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Sample records for china ingestion study

  1. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  2. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ensure the representative sampling for ingestion study a sampling strategy that took account of all relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic variables was devised by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, CAPM for the first total diet study in China. Total diet samples was prepared as 'market basket' samples. Based on the information of food consumption, composition and cookery obtained by the diet consumption survey, the 12 categories of food were collected from nearby markets and cooked by local cookery. For investigation the relationship between elements intake and organ content the specimens for organ content study will be collected from the subjects of sudden death inhabited in the region where the diet samples to be collected for ingestion study. The analytical technique that will be used to determine trace elements of interest in specimens of diet and organs have been proposed, for I that is ENAA, for Cs and Sr that is FAAS or ICP-MS, and for U and Th that is ICP-MS. At last the report summarized the information on trace element content of drinking water supplies in China. (author)

  3. Studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate internal dose and derive annual limits of intake for radionuclides in the field of Radiation Protection, it is necessary to study the parameters of ingestion of radionuclides from diet, deposition in tissues and following metabolism of the radionuclides. But these kinds of parameters may be influenced by intake of nutrients and inorganic constituents of diets, for example, a relatively higher uptake rate and longer retention time of radioiodine in thyroid of person who's diet poor of stable iodine. So there is a need to have accurate knowledge of corresponding stable elements intake and their concentration in organs, especially for some trace elements of importance in radiological protection such as Caesium, Iodine, Strontium, Thorium and Uranium. A IAEA RCA CRP on 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological protection' was formulated in 1995 and initiated after the first RCM CRP on the project, held in Manila, Philippine 1-4 July 1996. This is the progress report for studies in China on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection after the first RCM

  4. Indonesia: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study in Indonesia was carried out on a very small scale both for ingestion and organ contents of elements. The intakes of Cs, Sr, Ca and K in the group of elements of radiological importance and only Zn among essential elements were estimated. As part of the organ contents study, only 3 bone samples were analysed for K, Ca and Sr. In view of the very small number of samples for one individual organ, the results were not considered for inclusion in the main document. The food samples were prepared on the basis of the daily per capita consumption of calorie data. These data for food commodities were published in Indonesia by Central Bureau of Statistics and the energy values per gram of individual vegetables, fruits, meat etc, were published by Nutrition Research and Development Centre in Indonesia. Some duplicate diet samples were also collected for the study. These duplicate samples were generally collected from canteens and eating houses at the inter-city bus stops. Although duplicate diets were processed and analysed as complete one day samples, for the market basket study on the other hand, only one tenth of the food material was used to prepare the food for analysis. The samples from Indonesia were not collected as per the IAEA protocols, which stated the preparation of total diet representative of one day's meal of an adult. Further, the duplicate diet samples were obtained from canteens and therefore did not represent the exact duplicate portion of diet of the individual subjects representing the adult population of Indonesia. These food samples were blended, freeze dried and subsequently powdered with glass mortar prior to analysis. AAS and INAA were employed to carry out the analysis of diet samples for various trace elements

  5. Philippines: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the dietary intake of trace elements of radiological and nutritional importance, ten samples each of human liver and lung tissues were also analysed for Th, U and Cs for the adult subjects from the Philippines. The study of the elements of importance in nutrition assumed greater significance in the Philippines in view of the reported malnutrition in all the 13 regions in the country, including the National Capital Region. The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the agency responsible for monitoring the nutrition status of the Philippines, is currently refocusing its studies on the mineral and elemental content of food

  6. Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

  7. Republic of Korea: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of one day total diet of an adult Korean, based on the food intake data survey of 108 healthy subjects in the age range 20-50 a were prepared in typical Korean style for the intake study. The sampling was based on market basket concept. In all, five samples of total cooked diet were prepared. The samples were thoroughly mixed in a mixer blender fitted with Titanium coated blade and 20% of it was drawn from the lot for freeze drying. The analytical methods used for Cs, U, Th, Sr, I were a combination of INAA, RNAA as well as ICP-MS. For the determination of Ca, Cs, K, Sr and Zn, INAA/ICP-MS were employed and the rest of elements were analysed using both RNAA and ICPMS. Four most commonly consumed foodstuffs in the Republic of Korea, namely Kimchi, fish, pork and beef combination were also analysed to determine their contribution to the daily elemental intakes. However, the four commonly consumed foodstuffs from Korea did not represent the total intake in terms of the major or micronutrients. The data inputs from these food materials were therefore not considered for the Asian diet. They however represent important sources of trace element intakes in Korean diet and this information will be included in another technical document to be prepared at the IAEA with compilation of final country reports on the CRP from all the participating countries

  8. Rice ingestion is a major pathway for human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingli; Zou, Wei; Mu, Li; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Chaoxiu; Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    Although organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, data about OPFRs concentrations in various foods are limited and are none in humans through diets. In this work, the concentrations of 6 typical OPFRs were investigated in 50 rice samples, 75 commonly consumed foods and 45 human hair samples from China. The dietary intakes of OPFRs for adult people via food ingestion were estimated. The concentrations of ΣOPFRs in foods ranged from 0.004ng/g to 287ng/g. OPFRs were detected in 53.3% of the human hair samples. The highest OPFRs concentrations were found in rice and vegetables. Tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate(TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate(TCIPP), and tri(2-ethyltexyl)phosphate(TEHP) were predominant in all food samples. OPFRs concentrations in foods were not significantly affected by the packaging materials. The mean dietary intakes of ΣOPFRs for adult males and females were 539 and 601ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. The greatest contribution to these values is from rice, accounting for approximately 60% of the total intake, particularly from rice protein. Rice ingestion was considered a potential major pathway for human exposure to OPFRs, and regional differences in the levels of OPFRs in foods and dietary differences should be given more attention in the future. PMID:27484948

  9. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. PMID:27058965

  10. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry and substrate oxidation (via respiratory exchange ratio were measured at baseline (pre-ingestion and at the end of each hour for 3 hours post-ingestion. Results Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p ® ingestion. No differences in respiratory exchange ratio were noted between trials. Conclusion These preliminary findings indicate Celsius™ has thermogenic properties when ingested acutely. The effects of repeated, chronic ingestion of Celsius™ on body composition are unknown at this time.

  11. Prenatal methylmercury exposure through maternal rice ingestion: Insights from a feasibility pilot in Guizhou Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal hair and blood were investigated as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure among seventeen mothers recruited at parturition in Wanshan, Guizhou Province, China, where rice ingestion was the primary MeHg exposure pathway and atmospheric mercury (Hg) levels were elevated. For all three trimesters (n = 51), hair total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 4.9 μg/g (median: 0.96 μg/g) and 0.077 to 2.3 μg/g (median: 0.43 μg/g), respectively, while blood THg levels ranged from 1.7 to 11 μg/L (median: 3.0 μg/L, n = 17). Despite adequate hair washing procedures, median %MeHg (of THg) was 37% (range: 14–89%, n = 51), indicating exogenous inorganic Hg(II) contamination or incorporation of elemental Hg (Hgo) into the hair shaft were important. Rice MeHg levels (n = 17) were highly correlated with blood THg (r2 = 0.66) compared to hair MeHg (r2 = 0.31) (when variables were log10-transformed), suggesting blood THg was a more preferable biomarker for prenatal MeHg exposure within this population. -- Highlights: •Compared maternal hair and blood as biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure. •Despite adequate hair washing procedures, median hair %MeHg (of THg) was low. •Rice MeHg levels were more correlated with blood THg compared to hair MeHg. •Blood THg may be a better biomarker for prenatal MeHg exposure in this area. -- Within a population where rice is a staple food, maternal blood may be an appropriate biomarker for prenatal methylmercury exposure

  12. Scintigraphic study of lipid kinetics after ingestion of a meal labelled with lipiodol-I123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is included in a programme concerning the relationships between meal ingestion and lipidemia; its specific aim was to assess by scintigraphy the long term kinetics of orally ingested radiolabelled lipids. Nine healthy volunteers ingested a breakfast that included iodized fatty acid extracted from poppy-seed oil of Lipiodol 1123. The images including thorax and abdomen were repeated for 8 hours. Six of the subjects ingested a single meal (group 1), the three other subjects had a lunch 4 h 30 after the i labelled breakfast (group 2). The analysis included the study of pictures with the determination of organs visualization times and the drawing of time activity curves from these organs ROI's. The chronology of organs appearance was stomach, bowel, thoracic duct, then heart and liver. The study allowed to follow the long term kinetics of the ingested lipids and notably to visualize the thoracic duct. The second meal ingestion was followed by an increase of the thoracic duct activity. These preliminary results suggest that scintigraphy using iodized fatty acids allows to visualize the behavior of the ingested lipids and can help to better understand the variation of lipidemia that is related with the ingestion of meals. They suggest that a part of the ingested fats enters the plasma only after a second meal. (authors)

  13. Utilization of deuterium for the study of ingested water absorption during muscular exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long physical exercise-heat exposure is accompanied with massive hydro-saline losses, due to sudation, inducing a lowering of the physical performance. A stable isotope tracer technique, with deuterium in the form of deuterium oxide, is used to study the effect of ingested water quality (pure water, water and sodic and/or energetic additives) on the speed at which ingested water passes in the vascular sector during such an exercise in preliminarily dehydrated human beings. 2 figs., 12 refs

  14. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  15. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  16. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  17. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  18. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel Ron W; Hofheins Jennifer E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry) and substrate oxidation (v...

  19. STUDIES ON THE INGESTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, CHINESE PRAWN AND GIANT TIGER PRAWN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  20. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans. PMID:27063247

  1. Study in Malaysia on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement in the Reference Asian man project, Phase 2 began at the project, formulation meeting in Hitachinaka City, Japan in February 1995. The objective of the project is to look into the ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. The data on ingestion of radionuclides from diet and deposition in tissues are important for estimating internal dose for radiation protection. The meeting agreed the elements of primary interest are caesium, iodine, strontium, thorium and uranium in samples of representative diets and autopsy specimens of liver, muscle, thyroid, bone, and kidney. This report will highlight the methodology for implementation of the project including defining the study groups, sampling duplicate diet and autopsy specimens and the analytical techniques involved. Emphasis will be given to nuclear-related analytical technique (NAA) together with a complementary technique (AAS) available in our institution. Some data on trace element contents of local marine and fresh water fishes and milk was reported. Included also a brief discussion on drinking water quality in Malaysia and some information on related studies available. The information on drinking water will be very useful to the present study since water is part of daily diet. (author)

  2. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from mult...

  3. A Comparative and Interrelationship Study between Blood Pressure and Intraocular Pressure in Young Healthy Male Adults after Water Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja S. Patil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral water ingestion increases blood volume, and hence blood pressure (BP which in turn increases intraocular pressure (IOP. The aim of the present study was to know the interrelationship between BP and IOP of both the sides, before and after water ingestion, in young healthy male subjects.Methods: This is a comparative and interrelationship study for which thirty six male subjects aged 17- 20 years were selected. BP of both arms was recorded every 15 minutes and IOP was recorded every 30 minutes for two hours in both control and study trials (before and after water ingestion respectively. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s t test and regression analysis.Results: Water ingestion led to a significant increase in BP and IOP of both eyes. Significant correlation was present between mean arterial pressure (MAP and IOP on right side in both trials. But, there was no correlation between MAP and IOP on left side in both trials.Conclusion: It can be concluded that correlation between BP and IOP, before and after water ingestion is not uniform on both sides, whose cause cannot be clearly explained and therefore, needs further in depth study of the underlying anatomical and physiological processes.

  4. Studies in Japan on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on intake of elements through foods, water and air, and concentration or Content of such elements in body tissues are essential part of the ICRP Reference Man recommended by ICRP for use in setting body composition and also deriving essential parameters for internal dose assessment models particularly for biokinetics or metabolism of radionuclides and their stable elements (1). However, in the RCA region, these data are comparatively scarce and it has been felt necessary to accumulate relevant data of high quality, reflecting the progress in analytical and related methods. In the present CRP (Phase 2), ingestion and organ content of elements of importance in internal dose assessment for the general public, i.e. Sr, Cs, I, Th and U as of the primary priority, are to be studied by performing chemical analysis following collecting representative samples in each participating country under proper quality control and assurance program (2). The data to be accumulated will enrich our knowledge in metabolic characteristics on the national, regional and global basis, after the large amount of data accumulated particularly on the physical characteristics and organ measurements in the first phase of Reference Asian Man CRP. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan will participate the present phase of CRP following the current concepts on the 'Reference Man'-oriented studies in the RCA region (3). The CRP will supplement the already existing data in Japan and extend them for some elements for which our data are to be further accumulated in ingestion and tissue content in normal and healthy Japanese adult males and females. The NIRS is requested to function as a Central Reference Laboratory (CRL) to promote the CRP in co-operation with the IAEA and the NIST as well as participating laboratories (2)

  5. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  6. CONTEMPORARY CHINA HISTORY STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Before the eve of the establishment of New China, Liu Shaoqi led the CPC delegation to visit the Soviet Union secretly. For adapting the change of domestic struggle situations, the central government decided to move up the liberation time of Xinjiang from planned 1950 to 1949. In order to save the time,

  7. A prospective study of comparison between Open Gastrojejunostomy and Laparoscopic Assisted Gastrojejunostomy in patients of post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir shah

    2016-03-01

    Results: We observed that benign etiology was more common for GOO (58% compared to malignant cause (42% and post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis was most common benign cause(42% of GOO, Pancreatic cancer was most common malignant cause(18.5% of GOO. Corrosive ingestion was more common in younger age group (66% in 15 -30 yr age and female gender(63.34% and mostly as a suicidal attempt(86.66% and most common corrosive agent was sanitary cleansing agent(hydrochloric acid (70%.Postprandial nonbillious vomiting and weight loss were consistent symptom and appeared after 6-8 week of corrosive ingestion and 50% of patient of post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis had concomitant esophageal stricture. In present study those patient operated with Lap Assisted Gastrojejunostomy had smaller size of incision, reduce intra operative need of blood transfusion, less post-operative pain and less chance of wound infection, early drain and suture removal and early discharged from hospital with minimal post-operative morbidity and without significant increase in total duration and cost of operation. Conclusion : As compared to Open Gastrojejunostomy, Lap Assisted Gastrojejunostomy is better alternative operative method for pyloric stenosis. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 48-50

  8. A Nationwide Population-Based Study of Corrosive Ingestion in Taiwan: Incidence, Gender Differences, and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Mei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury results from the intake of corrosive-acid-based chemicals. However, this phenomenon is limited to a small number of cases and cannot be extrapolated to the epidemiology of corrosive injuries in actual situations. This study focuses on the annual incidence of corrosive injury and its connection to gender, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality. All patients with corrosive injury (ICD-9 947.0–947.3 were identified using a nationwide inpatient sample from 1996 until 2010. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine risk factors of gender differences and in-hospital mortality of corrosive injury. Young adults comprised the majority of patients (71.2%, and mean age was 44.6 ± 20.9 years. Women showed a higher incidence rate of corrosive injuries, age, suicide, psychiatric disorder, and systemic complications compared with men (p<0.001. The present study demonstrated that age (OR = 10.93; 95% CI 5.37–22.27, systemic complications (OR = 5.43; 95% CI 4.61–6.41, malignant neoplasms (OR = 2.23; 95% CI 1.37–3.62, gastrointestinal complications (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.63–2.51, chronic disease (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.08–1.56, and suicide (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.05–1.44 were strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Educational programs may be helpful for reducing the incidence of ingestion of corrosive chemicals.

  9. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltidis Melina; Kouroutou Paraskevi; Christoforidou Eleni; Christophi Costas A; Petralias Athanassios; Linos Athena; Veloudaki Afroditi; Tzala Evangelia; Makris Konstantinos C; Karagas Margaret R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality rati...

  10. Studies of Coltivirus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO San-ju; CHEN Bo-quan

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to review the developments of studies of Coltivirus in ChinaData sources The data used in this review was obtained mainly from the studies of Coltivirus reported from 1990 to 2003 in China.Study selection Relevant articles on studies of Coltivirus in domