01

    Research on neutral particle diagnostics of thermonuclear plasmas that has been carried out in recent years at the Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia) is reviewed. Work on the creation and improvement of neutral atom analyzers was done in two directions: for potential applications (in particular, on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is now under construction at Cadarache in France) and for investigation of the ion plasma component in various devices (in particular, in the largest tokamaks, such as JET, TFTR, and JT-60). Neutral atom analyzers are the main tool for studying the behavior of hydrogen ions and isotopes in magnetic confinement systems. They make it possible to determine energy spectra, to perform the isotope analysis of atom fluxes from the plasma, to measure the absolute intensity of the fluxes, and to record how these parameters vary with time. A comparative description of the analyzers developed in recent years at the Ioffe Institute is given. These are ACORD-12/24 analyzers for recording 0.2-100-keV hydrogen and deuterium atoms with a tunable range of simultaneously measured energies, CNPA compact analyzers for a fixed energy gain in the ranges 80-1000 eV and 0.8-100 keV, an ISEP analyzer for simultaneously recording the atoms of all the three hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and T) in the energy range 5-700 keV, and GEMMA analyzers for recording atom fluxes of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the range 0.1-4 MeV. The scintillating detectors of the ISEP and GEMMA analyzers have a lowered sensitivity to neutrons and thus can operate without additional shielding in neutron fields of up to 109 n/(cm2 s). These two types of analyzers, intended to operate under deuterium-tritium plasma conditions, are prototypes of atom analyzers created at the Ioffe Institute for use in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. With these analyzers, a number of new results have been

  10. Re-evaluation of Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel obtained at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for validation of burnup calculation code systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The specifications required for the analyses of the destructive assay data taken from irradiated fuel in Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs were documented in this paper. → These data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. → These destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of the burnup calculation code systems. - Abstract: The isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels is vital data for studies on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor physics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been active in obtaining such data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels, and some data has already been published. These data have been registered with the international Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO) and widely used as international benchmarks for burnup calculation codes and libraries. In this paper, Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel from two fuel assemblies irradiated in the Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs in Japan are shown. The destructive assay data from Ohi-2 have already been published. However, these data were not suitable for the benchmarking of calculation codes and libraries because several important specifications and data were not included. This paper summarizes the details of destructive assay data and specifications required for analyses of isotopic composition from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2. For precise burnup analyses, the burnup values of destructive assay samples were re-evaluated in this study. These destructive assay data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the quality of destructive assay data from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs is high, and that these destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of burnup calculation code systems.

  11. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum...

  12. Peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's statutory mandate is to promote all applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. While non-power applications - in agriculture, medicine, industry, etc. - have become widely used and mostly accepted, nuclear power has become more controversial and is facing serious public acceptance problems. Public concern centres on three issues - radioactive wastes, nuclear accidents and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Any discussion of the acceptability or desirability of nuclear power is meaningful only if the alternatives are considered in parallel. The role of nuclear power and other energy sources in electricity generation is discussed and the factors in favour of nuclear energy outlined. Although the Chernobyl accident had strong impact on public opinion in many countries, it has until now had small direct impact on the prospects of nuclear power in the world as a whole. The IAEA's nuclear safety activities and the post-Chernobyl strengthening of international cooperation to minimise nuclear accident consequences are described. The IAEA's safeguards system and its application to Australia's uranium are reviewed. Through this system with its on-site inspections, the IAEA continuously verifies that nuclear materials and nuclear installations submitted to it (some 95% of all fissionable material and of all installations in non-nuclear weapon states) remain in exclusively peaceful use

  13. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  14. The Atomization Energy of Mg4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The atomization energy of Mg4 is determined using the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. Basis set incompleteness, basis set extrapolation, and core-valence effects are discussed. Our best atomization energy, including the zero-point energy and scalar relativistic effects, is 24.6+/-1.6 kcal per mol. Our computed and extrapolated values are compared with previous results, where it is observed that our extrapolated MP2 value is good agreement with the MP2-R12 value. The CCSD(T) and MP2 core effects are found to have the opposite signs.

  15. Systematic Calculations of Total Atomic Binding Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated total atomic binding energies of 3- to 91-electron ions of all atoms with Z=3 to 118, in the Dirac-Fock model, for applications to atomic mass determination from highly-charged ions. In this process we have determined the ground-state configuration of many ions for which it was not known. We also provide total electronic correlation including Breit correlation for iso-electronic series of beryllium, neon, magnesium and argon, using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach.

  16. National Institute of Nuclear Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Presidential Decree of December 30, 1971, originates and regulates the creation of the National Institute for Nuclear Energy, which substitutes the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, which as of the above mentioned date, is terminated. The Organic Law of the National Institute for Nuclear Energy is constituted by 18 Articles and 5 Transitories, through which the functions and capacities of the ININ (for its name in Spanish; Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear) are outlined; stating that the Institute must program, coordinate and foster all pacific uses of nuclear energy. This is so that they may be devoted to economic, social, scientific and technologic development of the country, as well as foster all specific activities that are carried out by Universities, Institutes and Higher Education Centers within the Countries, regarding nuclear energy. The ININ must also foster the national as well as international exchange so as to favor scientific and technologic research in nuclear matters. Another purpose of the ININ is to promote the organization of conferences, meetings and congresses

  17. Summer institute of sustainability and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The vision for the Summer Institute on Sustainability and Energy (SISE) is to integrate advancements in basic energy sciences with innovative energy technologies to train the next generation of interdisciplinary scientists and policy makers for both government and industry. Through BES related research, these future leaders will be equipped to make educated decisions about energy at the personal, civic, and global levels in energy related fields including science, technology, entrepreneurship, economics, policy, planning, and behavior. This vision explicitly supports the 2008 report by the Department of Energy’s Basic Energy Science Advisory Committee (2), which outlines scientific opportunities and challenges to achieve energy security, lower CO2 emissions, reduce reliance on foreign oil and create enduring economic growth through discovery, development and the marketing of new technologies for sustainable energy production, delivery, and use (3).

  18. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Guy C.K.; CHERP, ALEH; Jewell, Jessica; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the 41 global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy 42 policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the 43 policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea 44 of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framew...

  19. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  20. Review and prospects of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 7th German Symposium on Atomic Energy Law which took place on March 16th, 1983 in Goettingen the Undersecretary of State of the Federal Ministery of the Interior, Dr. Guenter Hartkopf, delivered the opening speech. The speech deals with the conditions set by constitutional law and ethics, improvement of nuclear liability, guide line for incident response, participation of the public in licensing procedures under atomic energy law, necessary measures to prevent damage, the concept of waste management. Also in future the safety of the citizens has absolute priority. (orig./HSCH)

  1. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  4. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  5. Transforming Markets for Energy-Efficient Buildings in China: Final Report on Activity Conducted by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) Under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC01-00EE10672 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Mark

    2013-09-16

    This report summarizes activity conducted by the Institute for Market Transformation and a team of American and Chinese partners in development of a new building energy-efficiency code for the transitional climate zone in the People's Republic of China.

  6. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  7. Department of Atomic Energy, annual report, 1980-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India for the period of the fiscal year 1980-81 surveys the work of DAE, its various constituent units and aided institutions. The main thrust of the DAE's programme in the country is directed towards peaceful uses of atomic energy - primarily for generation of electric power and also for application of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The research and development (R and D) activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay, the major R and D establishment of DAE, in the fields of nuclear physics, solid state physics, chemistry and materials science, isotope and radiation applications, reactor technology and radioactive waste management are described in detail. The R and D activities of the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam and the aided institutions such as the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay, and the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta are reviewed in brief. Progress of the MHD project, the heavy water plant projects, the thermal research reactor R-5 project at BARC and nuclear power plant projects at Narora and Kalpakkam is surveyed. Performance of industrial production units such as nuclear power stations at Tarapur and Kota, the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED - the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., and the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., is reported. India's participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency and collaboration with other countries are also mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  8. China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute,founded by the state on June 1, 1952 is the first and largest architectural design institute in northwest China. For over 50 years, Northwest Institute has gradually established itself as a renowned and comprehensive design institute. It is staffed by a team of outstanding engineering design specialists able to undertake various architectural design projects from home and abroad.

  9. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  10. Evaluation of Undergraduate Teaching at Institutions of Higher Education in China: Problems and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukun, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the first cycle of undergraduate teaching evaluation at institutions of higher education in China. Existing problems are identified, and suggestions are made for corresponding reforms for improving the standard and quality of China's undergraduate teaching evaluation.

  11. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  12. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  13. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  14. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  15. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  16. Nuclear regulation plans originated from the results of accidents or natural disasters and countermeasures adopted in Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute. The information in this paper hopes to ensure sensible and safe reactor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of investigating cause and effect of accidents or natural disasters, the authorities concerned would introduce new regulations. It is desirable that the person in authority should negotiate with the parties concerned on the regulation. After following accidents and natural disasters, three negotiations were made between the person in authority and the Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute. (1) The accident at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979. (2) The crash near a nuclear power plant in Ehime prefecture in 1988. (3) The Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995. The documents of the negotiations are described. They discuss ways of building up better relationships between the authorities and the parties concerned. (author)

  17. Agreement of 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement from 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 19 June 1992

  18. The health physics programs in low-level radioactive waste management at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the health physics programs in low-level radioactive management is to ensure radiation safety for personnel and environment of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and also for the general public surrounding INER. In view of the above, the Health Physics programs in low-level radioactive waste management are divided into three sub-programs: the radiation control program, the environmental survey and bioassay program, and the radiation dosimetry supporting program. The general guidelines, responsibilities, and performance of these programs will be discussed in this paper in the following order. The responsibility of radiation control group is to conduct area monitoring and radiation surveillance for the radioactive waste treatment workers. It includes the control of radiation field level of the working area, servicing personnel dosimeters, instruction on radiation safety, and handling of radiation accidents. The responsibility of the environmental survey and bioassay group is to perform environmental surveys and bioassays. Environmental gamma monitoring stations were installed both on-site and off-site at INER. For bioassays, urine samples are taken from radioactive waste treatment workers, and for internal contamination checks of workers, total body counting systems are being used. The main responsibility of the radiation dosimetry group is to provide radiation dosimetrical support to the radiation control group and the environmental survey and bioassay group. Some typical work of the radiation dosimetry group is the qualitative assay and quantitative determination of radioactive samples, and calibration of dosimeters and survey meters

  19. 78 FR 36791 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of hardwood plywood... and decorative plywood. ``Hardwood and decorative plywood is a flat panel composed of an assembly...

  20. Department of Atomic Energy: Annual report, 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy for the financial year 1983-84 describes its activities under the headings: Nuclear Power, Research and Development, Public Sector Undertakings, and Other Activities. The report surveys: (1) the performance of nuclear power plants at Tarapur, Kota and Kalpakkam, heavy water plants, fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants, and waste management facilities, (2) the research and development activities of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay and its constituent units at various locations in the country, Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the aided institutes, namely, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay, and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta, (3) performance of public sector undertakings: Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., (4) progress of nuclear power projects at Narora and Kakrapar, Orissa Sand Complex Project, MHD project at Tiruchirapalli, DHRUVA (formerly known as R-5) project at Bombay, Fast Breeder Test Reactor and 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor projects at Kalpakkam, and heavy water projects at Thal-Vaishet and Manuguru, and (5) other activities including technology transfer; training; service to industry, agriculture and medicine in use of radioisotopes and radiation, export of radioisotopes, allied products and nuclear instruments; international relations; countrywide radiation safety programme, exploration of atomic minerals; information and publicity etc. An Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was established during the report year for the special purpose of carrying out regulatory and safety functions specified in the Atomic Energy Act of the Government of India. (M.G.B.)

  1. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  2. 77 FR 70185 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ..., 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and... from China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  3. 77 FR 60460 - Hardwood Plywood From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of hardwood...

  4. 77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling... from Austria and/or China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the...

  5. 78 FR 65706 - Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... imports of ferrovanadium from China and South Africa (73 FR 77609). The Commission is now conducting... and South Africa (68 FR 4168 and 4169). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United...

  6. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  7. 78 FR 54269 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia and China (73 FR 58537-58539). The Commission is conducting...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with the... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia and China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

  8. 2008 China Port Top 25——Released by Shipping China.com World Economy Institute of Dalian Maritime University and China Shipping and Port Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Forewords Hosted by ShippingChina.com,co-operated by China Shipping and Port Academy,composed by World Economy Institute of Dalian Maritime University,the report on ranks of Chinese Ports in 2008 by overall competitiveness was completed recently,The report only involved the ports in mainland China,with these in Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan excluded.The report measured the competitive ability of a port in accord with Michael Porter's Competitive Advantage and Samuelson's Economics Theory.

  9. Topical evolutions in atomic energy law. The Kruemmel reactor judgment of the BVerwG (Federal Administrative Court) of 21 August 1996. Proceedings of the lecture meeting organized by Institut fuer Berg- und Energierecht in Bochum, 30 January, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concrete case, the judgment of the BVerwG (Federal Administrative Court), relating to the retrofitting of the Kruemmel reactor station, is discussed in the three papers presented to the meeting as a leading example showing the trend of evolution of atomic energy law. The papers assess this judgment from the angle of legal sciences, and in the context of the role of atomic energy and its uses in the framework of current energy technology and power industry and demands for power, well as with respect to growing ecologic awareness and policies. (CB)

  10. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute

  11. Basic law of atomic energy for pacific uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This law comprehend information about the pacific uses of atomic energy. Likewise it creates the Commission of Atomic Energy and stipulates: it s organization and functions, regulations and licensures, responsibilities, income and patrimony. (SGB)

  12. On INIS atomic energy literature file of JOIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) atomic energy literature file is the file made under IAEA, and the input related to the atomic energy in Japan into this file is carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Now, the service of offering the information to the users in Japan was to be made by the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology through the on-line system JOIS. The INIS file is old in the world as the data base with the objective of mechanized retrieval, and the data bases set up thereafter followed its pattern. For example, the thesaurus for the purpose of precise information retrieval and the link connecting the relation of words to words were incorporated in the data base from the beginning. The JICST on-line information system (JOIS) started the service in April, 1976, and offers the service for 13 files. Now, as the 14th, the INIS file was added. The materials since January, 1976, have been collected, and as of 1983, the total number reached about 590,000. As the features of the INIS file, the literatures, books, reports, patents and so on related to the peaceful use of atomic energy are collected. The retrieval of necessary literatures is made on-line by using key words and others. Also secondary retrieval can be utilized. (Kako, I.)

  13. Enthalpies of formation and atomization energies of rare earth halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of experimentally determined atomization energies and formation enthalpies of gaseous rare earth chlorides and theoretical insights of quantum-chemical model ''atom in a molecule'' the analysis of the known literature data on formation enthalpies and atomization energies for lanthanide fluorides, bromides and iodides has been carried out and their values are assessed for unexplored molecules

  14. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  15. The industrial development of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure 235U and 239Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material (235U or 239Pu) or concentrated material (235U mixed with small quantities of 238U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with 238U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate 238U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in 239Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and 238U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England and Scotland. The third class of reactor using natural

  16. Training courses run by the Department of Atomic Energy, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India, conducts a large number of courses covering a variety of fields, mainly concerned with nuclear energy and its applications. These courses are : (1) a comprehensive multidisciplinary course in nuclear sciences and engineering, (2) courses in safety aspects of: (a) the medical uses of radioisotopes, (b) research applications of ionising radiations, (c) the industrial applications of radiation sources, and (d) industrial radiography; (3) industrial radiographer's certification course, (4) course in hospital physics and radiological physics, (5) diploma course in radiation medicine, (6) courses in operation and maintenance of: (a) research reactors and facilities, (b) nuclear power reactors, and (7) course in exploration of atomic minerals. Detailed information on these courses, covering institutions of DAE conducting them, duration, academic requirements for admission to them, method of adimission, detailed syllabus, and general information such as fees, accommodation, stipend if any, etc. is given. (M.G.B.)

  17. Constitutionality of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma locuta, causa finita. The Federal Constitutional Court declared in its decree of 8 August 1978 the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Paragraph 7 sub-section 1 and 2 Atomic Energy Act) in NPPs of the so-called fast breeder type as constitutional for the time being. The excellent simplicity of the explanations, namely about the anavoidability and social adequancy of the so-called residual risk in a highly technical society and about the determining influence of practical ratio as a measure for the estimation of the residual risk which must be born by all citizens, creates a good clarification on the level of constitutional law. However, it remains, to be seen whether the decree can give the administrative courts any orientation help in the future and whether it will lead to an improved legal protection of all participants and a more effective handling of administrative processes. (orig.)

  18. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2011-01-01

    this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The...... energy system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...... inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In...

  19. The boom of clean energies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author outlines the strong current development of wind and solar energy in China, with an increasing and already rather high wind energy production, and a solar panel production which is, until now, mostly exported. He observes that the development of these industries is based on economic, political and security issues: China is now strongly dependent on energy imports (even coal imports), looks to reduce the social cost of pollution and environment degradation, and wants to be a major actor of the renewable energy sector. The development of this sector is mainly financed by public investments, but the clean sector is weakened by the slow development of distribution networks, and by a too fragmented production market. The author discusses the new approach adopted by the Chinese government to overcome these drawbacks, and the consequences of this approach for the international context

  20. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  1. Energy service companies in China. The role of social networks and trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia [Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). East-West Centre of Business Studies and Cultural Science; Shin, Kyoung [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Political Sciences

    2011-06-15

    China's energy-service companies (ESCOs) have developed only modestly despite favorable political and market conditions. We argue that with sophisticated market institutions still evolving in China, trust-based relations between ESCOs and energy customers are essential for successful implementation of energy efficiency projects. Chinese ESCOs, who are predominantly small and private enterprises, perform poorly in terms of trust-building because they are disembedded from local business, social, and political networks. We conclude that in the current institutional setting, the ESCO model based on market relations has serious limitations and is unlikely to lead to large-scale implementation of energy efficiency projects in China. (orig.)

  2. Contractual Versus Non-Contractual Trade: The Role of Institutions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Feenstra; Chang Hong; Hong Ma; Barbara J. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of institutional quality at the country level for both the volume of trade and the ability to trade in differentiated goods that rely on contract enforcement. This paper takes advantage of cross-provincial variation in institutional quality in China, and export data that distinguishes between foreign and domestic exporters and processing versus ordinary trade, to show that institutional quality is a significant factor in determining Chinese prov...

  3. The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X.; Degryse, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that banking development spurs growth, even in a country with a high growth rate such as China. Employing data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995-2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types of institutions ?banks and non-bank financial institutions ?have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings show that banks outperfirm non-bank financial institutions. Only banking development exerts a statistically and e...

  4. Amendment of Atomic Energy Basic Law and the development of Atomic Energy Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explains the key points of the major development of Atomic Energy Administration recently made by amendments of Atomic Energy Basic Law and other two relating laws. These amendments passed through the Diet and were enacted on 7th, June, 1978. The aim of them is focussed on reinforcement and rearrangement of safety controls on nuclear reactors. Previously, although the approval of the installation plan with basic designs of a nuclear reactor has been done by Prime Minister, further approvals of detailed designs and process of construction works, as well as inspections before and after operation have been conducted by each responsible minister, respectively. That is, those controls for power reactors have been within jurisdiction of minister of Trade and Industry, and for nuclear ships' reactors minister of Transportation has been responsible. Under the new system, above mentioned ministers continue to exercise almost same controls over reactors within their jurisdiction respectively, however the new laws have established so-called ''double check'' principle in that: when each responsible minister approves the installation, detailed designs and further stages of construction and operation of the reactor, he should hear and pay a great regard for opinions of Atomic Energy Commission and Atomic Energy Safety Commission. The latter is newly established organization which has similar status and authority to the former. (J.P.N.)

  5. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  6. Geochemical studies for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Research activities in Department of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research of JAERI (EGL/JAERI) is responsible for performing fundamental research to support the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the performance assessment of the disposal concept. This research includes basic laboratory experiments as well as field studies of natural analogs to understand the geochemical behavior of radionuclides, i.e., the interactions between radionuclides, groundwater and geological materials. This report summarizes background, objectives and recent results of the scientific investigations and emphasizes the significance of these studies in terms of both fundamental research on geochemistry and applied research for performance assessment of the waste disposal concept. The importance of performing fundamental research to radioactive waste disposal is stressed in this report. The report is aimed at both the radioactive waste disposal scientific community and the interdisciplinary sciences that interact with this community. (author)

  7. Confirmation of safety (important matters to be confirmed by the administration office having jurisdiction) of the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the deliberation on this safety confirmation, which was reported on September 22, 1987, by the Science and Technology Agency, the Nuclear Safety Commission started the investigation and deliberation from the 32nd regular meeting on September 24, 1987. As the result of examining on making the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on board the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' into the fixed type, it was recognized to be appropriate. The contents of the investigation were the reqirements of the guideline, and the design of the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents such as high level containment vessel area monitors, high level reactor auxiliary machinery room area monitors, high level exhaust stack gas monitors, high level main steam pipe monitors and the radiation monitoring panel. It was confirmed that the proper countermeasures based on the features of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' have been taken for the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on the basis of the basic concept referring to the guideline. (Kako, I.)

  8. Alteration of reactor installation (alteration of JMTR reactor facilities and radioactive waste treatment facilities) in the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission presented to the Prime Minister the report on the above alteration after the prudent deliberation, about which the inquiry was made on May 2, 1988. It was recognized as the result of examination that the technical capability of the applicant is appropriate. It was judged as the result of examination that the safety after this alteration of reactor installation can be ensured. The main matters of investigation were as follows. In order to increase the capacity for preserving 200 L drums in which radioactive wastes were enclosed and solidified, a place for accumulating and preserving solids is to be newly installed. It is a one-story reinforced concrete building, and the capacity for preservation, the spatial dose rate around the site, the aseismatic design and so on were investigated. In order to increase the capacity for storing spent ion exchange resin discharged from the primary cooling facility and the irradiation facility of the JMTR, a storage tank is to be installed in the third drain system. The capacity, the countermeasures to leak, the surface dose rate and others were examined. (K.I.)

  9. Atomic energy wants new personality. An essay of education and personality in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New personality in atomic energy consists of personification of independence, democracy and publication. They are able to create new technologies and new plants with safety and maintenance. The technical experts and all the parties concerned have to explain the situation and the conditions of atomic energy in order to justify the people's trust in them. Only good personality with morals can obtain the confidence of the nation. It is important for new technical experts and all the parties concerned to receive an education related to sociality. (S.Y.)

  10. Law on Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Law defines the legislative foundation and concepts for peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. The Law, including 11 chapters, 93 articles and coming into force on the 1 Jan 2009, regulates utilization of atomic energy and assurance of safety and security. The Law contains issues: general provisions; measures to promote development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes; radiation safety, nuclear safety and security of radioactive sources, nuclear material and facilities; exploration, exploitation and processing radioactive ores; transportation, import and export of radioactive materials and nuclear equipment; atomic energy application services; declaration and licensing; response to radiation or nuclear incidents and compensation for damage caused by these incidents. (VAEC)

  11. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  12. A Tale of Two Provinces: The Institutional Environment and Foreign Ownership in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yasheng; Di, Wenhua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we use a unique dataset covering joint ventures in two provinces of China, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, to test the effect of the institutional environment for domestic private firms on ownership structures of FDI projects. Unlike many studies on this subject, we approach the issue from the perspective of local firms seeking FDI rather than from the perspective of foreign firms seeking to invest in China. Applying the prevailing bargaining framework in studies on ownership structures ...

  13. ENERGY AUDITING OF AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram K*, Dr. A. Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energy management. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production and utility activities. Such an audit ...

  14. Atomic Structure of Benzene Which Accounts for Resonance Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2008-01-01

    Benzene is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms, each of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms. The equality of all six CC bond lengths, despite the alternating double and single bonds, and the surplus (resonance) energy, led to the suggestion of two resonanting structures. Here, the new atomic structure shows that the bond length equality is due to three carbon atoms with double bond radii bound to three other carbon atoms with resonance bond radii (as in graphene). Consequently, there ar...

  15. Development of renewable energy in China:significance & strategic objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiangwan; Huang Qili; Li Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on CAE's research report, this paper illustrates the background and purposes of the development strat-egy research of renewable energy in China, emphasizes the significance of developing renewable energy in China, gives the strategic positions and development objectives of renewable energy in China in the first half of 21st century and con-tributes to green house gas emissions reduction and environmental protection in China.

  16. Hydrogen energy system & economic development of China%Hydrogen energy system & economic develop ment of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Nejat Veziroglu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Today fossil fuels(coal,petroleum and natural gas)meet about 80 percent of oar worldwide energy requirements.The demand for energy is growing with time for two reasons:(1)the growing population,and(2)the increasing demand for energy by the developing countries(especially China and India with very large populations).

  17. Institutional preparation for relaxation of control over the upstream petroleum industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shouhai; Zhang Baosheng

    2009-01-01

    Relaxation of control over the upstream business of the petroleum industry in China is discussed. The authors suggest that a basic institutional preparation should be made before relaxing control over the upstream business, and that the institutional preparation includes at least four parts: 1) setting up the admission standards, 2) perfecting the management system of mining rights, 3) reforming the royalty and taxation system for oil and gas resources, and 4) improving the supervision and management system. Stressing the institutional preparation before relaxation of control does not mean that China could not relax control over the upstream business until the management systems are perfected, but the authors suggest that China could establish a necessary system for relaxation of control and to improve it with future practice.

  18. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 28). April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995) are described. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  19. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 29. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual research activities of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI, during the fiscal year 1995, are reported. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed description of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, photochemical separation of stable isotopes, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma-ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facility is also included. In October 1995, the Osaka Laboratory was dissolved into the Kansai Research Establishment which was newly inaugurated to promote advanced photon research. Therefore, this is the final issue of the annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry. (author)

  20. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 22. April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989. The latest report, for 1987, is JAERI-M 90-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects : (i) studies on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  1. Perspectives of development of the nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal is the main primary energy source in China. In spite of the economic development, the coal consumption decreases regularly since the last years. It is the consequences of the energy policy of China which closed little coal mines of poor productivity. The today energy balance of China lays on two supplying sources: 70 % coal and 24 % hydro energy. To face the increasing economic development China will need a complementary electric power production source. In this context, this document presents the today nuclear energy situation in the chinese energy policy, the perspectives for the french nuclear industry and the possible chinese-french collaboration. (A.L.B.)

  2. Proceedings of the second seminar on the new fuel technology toward the 21st century, November 25-26, 1997, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings includes, together with the discussion of the results obtained from the R and D works performed during this year, the topics on the various nuclear fuel technologies being conceived, envisaged or developed for various reactor systems with a wide spectrum from fundamental approaches to applied engineering and from fuel design technologies to manufacturing and materials problems

  3. Proceedings of the second seminar on the new fuel technology toward the 21st century, November 25-26, 1997, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings includes, together with the discussion of the results obtained from the R and D works performed during this year, the topics on the various nuclear fuel technologies being conceived, envisaged or developed for various reactor systems with a wide spectrum from fundamental approaches to applied engineering and from fuel design technologies to manufacturing and materials problems.

  4. Atomic Structure of Benzene Which Accounts for Resonance Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2008-01-01

    Benzene is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms, each of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms. The equality of all six CC bond lengths, despite the alternating double and single bonds, and the surplus (resonance) energy, led to the suggestion of two resonanting structures. Here, the new atomic structure shows that the bond length equality is due to three carbon atoms with double bond radii bound to three other carbon atoms with resonance bond radii (as in graphene). Consequently, there are two kinds of CH bonds of slightly different lengths. The bond energies account for the resonance energy.

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  7. The development of technologies on new and renewable energies in China to improve the ecological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the main objects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) research programs on the development of new energy (carried out by 15 research institutes nationwide): replacement of traditional energy by renewable energy technologies and improvement of the ecological environment in rural areas (China is still a developing country), with a special attention on the satisfaction of rural energy demands. (TEC)

  8. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  9. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  10. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero', Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his address at the Conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero' (Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  12. Agreement of 10 September 1991 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 10 September 1991, between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 20 February 1990 and entered into force upon signature on 10 September 1991

  13. Department of Atomic Energy [India]: Annual report 1978-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development activities and achievements of the research organizations of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE, India), progress of various DAE projects underway and performance of nuclear power plants and other public sector underking of DAE have been reported. The report covers the financial year 1978-79. Some of the major achievements during the year have been: (1) development of a portable local vacuum electron beam welding machine, (2) commissioning of the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta for obtaining an external beam of 30 MeV alphas, (4) locating minute leaks by tracer techniques on the 140 km. Koyali-Viramgam Oil pipeline and (5) investigation by tracer technique of geological fault at the Lakya dam site of the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project in Karnataka. The R and D work of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay; Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam; Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay; Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta, Tata Memorial Centre and Cancer Research Centre both at Bombay is summarised. (M.G.B.)

  14. Elasticity of Energy Demand and Challenges for China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Zunsheng Yin; David Forrest Gates

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy demand, the lagging growth of energy production and rising pollution problems have raised concerns in several policy areas, including the availability and cost of energy supply and the possibility of further adverse impacts on the environment. This paper begins with an overview of recent developments in energy demand and supply in China.Using a traditional demand elasticity approach, it analyzes the elasticity of each of four major energy end uses and the potential for adjustments in their relationships. The paper concludes with suggestions for public policy to meet the challenge of growing energy demand and implications for the private sector, including both private and foreign investments.

  15. A study of the kinetic energy density functional for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the rigorous kinetic energy density functional at the level of the Hartree-Fock method for closed electron shell atoms. The behaviour of the kinetic energy and its components, is analysed as the atomic number N increases. It is shown that the increments of the specific energies for two consecutive closed electron shells atoms depend distinctly on the electron configuration of the last electron shell. 35 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  17. Study on the Determinants of Energy Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍贤

    2002-01-01

    Based on the modern economic theory and the characteristics of China's energy consumption, this paper analyzes the determinants of energy demand in China, builds up a China's energy demand model, and examines the long-run relationship between China's aggregate energy consumption and the main economic variables such as GDP by using the Johansen multivariate approach. It is found that there exists unique long-run relationship among the variables in the model over the sampling period. An error-correction model provides an appropriate framework for forecasting the short-run fluctuations in the aggregate demand of China.

  18. On promotion of base technologies of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in June, 1987 by the Atomic Energy Commission, it was recognized that hereafter, the opening-up of the new potential that atomic energy possesses should be aimed at, and the policy was shown so that the research and development hereafter place emphasis on the creative and innovative region which causes large technical innovation, by which the spreading effect to general science and technology can be expected, and the development of the base technologies that connect the basic research and project development is promoted. The trend of atomic energy development so far, the change of the situation surrounding atomic energy, the direction of technical development of atomic energy hereafter and the base technologies are discussed. The concept of the technical development of materilas, artificial intelligence, lasers, and the evaluation and reduction of radiation risks used for atomic energy is described. As the development plan of atomic energy base technologies, the subjects of technical development, the future image of technical development, the efficient promotion of the development and so on are shown. (Kato, I.)

  19. The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X; Degryse, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China.Employing data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995-2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types of institutions - banks and non-bank financial institutions - have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth.Our findings indicate that only banking development shows a statistically significant and economically relevant impact on...

  20. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  1. Explaining the China Puzzle: High Growth and Low Volatility in the Absence of Healthy Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Harry X.; Esther Y.P. Shea

    2011-01-01

    This study is motivated by the China puzzle: the very impressive post-reform growth with relatively low aggregate volatility in the absence of healthy financial institutions by international standards. We argue that political economy constraints on the reform process have made China‟s policymakers adhere to administrative measures that they are familiar with and confident in. This adherence has obstructed the building of efficiency-enhancing market institutions, which in turn reinforces the g...

  2. Transnational Higher Education Institutions in China: A Comparison of Policy Orientation and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, a total of 64 transnational higher education institutions (TEIs) were approved by the Ministry of Education (MOE) to operate in China's higher education sector. The TEIs were established in two batches. The first batch of 24 TEIs resulted from a policy promulgated in 1995, whereas the second batch of 40 TEIs resulted from two…

  3. An overview of ocean renewable energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shujie; Yuan, Peng; Li, Dong; Jiao, Yuhe [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing Dao, Shandong province 266100 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Facing great pressure of economic growth and energy crisis, China pays much attention to the renewable energy. An overview of policy and legislation of renewable energy as well as status of development of renewable energy in China was given in this article. By analysis, the authors believe that ocean energy is a necessary addition to existent renewable energy to meet the energy demand of the areas and islands where traditional forms of energy are not applicable and it is of great importance in adjusting energy structure of China. In the article, resources distribution and technology status of tidal energy, wave energy, marine current energy, ocean thermal energy and salinity gradient energy in China was reviewed, and assessment and advices were given for each category. Some suggestions for future development of ocean energy were also given. (author)

  4. Being the Pioneer of Life Sciences in China--Introduction to Beijing Genomics Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beijing Genomics Institute; Xin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was officially founded in December 2003. Its predecessor, Beijing Huada Genomics Research Center, has presented significant contributions to the development of life sciences in China by its excellent scientific innovations and achievements in the last five years.

  5. 76 FR 28807 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the rules... COMMISSION High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  6. Pilot project of atomic energy technology record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of the Atomic Energy Technology Record is the project that summarizes and records in each category as a whole summary from the background to the performance at all fields of nuclear science technology which researched and developed at KAERI. This project includes Data and Document Management System(DDMS) that will be the system to collect, organize and preserve various records occurred in each research and development process. To achieve these goals, many problems should be solved to establish technology records process, such as issues about investigation status of technology records in KAERI, understanding and collection records, set-up project system and selection target field, definition standards and range of target records. This is a research report on the arrangement of research contents and results about pilot project which records whole nuclear technology researched and developed at KAERI in each category. Section 2 summarizes the overview of this pilot project and the current status of technology records in domestic and overseas, and from Section 3 to Section 6 summarize contents and results which performed in this project. Section 3 summarizes making TOC(Table of Content) and technology records, Section 4 summarizes sectoral templates, Section 5 summarizes writing detailed plan of technology records, and Section 6 summarizes Standard Document Numbering System(SDNS). Conclusions of this report are described in Section 7

  7. Work on the hot atom chemistry at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of work on hot atom chemistry from the establishment of the Institute up to now, where the role of Prof. P. Savic, should be specially emphasized, is given. The investigations in this domain during the first period, were directed to solve various problems in production of radioactive isotopes. Today these investigations are closely associated with the work in radiochemistry, physical chemistry of liquid and solid systems and fast reaction kinetics improving the development of these branches (author)

  8. 78 FR 33108 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... countervailing duty orders on imports of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from China (73 FR 42545-42549... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... welded carbon-quality steel pipe from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  9. 78 FR 72114 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... circular welded carbon quality steel line pipe from China (74 FR 4136). On May 13, 2009, the Department of... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... welded carbon quality steel line pipe from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  10. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Institute in 1980 are reported in a series of reports from the following research groups: Contamination, plant nutrition-soils, properties of crop plants, crop protection and product treatment. (C.F.)

  11. Viet Nam National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam National Atomic Energy Commission (VINATOM) is a governmental body in charge of organizing and coordinating activities related to use of nuclear energy for peaceful purpose. VINATOM in structure consists of the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat), the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Hanoi), the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements (Hanoi), and the Centre for Nuclear Technique Application (Ho Chi Minh City). This catalogue introduces profiles of nuclear R and D activities under management by VINATOM. (N.H.A)

  12. Radiation control and exposure reduction measures for special works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection of personnel in specific radioactive works involves the following matters: the facilities, equipments, and measuring instruments appropriate for the types and quantities of radioactive materials to be handled, the skills of personnel for handling radioactive materials, and the system of radiation safety management suitable for the scale of radiation works. The practices in this connection in JAERI are described: (1) the radiation control scheme including the management system and the control of radiation works; (2) radiation protection for the personnel by such as shielding, distance from radiation sources, and the removal of radiation sources; (3) the protective measures against contamination, in particular, the testing method of protective masks on the sites of radiation works and the estimation of the resuspension factor of radioactive dust deposit. (J.P.N.)

  13. Application of an open information on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of atomic energy, 'Gray literature' problem is not significant. Because literatures are translated as soon as possible into English and delivered to related organizations of the world. A field of atomic energy is a specific field about open literature. It is important to continue to open information both at home and abroad. (author)

  14. Defective transient rod A in NSRR in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear safety research reactor (NSRR) with maximum pulse output of 23,000 MW in JAERI, on July 26, 1989, when the criticality point was confirmed prior to the pulse operation for experiment, the reactor did not attain the criticality at the normal position of criticality point. Some defect was expected in the transient rod A. After the reactor was stopped, it was found that the driving shaft of the transient rod A was separated at the intermediate joint. The screw of the intermediate joint separated due to about 140 times of driving because the tightening of the set screw was improper. Also in the other transient rods B and C, the loosening of intermediate joints was found, and the same cause was presumed. As the countermeasures, the set screw at the joint is sufficiently thrusted to ensure its function. The set screw is tightened with sufficient torque, and this is written in the instruction manual. After these countermeasures are taken, the sufficient test of driving is carried out, and the operation of the reactor is resumed. (K.I.)

  15. New generation polyphase resonant converter-modulators for the Korean atomic energy research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present operational data and performance parameters of the newest generation polyphase resonant high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) as developed and delivered to the KAERI 100 MeV ''PEFP'' accelerator (1). The KAERI design realizes improvements from the SNS and SLAC designs (2). To improve the IGBT switching performance at 20 kHz for the KAERI system, the HVCM utilizes the typical zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) at turn on and as well as artificial zero-current-switching (ZCS) at turn-off. The new technique of artificial ZCS technique should result in a 6 fold reduction of IGBT switching losses (3). This improves the HCVM conversion efficiency to better than 95% at full average power, which is 500 kW for the KAERI two klystron 105 kV, 50 A application. The artificial ZCS is accomplished by placing a resonant RLC circuit across the input busswork to the resonant boost transformer. This secondary resonant circuit provides a damped ''kick-back'' to assist in IGBT commutation. As the transformer input busswork is extremely low inductance (< 10 nH), the single RLC network acts like it is across each of the four IGBT collector-emitter terminals of the H-bridge switching network. We will review these topological improvements and the overall system as delivered to the KAERI accelerator and provide details of the operational results.

  16. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  17. Dangerous Energy : Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the disaster in Chernobyl, Russia. Through the accident It reveals the dangerous nuclear energy with a lot of problems on the nuclear power plants which includes four reasons about propelling development of atomic and criticism about that, eight reasons against development of atomic, the problem in 11 -12 nuclear power plant, the movement of antagonism towards nuclear waste in Anmyon island, cases of antinuclear in foreign country and building of new energy system.

  18. China's economic growth: Trajectories and evolving institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional reason underlying the change in the trajectory of economic growth in post-reform China, and argues that the trajectory of growth was much more normal during the period of 1978-89 than in the post-1989 era. In the former period, growth was largely induced by equality-generating institutional change in agriculture and the emergence of non-state industrial sector. In the latter period, growth was triggered by the acceleration of capital investments under...

  19. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA)

  20. Recent developments at the atomic and molecular data unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic and Molecular (A+M) Data Unit of the IAEA main purpose is to establish and maintain databases in support of nuclear fusion energy research. This encompasses a very large number of processes in atomic, molecular, and plasma - material interaction physics. Recent improvements and additions to these databases are presented. A prototype search engine, which searches five different sites for radiative data and two sites for electron impact excitation and ionization data is introduced. It is available at the IAEA, Weizmann Institute and GAPHYOR web sites. Data on erosion materials produced by the Co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Plasma-interaction induced erosion of fusion reactor materials' was evaluated, fitted to physically realistic forms for angle and energy dependence and the resulting fits were added to the online electronic database. In a CRP on radiative power losses in plasmas, many lenghtly modelling calculations were carried out. In addition to providing the calculated radiated power, effective ionisation and recombination rate coefficients were derived. These data were stored along with the populations of the ion stages as well as the total radiation from each ion stage. Thus, it is possible to use these data to interpolate in temperature and electron density to obtain the radiated power at an arbitrary temperature and density. A preliminary version of a new interface to the bibliographic database at the A+M Data unit was developed, it allows the user to search by author and/or keyword. The resulting references are displayed along with a link to the home page of the journal where possible. A code for calculation electron impact excitation cross sections using the so-called 'average approximation' and a version of the Hartree-Fock atomic structure code were installed in the unit and can be run through an interface at the web page. (nevyjel)

  1. Neck of public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussion is lacking concerning the public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan. In case of the atomic powered ship Mutsu, an opponent says that the ship carries an atomic bomb, but a member of a support group says that the ship emits soft radiation like a hot spring. This is an example of discussion, and most of discussions are made under the political interest, instead of on the scientific base. In Japan, preparatory negotiations are required in advance to the decision making meeting in most cases. Therefore, most of substantial discussions are not public. Engineers in the nuclear industry can hardly express their opinion concerning the development of atomic energy. Most of the data for discussions are not original, but foreign data. Reasons for the development of atomic energy change case by case. It is necessary to consider that people will decide their opinion according to whether the responsible person is reliable or not. Some people oppose to atomic energy to find a new sense of value. Now, all people are requested to think and discuss the problem of atomic energy calmly. (Kato, T.)

  2. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  3. Development of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xianglian; Qin Guodong; Lou Ping

    2013-01-01

    For the energy shortage in China’s coastal areas, which has exerted severe impact on economy development, a growing number of attentions have been paid to ocean energy utilization. In this paper, a review of related researches as well as development of ocean energy in China is given. The main part of this paper is the investigation into ocean energy distribution and technology status of tidal energy, wave energy, and thermal energy, especially that of the tidal energy and wave energy. Finally...

  4. Professor Horia Hulubei, the father founder of the Institute of Atomic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hero of WW 1, Horia Hulubei (b. November 15, 1896, d. November 22, 1972), was one of the most prominent Romanian scientists of all time, leader and teacher of several generations of Romanian scientists during more than four decades. Graduated from Jassy University, he took his PhD. in Paris with Marie Curie and Jean Perrin in 1933. A few years later, Horia Hulubei was nominated Directeur de Recherches at the French National Centre of Scientific Research and elected Corresponding Member of Paris Academy of Sciences. Back in Romania, Hulubei was nominated professor and Rector of Bucharest University (1941). Professor Hulubei had a broad field of interests, from Classical to Atomic and Nuclear Physics, but his main achievements are connected with the Physics of X-rays (the first spectra of noble gases, the multiple Compton effect, the search for elements 87 and 85, etc.). The Institute of Atomic Physics (IPA) in Bucharest (1949) was the third research institution founded and directed by him. Following Hulubei's initial design, IPA was, and, in spite of the past and actual difficulties, remains, the flagship of Romanian scientific research. Along the years, IPA influenced beneficially the development of the post-war Romania and established many collaborations abroad. (author)

  5. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  6. Japan's Energy Policy on China:In the Perspective of Oil Dispute in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over recent years, the oil dispute in the East China Sea has become a new contradictory focus in Sino-Japanese relations after the issues of the Yasukuni Shrine and history text book. This article tries to take the oil dispute in the East China Sea as a penetrating point to analyze the basic line of thinking in Japan's China energy policy adjustment so as to better recognize the current situation and future of Sino-Japanese energy relations.

  7. Academic institutional repositories in China:A survey of CALIS member libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchao; ZHAO; Xiaoxia; YAO; Chengfu; WEI

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:China Academic Library&Information System(CALIS)planned to launch an institutional repository(IR)project to promote IR development and open access at colleges and universities in China.In order to get to know the current state of IRs in academic institutions,with the help of Peking University Library,CALIS Administrative Center conducted this survey.Design/methodology/approach:We conducted an online survey of CALIS member libraries.Findings:Firstly,the development of IRs at China’s colleges and universities is still in its infancy.Secondly,the Chinese colleges and universities have reached a consensus on the objective for having an IR.Thirdly,they are having high expectations of IR functions.Fourthly,they prefer to establish a centralized IR system at a minimum cost.Finally,there are both similarities and differences between the Chinese academic institutions and their counterparts in other countries in the state of IR development.Research limitations:The questionnaire needs to be improved because there is a lack of enough questions for those who do not plan to build an IR.Comparatively lower rate of valid questionnaire return can affect the accuracy of the results.It is hard to go into an in-depth discussion only based on the data collected from this questionnaire survey,and consequently,the findings from the survey can hardly present an accurate and comprehensive picture of the current state of IR development in the academic sector in China.Practical implications:The survey results provide essential foundation for CALIS IR project,and meanwhile the research can serve as a reference source for the future studies of the development of IRs at China’s colleges and universities.Originality/value:It is the first national survey focused on the development of IRs in academic institutions in China.

  8. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  9. Energy Scaling of Cold Atom-Atom-Ion Three-Body Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krükow, Artjom; Mohammadi, Amir; Härter, Arne; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.

    2016-05-01

    We study three-body recombination of Ba++Rb +Rb in the mK regime where a single 138Ba+ ion in a Paul trap is immersed into a cloud of ultracold 87Rb atoms. We measure the energy dependence of the three-body rate coefficient k3 and compare the results to the theoretical prediction, k3∝Ecol-3 /4, where Ecol is the collision energy. We find agreement if we assume that the nonthermal ion energy distribution is determined by at least two different micromotion induced energy scales. Furthermore, using classical trajectory calculations we predict how the median binding energy of the formed molecules scales with the collision energy. Our studies give new insights into the kinetics of an ion immersed in an ultracold atom cloud and yield important prospects for atom-ion experiments targeting the s -wave regime.

  10. Energy scaling of cold atom-atom-ion three-body recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Krükow, Artjom; Härter, Arne; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H

    2015-01-01

    We study three-body recombination of Ba$^+$ + Rb + Rb in the mK regime where a single $^{138}$Ba$^{+}$ ion in a Paul trap is immersed into a cloud of ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms. We measure the energy dependence of the three-body rate coefficient $k_3$ and compare the results to the theoretical prediction, $k_3 \\propto E_{\\textrm{col}}^{-3/4}$ where $E_{\\textrm{col}}$ is the collision energy. We find agreement if we assume that the non-thermal ion energy distribution is determined by at least two different micro-motion induced energy scales. Furthermore, using classical trajectory calculations we predict how the median binding energy of the formed molecules scales with the collision energy. Our studies give new insights into the kinetics of an ion immersed into an ultracold atom cloud and yield important prospects for atom-ion experiments targeting the s-wave regime.

  11. Institutional Root Cause of the Irregularity of Social Security Funds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingwen Zheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes institutional defects in the Chinese social security system, based on irregularities in social security funds revealed in the Audit Report by the China National Audit Office. The author divides the irregularities into five categories according to the nature of fund use. The results show that the institutional root cause of the irregularities lies in the unreasonable design and operation of the social security system, which currently faces management and institutional risks. This paper argues that simple rhetoric about strengthening regulation and supervision cannot help to reduce illegal practices, or to realize risk control. The only solution is to reform the social security system. Specifically, the Chinese Government should regulate the administrative cost of the social security system,and the behavior of its agencies, through legislation, reform the investment regime to increase rate of return of pension assets, and adjust and reshape the existing social security system, so as to elevate its pooling level.

  12. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  13. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  14. Institutional challenges for EIA implementation in China: a case study of development versus environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lixin; Sheate, William R

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides a complete case study analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) implementation in China from planning to legal challenge, which is typical but rarely reported. The analysis takes an historical perspective on the regulatory and institutional structures through which EIA has been implemented in China, in order to evaluate the extent to which EIA has matured over the last 10 years. The case study relates to a proposed recreation/tourist development at Dianshan Lake, a protected water resource for Shanghai. Legal and administrative challenge began in 1993, when the case was initiated with a letter from the public, and concluded in 1996, when the case was decided in a court judgment. More recent follow-up research indicates that many issues have continued to be problems for EIA implementation in China. Policy implications in terms of regulatory structure, institutional arrangement, EIA procedure, EIA practitioners, and public participation can be drawn, and lessons learned for both the government and the developers. The study emphasizes the problem of relying on reorientation of existing institutions to promote new (environmental) priorities. PMID:15983862

  15. Atomic Energy Authority Act, No. 19 of 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Act to provide for the establishment of an Atomic Energy Authority and an advisory committee to advise such authority, to specify the power, duties, rights and functions of such authority, and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto

  16. Labeling of Energy Efficiency in China to Be Expanded to 20 Categories of Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mr. Wang Ruohong,director of the Energy Efficiency Management Center of the China Institute for Standardization, expressed in the "High-efficiency and Energy-saving Electric Appliance Promotion Quarter"that compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be continued in China on frequency-converting air-conditioners, gas heaters, electric heaters and electromagnetic ovens. By the end of the "11th Five Year", compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be expanded to include 20 categories of products, including household appliances, automobiles, architecture, motors, and offices. Labeling in other industries will continue, but the number of levels will be reduced from the current five to three.

  17. Activities 2009-2011 at the Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center team at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD USA centered in the last two years on two main subjects: First, the data center completed and issued a new, significantly improved version of its principal product, the Atomic Spectra Database (ASD Version 4.0 in September 2010, with an update 4.1.0 in May 2011). These versions contain new data for a good number of additional spectra as well as new, better quality and more extensive data replacing the earlier material. They are also for the first time completely integrated with the two NIST bibliographies on atomic energy levels and spectra, and on atomic transition probabilities. The sources of the material selected in ASD for the various spectra and transitions are identified there by their numbers in the respective bibliographies, so that the original papers can be directly accessed by users if they desire more background material. Secondly, new tabulations of atomic energy levels and wavelengths were completed for hydrogen and its isotopes (H, D, T), for argon (Ar II through Ar XVIII), cesium (Cs I through Cs LV), barium (Ba III through Ba LVI) and tungsten (W III through W LXXIV). Compilations of energy levels and spectral lines are in progress on neon (Ne IV), chlorine (Cl I through Cl XVII), and nickel (Ni I through Ni VIII). Data assessments and compilations of atomic transition probabilities were completed for hydrogen and its isotopes (H,D,T), for helium(He I and He II), for lithium (Li I through Li III), beryllium (Be I through Be IV), boron (B I through B V), sulfur (S I through S XVI), cesium (Cs I through Cs LV), and barium (Ba III through Ba LVI). Additional compilations for the higher fluorine and neon ions (F V through F IX, Ne VI through Ne X), chlorine (Cl I through Cl XVII) and nickel (Ni I through Ni VIII) are in progress. As in all our earlier work, the NIST data tables are limited to reference data, i.e. data

  18. Basic plan of development and utilization of atomic energy, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable acquisition of energy is indispensable for the maintenance and improvement of national living standard and the development of social economy. The supply of oil tends to be tight in medium and long term perspective. Japan must acquire oil stably, save oil consumption as far as possible, and develop substitute energy. The development and utilization of atomic energy must be promoted as the most important subject in the energy policy because it is the most promising substitute energy. The nuclear power stations in operation in Japan are 21 plants with 15 million kW capacity, and it is equivalent to 12% of the total power generation. Adding the plants under construction and in preparation, the total becomes 35 plants and 28 million kW, but the construction is behind schedule due to the difficulty in the location of new power stations. As for the research and development on atomic energy, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle such as the enrichment of uranium, the reprocessing of fuel and the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, the development of power reactors of new types, the research on nuclear fusion and so on have been endeavored. The maintenance of health of people and the preservation of environment are the prerequisities to the promotion of atomic energy. Japan contributes to form the new order on the basis of the results of INFCE. The development and utilization of atomic energy in 1980 are forwarded based on the basic policy described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  20. Gravitational Corrections to Energy-Levels of a Hydrogen Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen-Hua; LIU Yu-Xiao; LI Xi-Guo

    2007-01-01

    The first-order perturbations of the energy levels of a hydrogen atom in central internal gravitational field are investigated.The internal gravitational field is produced by the mass of the atomic nucleus.The energy shifts are calculated for the relativistic 1S,2S,2P,3S,3P,3D,4S,and 4P levels with Schwarzschild metric.The calculated results show that the gravitational corrections are sensitive to the total angular momentum quantum number.

  1. Glossary of scientific and technical terms in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to facilitate the task of Arabic speaking scientists in the field of nuclear energy, the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria assigned a committee constituted of leading physicists and chemists at Damascus University, the aim of the commission was to include the Arabic equivalent of the terms cited in English, French, Russian and Spanish in the glossary published by the United Nations, 1958 ''Atomic Energy Glossary of Technical Terms.'' The result of the committee's work was this glossary containing approximately 6000 terms in the field of nuclear energy which are given in Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish

  2. Annual report 1984-85 [of the Department of Atomic Energy, of the Government of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and Development (R and D) activities of the research establishments of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), performance of various production units and public sector undertakings of DAE and progress of various projects underway are reported. The report covers the period of the financial year 1984-85. The research establishments of DAE are the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay and the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam. DAE production units include atomic power stations for electricity generation at Tarapur, Kota and Kalpakkam; heavy water plants around the country and the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. Public sector undertaking of the Department are Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Electronic Corporation of India Ltd., and Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. The Atomic Minerals Division of the Department is mainly engaged in the R and D activities pertaining to exploration, prospecting and development of mineral resources needed for nuclear power programme. The Department's objective is to achieve the target of 10,000 MWe of nuclear power generating capacity by the year 2000. The Department's Nuclear Power Board operates the atomic power stations and is charged with the responsibility of design, construction and commissioning of atomic power projects at Narora and Kakrapar. The Department also financially supports the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay and the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta. The R and D activities of these institutions are also described in brief in this report. (M.G.B.)

  3. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promulgated in 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission Act (204) established and vested in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission the sole responsibility for all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country. Embodied in the Act are provisions relating to the powers, duties, rights and liabilities of the Commission. (EAA)

  4. Raising the Profile of Energy Efficiency in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Reducing standby power use in China. How much does China stand to gain from greater energy efficiency? The example of improved standby power efficiency in household appliances provides a useful indicator. IEA analysis projects that eight or nine 1-GW power plants could be struck off Chinas list of immediate capacity needs for the period to 2020 if energy-efficient standby devices were vigorously promoted. This impressive finding emerges from this paper. The paper reviews experience with tackling standby power consumption in OECD countries and models implementation of similar action in China and Shanghai. Its scenarios quantify the significant potential gains from standby power conservation campaigns and mandatory regulations.

  5. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  6. Status and prospects of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGWeiding; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly describes situation of building energy consumption in China. The authors indicate some relations in building energy efficiency should be dealt with properly: energy saving and energy efficiency, envelopes and building services systems, energy use and indoor environment, electric power saving and energy saving, devices and system, energy efficiency at stable state and at dynamic state. The authors suggest to use Coefficient of Energy Consumption as a Indicator of building energy efficiency.

  7. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2008-04-01

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose "to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large". The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed.

  8. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose 'to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large'. The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed

  9. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual report 1974 of the Association EURATOM-ITAL describes the results obtained in 1974 in the following sections: Radiation effects; Genetic studies; Soil-plants studies; Methodology; Practical applications, services, courses. The radiation effects studies are concerned with: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests. In the soil-plant studies, the following topics are dealt with: uptake of specific elements by plants, behavior of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils. The methodology part of the programme is concerned with: methodology related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies; methodology related to studies on biological material; methodology related to soil-studies. Practical applications, services, courses include: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters. The report also lists publications issued and not yet issued

  10. Annual report 1983 of the section 'Karl Schoenherrstr. 3' (formerly 'Institute of Atomic Physics') of the 'Institute of Experimentalphysics' at the Leopold Franzens University, Innsbruck, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research topics in the institute were 1) State selected ion neutral interactions. 2) Vibrational temperature of ions. 3) Interstellar molecular synthesis. 4) Radiation damage in solids. 5) Excitation in ion-molecule and ion-atom collisions. 6) Hollow-cathode discharges. (Author)

  11. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association EURATOM-ITAL gives, in its annual report 1973, a detailed description of the work carried out during 1973, under the following headings: -radiation effects: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests; genetic studies: related studies on plant material; soil-plant studies: uptake of specific elements by plants, behaviour of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils; methodology: related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies, related to studies on biological material, related to soil-studies; practical applications, services, courses: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions, mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters; publications in press, internal reports 1973, external reports 1973

  12. 78 FR 65711 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From China, South Africa, and Vietnam Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... orders on imports of uncovered innerspring units from South Africa and Vietnam (73 FR 75390 and 75391... uncovered innerspring units from China (74 FR 7661). The Commission is conducting reviews to determine... COMMISSION Uncovered Innerspring Units From China, South Africa, and Vietnam Institution of Five-Year...

  13. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km2 yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Annual report 1982-83 [of the Department of Atomic Energy, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India for the financial year 1982-83 surveys the work of its various establishments. The major thrust of the DAE's programme is directed towards peaceful uses of atomic ener%y - primarily for electric power generation and applications of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture and industry. The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay is the major R and D establishment of the DAE and its activities in the fields of nuclear physics, chemistry and materials science, radiochemistry, nuclear fuels, reactor engineering, radiation protection, radioactive waste management and applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes are described in detail. The R and D activities of the Reactor Research Centre at Kanpakkam, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Tata A1emorial Centre, both at Bombay, and the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta are described in brief. The performance of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, the Atomic Minerals Division, Uranium Corporation of India Ltd at Jaduguda, various heavy water plants and other industrial units of DAE is reported. Progress of nuclear power projects at Narora and Kakrapar, R-5 Project at Bombay and FBTR Project at Kalpakkam is described. India's participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency is also mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  15. 78 FR 60313 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... lightweight thermal paper from China and Germany (73 FR 70958). The Commission is conducting reviews to...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with the... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

  16. The Potential of Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    as well as reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable possibility......This paper discusses the prospective of renewable energy in the process of sustainable development in China. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand....... This paper analyses the current status and programming of renewable energy utilization in China and compares the potential of renewable energy sources and energy demand between China and Denmark. It proposes and discusses a forward-looking issue that is the perspective of a 100% renewable energy system...

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  18. Strategic Position and Roadmap of China's Renewable Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qili; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Fast-growing economy imposing higher requirement for energy industry During the“Tenth Five-Year Plan” period,China's GDP grew at an average annual rate of 9.5%,and correspondingly the total volume of energy consumption grew at an average annual rate of 10.5%.In 2005,China produced raw coal of 2.19 billion tons,while the total energy consumption amounted to 2.22 billion tons of coal.

  19. Development of atomic spectroscopy methods in geological institutes of Faculty of Natural Sciences Comenius University and Slovak Academy of Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of atomic spectrochemistry methods in Geological Institute of Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University (GI FNS CU) is connected with its establishment in 1957. Its instrumental equipment and location resulted from the already existing Laboratory in the Chair for Mineralogy and Crystallography of FNS CU. In Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Science (GI SAS) the development of atomic spectroscopy methods started later, only since 1963, when the Member of Academy, Prof. RNDr. B. Cambel, DrSc. became its director. In both institutes the methods of atomic emission spectrography were used as first. A new quality in the development started since 1969 when the Institutes moved to common buildings in Petrzalka (Bratislava), the first atomic absorption spectrometers were acquired and the Institutes were 'strengthened' by coming of Prof. Ing. E. Plsko, DrSc. In the following years the Institutes started to collaborate with some other organisations which were equipped with new facilities, e.g. in 1975 with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, electron microprobe and in 1985 with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. This enabled to improve essentially the quality of research activities of both institutes in the chemical characterisation of geological materials, as well as in pedagogical work (students practice, diploma works and dissertations). In the present time characterized by new economic conditions a reduction of GI SAS laboratory activities has been realised. The laboratories of the GI FNS CU have, thanks to their director Ing. V. Stresko, PhD. shown also hence-forward a rich research, pedagogical and society activities what can be documented by numerous publications, citations, obtained awards, representations in professional societies and commissions, local and foreign advisory boards, accreditation boards etc. (author)

  20. Market seeking orientation and performance in China : the impact of institutional environment, subsidiary ownership structure and experience.

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xinming; Zhang, Jianhong; Wang, Jinmeng

    2015-01-01

    Many foreign firms tend to follow the market-seeking mandate in China. However this orientation alone does not guarantee superior performance. From the perspectives of strategic fit and institutional theory, this research seeks to reveal several conditions under which market-seeking MNEs can achieve superior performance in China. We identify three performance contributors to marketing seeking FDI: the host country’s favorable formal institutions towards FDI, the subsidiaries’ operational expe...

  1. Scientists speak of the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts from Argentina, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Costa Rica have met in that last country, to offer the forum 'Peaceful uses of atomic energy: prospects for Costa Rica'. Specialists were invited by the Centro de Investigacion en Biologia Celular y Molecular (CIBCM) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) and the Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia (CIB) of Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica. The forum has developed around the theme the usefulness of atomic energy for science, and importance for the development of the country. The peaceful use of atomic energy was explained by specialists in each country, specifically in the field of health, industry, agriculture, industrial equipment sterilization, medical products, body tissues and crops

  2. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  3. Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaodong; Barroso, Luiz; Elizondo, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in China. Although feed-in tariffs are now the cornerstone of China's renewable energy policy, auctions have played and continue to play ...

  4. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  5. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  6. Impact of Iraq War on China's Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ International energy issue has long influenced China's economic and social developmentand environmental protection. Therefore, it is related to the country's fundamental interests.As it is well known the world, the Middle East region is the main source of China'soil imports.In other words, this region is of vital importance to the Chinese interests in terms of enrrgy.

  7. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world`s largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China`s energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China`s energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  8. Law on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an amended and corrected edition of the Bulgarian atomic energy law. Its purpose is to promote nuclear energy peaceful applications, to regulate the use of radioactive substances and instrumentation, to provide protection against the radioactive hazards. The Law also determines the status of the Governmental Regulatory Body - the CUAEPP

  9. Energy and decay width of the pi-K atom

    CERN Document Server

    Jallouli, H

    2006-01-01

    The energy and decay width of the pi-K atom are evaluated in the framework of the quasipotential-constraint theory approach. The main electromagnetic and isospin symmetry breaking corrections to the lowest-order formulas for the energy shift from the Coulomb binding energy and for the decay width are calculated. They are estimated to be of the order of a few per cent. We display formulas to extract the strong interaction S-wave pi-K scattering lengths from future experimental data concerning the pi-K atom.

  10. 1995 annual report. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission : using nuclear energy and techniques to alleviate hunger, diseases and control of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1995 annual report reflects the activities of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) on an institutional basis. It provides an overview of the outcomes achieved and the current activities of the GAEC grouped under its core nuclear science areas

  11. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chakrabarti

    2001-04-01

    Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant 12, equal energy sharing geometry. The TDCS reveal considerable differences in physics compared to electron impact ionization under the same geometry.

  12. Atomic Energy Authority Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the third reading of the Atomic Energy Authority Bill the following matters were discussed: safety research and thermal reactor work - how funded when the Authority is operating on trading fund basis; future financial framework of the Authority; capital investment; loans; effect of change on Authority employees. (U.K.)

  13. The integration of transportation with the energy system in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Beella, Satish Kumar;

    Energy security and climate change are forcing China to change its inappropriate energy structure. Today, transport is the second largest energy consumer in China. No single method can achieve a fossil fuel independent transport and it is necessary to propose a comprehensive strategy which can...... demand reduction can be achieved by formulated transport development planning but more alternative technologies and joint actions are needed in order to change the fuel structure. Finally, 100% non-fossil fuel transport was built up and analysed. The challenges of a transfer to a 100% non-fossil fuel...... transport in China are not severe at least in the perspectives of domestic biofuels potential and transmission capacity....

  14. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  15. China's path to the new economy an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard; Yang, Chen

    2003-01-01

    As a driving force of the New Economy, the role of government in the development of high-tech sectors in China is the focus of this paper. Adopting an institutional approach, we argue that China has coped with simultaneous economic development and institutional transition within its unique 'contextual circumstances' and that gradualism and pragmatism have turned out to be the 'path dependent' solutions for China to deal most successfully with the 'churn' of transition. We argue that, with reg...

  16. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  17. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  18. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  19. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  20. On-line processing of searching scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information processing using computers has been carried out in the field of atomic energy science internationally since early period, and CINDA and NEUDADA, which are the accumulation of the nuclear data on neutrons, and INIS for the search of literatures are the examples. In Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has functioned as the center for collecting, evaluating and distributing the international informations on atomic energy. In universities, various researcher groups have endeavored to make and utilize the data bases with the advance of functions of large computer centers. In the future plan of the Kyoto University Reactor Research Institute, the establishment of Atomic Energy Science Information Center is planned. In order to discuss the concept for this and refer to the state of activities in other fields, the short period study meeting was helt in 1979, and the special study meeting on the on-line processing of searching the scientific informations and literatures on atomic energy was established in 1980. This report summarizes the results of studies and investigations published in this special study meeting. The abstracts of five papers on various data bases are given. (Kako, I.)

  1. Non-conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董传华

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coupled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes Cummings model for coupled atoms,the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of fields and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  2. Non—conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongChuan-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coulpled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes-Cummings model for coupled atoms, the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of field and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing

  4. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. The tenth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference includes the paper presented at the tenth Arab conference of the peaceful uses of Nuclear Atomic Energy that is organized by AAEA (Arab Atomic Energy Agency) in cooperation with Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology and Kurdistan government , held in Erbil (Iraq) from 12-16 December 2010. This conference consists of three volumes covering the following concepts: Analysis and Material Improvement, Soil fertility, Water Recourse Management, Nuclear Medicine and Biological Irradiation, Isotopes Production, Improvement of Plant and Animal Production, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Safety and Security of Radiation Protection, Pest Control and Food Irradiation Processing

  6. Status in quo and future of geothermal energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiuhua; Zhao Jun; Du Limeng

    2011-01-01

    Energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction are critical tasks currently, and great effort has been made by Chinese government. Renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions and reduction plan in China are introduced in this paper. Analysis is also made on present status and prospect of geothermal power generation and direct use in China respectively. Now, there is a new understanding of geothermal resources, and hot dry rock, considered as the future of geothermal resources, is likely used to generate electricity.

  7. Effects of China's Energy Policy on Future Air Quality in China and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Li, C. T.; Zhang, D.; Luo, X.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the effects of recently announced energy policies in mainland China on air quality in both China and the U.S. in 2030. China is the largest contributor to global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, especially the precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Efforts to limit coal use in China under the country's National Air Pollution Action Plan will reduce these air pollutants. Control efforts are expected to not only decrease the concentration of ozone and PM2.5 locally in China, but also reduce the trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants to the U.S. We couple an energy-economic model with sub-national detail for China (the China Regional Energy Model, or C-REM) to a global atmospheric chemistry model (GEOS-Chem) to assess air pollution reductions under an energy policy scenario relative to a no policy baseline scenario. Future Chinese anthropogenic emissions are predicted by C-REM under a national energy policy scenario which achieves a 20% reduction in energy intensity from 2012 to 2017 by targeting fossil fuel use nationwide as specified in the National Air Pollution Action Plan and also meets the Plan's sub-national constraint that coal use must not increase above present levels in three largest urban regions (the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) through 2030. Using GEOS-Chem, we project changes in the surface concentration of ozone and PM2.5 over China and the U.S. in 2030. We find that air pollutants decrease substantially over both China and the U.S. under the national targets set by the Air Pollution Action Plan.

  8. Shaping markets : A neoinstitutional analysis of the emerging organizational field of renewable energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyrup Christensen, N.

    2013-02-01

    Today, China is the world leading investor in renewable energy. At the heart of this effort lies China's ability to shape markets through industrial policies. Through a neoinstitutional theoretical perspective this dissertation views China's efforts within renewable energy as the emergence of a new organizational field. Despite the importance of organizational fields as a key concept in the neoinstitutional literature, there is a lack of studies on exactly how they emerge. Throughout four articles this dissertation scrutinizes therefore the emergence of the field of renewable energy in China and the mechanisms driving this emergence. Firstly, the relation between state and market is examined, and it is argued that Chinese state interventions in markets, for instance through subsidies, are based in deeply rooted historic grounds. Thus, the article explains the general context in which the Party-state handles subsidized markets, like renewable energy. Secondly, the specific development of the idea of sustainable development, and how it evolves into an institutional logic of its own, is analysed. It is around this institutional logic that renewable energy emerges as a field. The key mechanism in play is the idea work of the Party state by which sustainable development is positioned in the Partystate discourse. Thirdly, subsidization of renewable energy in China is examined as an important feature of the increasing institutionalization of the organizational field. It is shown how negotiation between companies and Party-state is the vital mechanism by which subsidies are determined. Fourthly, it is analysed how the institutional entrepreneurship of one single company resulted in an official recognition of biomass power production as a source of renewable energy, and thereby an expansion of the organizational field. Again, the main mechanism was the company's idea work, through which a crucial link between biomass and sustainable development was

  9. Ministerial Presentation: Holy See. Intervention of Monsignor Michael W. Banach, Permanent Representative of the Holy See to the International Atomic Energy Agency [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I have the honour to deliver this Statement in the name of His Excellency Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary for the Holy See's Relations with States. At the outset, allow me to express my gratitude to the competent Authorities of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency for their organization of what is developing into a most fascinating Conference. The participants in this Conference might be interested in knowing that the Holy See is a Founding Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The constantly increasing world-wide demand for energy requires a serious reflection on the role of nuclear energy. The reflections that follow are offered as the Holy See's contribution, based on its specific nature, to the discussions on nuclear energy in the 21st Century. It is well known that nuclear technology presents not only risks, but also great opportunities for humanity. In this perspective, while it is important to recognize the inalienable right of States 'to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination' (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Article IV.1), it is equally important to recognize that this right is not absolute. It is subject to the condition of an effective process of disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is, above all, a right in relation to that of each other State. Each State is called to follow the ways of development and the common good of peoples and not national power, be it economic or military. A wise energy policy necessarily leads to the development of peoples - a development that is respectful of the natural environment, as a good in itself and as a good from which life and human health also depend, and ever mindful of the most disadvantaged populations (Pope Benedict XVI, Angelus Address, July 29, 2007). As affirmed by the United Nations Declaration on the Right to

  10. Reports of the research results for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, no. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many valuable results have been obtained by the tests and researches concerning the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, and they accomplished major role in the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the results of the tests and researches on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy carried out by national research institutes and others in 1978 fiscal year are outlined. It is desirable to deepen understandings further on the recent trend and results of the tests and researches with this book. The report is divided into the following chapters: nuclear fusion, safety research (technological safety research, environmental radioactivity safety research), food irradiation, countermeasures to cancers, agriculture, forestry and fishery (fertilized soil, quality improvement, farm product protection, breeding improvement), medicine (diagnosis and therapy, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, application to living body pathology), mining and industry (radiation chemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis), power utilization (nuclear reactor materials, nuclear ships), civil engineering, radioactivation analysis, and injury prevention research. (Kako, I.)

  11. Policy and institutional dimensions of the water-energy nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and water are interlinked. The development, use, and waste generated by demand for both resources drive global change. Managing them in tandem offers potential for global-change adaptation but presents institutional challenges. This paper advances understanding of the water-energy nexus by demonstrating how these resources are coupled at multiple scales, and by uncovering institutional opportunities and impediments to joint decision-making. Three water-energy nexus cases in the United States are examined: (1) water and energy development in the water-scarce Southwest; (2) conflicts between coal development, environmental quality, and social impacts in the East; and (3) tensions between environmental quality and economic development of shale natural gas in the Northeast and Central U.S. These cases are related to Eastern, Central, and Western regional stakeholder priorities collected in a national effort to assess energy-water scenarios. We find that localized challenges are diminished when considered from broader perspectives, while regionally important challenges are not prioritized locally. The transportability of electricity, and to some extent raw coal and gas, makes energy more suitable than water to regionalized global-change adaptation, because many of the impacts to water availability and quality remain localized. We conclude by highlighting the need for improved coordination between water and energy policy. - Highlights: →Water-energy nexus construct considers institutions not just resource inputs. → Energy policy offers more scope for global-change adaptation than does water policy. → U.S. scenarios highlight water impacts and policy choices of energy development. → Water-energy policy tradeoffs may be mitigated across scales of resource use.

  12. A study of the role played by renewable energies in China's sustainable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first provides an overview of the context of renewable energy development in China, including the country's recent renewable energy legislation. Further, it summarizes the current status of renewable energy development and the role it plays in the national energy supply. Next it introduces the national indicative targets for renewable energies in 2010 and 2020, and conducts a long term scenario of the role of renewable energies in China's energy system transition till 2050. It discusses the main risks involved in China's renewable energy development, and proposes some policy measures for risk management. (author)

  13. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. PMID:26514312

  14. Rural Electrification in China: History and Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuyuan Peng; Jiahua Pan

    2006-01-01

    China has been highly successful in electrifying rural areas in the past half century.Institutional structure and its reform are important for investment and, therefore,development of rural electrification. Over time, there have been three major institutional changes initiated by the central government; When the People's Republic was founded in 1949, it was short of capital, technology and management professionals to promote rural electrification, so rural electricity had a separate administrative system from the urban areas. From 1949 to 1977, China established a comprehensive vertical system of rural electricity administration under strict central planning. At the end of the 1970s, with the adoption of economic reform policy, the central government handed over the management of the local electricity system to local government. County levelhas proved the most effective implementation unit for both planning and project implementation of the rural electricity system. From 1998 to 2002, the central government has been separating local electricity supply from local governments to facilitate the commercial operation of the utility market.After 2002, the rural electricity system was merged with the urban system, forming an integrated national electricity administrative system in China.

  15. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  16. Advancement of German Neutron Spectrometers Relocation Project in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Neutron scattering technique is going on in Neutron Scattering Laboratory (NSL) of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) based on China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), which will be hopefully

  17. Study of the development road map of China's renewable energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qili; Li Junfeng; Gao Hu

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) has been attached high attention around the world due to its carbon-free and indige-nous production in a sustainable way. China enjoys plenty of renewable energy resources, particularly the wind, solar, hydro- and biomass energy, which could be a sound basis for a large-scale exploitation. This report examines the current status of RE technology and industry, analyzes the challenges of promoting RE in China. In order to pave the way for a long-term development of RE, this paper outlines the basic principles and priorities for individual RE technology. In line with these, the paper puts forward the RE targets and further describes the RE road map by 2020, 2030 and extend to 2050, taking consideration of China's RE resources, industrial basis and energy demand etc. At last, this paper pro-vides some recommendations to ensure the achievements of the RE targets.

  18. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world's largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China's energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China's energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  19. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  20. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  1. Ground state wave function and energy of the lithium atom

    OpenAIRE

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Highly accurate nonrelativistic ground-state wave function and energy of the lithium atom is obtained in the Hylleraas basis set. The leading relativistic corrections,as represented by Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, are obtained in fair agreement with the former results. The calculational method is based on the analytical evaluation of Hylleraas integrals with the help of recursion relations.

  2. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  3. Atomic energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As observed worldwide, sufficient consensus has not been obtained on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, but why has only France showed the relatively smooth advance ? Is it the result of the PR activities by enterprises ? The author visited two French nuclear facilities in June-July, 1990, and experienced the way of acceptance of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the action of enterprises in France. The French Electric Power Corp. (EDF) already clarified the guideline to the society about 'How to obtain the trust of public for atomic energy'. The gist of the contents of this EDF guideline is shown. The investigation by the authors can be judged as illustrating concretely the posture of enterprises to endeavor for the realization of this EDF guideline. The serious consideration on communication and community, the opening of information to public and sincere response, the fostering of the expression techniques of those in charge of PR, the immediate notice at the time of accidents, the maintenance of information transmission systems and so on carried out for 30 years contributed to the fostering of trust. The points of social psychology for national consensus and the investigation in the La Hague reprocessing plant and the Super Phenix in Creys Malville are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic energy power generation is recognized to be important to solve the problems of the competitive relations among the Asian developing countries due to the increasing dependency on the crude oil produced in the Middle East and the insecurity of transport route of the oil. The reorganization and inauguration of JNC(former PNC) has been carried out for the development of liquid metal reactor and related fuel cycle technology as the national development project to prevent the global green house effect and to continue the economic development. The construction of light water reactor, the utilization of plutonium in light water reactor and the enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel of light water reactor are classified as proven technologies which will be covered by the industry. The government will lead to the environment favorable for introduction of the atomic energy and will monitor the situation. The specifics of atomic energy development project and the development system for the 21th century will be contained in the long term atomic energy development plan which will be completed by 2000 and the reorganization operation has been initiated. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 30 figs

  5. Marketization of Education in China: An Assessment of its Impact on Educational Institutions%Marketization of Education in China:An Assessment of its Impact on Educational Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to examine the effect of the Marketization of Education in China.Based on the policy context of the reform of the marketization of education,the coge of the paper is confined to the analysis of the benefits and risks of the Marketization of education in China,and suggests three coping strategies to it.%本文主要从优点和缺点两方面分析现代化、市场化对中国教育体制造成影响的和新产生的问题,并提出解决问题的政策思路.

  6. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  7. Materials on atomic energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author cites and comments legal opinions on problems of atomic energy, i.e. the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court concerning Kalkar and the plutonium economy; Judges of the Federal Constitutional Court on technology and hazards; the 'atomic state'; plutonium at Gorleben; a new safety philosophy after Harrisburg; salt domes unsuitable for atomic waste. (HSCH) 891 HP/HSCH 892 MB

  8. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  9. Survey report on development and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency carried out a ''Survey of Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy'' in April 1985 to investigate the expenses for research and development; the number of researchers and technical workers; and facilities for and achievements of research and development in private firms. This report outlines major results of the survey. The total sales in the atomic power supply industry was 1,755,400 million yen, of which 75.6 percent was accounted for by the sales of nuclear reactors and related apparatus. For expenses for research and development, electric business units spend more money for work entrusted to other firms than for activities by themselves, while the contrary tendency was seen in the atomic power supply industry. It is revealed that Japanese firms concentrate much effort on the development of light water reactors. Firms in the atomic power supply industry spend more money on research and development activities compared to other industries. More than 50 percent of the researchers in the industry are engaged in studies on nuclear reactors and related apparatus. The greatest achievements have been made in the field of research and development of light water reactors and waste processing/disposal. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Investigation of proton-induced X-rays (PIXE) at the Atomic Physics Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts, in 1952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, who was with the Institute on Atomic Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts, as a scientist in 1952, recollects the work of his scientific team within the context of the Institute. (P.A.)

  11. Future implications of China's energy-technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes an assessment of future energy-technology strategies for China that explored the prospects for China to continue its social and economic development while ensuring national energy-supply security and promoting environmental sustainability over the next 50 years. The MARKAL energy-system modeling tool was used to build a model of China's energy system representing all sectors of the economy and including both energy conversion and end-use technologies. Different scenarios for the evolution of the energy system from 1995 to 2050 were explored, enabling insights to be gained into different energy development choices. The analysis indicates a business-as-usual strategy that relies on coal combustion technologies would not be able to meet all environmental and energy security goals. However, an advanced technology strategy emphasizing (1) coal gasification technologies co-producing electricity and clean liquid and gaseous energy carriers (polygeneration), with below-ground storage of some captured CO2; (2) expanded use of renewable energy sources (especially wind and modern biomass); and (3) end-use efficiency would enable China to continue social and economic development through at least the next 50 years while ensuring security of energy supply and improved local and global environmental quality. Surprisingly, even when significant limitations on carbon emissions were stipulated, the model calculated that an advanced energy technology strategy using our technology-cost assumptions would not incur a higher cumulative (1995-2050) total discounted energy system cost than the business-as-usual strategy. To realize such an advanced technology strategy, China will need policies and programs that encourage the development, demonstration and commercialization of advanced clean energy conversion technologies and that support aggressive end-use energy efficiency improvements

  12. The Potential of Renewable Energy Systems in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospective of renewable energy in the process of sustainable development in China. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand as well as reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrast...

  13. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  14. Corrections to the Nonrelativistic Ground Energy of a Helium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段一士; 刘玉孝; 张丽杰

    2004-01-01

    Considering the nuclear motion, we present the nonrelativistic ground energy of a helium atom by using a simple effective variational wavefunction with a flexible parameter k. Based on the result, the relativistic and radiative corrections to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian are discussed. The high precision value of the helium ground energy is evaluated to be -2.90338 a.u. With the relative error 0.00034%.

  15. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-01-01

    This booklet lists selected commercially published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. Books for young readers have school grade annotations.This booklet contains an author index, a title index, and a list of publishers’ addresses.

  16. A history of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include the pre-history of the AECB, its creation, early operations and evolution, its relations with nuclear research, the uranium industry, and the nuclear power industry, its involvement with transportation and safeguards, and some current problems. The focus is on the Atomic Energy Control Act and regulations derived from the act

  17. Energy demand in China: Comparison of characteristics between the US and China in rapid urbanization stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy demand characteristics of the US and China were compared. • Major factors affecting energy demand were examined based on the panel data and the cointegration models. • China’s energy demand would reach 5498.13 Mtce in 2020 and 6493.07 Mtce in 2030. • Urbanization can be an opportunity for low-carbon development in China. - Abstract: China’s energy demand has shown characteristics of rigid growth in the current urbanization stage. This paper applied the panel data model and the cointegration model to examine the determinants of energy demand in China, and then forecasts China’s energy demand based on the scenario analysis. Results demonstrate an inverted U-shaped relationship between energy demand and economic growth in the long term. In business as usual scenario, China’s energy consumption will reach 6493.07 million tons of coal equivalent in 2030. The conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the comparison of characteristics between the US and China. First, energy demand has rigid growth characteristics in the rapid urbanization stage. Second, coal-dominated energy structure of China will lead to the severe problems of CO2 emissions. Third, rapid economic growth requires that energy prices should not rise substantially, so that energy conservation will be the major strategy for China’s low-carbon transition. Major policy implications are: first, urbanization can be used as an opportunity for low-carbon development; second, energy price reform is crucial for China’s energy sustainability

  18. Arbitrary excitation of atomic hydrogen at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the growing need of excitation cross-section data of atomic hydrogen by fully stripped heavy ions for the preparation of an atomic database for neutral-beam penetration in large tokamaks, we have calculated these data in the framework of the first-order Born approximation for n≤20 in the energy range of 0.1 to 1.5 MeV/amu. The present computed results are found to be in agreement with the existing observed results. From the present calculation it also appears that the contribution from subshells characterized by l>3 is always less than 2%

  19. Overview of rural building energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past three decades, people's living standard in China has been greatly improved, accompanied by the rapid increasing building energy consumption. Rural building energy consumption has become one of the most important parts of the total energy consumption in China, which deserves to be paid much attention. It is of vital importance to promote building energy efficiency for the New Socialist Countryside and energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper provides an overview of building energy consumption in the countryside, which figures out the situation and challenges in energy-saving work. The government has worked for years on rural building code system aimed at narrowing the energy gap between urban areas, but it is in the beginning phase. This paper has analyzed the only special issues about rural building energy efficiency and the mandatory standards for urban buildings, which can facilitate the development of rural building energy efficiency. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations regarding the improvement of rural building energy efficiency are given. - Highlights: • Situation of rural energy consumption in China. • Challenges in rural building energy-saving work. • Design standard, special plan and some pilot projects are analyzed. • Effects of existing energy policies for urban buildings. • Some recommendations are given

  20. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  1. Regional Institutions and Organizational Capabilities --- An Analysis of the Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu and Shandong Regions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Studying organizational capabilities from the perspective of national institutions has been widely adopted in high tech industries in developed countries, but scarcely in developing countries. This research applies this framework into China to study the solar PV industry, but at the regional level. The solar PV industry in China has strongly developed in the global market in recent years, having been the biggest solar PV producer since 2007. However, there are contrast regional differences in...

  2. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  4. Effects of QED and Beyond from the Atomic Binding Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic binding energies are calculated at utmost precision. A report on the current status of Lamb-shift predictions for hydrogenlike ions, including all quantum electrodynamical corrections to first and second order in the fine structure constant α is presented. All relevant nuclear effects are taken into account. High-precision calculations for the Lamb shift in hydrogen are presented. The hyperfine structure splitting and the g factor of a bound electron in the strong electromagnetic field of a heavy nucleus is considered. Special emphasis is also put on parity violation effects in atomic systems. For all systems possible investigations beyond precision tests of quantum electrodynamics are considered

  5. Government funded renewable energy innovation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid development of the economy, China is facing pressures caused by traditional energy deficiency and environmental pollution in recent years, which has forced the Chinese government to start to pay attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy (RE). This article, based on data and statistics available up to 2008, studies features of China's RE technology innovation and problems thereof. It finds that national science and technology programs are the main aspect of China's RE technology innovation, and most of R and D funds for the RE technology come from China's three main national programs. Besides, the overall expenditures on RE technology innovation constitute only a small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding and seem not enough. This paper also finds that, compared with research and development stages of RE technology, the demonstration and diffusion of RE technology in China are given less attention and thus are relatively less sufficient. Furthermore, influenced by China's traditional scientific research system, there appears lack of sufficient incentives and opportunities for private sectors to fully participate in RE technology innovation because most national programs are undertaken by universities or research institutes. - Highlights: ► We study statistically China's renewable energy technology innovation (RETI). ► National science and technology (S and T) programs are the main aspect of China's RETI. ► Most of R and D funds come from China's three main national (S and T) programs. ► The overall expenditure on RETI is small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding. ► The demonstration and diffusion of RETI in China are relatively less sufficient.

  6. Nucleus : the history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, a Canadian federal government crown corporation, from its creation to the present day. It explores the development of nuclear technology in Canada from its original military objectives to the present day. Peaceful applications in electrical power generation and medical radioisotope production. It chronicles a major international scientific development and the domestic industrial and political strategies that accompanied it

  7. Global Energy and Environmental Impacts of an Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Warwick J. McKibbin

    2006-01-01

    China accounts for 10 percent of global energy use and will continue to rely on coal for generating approximately 75 percent of its energy over coming decades. The environmental problems associated with coal burning are a concern for China as well as regionally and globally. The present paper summarizes China's energy structure and likely future energy requirements, while exploring the impact of energy use on air quality, black carbon emission,sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions. Although China has begun to take action on local environmental problems from energy, there is still much to be done.In particular, the problem of black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions needs to be addressed. The present paper proposes addressing carbon dioxide emissions through a longer-term strategy that acknowledges the need for China to continue to grow without a short-term carbon constraint but with clear pricing of the short-term and long-term cost of carbon dioxide.

  8. Energy and Environmental Impacts of Rural Vehicles in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Dan; Lin, Zhenhong

    2004-01-01

    More than 3 million Chinese rural vehicles (CRVs) were produced in 2002, three times the number of conventional passenger cars. These small, simple, indigenous vehicles are widely used in small cities and rural areas but are virtually unknown outside China. CRVs provide huge benefits in terms of mobility and economic development, but they are also highly energy inefficient and polluting. CRVs now consume about one-fourth of the diesel fuel in China. Increasing government regulation (mostly fo...

  9. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper

  10. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, C.G. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper.

  11. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  12. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this annual report consists of short notes reporting the progress made in the various research projects, viz. dosimetry, radiation and mutagenic effects in plants in light of mutation breeding as well as related technical subjects, food preservation by irradiation, radiogenetic effects on unwanted insects, self-incompatibility studies in higher plants, nitrogen in soil-plant studies, behaviour of radioactive and conventional contaminants in soils and plants, and nuclear methods in the recycling of liquid wastes

  13. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state-of-the-art survey of current research is presented in the form of a series of short articles which includes X-ray dosimetry intercomparison (EULEP), testing of lyoluminescent materials for the 25-krad to 2.5-Mrad dose range, behaviour of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in soils and plants (also fallout), plant nutrition in relation to soils, Experimental Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System tests, nitrogen fixation, gene mutations and chromosome manipulation in both legumes and ornamental plants, incompatibility studies, radiation mutagenesis, crop protection by genetic control of insects, food sterilization and preservation by irradiation, and waste irradiation. An outline is given of the research plans for the coming four years and the international cooperation involved. A survey of the outward services, lectures, publications and conference participation is presented at the end. (Auth.)

  14. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out in 1978 is reported as a series of papers. Research has been carried out in the areas of the contamination due to primary radiation effects and due to the behaviour of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants in soils, sediments and plants, plant nutrition in soils, properties of crop plants, crop protection by genetic control and product treatment by disinfection and disinfestation. Internal matters, publications, lectures and internal reports are detailed. (C.F.)

  15. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission : at a glance. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure provides a brief history of the establishment and functions of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. It also provides information on the structure, facilities and activities of existing research institutes and centres

  16. Role of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public health aspects of nuclear explosions fall into two categories: (1) operational safety during the conduct of the explosion; and (2) the regulation of by-product material resulting from the explosion. By statute, the AEC has the responsibility for both assuring operational safety and regulating by-product material. Current AEC safety and regulatory practices are described; future problems or needs discussed; and relationship to federal, state and local governments outlined. (author)

  17. Strategic Position and Roadmap of China s Renewable Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Fast-growing economy imposing higher requirement for energy industry During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period,China's GDP grew at an average annual rate of 9.5%,and correspondingly the total volume of energy consumption grew at an average annual rate of 10.5%.

  18. Energy and decay width of the pi-K atom

    OpenAIRE

    Jallouli, H.; Sazdjian, H.

    2006-01-01

    The energy and decay width of the pi-K atom are evaluated in the framework of the quasipotential-constraint theory approach. The main electromagnetic and isospin symmetry breaking corrections to the lowest-order formulas for the energy shift from the Coulomb binding energy and for the decay width are calculated. They are estimated to be of the order of a few per cent. We display formulas to extract the strong interaction S-wave pi-K scattering lengths from future experimental data concerning ...

  19. A personal opinion on technology developing line of nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The position and role of nuclear energy in China's energy sources development is briefly outlined and a proposal about strategic principles and technology line of china's nuclear energy development in recent 10∼20 years is put forward

  20. Strategies for development of clean energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Zhang Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    A development framework of clean energy in China is put forward based on core development strategy,technology support,and policy and laws support.In this framework,the priority development and strategic backup of clean energy are defined,and the technology support and policy and laws support are also presented.

  1. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese nuclear industry embarked on a new road of development and nuclear power development and nuclear technology application became the key orientation of the nuclear industry conversion in the early 1980's when the country introduced the policy of reform and opening up. China's nuclear industry has been open to international cooperation based on self-reliant development ever since. With more than twenty years development, nuclear science and technology studies have made continuous progress, nuclear power construction scored tremendous achievements and nuclear technology application realized initial industrialization, contributing to the national economic development and improvement of people's livelihood

  2. Correlation Between Energy Transfer Rate and Atomization Energy of Some Trinitro Aromatic Explosive Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hong Ge; Xin-lu Cheng; Zheng-lai Liu; Xiang-dong Yang; Fang-fang Dong

    2008-01-01

    An assumptive theoretical relationship is suggested to describe the property of molecular atomization energy and energy transfer rate in the initiation of explosions. To investigate the relationship between atomization energy and energy transfer rate, the number of doorway modes of explosives is estimated by the theory of Dlott and Fayer in which the rate is proportional to the number of normal mode vibrations. It was evaluated frequencies of normal mode vibrations of eight molecules by means of density functional theory (DFT) at the b3p86/6-31G(d,p) level. It is found that the number of doorway modes shows a linear correlation to the atomization energies of the molecules, which were also calculated by means of the same method. A mechanism of this correlation is discussed. It is also noted that in those explosives with similar molecular structure and molecular weight, the correlation between the atomization energy and the number of doorway modes is higher.

  3. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the setting up of an Atomic Energy Authority for the United Kingdom. It also makes provision for the Authority's composition, powers, duties, rights and liabilities, and may amend, as a consequence of the establishment of the Authority and in connection therewith, the Atomic Energy Act, 1946, the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and other relevant enactments. (NEA)

  4. Sustainable Energy in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Eyeing on China's recent developments in its energy sector which result in increasing market opportunities, the Netherlands is willing to further strengthen bilateral cooperation in particular in the field of sustainable energy supply, not only on conventional energy but also new energy and renewable energy. This led to the signing of a MoU on energy cooperation between Minister Zhang Guo bao and his Dutch counterpart Minister Maria van der Hoeven on 9 September 2009, aiming at further deepening all-sided cooperation in energy-related areas. Not only the Dutch government, but also academic and research institutes, universities, branch organizations and companies in the Netherlands are aware of this potential market. Some of them are already active in China's domestic market with successful projects and impressive track records. In order to reinforce the competitiveness of Dutch companies and stimulate cooperation, the Consulate General of the Netherlands in Guangzhou is carrying out an investigation on sustainable energy in its resort, covering Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Hainan Province. By investigating local market needs, the Consulate General has realized a number of interesting areas which the Dutch sector can offer its expertise and share experiences, such as energy comprehensive planning and management, eco-city projects, operation and maintenance of offshore wind power farms, deep-water engineering technologies and so on. The Consulate General is eager to pinpoint potential opportunities for the Dutch supply chain and promote Dutch expertise in South China. It is anticipated that the findings mentioned in this report can facilitate Dutch companies with market recognition, orientation and entry.

  5. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  6. Developing trend and expectation of energy consume in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Wang, Y. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of energy consumption and its problem in China were analyzed. The developing trend of energy consumption and the problem of coal consuming were discussed. The prospect of the energy development was also discussed. It is indicated that the energy structure will change globally in the 21st century and coal will become the main energy resource. Petroleum and gas will be replaced with the new renewable energy and other new energy resources in the 21st century because science and technology will develop rapidly. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Health Study formally began in April 1980. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of death among a population of radiation workers and to compare this information with data available for the causes of death in the general population. The study population and the implementation are briefly discussed. The aim of the study is to determine the real occupational risk of being a radiation worker. 3 refs

  8. Survey of Professional Ethics of Teachers in Institutions of Higher Education: Case Study of an Institution in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Hui, Song

    2005-01-01

    The standard of professional ethics among teachers directly determines the educational standards of a school; they are an essential component of education. In order to clarify the current situation with regard to the professional ethics of teachers in institutions of higher education, this article analyzes how society evaluates those ethics and…

  9. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  10. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  11. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry: Regional features and implications for a harmonious development future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu;

    2016-01-01

    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...... an empirical study on the distribution and cluster pattern of China׳s REEI based on the analysis on the industrial output value, the number and location of key companies/industrial bases, through on-site survey and updating statistical data. Results highlighted that in general, four REEI clusters were formed...

  12. Identifying the Institutional Decision Process to Introduce Decentralized Sanitation in the City of Kunming (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medilanski, Edi; Chuan, Liang; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Schertenleib, Roland; Larsen, Tove A.

    2007-05-01

    We conducted a study of the institutional barriers to introducing urine source separation in the urban area of Kunming, China. On the basis of a stakeholder analysis, we constructed stakeholder diagrams showing the relative importance of decision-making power and (positive) interest in the topic. A hypothetical decision-making process for the urban case was derived based on a successful pilot project in a periurban area. All our results were evaluated by the stakeholders. We concluded that although a number of primary stakeholders have a large interest in testing urine source separation also in an urban context, most of the key stakeholders would be reluctant to this idea. However, the success in the periurban area showed that even a single, well-received pilot project can trigger the process of broad dissemination of new technologies. Whereas the institutional setting for such a pilot project is favorable in Kunming, a major challenge will be to adapt the technology to the demands of an urban population. Methodologically, we developed an approach to corroborate a stakeholder analysis with the perception of the stakeholders themselves. This is important not only in order to validate the analysis but also to bridge the theoretical gap between stakeholder analysis and stakeholder involvement. We also show that in disagreement with the assumption of most policy theories, local stakeholders consider informal decision pathways to be of great importance in actual policy-making.

  13. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  14. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  15. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  16. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China) and Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)], E-mail: h.y.ma@163.com; Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  17. Long-term outlook of energy demand and supply, and CO2 emissions in China. Asia/World Energy Outlook 2011 (China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan made a long-term energy outlook, 'Asia/World Energy Outlook 2011', which prospected energy demand and supply, and CO2 emissions on the world up to 2035. This paper is a report on the prediction results of China. The primary energy consumption in China will increase to 3,897 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) in 2035, almost doubled that in 2009. Coal will continue to be the major energy during this period, 2,083 Mtoe in 2035, but the share will decline from 74% in 2009 to 53% in 2035. The consumption of oil will raise fast, more than 810 Mtoe in 2035, and the dependence of import will increase to 76%. Nature gas, nuclear and renewable energy, especially wind power will grow rapidly, the shares will increase to 13%, 5.2% and 7.2% in 2035. China will remain to be the largest CO2 emitter in the world, CO2 emission will increase to 10.9 Gt-CO2 in 2035. But with the additional effort mainly on the development of energy conservation and utilization of nonfossil fuel, the CO2 emission in 2035 can be reduced to 6.7 Gt-CO2. (author)

  18. Recent development of energy supply and demand in China, and energy sector prospects through 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanjia, E-mail: wangyjia@tsinghua.edu.cn [C305 Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu Alun; Zhang Aling [C305 Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Facing multiple pressures, including its commitment to energy efficiency improvement, the current worldwide recession, and global warming concerns, China is making great efforts to maintain its continuous economic growth and reduce pollutant emissions. Many policies to encourage investing in energy efficiency and renewable energy have been issued. This article provides insights into the latest development of energy production, energy consumption and energy strategic planning and policies in China, and also describes the analysis, carried out by the authors as part of the Asian Energy Security project using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) modeling tool, of the impacts of implementing new and expected energy and environmental policies.

  19. Electron radiative self-energy of highly stripped heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new algorithm is presented for the evaluation of the electron radiative self-energy in heavy atoms, for which Zα is not a perturbative expansion parameter. The algorithm for hydrogenic ions is presented in detail. The terms to be evaluated numerically are finite, free of spurious gauge dependent parts, and are not in the form of a subtraction. The extension to many electron ions is also discussed. copyright 1991 Academic Press, Inc

  20. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Wang; Ping Liu; Xueliang Yuan; Xingxing Cheng; Rujian Ma; Ruimin Mu; Jian Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC) has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that t...

  1. List of titles of master's and doctor's dissertations in atomic energy engineering in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a list of dissertations in the field of atomic energy engineering filed in 1990. The list was developed by the Special Working Committee for Atomic Energy Education. The list contains a total of 228 master's dissertations, 20 of which were submitted to Hokkaido University, 21 to Tohoku University, 28 to the University of Tokyo, 22 to Tokyo Institute of Technology, 6 to Tokai University, 12 to Musashi Institute of Technology, 23 to Nagoya University, 27 to Kyoto University, 26 to Osaka University, 3 to Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, and 40 to Kyushu University. The list of doctor's dissertations filed by students at the end of their doctor's course contains a total of 15 studies, of which 1 was submitted to Tohoku University, 6 to the University of Tokyo, 4 to Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3 to Kyoto University, and 1 to Osaka University. The list of doctor's dissertations filed by researchers other than graduate school students contains 37 studies, of which 5 was submitted to Hokkaido University, 8 to the University of Tokyo, 3 to Tokyo Institute of Technology, 5 to Nagoya University, 5 to Kyoto University, 5 to Osaka University, and 6 to Kyushu University. (N.K.)

  2. The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy, the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, A.I.Leipunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Nuclear Physics Department annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains 69 abstracts or short communications on the research activities in 1998 of the Nuclear Physics Department of the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russian Federation. The papers are grouped in nine chapters: Nuclear fission (5), Nuclear structure and nuclear reactions (6), Nuclear data (14), Transmutation (4), Condensed matter physics (10), Mathematical modelling (14), Applied research (7), High-voltage accelerators (6), and Instruments and methods (4). A separate indexing was provided for each paper. The report also includes a presentation of the department structure, and accelerator complex, list of publications, participation in international and national conferences and meetings, cooperation

  3. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold

  4. Annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy, 1976-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development work in various research units, and activities and achievements of various public undertakings of the Department of Atomic Energy, India, during 1976-77 are reported. Construction of the 100 MW-thermal research reactor at Trombay and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam is in progress. Work on desalination, MHD and in seismology in continued. Report on performance of the Tarapur and Rajasthan Atomic Power Stations and progress of construction of the nuclear power stations at Kalpakkam and Narora is given. Fuelling machine carriage and shielding and plug assemblies for the second unit of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station have been indigenously fabricated. A novel technique for prospecting nuclear minerals, termed as BARC-TEFUREX has been evolved and is being used successfully. The country-wide radiological protection programme covers 42,000 radiation workers in 2,280 institutions. (M.G.B.)

  5. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  6. The position, role and development prospects of nuclear energy in China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental features of the present energy system of China are discussed and analyzed. and it is pointed out that since the founding of the People's Republic of China, although the energy construction, including the development and use of nuclear energy, has achieved great success, the average energy resource per capita is still low. The following major issues, such as the transportation pressure raised from the energy structure of taking coal as the main, the increasing seriousness of environmental pollution, large amount of greenhouse gases emission and low 'energy efficiency', etc., have constrained the sustainable development of national economy and society. In accordance with the position of nuclear energy in the strategy of the energy development in south-east coastal areas of China, and the analysis of 'value criteria' and 'decision goal' system for the development and use of nuclear energy, it is thought the development of nuclear energy is an important way and the optimum selection to optimize China's energy system. In accordance with the fundamental policy and technical line, and the technical ability and foundation conditions, the strategic target, scale and overall arrangement for the development of China's nuclear power are proposed and the bright future for the development of China's nuclear power industry is comprehensively discussed and analyzed. (14 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.)

  7. Do institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong; Deng; Yongxing; Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses unique data on the shareholdings of both institutional and individual investors to directly investigate whether institutional investors have better stock selection ability than individual investors in China.Controlling for other factors,we find that institutional investors increase(decrease)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.In contrast individual investors decrease(increase)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.These findings indicate that institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China.

  8. Stakeholder dialogue as an institutional strategy for sustainable development in China : the case of community environmental roundtables

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Hua

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder dialogue, as an alternative institutional strategy for environmentally and socially sustainable development, has received little attention from researchers and practitioners in developing countries such as China, even though the dialogue strategy can potentially lead public governance to a more efficient level. This paper first discusses the potential of stakeholder dialogue as an ...

  9. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  10. Proceedings of the eleventh Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 57 papers, presented on the eleventh Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Csopak, Hungary, 24-28 September 2001. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Improvement of Neutron Physical Codes and Methods, Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics, Thermal-Hydraulics, Spent Fuel - Criticality Radiation, Fuel Behaviour, Spent Fuel Transmutation, Evaluation of Reactor Physical Measurements, Core Design-Core Calculations-according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium (Author)

  11. Creating an Institutional Environment for Protecting the Rights and Interests of China's Dispatched Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU YOUNING

    2011-01-01

    Employment is fundamental in improving the livelihood of the people and social security is the source of human happiness.This is how the international community protects and improves basic human rights.It is also the policy China has adopted to achieve sustainable economic and social development.Furthermore,it is clear evidence of China's respect and protection of human rights.

  12. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  13. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. - Research highlights: →China has already become the second largest energy consuming country, with a high increase rate of energy demand. The electricity sector consumes more than two-thirds of the coal production of the country and plays a very important role in the energy market. →The power industry of China has been undergoing significant institutional changes toward marketization, which will greatly impact the operation of the power system. The report gains insight into the evolution of the power industry institution by reviewing the changes associated with the power dispatch principle. →The newly implemented energy saving power dispatch policy, which is still waiting for widespread implementation, has been carefully studied and the conclusions with respect to its financial sustainability and physical constraints are drawn.

  14. 77 FR 5049 - Pure Magnesium From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... duty order on imports of pure magnesium in granular form from China (66 FR 57936). Following expedited... continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of pure magnesium in granular form from China (72 FR 5417..., subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009)....

  15. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  16. Proceedings of the twentieth symposium of atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 69 papers, presented on the twentieth symposium of atomic energy research, held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland, 20-24 September 2010. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Fuel Management, Spectral and Core Calculations, Core Surveillance and Monitoring, CFD Analysis, Reactor Dynamics Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Analysis, Physical Problems of Spent Fuel Decommissioning and Radwaste, Actinide Transmutation and Spent Fuel Disposal, Core Operation, Experiments and Code Validation - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. (Author)

  17. Proceedings of the 16. Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 56 papers, presented on the sixteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bratislava, Slovakia, 25-29 September 2006. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation, Core Operation Experiments and Code Validation, Fuel Management, Core Surveillance and Monitoring, Reactor Dynamics Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Analysis, Physical Problems of Spent Fuel Decommissioning, and Radwaste, Actinide Transmutation and Spent Fuel Disposal - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium (Author)

  18. 76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011). \\1\\ No response to... duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025). Following five-year reviews by Commerce... order on imports of foundry coke from China (72 FR 1214). The Commission is now conducting a...

  19. Proceedings of the twelfth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 45 papers, presented on the twelfth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, 22-28 September 2002. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Spent Fuel Transmutations and Decommissioning, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Poster Session - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  20. Proceedings of the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are the remaining 9 papers, presented on the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bystrice nad Perstejnem, Czech Republic, 21-25 September 1998. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Safety Issues and Analysis, Rod Drop Reactivity Measurements, Criticality safety, Spent Fuel and Decommissioning, - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  1. Proceedings of the thirteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 58 papers, presented on the thirteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Dresden, Germany, 22-26 September 2003. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Spent Fuel Transmutations and Decommissioning, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Poster Session - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  2. Proceedings of the fifteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 59 papers, presented on the fifteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Znojmo, Czech Republic, 3-7 October 2005. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics Methods, Criticality Safety, Spent Fuel, and CFD Codes Application - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  3. Atomic energy law in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Law, presenting itself 18 years after the Atomic Law (AtG) having taken effect in the Federal Republic of Germany, has developed considerably during the past three years which was also due to the controversy between supporters and opponents of nuclear energy becoming more intensive. In order to gain their ends both parties refer to the AtG and expect both the executive and legislative power to follow their interpretation of the laws. The reason for this lies mainly in the latitude of evaluating and judging the criteria which the law has granted its users, especially the administrative authorities and the courts. Thus political and juridicial fundamental decisions in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy might be jeopardized. Therefore all ambignous passages of the law which can be detected by critically evaluating numerous and partly inconsistent decisions of courts, should be eliminated, in particular for reasons of its validity. Also, administration and court should be given concrete standards for rating the application of the law, especially for the assessment and acceptance of the risks rising from the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (orig./HP)

  4. Application and development of solar energy in building industry and its prospects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is the second largest country in energy consumption. More and more energy demand pressures cause the Chinese government to review its economy and energy policies in order to support the sustainable development. In China, the building sector amounts to 27.8% total energy consumption, which is only behind the industry sector. China has abundant solar energy resource, which is extensively applied to buildings. Therefore, solar energy utilization in buildings has become one of the most important issues to help China optimize the energy proportion, increasing energy efficiency and protecting the environment. Solar energy resource and its district distribution in China are introduced in detail in this paper, and the representative solar energy application to the building sector is highlighted as well. The solar energy utilization obstacles, especially policy disadvantages in building sector in China, are reviewed. Moreover, the application prospects of solar energy in building sector are presented in combination with the China economic and household industry growth

  5. Code of laws and regulations on atomic energy controls. Showa 53 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code has collected above laws and regulations promulgated by 10th February, 1978 and they can be classified into following several categories. 1. Atomic Energy Basic Law and Atomic Energy Commission Establishment Law including their related government orders, regulations and rules. 2. The Law for Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and regulations, rules, instructions and guidelines. 3. The Law on Technical Criteria for the Prevention of Radiation Hazards and the Law Concerning the Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. including their related government orders, regulations, rules and announcements. 4. The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage with its relating government order and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage. 5. Laws for establishing those nuclear energy development organizations as Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. 6. Other laws relating to atomic energy and radiation utilization including their pertaining regulations, rules, standards, etc. such as: Electricity Business Law; Land Transportation and Cars Law; Ships and Vessels Safety Law; Aviation Law; Employees' Health and Safety Law; Electricity Resources Development Law; and others

  6. Perspectives of China's wind energy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Dexin; Wang Zhongying

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, which is also relatively mature in technology, with large-scale development conditions and prospect for the commercialization. The development of wind energy is a systematic project, involving policy, law, technology, economy, society, environment, education and other aspects. The relation-ship among all the aspects should be well treated and coordinated. This paper has discussed the following relationships which should be well coordinated: relationship between wind resources and wind energy development, relationship be-tween the wind turbine generator system and the components, relationship between wind energy technology and wind en-ergy industry, relationship between off-grid wind power and grid-connected wind power, relationship between wind farm and the power grid, relationship between onshore wind power and offshore wind power, relationship between wind energy and other energies, relationship between technology introduction and self-innovation, relationship among foreign-funded, joint ventured and domestic-funded enterprises and relationship between the government guidance and the market regula-tion, as well as giving out some suggestions.

  7. Effects of the atomic environment on the electron binding energies in samarium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Inoyatov, A. K.; Kovalík, Alojz; Filosofov, D. V.; Ryšavý, Miloš; Vénos, Drahoslav; Yushkevich, Y. V.; Perevoshchikov, L. L.; Zhdanov, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 207, FEB (2016), s. 38-49. ISSN 0368-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sm-149 * atomic environment * electron ginding energy * intermediate-valence state * chemical shift * natural atomic level width Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2014

  8. Human resource development strategies adopted by the Department of Atomic Energy, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the knowledge intensive nature of the nuclear technology and the state of hi-tech industrial infrastructure in India, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been designed to have a composite character. It is a large institution and has been pursuing activities starting from basic research to technology development. At BARC, we have also put in place a very effective human resource development programme and this programme is run by faculty drawn from within the organization. As a result, BARC has attributes of an institute, a research laboratory and also an industrial organization. The composite character is confined not only to BARC but also extends to the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) as a whole. Simultaneous with research centres, we have been setting up industrial units. The fountainhead of success of the atomic energy programme in India is the fact that both the research centres, which generate knowledge and the industrial units, which generate wealth from the knowledge, are under one umbrella and that is the DAE working under the policy framework laid by the Atomic Energy Commission. The two sets of institutions maintain an organic linkage permitting seamless interaction and facilitating technology transfer without any cumbersome formalities. The common policy framework followed by all the institutions enables the department to follow an integrated approach towards human resource development and this further strengthens the linkages between the institutions. This has enabled the country to be self-reliant in all aspects of nuclear fuel cycle, starting with prospecting and mining of uranium and ending with the back-end of the fuel cycle, which involves reprocessing of the spent fuel and nuclear waste management. Most of the R and D work, which led to realization of this capability, was done or initiated at BARC at Trombay. Some of the activities have now been taken over by other research centers: IGCAR at Kalpakkam for fast reactors, Centre for

  9. Dilemmas for China: Energy, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Benjamin C. McLellan; Snowden, Simon; Zhang, Baosheng; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    China's current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a "world factory", but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China's economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China...

  10. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of records relating to past Chalk River employees provides some reassurance that large numbers of cancer deaths that might be related to occupational radiation exposure do not exist in the groups of employees studied to the end of 1982. The lack of reliable information on deaths of ex-employees who left AECL for other employment prevented the inclusion of this group in this preliminary study. This information will presumably be obtained during the course of the more comprehensive Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. employee health study. 6 refs

  11. Annual report 1985-86 [of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and activities during the financial year 1985-86 of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India and its various units are reported. The various units of the DAE can broadly be categorised into groups: research establishments, production units and public sector undertakings. After taking a general survey, the detailed report is presented under the chapters entitled: (1) nuclear power, (2) research and development, (3) Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, (4) public sector undertakings, and (5) other activities. Some of the other activities include international relations in the field of nuclear energy, information services, organization of training courses to meet the requirements of programmes of the DAE, technology transfer, financial support to institutions and universities for research in nucler science, and sponsoring of conferences, symposia etc. in the field of nuclear science and its applications. Major achievements of the DAE during the report period are: (1) attainment of criticality by the indigenously designed and built 100 MWt research reactor DHRUVA at Trombay, Bombay, (2) attainment of criticality by the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam, (3) commissioning of the second unit of the Madras Atomic Power Station and its subsequent synchronisation with the power grid, (4) commissioning of the vitrification plant for management of high level radioactive wastes at Tarapur, and (5) successful testing of a 5 mwt MHD pilot at Tiruchirapalli. (author)

  12. Transfer of electricity quotas under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 27, 2002, the 'Act of the Planned Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation - Atomic Energy Act' entered into force. It was preceded, among other things, by the 'Agreement between the Federal Government and the Power Utilities of June 14, 2000' in which the Red-Gree federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants had agreed on a timetable of termination and on the conditions of nuclear power plant operation for the residual plant operating life. One major part of that Agreement, which later was incorporated also in the Atomic Energy Act, are provisions about flexibiling the residual periods of operation of existing nuclear power plants. The arguments underlying the act on opting out of the use of nuclear power cite, as a key reason for the possibility to transfer electricity quotas, the constitutional principle of protection of bona fide acts. The transfer possibility opened up in the law is to 'allow the best possible residual periods of operation in the light of both plant operation and the national economy' to be agreed upon for each individual nuclear power plant. In principle, the Atomic Energy Act provides for any transfer of electricity quotas from one German nuclear power plant to another. An approval procedure is required for transfer from younger to older plants. Transfers from older to younger plants can be arranged without any approval. The article covers the basic legal principles and consequences, the details of the approval procedure, and the transfer of the electricity quotas attributed to the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  13. TRENDS AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGY IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The objective for the thesis was to study the trends and business opportunities of solar energy in China. The thesis was completed by doing a desk research based on literature, reports, industrial magazines on solar energy and conducting interviews of experts and case companies. The theoretical part focused on analyzing market potential with PESTEL analysis and describing key elements of market analysis, value chain analysis and competitive strategy. In the empirical part of the thesis, the m...

  14. Future developments in the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of S.A. (AEC) has been forced, by significant changes in its external environment, to redirect many of its areas of focus. Promising developments in the AEC are highlighted. The AEC considers its efforts to develop an alternative cost-effective enrichment technology as a strategic programme of utmost importance. A brief survey is given of some of the significant future developments being undertaken within the AEC. All these developments should be seen to foster more economic nuclear power and technology for the future needs of South Africa and to advance the AEC on its drive towards commercialisation. 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  15. Effects of urbanisation on energy consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a key issue in China's economic development, urbanisation creates increasing pressure on energy supply and the natural environment. Thus, a better understanding of the relationship between urbanisation and energy consumption is necessary for Chinese decision makers at various levels to address energy security and sustainable economic and social development. This paper empirically investigates the effects of China's urbanisation on residential energy consumption (REC) and production energy consumption (PEC) through a time-series analysis. The results show that compared with rural areas, urbanisation slows per capita REC growth because of the economy of scale and technological advantages associated with urbanisation but has greater promotional effects on the growth of REC and the improvement of REC structure. The economic growth caused by urbanisation most significantly contributes to an increase in PEC, whereas technological advancement was found to reduce the scale of PEC (except from 2001 to 2005). Finally, the structural effect of the energy supply increased rather than decreased China's PEC, and the effect of industrial structure adjustment on PEC was found to be insignificant. - Highlights: • Urbanisation slows per capita REC growth when compared with rural areas. • Urbanisation has a greater promotional effect on REC growth and a stronger improved effect on energy structure than do rural areas. • The economic growth effect of urbanisation is responsible for the majority of PEC growth. • Technological advancement in conjunction with urbanisation has an adverse effect on the increase in PEC. • The structural effect of the energy supply on the urbanisation process has increased rather than decreased China's PEC. • There is no significant evidence that industrial structure adjustment in the urbanisation process affects PEC

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  17. Energy dependence of the effective atomic number of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective atomic number (Zsub(eff)) of five different soils have been calculated for different photon interaction processes to check the variation in Zsub(eff) with photon energy (10 keV to 100 MeV). For the total interaction process Zsub(eff) first increases with the increase in energy to 30-40 keV and then decreases sharply upto 400-500 keV and slowly further upto 1500-2000 keV beyond which there is small but continuous increase in Zsub(eff) with further increases in energy to 100 MeV. For photoelectric interaction Zsub(eff) increases in low energy region and then becomes independent of energy whereas for Compton scattering except below 100 keV, Zsub(eff) is constant upto 100 MeV. In case of pair production, Zsub(eff) decreases upto 3-4 MeV beyond which it becomes constant. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  19. Terrestrial magnetospheric imaging: Numerical modeling of low energy neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere can be performed by detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. As a result of recent instrumentation advances it is now feasible to make energy-resolved measurements of LENAs from less than I key to greater than 30 key. To model expected LENA fluxes at a spacecraft, we initially used a simplistic, spherically symmetric magnetospheric plasma model.6 We now present improved calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. We also estimate expected image count rates based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that presently proposed LENA instruments are capable of imaging of storm time ring current and potentially even quiet time ring current fluxes, and that phenomena such as ion injections from the tail and subsequent drifts toward the dayside magnetopause may also be deduced

  20. Nonperturbative theory for the dispersion self-energy of atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Thiyam, Priyadarshini; Persson, C.; Brevik, I.; Sernelius, Bo; Bostrom, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We go beyond the approximate series-expansions used in the dispersion theory of finite size atoms. We demonstrate that a correct, and non-perturbative, theory dramatically alters the dispersion selfenergies of atoms. The non-perturbed theory gives as much as 100% corrections compared to the traditional series expanded theory for the smaller noble gas atoms.

  1. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqiang Sun; Jiuju Cai; Zhu Ye

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of pr...

  2. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence. PMID:26754941

  3. Low-energy scattering of electrons by atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of polarized pseudostates has been used to calculate cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons by atomic oxygen. These pseudostates are added to the close-coupling expansion to give a polarization potential in agreement with experimental values of polarizability. The resulting elastic cross sections are in good agreement with other theoretical calculations as well as with experiment for energies up to 10 eV. The reactance matrices obtained in this calculation have been used to calculate collision strengths for fine-structure transitions in the ground-state 3P term for electron temperatures above 5000 degree K

  4. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  5. Institutional Environment and MNEs’ Strategy in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Gao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MNEs face a complex institutional environment when doing business in the international market. As a result, MNEs adopt strategies to deal with the institutional pressures. However, present studies seldom discuss the institutional environment of a given country, specifically China. Therefore, the strategies that MNEs can use to cope with the institutions in China are far from being discussed. This study contributes to making up this gap. In this study, the identified important institutions in China are Chinese culture, governmental system, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs. They exert coercive and normative pressures on the operations of MNEs. Four strategies can be selected by MNEs to deal with the institutional pressures: guanxi strategy, commitment strategy, competitive strategy and leverage strategy. Guanxi strategy and commitment strategy are commonly used to build good guanxi with Chinese governors and NGOs. Competitive strategy is used when MNEs have high bargaining power against Chinese governments, while leverage strategy is used MNEs in setting conflicts between different institutions or parties to resist the unfavorable pressures from institutions in China.

  6. Spatial aspects of electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, R. P.; Green, A. E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra for electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen have been obtained using a Monte Carlo method for 25 eV to 10 keV incident electrons. Four-dimensional yield spectra have been analytically represented in terms of a model containing three simple microplumes. We find that the scaled spatial yield spectra for O is approximately the same as for N2. This feature provides a basis for inferring yield spectra for any atmosphere gas or mixture of gases.

  7. Neutron therapy facility at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10 MeV proton linac which was designed as preinjector for the Beijing 50 GeV Proton Synchrotron (BPS) was completed by the end of 1982. Because of the economic readjustment in the People's Republic of China the BPS project was cancelled. Then, the Institute of High Energy Physics decided to increase the energy of the linac from 10 MeV to 35.5 MeV. This increase will take place using the primary five megawatts RF system of the 10 MeV linac. This 35.5 MeV proton linac will be used for research in radiomedicine and radiobiology in general and in particular for research in fast neutron therapy and radiopharmaceutical production. This project has been approved by the Academia Sinica

  8. Validation of International Atomic Energy Agency Equipment Performance Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, PJ

    2004-02-17

    Performance requirements and testing protocols are needed to ensure that equipment used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is reliable. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the US Support Program, tested equipment to validate performance requirements protocols used by the IAEA for the subject equipment categories. Performance protocol validation tests were performed in the Environmental Effects Laboratory in the categories for battery, DC power supply, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Specific test results for each piece of equipment used in the validation process are included in this report.

  9. Freedom or security - the unsolvable dilemma of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of a non-peaceful use of atomic energy is not a fixed quantity. The hazard may increase depending on the social situation and the insentity of social crises emerging. In view of the damage potential involved with atomic energy, the principle of 'dynamic protection of civil rights' requires security measures to be intensified according to growing threat. The restrictions of freedom connected with enhanced security measures are to be felt already today. The pressure for security of nuclear installations or material creates a dilemma: any security step-up will be done at the expense of freedom, and conserving freedom will mean reducing security. The pressure for security which is achieved by the instruments of balancing the objects of legal protection and following the principle of reasonablenesse, will eventually lead to a de facto decline of the civil rights by way of a clandestine and gradual change of legal terms and definitions. We even then would be living in a constitutional state. But what will freedom then mean? The civil rights would still be incorporated in our Basic Law, but protection in practical life will have been decreased. (orig./HSCH)

  10. The uses of atomic energy for the economic and social development in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the GDR. The following topics are discussed: (1) present state and prospects of the utilization of atomic energy in the GDR, (2) protection against the dangers from the use of atomic energy, (3) the GDR's share in international efforts to secure the peaceful uses and to further the development of atomic energy, and (4) conclusions for the enhancement of international cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 2 tabs., 6 figs., and 23 color and 3 black-and-white plates are included

  11. Energy efficiency in the iron and steel industry : Factors influencing improvement of energy efficiency in Jiangsu, China

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency is widely accepted as an efficient measure to relieve the crisis of energy resources and environment pollution; however, the energy utilization efficiency in China is still at a low level: the unit GDP energy consumption in China is 4 times to the world average level. Moreover, to fulfill the commitments of reducing 40% carbon emissions in 2020, China needs to improve the energy efficiency immediately. As a major resource of energy consumption as well as carbo...

  12. China's total factor energy efficiency of provincial industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The index of TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) is used to assess the level of energy consumption to produce economic output (GDP (gross domestic product)) based on multi factors input, which is superior to conventional energy efficiency evaluation regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index. The objective of this study is to provide the changes of TFEE at sector and provincial level and to illustrate the drivers behind such various changes in China. The results show that the TFEE of most industrial sectors in the eastern provinces is higher than that in other provinces. The most important finding is that the gap of TFEE across sectors was narrowed in the eastern provinces and expanded comparatively in the central and western provinces. Such result implies that the gap reduction of TFEE across sectors would be one of the important drivers behind the increase of overall TFEE. Meanwhile, the Tobit regression results indicate that technology progress, energy price and economic development have positive influence on TFEE. And the impact of technology progress is found to be of the most significance. - Highlights: • TFEE (Total-factor energy efficiency) at sector and provincial level is presented. • Drivers behind the various changes of TFEE in China are illustrated. • Most industrial sectors in Eastern provinces have higher TFEE than in other provinces. • The energy intensive sectors have higher improvement in energy efficiency. • After 2002, TFEE in most energy/pollution intensive sectors are improved significantly

  13. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  14. Proceedings of the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 57 papers. Most of the papers were presented on the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Demanovska Dolina, Slovakia, 4-6 October 1999. The rest of the papers (intended to be presented but not presented due to difficulties) is included based on the decision of the organizers. The papers are in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Neutron Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics, Reactivity Evaluation, High Subcriticality, Critical Safety and Spent Fuel and Spent Fuel Transmutations - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. At the end of the volume an alphabetical author index is given

  15. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  16. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  17. Proceedings of the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 53 papers, presented on the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bystrice nad Perstejnem, Czech Republic, 21-25 September 1998. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Safety Issues and Analysis, Rod Drop Reactivity Measurements, Criticality safety, Spent Fuel and Decommissioning, - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. At the end of the volume a list of the participants and an alphabetical author index is given as well

  18. Effects of substituting energy with capital on China's aggregated energy and environmental efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituting energy with capital (SEC) in economic productions has become a common practice both for business owners and policy-makers to improve their energy and environmental efficiency. However, seldom previous studies on energy efficiency and/or environmental performance evaluation took this role into account. This paper aims to shed some light on the effects of SEC on China's aggregated energy and environmental efficiency (AEEE) within a parametric stochastic frontier analysis framework. Moreover, influencing factors of regional efficiency score are also discussed using a pooled regression model. The results indicate that SEC poses significant effects on improving China's AEEE, and this impact appears obvious regional variation that regions with lower efficiency scores hold more extensive potential to improve their AEEE by means of SEC. Furthermore, upgrading industrial structure and decreasing the proportion of coal in energy consumption make great sense to improve China's AEEE. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of substituting energy with capital on China's energy and environmental efficiency. → The efficiency value considering this substitution is higher than that without considering it. → Hebei and Shanxi hold the largest potential of energy saving and SO2 emissions reduction. → China's energy and environmental efficiency is affected by its energy mix and industrial structure.

  19. The role of nuclear energy in reducing the environmental impact of China's energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented in this paper the current status of China's energy market and the projections of its future development. China's energy market, currently and in the next decades, is mainly characterized by rapidly increasing demand and dominant role of coal which is directly related to serious environmental pollution. The role of nuclear energy utilization in improving the primary energy infrastructure is addressed. Status and development of nuclear power generation are described. Potential of introducing nuclear energy into heat market is discussed. An overview of the research and development work of water cooled low temperature heating reactors and gas-cooled high temperature gas cooled reactors in China is given and the technical and safety features of these two reactor types are briefly described. (author)

  20. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  1. Energy demand and possible strategy of fusion research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is predicted by the rapid economic development with 6∼10 % annual increase rate and the population growth that at 2050 the population in China will be 1.5 billion; the total GDP will be 6000-12000 billion US$ and the energy demand will be 5 billion tons of CE and the installed electric capacity will be 1200-1500 GW. So China will face to serious shortage and pollution of energy in near future. The strategy on the development of energy should be at least: 1.The main energy resources in near term will still be the fiscal fuel (coal, gas and oils). The high efficiency and low pollution technologies for using fiscal fuel and the clean and renewable energy resources such as hydrodynamic, solar and wind energy should be strongly supported; 2.The fission power should be developed as more as possible to control the CO2 and other pollutions on atmosphere. In present the nuclear power is only about 1% of total capacity. So the nuclear power demand in China will be extremely huge in next 20 to 40 years. With the rapid and huge development of fission power China will face to new serious problems: 1) strong limitations on the natural uranium ore. So breeding the fission fuel will be very important; 2) how to transmute the huge amount of long-lived radioactive wastes. 3. So China must support fusion energy development as strong as possible from now. The government has given fusion research strong support via EAST, HL-2A and participant of ITER project. The possible strategy for fusion research in China is: 1) The all missions, especially the steady state operation with higher performance plasma on EAST should be achieved under strong support both by CAS and Chinese government within next 10 years; 2) As one of ITER members China should make great effort on the jointed design, construction and assembly of ITER and then on the burning plasma experiments to make the necessary contribution for the future fusion reactor; 3) Basing on the progresses of EAST, ITER and

  2. The role of nuclear energy for sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the clean energy sources nuclear energy has been peacefully utilized for about four decades in the world. Although nuclear power development in China is still at an initial stage, more importance has been paid to it by decision-makers and experts in both energy and environment fields. In the next century nuclear energy will be utilized on a relatively larger scale. This is determined by the long term energy strategy and the following actual situations: low per capita possession of energy resources, especially, oil and natural gas; lack of fossil fuel and hydro resources particularly in coastal area, where economic growth is much faster than other areas and energy consumption takes one half of the total; and serious air pollution and acid rain resulting from burning enormous amount of coal

  3. Energy demand and possible strategy of fusion research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China, presently the country with the world's largest population, will face serious pollution problems and shortage of energy in the near future to face the foreseen rapid social-economic development. Fossil fuels (coal, gas and oils) will be the main energy resources responsible for serious pollution and environmental problems in the long term. The energy development strategy recently declared by the government include: 1) develop the technologies for high efficiency, / low pollution utilization of fossil fuel, especially coal, the development of clean and renewable energy such as hydrodynamic, solar, wind and biomass will be strongly supported; 2) the fission power will be developed as far as possible in next 10 to 40 years. Rapid development of fission power will pose a new and serious problem for China namely, shortage of the natural uranium ore and large amounts of radioactive wastes with long half-lives to deal with; 3) Therefore, China must support fusion energy development as much as possible from now. The possible strategy for fusion research in China is: strengthen the support for EAST to achieve its scientific missions as soon as possible and support ITER activities on the joint design, construction, assembly and burning plasma experiments; to begin the conceptual and engineering design of the test fusion reactor as soon as possible and promote construction of the test reactor due to be constructed around 2020∼2030. Several conceptual designs of test reactors with different blankets have been proposed. It is hoped that the first fusion power plant will be constructed around 2040∼2050. (author)

  4. China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbon emissions (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Joanna I. Lewis; Zhu, Yuezhong

    2004-01-01

    China has ambitious goals for economic development, and must find ways to power the achievement of those goals that are both environmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the global economy presents opportunities for technological improvement and access to energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies and measures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired and used. These opportunities and options, along with long-term social, demographic, a...

  5. Assessment of China's energy-saving and emission-reduction accomplishments and opportunities during the 11th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). With a dramatic reversal of this historic relationship, energy intensity increased 5% per year during 2002-2005. China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP) set a target of reducing energy intensity by 20% by 2010. This paper assesses selected policies and programs that China has instituted to fulfill the national goal, finding that China made substantial progress and many of the energy-efficiency programs appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases exceed - their energy-saving targets. Most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program will meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program has become very robust. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure, are failing. It is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new policy mechanisms to improve the programs that are not on track to achieve the stated goals. - Research highlights: → This paper assesses selected national energy efficiency policies and programs China. → The policies were established to fulfill the 11th Five Year Plan energy efficiency improvement goal. → Many of the programs appear to be on track to meet or exceed their energy-saving targets. → For the 12th Five Year Plan, it is important to maintain and strengthen energy-saving policies. → Recommendations are made for revising or adding programs based on international experience.

  6. Energy conservation through energy service companies: Empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's energy-service companies (ESCOs) have developed only modestly despite favorable political and market conditions. We argue that with sophisticated market institutions still evolving in China, trust-based relations between ESCOs and energy customers are essential for successful implementation of energy efficiency projects. Chinese ESCOs, who are predominantly small and private enterprises, perform poorly in terms of trust-building because they are disembedded from local business, social, and political networks. We conclude that in the current institutional setting, the ESCO model based on market relations has serious limitations and is unlikely to lead to large-scale implementation of energy efficiency projects in China. - Highlights: ► We present a framework to explain why ESCOs do not operate effectively in China. ► China's ESCO industry is based on relational governance based on trust. ► Yet, ESCOs operate their business as if they are in a system of market governance. ► This mismatch is the most critical challenge inhibiting the industry's growth.

  7. The fluctuations of China's energy intensity: Biased technical change

    OpenAIRE

    Ce Wang; Hua Liao; Su-Yan Pan; Lu-Tao Zhao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuations of China's energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input-output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input-output tables. Because of the problems with input-output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input-output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sector...

  8. Temporospatial changes of carbon footprint based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Xiaowei; LAI Li; HUANG Xianjin; ZHAO Rongqin; WANG Wanjing; CHEN Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Study on regional carbon emission is one of the hot topics under the background of global climate change and low-carbon economic development,and also help to establish different low-carbon strategies for different regions.On the basis of energy consumption and land use data of different regions in China from 1999 to 2008,this paper established carbon emission and carbon footprint models based on total energy consumption,and calculated the amount of carbon emissions and carbon footprint in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.The author also analyzed carbon emission density and per unit area carbon footprint for each region.Finally,advices for decreasing carbon footprint were put forward.The main conclusions are as follows:(1) Carbon emissions from total energy consumption increased 129% from 1999 to 2008 in China,but its spatial distribution pattern among different regions just slightly changed,the sorting of carbon emission amount was:Eastern China > Northern China > Central and Southern China > Southwest China > Northwest China.(2) The sorting of carbon emission density was:Eastern China > Northeast China > Central and Southern China > Northern China > Southwest China > Northwest China from 1999 to 2003,but from 2004 Central and Southern China began to have higher carbon emission density than Northeast China,the order of other regions did not change.(3) Carbon footprint increased significantly since the rapid increasing of carbon emissions and less increasing area of productive land in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.Northern China had the largest carbon footprint,and Northwest China,Eastern China,Northern China,Central and Southern China followed in turn,while Southwest China presented the lowest area of carbon footprint and the highest percentage of carbon absorption.(4) Mainly influenced by regional land area,Northern China presented the highest per unit area carbon footprint and followed by Eastern China,and Northeast

  9. Atomic energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATOMIC ENERGY REVIEW (AER), a periodical started in 1963 in accordance with the recommendation made by the Scientific Advisory Committee, is now preparing for its tenth year of publication. The journal appears quarterly (ca 900 pages/year) and occasionally has special issues and supplements. From 1963 to 1971 AER developed into an important international high-standard scientific journal which keeps scientists in Member States informed on progress in various fields of nuclear energy. The Agency's specific role of helping 'developing countries to further their science and education' is reflected in the publication policy of the journal. The subject scope of AER, which was determined at the journal's inception, is very broad. It covers topics in experimental and theoretical physics, nuclear electronics and equipment, physics and technology of reactors and reactor materials and fuels, radio-chemistry, and industrial, medical and other uses of radioisotopes. In other words, almost any subject related to the peaceful application of nuclear energy can qualify for inclusion. Specifically, at any particular time the selection criteria for topics are influenced by the Agency's current programme and interests. AER carries comprehensive review articles, critical state-of-the-art and current awareness surveys, and reports on the important meetings organized or sponsored by the Agency. The following four subsections gradually became necessary to do justice to this variety of material: 'Reviews' proper, 'Current Research and Development', 'Special Item' and 'Conferences and Symposia'. Apart from the conference reports, one hundred and twenty-five reviews, almost all of which were published in English to make them accessible to a wide public, have so far been published

  10. Financing institutional long-term care for the elderly in China: a policy evaluation of new models

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei; Jingwei He, Alex; Fang, Lijie; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    A rapid ageing population coupled with changes in family structure has brought about profound implications to social policy in China. Although the past decade has seen a steady increase in public funding to long-term care (LTC), the narrow financing base and vast population have created significant unmet demand, calling for reforms in financing. This paper focuses on the financing of institutional LTC care by examining new models that have emerged from local policy experiments against two pol...

  11. Shaping China's energy security: The impact of domestic reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a subsequent study of China's energy security situation which concludes that China's energy security has not improved over 30 years of economic reform. The objective of the study is to explore qualitatively why the energy security situation has not improved. To answer the ‘why’ question, the study opens up a new perspective by analyzing the relationship between energy security and energy policies from the macroeconomic reform perspective. This study discusses major reforms that took place over 30 years. It is found that China's macroeconomic reform has restricted the formation of China's energy policies and determined its energy security situation. In essence, China's energy policies are only a reaction to the macroeconomic measures. In other words, China's energy policies are not originally intended to improve energy security, but passive reactions to China's macroeconomic reform. This explains why China did not improve its energy security situation despite 30 years of reform. - Highlights: • This study identifies relationship between China's reform and energy policy. • This study identifies the key variable that has affected China's energy security. • Policy implication of the identification is drawn. • A new perspective to analyze energy security is provided

  12. Energy embodied in the international trade of China: An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation.

  13. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  14. Atomic Energy Law and the right of life and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a review of the dissertation submitted for the certificate of habilitation by Professor Degenhardt belonging to the series of publications 'Law-Technology-Economy'. Beneath the somewhat- summary title Kernenergierecht (atomic energy law) there is hidden the first systematic treatment of all the fundamental questions of constitutional law, of general law and naturally of the special nuclear administrative law and of the law of administrative proceedings which occurred in decisions of different administrative courts concerning several nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. Despite the plainness of his own viewpoint this impressive, sophisticated and balanced inventory is certainly welcome to all interested people and it is very useful for the further treatment of these problems. (orig./HSCH)

  15. The prospects and trends of nuclear energy technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assurance of reliable and economic energy supply under conditions acceptable to the environment and transportation is one of the major prerequisites for achieving the ultimate goal of quadrupling the national gross annual value of industry and agriculture by the end of this century in China. The statistical data on energy and electricity usage and socioeconomic development in China show clearly the necessity for developing nuclear power station in this century, and for developing advanced nuclear energy technology in the next century, this paper gives a summary description of the nuclear power development plan by 2000, as well as the trends of nuclear energy technology in the future of China. Before the year 2000 there will be approximately 10 nuclear power reactors with a total net capacity of 6700 MWe connected into the grid and 5 nuclear power reactors with net capacity of 5000 MWe under construction. From now on, great attention is being paid to developing advanced nuclear reactor systems, and there are several types of reactors to be taken into account: High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, Fast Breeder Reactor and Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. At all stages of nuclear power development particular emphasis is being given for enhancing reactor safety and measuring operational reliability. Supply of nuclear fuels based on self-reliance is our inherent policy. China is undertaking to set up a fully integrated advanced nuclear fuel cycle, adapted to the nuclear power development. With the decommissioning of some nuclear facilities set up during the 1960's, the R and D program is being considered on the following topics: decommissioning safety assessment, robotic remote handling, decommissioning waste treatment environment evaluation methodology and cost analysis. 2 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chengpu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Cheng, Yu; Fai Lau, Joseph Tak

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for vol...

  17. The Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Activities 1999-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Wiese discussed activities and trends at the NIST Data Centers in the last two years. He reviewed priorities covered in data work and reviewed the bibliographic and numerical databases now on their website. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) is their main atomic physics web database and this is a reference data, e.g., the wavelength data is generally accurate to six significant figures and transition probability data is certain to with less than ±50%. Dr. Wiese also reported about recent work on the compilation and evaluation of data for wavelengths and energy levels of elements Cu, Kr and Mo (and several others), which are fusion relevant

  18. The role and structure of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for the control and supervision of the application and use of nuclear materials and the operation of nuclear facilities to ensure that the health and safety of people are protected and that the nuclear materials and equipment are used only in accordance with the government non-proliferation policy. Requirements for control and supervision are made into regulations subject to approval by the Governor in Council. They are applied through a comprehensive licensing system. The interpretation and implementation of the regulations are contained in a series of regulatory documents published from time to time by the Board. The functional organization of staff that assist the Board for the administration, the assessment and issuance of licenses, compliance and inspection, as well as for the management of the regulatory research program is described. (author)

  19. Strategic position and development prospects of nuclear energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wenquan

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the challenges of China's energy supply, an excellent perspective of nuclear power development in the country has been described. Taking into account the near-, mid-, and long-term development requirements,a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable nuclear power program is proposed. Thus, our national nuclear industry can not only catch up with the world's advanced level in proper time, but also possess enough stamina for sustainability.

  20. The status and role of nuclear energy in the sustainable energy development strategy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and role of nuclear energy in the sustainable energy development strategy in China are discussed in this research report. Specifically, the role of nuclear energy in meeting the requirements of energy and electricity supply, environment protection and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-reduction is focused on. The report is mainly composed of three component parts. The serious situation and challenges concerning the national energy security and energy sustainable development, and major tasks proposed to carry out the strategy of energy sustainable development are expounded in the first part. In the second part, the position and role of nuclear energy in China are elaborated and analyzed in detail. Firstly, it is indicated that the development of nuclear energy is the objective requirement for optimizing national energy structure. From the viewpoint of climate and environment protection, energy mix is required to transit from conventional fossil fuels to clean and high-quality energy sources. The potential role of nuclear energy in energy structure optimization in China is compared with that of hydro and other renewable energy sources. Secondly, it is proposed that the development of nuclear energy is the important security option for safely supplying the national energy and electricity in the future, mainly from the point of nuclear power providing stable and reliable power supply, relieving the burden of coal exploitation and transportation and reducing the risk of energy security caused by dependence on oil and natural gas. Thirdly, it is elaborated that the development of nuclear energy is the inevitable selection for carrying out the national energy and electricity sustainable development. It is given further details that nuclear energy is a clean and economical energy option, a preference coinciding with the principles of the circular economy, a feasible technical choice to greatly reduce emission of greenhouse gases, a selection contributing to

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, after a comprehensive industry review, the Canadian government announced that steps would be taken to revitalize the nuclear industry. Canada's nuclear utilities made a commitment to bear a large share of the cost of nuclear research and development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) reported its first financial loss in twelve years, as anticipated at the start of the year. Four of the 20 CANDU reactors operating worldwide were in the top ten based on lifetime performance. By year-end one foreign and two domestic utilities had announced their intention to build more CANDU units. The federal government has agreed to stabilize AECL's research funding at 1989-90 levels ($31.5 million above levels planned in 1985), has authorized AECL to negotiate with New Brunswick to build Point Lepreau-2 as the prototype for the CANDU-3 reactor, and has allowed the restructuring of AECL so utility and private sector investors can become equity partners in AECL CANDU

  2. Carbon beam extraction with 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Sun-Chan

    2014-02-01

    A 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been made to produce C(4+) beam for using a carbon therapy facility and recently tested at KAERI. Highly charged carbon ions have been successfully extracted. When using only CO2 gas, the beam current of C(4+) was almost 14 μA at 15 kV extraction voltage. To get higher current of the C(4+) beam, while optimizing confinement magnetic field configuration (e.g., axial strengths at minimum and extraction side), gas-mixing (CO2/He), and biased disk were introduced. When the gas mixing ratio of the CO2/He gas is 1:8 at an operational pressure of 5 × 10(-7) mbar and the disk was biased to -150 V relative to the ion source body, the highest current of the C(4+) beam was achieved to be 50 μA, more than three times higher than previously observed only with CO2 gas. Some details on the operating conditions of the ECRIS were discussed. PMID:24593482

  3. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  4. Higher Ionization Energies of Atoms in Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Argaman, Uri; Kraisler, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is an exact alternative formulation of quantum mechanics, in which it is possible to calculate the total energy, the spin and the charge density of many-electron systems in the ground state. In practice, it is necessary to use uncontrolled approximations that can mainly be verified against experimental data. Atoms and ions are simple systems, where the approximations of DFT can be easily tested. We have calculated within DFT the total energies, spin and higher ionization energies of all the ions of elements with 1 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 29. We find the calculations in close agreement with experiment, with an error of typically less than ca. 1% for 1 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 29. Surprisingly, the error depends on the electronic configuration of the ion in both local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) and independent of both self-interaction correction (SIC) and relativistic corrections. Larger errors are found for systems in whi...

  5. Annual report 1986-87 (of the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) (India) during the fiscal year 1986-87 are reported. The main thrust of the DAE's various activities is directed towards peaceful applications of nuclear energy - for generation of electric power in particular and for applications of radioisotopes and radiations in agriculture, medicine and industry in general. The various constituent units of DAE consist of research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants, industrial undertakings in public sector field which manufacture electronic equipment, and rare earth products from beach sands, uranium mines and uranium ore processing plants, regulatory and safety bodies and survey unit for exploration of atomic minerals. In addition DAE also fully funds the research programmes of the Institute of Physics at Bhubaneswar, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Tata Memorial Centre both at Bombay. The report is presented in chapters entitled: (1) general survey, (2) nuclear power, (3) research and development, (4) regulatory and safety functions, (5) public sector undertakings, and (6) other activities such as international relations in the field of nuclear science and technology, financial assistance to research organization and universities, sponsoring of conferences, symposia, workshops etc. The work on three nuclear power plants at Narora, Kakrapar and Kaiga and two heavy water plants at Manuguru and Hazira is in various stages of construction. Some of the highlights of DAE's activities during the year are generation of 7273 million units of electric power by nuclear power stations, opening of a new uranium mine at Bhatin, completion of a heavy water plant at Thal, successful plasma run of the experimental MHD plant at Tiruchirapalli and commissioning of Orissa Sand Complex (OSCOM) plant which produces

  6. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Photo 01: Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing. Looking on are Christoph Eck (far left), resource manager of the LCG Project and Les Robertson, LCG Project Leader. Photo 02: (left to right) Christoph Eck, resource manager of the LCG Project; G. Govindrajan, Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation G...

  7. Reports of the research results for the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the research works done mainly in fiscal 1976 (from April to March) in national institutes across the country under the governmental expenses and subsidies are given in individual brief summaries. Areas covered are : nuclear fusion, safety (engineering, and environmental radioactivity), food irradiation, cancer countermeasures, agriculture and forestry (soil fertilization, quality improvement, crops protection, and breedings improvement), medicine (diagnosis/therapy, pharmaceutics, environmental hygiene, and biological pathology), mining and manufacturing (radiation chemistry, radiation measurements, etc.), nuclear power (reactor materials, and nuclear-powered ship), construction and civil engineering, activation analysis, and injuries prevention. As an appendix, lists of publications in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation are given. (Mori, K.)

  8. Economic Analysis of Energy-efficient Buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Applying energy-saving measures in residential buildings is usually constrained by the increase of initial investment.However, if it is analyzed from the view of energy cost and life-cycle cost, the energy-saving benefit can offset the increase of initial investment. An analysis method based on life-cycle concept was developed to calculate the energy cost of residential building flats. Several uncertain factors were included into the model, making it more accurate to reflect practical situation. The model was solved using the software DeST and applied to one residential building project in Shanghai. The case study shows that the initial investment (cost) is paid back during the operational phase through less consumption of energy. It further indicates that the investment recovery period is between 10 and 19 years which are acceptable to households and developers in China.

  9. Institutional Influences on R&D Collaboration in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines why collaboration between foreign invested R&D units and local universities in China often fails. R&D collaboration projects in China easily go off-track. The cases show that these challenges can be overcome if managers supervise employees and partners in a manner that...... simultaneously builds trust in the sequence of affect-based trust followed by cognition-based trust. Thereby, good results can be created in collaboration with Chinese universities. The paper illustrates institutional influences on R&D collaboration between foreign invested R&D and local universities in China...

  10. Application of results of the academic research institutes to atomic power stations of the republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of research in providing NPP safety, reliability and operating economy are reviewed. The advancement of the technology and equipment for welding metal structures of RBMK-1000 reactors, the study of heat exchange intensification in RBMK-1000 channels, calculation-experimental analysis of NPP turbogenerator load characteristics, neutron-physical computer calculations of RBMK-1000 reactors are noted in the works being reviewed. The development of reactivity diagnostics means: reactivity meters, calorimetric energy release sensors and methods of error estimation in in-pile temperature measurements is considered. The effect of NPP radiation, thermal and salt contaminants on the environment is noted. The possibility to further develop the work in the main directions of nuclear power: reactor physics and thermal physics, radiation material testing, the technology of the development of principal equipment and NPP ecology is shown

  11. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income and...... consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  12. Corporate Governance and Enterprise Reform in China : Building the Institutions of Modern Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tenev, Stoyan; Zhang, Chunlin; Brefort, Loup

    2002-01-01

    This book explores the short- to medium-term corporate governance issues that China is encountering during the course of corporation and ownership transformation of its enterprise sector. The study looks at companies participating in the two main forms of ownership diversification: listed companies and small and medium enterprises whose ownership structure is dominated by insiders. The foc...

  13. Assessment of Energy Recovery Technology in China : Mechanical ventilation system with energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Piippo, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of the economic growth of the Chinese market the past couple of decades, the energy consumption has surged. One of the biggest consequences of the increased energy consumption is a massive increase in CO2 emission. In fact, China has overtaken the U.S. as the biggest emitter of CO2. In light of this energy-saving technology gets more important to implement. District heating is one of the solutions used with success in parts of China where heating is required. In this paper, an en...

  14. Estimates of energy subsidies in China and impact of energy subsidy reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, B.Q.; Jiang, Z.J. [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-03-15

    For a transitional economy such as China, some energy subsidies are reasonable, and sometimes even necessary for achieving social goals. However, with rising energy prices and environmental concerns, we see conflicts emerging between energy subsidies, energy demand/supply fundamentals and climate change considerations. Energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy use, efficiency and the choice of fuel source. This paper applies the price-gap approach to estimate China's energy subsidies. Results indicate that China's energy subsidies amounted to CNY 356.73 billion in 2007, equivalent to 1.43% of GDP. Subsidies for oil products consumption are the largest, followed by subsidies for the electricity and coal sectors. Furthermore, a CGE model is used to analyze the economic impacts of energy subsidy reforms. Our findings show that removing energy subsidies will result in a significant fall in energy demand and emissions, but will have negative impacts on macroeconomic variables. We conclude that offsetting policies could be adopted such that certain shares of these subsidies are reallocated to support other sustainable development measures, which could lead to reducing energy intensity and favoring the environment.

  15. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. 1996 annual report : using nuclear energy and techniques to alleviate hunger, diseases and control of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 annual report reflects the activities of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) on an institutional basis. It provides an overview and indicates the many ways in which the GAEC contributes to the development of nuclear science in the fields of agriculture, industry and medicine

  16. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing.

  17. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1- Reasons for its creation. The Electricite de France, and industries interested in the development of atomic energy, have requested the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to train scientists who will be able to study pile planning and to be in charge of their construction. 2- Recruiting and enrolment fees. The demand for enrolment has always exceeded the possibilities. This year the courses have been attended by 74 permanent students, including 20 foreigners, and some hundred part-time listeners. All students are already scientists or have high university qualifications. Enrot fees: 250 000 F for students, 125 000 F for part-time attendance. 3- Organisation of the teaching. This consists of two branches: physics and chemistry, and in each branch: some hundred lectures, some thirty sessions of practical work, periods of work in the departments, study of a reactor project by a group of 4 or 5 students. The course takes place during the university year 1 november to 14 july. 4- Qualifications. A final examination, combining the results from two theoretical tests, from the practical work, from the period of work in the establishment and from the reactor project leads to a diploma in atomic energy. In reality new scientists are not produced, a new mention is merely added to a diploma already held. Results have always been excellent; the percentage of failures is very small. 5- Placing of graduates. They all return to their original industries, who have paid their salaries and enrolment fees whilst giving up their services during the 9 months duration of the course. 6- Similar ventures. A similar course has been created at the C.F.N. Grenoble. Whilst the Saclay course is particularly for scientists already working, that at Grenoble is destined in principle for young scientists leaving college. 7- Conclusion. This organization is satisfactory both for the students and the industries. The C.E.A. works towards yearly improvement, and hopes to welcome large numbers of

  18. The Institutional Foundations of Market Transition in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yingyi

    2000-01-01

    This paper intends to properly account for the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) two decades of market transition by examining its institutional foundations. The journey of transition is analyzed as a two-stage process. In the first stage (1978-93), the system was reformed to unleash the standard market forces of incentives, hard budget constraints, and competition. The underlying institutional forms and mechanisms, however, were far from conventional: reforming government through regional d...

  19. Energy Performance of Hotel Buildings in Lijiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Tang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel industry in China has experienced rapid growth in the past ten years and made a considerable contribution to the global tourism economy. This paper focuses on the energy performance of hotel buildings in Lijiang, China. Hotel characteristics, daily operational data, and energy use data were collected by carrying out a survey of 24 hotels. The average annual energy use intensity (EUI of four-, three-, two-, and one-star rated hotels was 180.8 kWh/m2, 113.3 kWh/m2, 74.2 kWh/m2, and 70.2 kWh/m2, respectively. Electricity, as the dominant energy source, accounted for 81% of total energy consumption and was used in the operation of air conditioning, lighting, heating, etc. Pearson correlations between EUI showed that hotel star rating, number of guest rooms, room revenue, and number of workers gave a reasonably strong correlation. A regression-based benchmarking model was established to predict EUI, and a standardization process of EUI was illustrated by statistical analysis.

  20. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... duty order on imports of steel nails from China (73 FR 44961). The Commission is conducting a review to... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct....

  1. 77 FR 25744 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... order on imports of certain polyester staple fiber from China (72 FR 30545). The Commission is...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b)(19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May...

  2. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  3. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations

  4. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that the information entropy of HEC increased gradually, and coal will be reduced by clean energies, such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The information entropy tends to stabilize and converge due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental protection and natural resource conservation, the structure of household energy consumption will be optimized. This study revealed that residents’ income level is one of the most critical factors for the increase of energy consumption, while the energy intensity is the only driving force for the reduction of HEC. The accumulated contribution of these two factors to the HEC is 240.53% and −161.75%, respectively. It is imperative to improve the energy efficiency in the residential sector. Recommendations are provided to improve the energy efficiency-related technologies, as well as the standards for the sustainable energy strategy.

  5. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  6. China and Russia: Institutional Coherence between the Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vernikov, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use statistical data from 2000 to 2013 to compare the macro-level structure and the core institutions of the banking systems in China and Russia. Our main hypothesis is that, differences in the absolute size and socio-cultural features notwithstanding, these two systems are typologically similar. We consider the institutional structure, the market structure and concentration, the industrial policy of the government, and the banks’ involvement in the financing of the non-financial economy. ...

  7. Energy levels of light atoms in strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Thirumalai, Anand

    2014-01-01

    In this review article we provide an overview of the field of atomic structure of light atoms in strong magnetic fields. There is a very rich history of this field which dates back to the very birth of quantum mechanics. At various points in the past significant discoveries in science and technology have repeatedly served to rejuvenate interest in atomic structure in strong fields, broadly speaking, resulting in three eras in the development of this field; the historical, the classical and the modern eras. The motivations for studying atomic structure have also changed significantly as time progressed. The review presents a chronological summary of the major advances that occurred during these eras and discusses new insights and impetus gained. The review is concluded with a description of the latest findings and the future prospects for one of the most remarkably cutting-edge fields of research in science today.

  8. A study on the impacts of R and D expenditures of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute on the national economy. A study on the contribution made by KAERI to the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the contribution of KAERI's R and D to the national economy. As a case study, the study also analyzes the economic impacts which KAERI's capacity of independent system design contributes to the national economy through localization of KSNP. The research method is Input-output methods which are frequently employed in evaluating economic impacts of R and D in both domestic and foreign academic areas

  9. Atomic energy: exchange of letters between Canada and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letters exchanged between the Charge d'affaires, mission of Canada to the European Communites and the Commissioner of the European Communities, concerning safeguards, levels of physical protection, and further intra-Community trade of nuclear materials exported from Canada to the European Community

  10. Monte Carlo Computational Modeling of the Energy Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model has been developed which simulates atomic oxygen attack of protected polymers at defect sites in the protective coatings. The parameters defining how atomic oxygen interacts with polymers and protective coatings as well as the scattering processes which occur have been optimized to replicate experimental results observed from protected polyimide Kapton on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. Computational prediction of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings for various arrival energies was investigated. The atomic oxygen undercutting energy dependence predictions enable one to predict mass loss that would occur in low Earth orbit, based on lower energy ground laboratory atomic oxygen beam systems. Results of computational model prediction of undercut cavity size as a function of energy and defect size will be presented to provide insight into expected in-space mass loss of protected polymers with protective coating defects based on lower energy ground laboratory testing.

  11. The reaction efficiency of thermal energy oxygen atoms with polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S. L.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The reaction efficiency of several polymeric materials with thermal-energy (0.04 eV translational energy), ground-state (O3P) oxygen atoms was determined by exposing the materials to a room temperature gas containing a known concentration of atomic oxygen. The reaction efficiency measurements were conducted in two flowing afterglow systems of different configuration. Atomic oxygen concentration measurements, flow, transport and surface dose analysis is presented in this paper. The measured reaction efficiencies of Kapton, Mylar, polyethylene, D4-polyethylene and Tedlar are .001 to .0001 those determined with high-energy ground-state oxygen atoms in low earth orbit or in a high-velocity atom beam. D4-polyethylene exhibits a large kinetic isotope effect with atomic oxygen at thermal but not hyperthermal atom energies.

  12. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    OpenAIRE

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of e...

  13. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  14. Organizational Cultural Assessment of the Solar Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-06-01

    An Organizational Cultural Assessment (OCA) was performed at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by administering an Organizational Culture Survey (OCS) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OCS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture;'' that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OCS, a broad simple of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OCS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. All data from the OCS is presented in group summaries, by division, supervisory level, and staff classification. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. The most notable finding which emerges from the OCA conducted at SERI is that it is a very homogeneous organization as indicated by the few statistically significant differences found between divisions/offices, staff classifications, and supervisory levels. The results also indicate SERI to be an organization which places a large amount of emphasis on those behaviors which are considered constructive'' (i.e., Humanistic-Encouraging, Affiliative, Achievement, Self-Actualizing) and, although to a lesser extent, on those behaviors which could be regarded as passive/defensive'' (i.e., Approval, Conventional, Dependent, Avoidance). 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. An empirical analysis of China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the global DEA (data envelopment analysis), this paper analyzes China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives based on China's provincial panel data for the period of 2001–2010. We present the evolution of energy efficiency in China from 2001 to 2010, and identify the key factors influencing the energy efficiency from the aspects of technical progress, productive scale and management level. The results show that there was an overall declining trend for China's energy efficiency from 2001 to 2005, and technical regress and the decrease in scale efficiency were the main reasons for this decline. Then an overall rising trend appeared during 2005–2010, and technical progress was the most important motivation for this increase. Moreover, among the three main regions in China, the eastern China was leading in the energy efficiency during the sample period, while the energy efficiency in western China fell far behind since the beginning. And the energy efficiency in central China was in the middle. This indicates that west region may be China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future, and further technical progress is thought to be the key motivation for this improvement. - Highlights: • We analyze China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives. • The global DEA (data envelopment analysis) method is utilized in this paper. • Technical progress is the key factor for the change of China's energy efficiency. • There are significant differences in energy efficiency of different regions in China. • Western area is China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future

  16. 40 years of nuclear magnetic resonance at Institute for Atomic Physics. History, achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioscopy as a new field of research at the Institute was initiated by a number of researchers, particularly electronics scientists (A. Valeriu, P. Draghicescu), who had participated in the Cyclotron commissioning. In the first pioneering stage (1959-1969) the team focused on making their own NMR spectrographs. The first milestone was in 1959 when a group (A.V., P.D., B. Ianculovici) got the first NMR signal from a continuous wave spectrometer designed and made at IAP NMR Laboratory. At the same time lab members (V. Mihele) went on to making a pulse spectrometer. The first continuous wave EPR spectrographs (I. Pascaru) and the first unit for EPR/NMR signal acquisition and processing (B. Goran, M. Simpaleanu) were also developed in this first decade. In the second stage starting in 1970, the NMR Laboratory was equipped with a commercial Bruker NMR spectrometer and a liquid helium facility. Building on this experience, the team was able to move on to advance research such as: a - NMR/EPR experiments, Romania's first, for making polarized nuclear targets (P.D., B.I., M. Draghicescu, R. Grosescu); b - NMR investigations of dynamic processes in order - disorder phase transitions in molecular crystals and ferroelectric materials (R.G., M. Lupu); c - nuclear chemistry studies on short-lived nuclei (also by EPR) (O. Constantinescu, R. Georgescu); d - NMR use for studying the structure and sequential order of polymers and copolymers (A. Saidel, R.G.); e - NMR investigation of transmembrane transport in biological cells (R.G., A.S., M.L.); f - small series production of NMR spectrometers (V.M., B.I.) and EPR spectrometers (I. Ciobanu, G. Pascalau) for use in research and academic education. It is worth mentioning the development of an NMR magnetron (A.V., O. Anghelescu) that was used for drawing the magnetic map of Romania and agri-food applications. Long-term scientific co-operations were established (O.C. -Dubna, Grenoble; R.G. - Max Planck Institut

  17. Low-energy collisions of antiprotons with atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent close-coupling calculations were performed using the impact parameter method for antiproton and proton collisions with alkali-metal atoms and hydrogen molecules. The targets are described as effective one-electron systems using appropriate model potentials. The proton data verify the employed method while the results for antiprotons improve the literature on these systems considerably. Cross sections for ionization and excitation as well as electron-energy spectra and stopping power will be presented.

  18. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    2004-01-12

    This report contains two companion papers about radiological and environmental research that developed out of efforts of the Atomic Energy Commission in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Both papers were written for the Joint U.S.-Russian International Symposium entitled ''History of Atomic Energy Projects in the 1950s--Sociopolitical, Environmental, and Engineering Lessons Learned,'' which was hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxemberg, Austria, in October 1999. Because the proceedings of this symposium were not published, these valuable historic reviews and their references are being documented as a single ORNL report. The first paper, ''U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s,'' written by David Reichle and Stanley Auerbach, deals with the formation of the early radioecological research programs at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear production facilities at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington; and at the Savannah River Plant in Georgia. These early radioecology programs were outgrowths of the environmental monitoring programs at each site and eventually developed into the world renowned National Laboratory environmental program sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy. The original version of the first paper was presented by David Reichle at the symposium. The second paper, ''U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s,'' summarizes all the environmental research programs supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and discusses their present-day legacies. This paper is a modified, expanded version of a paper that was published in September 1997 in a volume commemorating the 50th anniversary symposium of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of

  19. The peasant's rescue from the cadre? An institutional analysis of China's rural tax and fee reform

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Applying a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper examines the genesis, implementation process and impact of the recent Rural Tax and Fee Reform (RTFR) in China. It is posited that the RTFR represents a serious, although inconsistent, attempt to shift the balance of central-local relations toward the centre via stricter regulation of county and subcounty politics. It is further argued that this attempt to restructure the polity is not matched by the adjustment of the policy proce...

  20. The exotic world of low-energy positron-atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The interactions of low-energy positrons with atoms provides a host of problems for both experimentalists and theorists alike. For example, even one of the most fundamental questions in positron physics, whether a positron can form an electronically stable bound state with a neutral atom, was only in 1997 theoretically resolved as a 'yes'. I will discuss the application of the configuration-interaction (Cl) method to the study of various positronic atoms and ions, demonstrating the stability and structure of the bound states of PsH, e+Li, e+Be, e+Mg, e+Ca, e+Cu, CuPs, e+Zn, e+Sr and e+Cd. The Cl method has also been used in conjunction with the Kohn variational method to examine low-energy positron scattering and annihilation from H, He+ and Cu. The presence of localised electron-positron pairing means that these Cl calculations are extremely demanding. I will also mention the prospects for using positron scattering from metal vapours as a signature to detect their bound states. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics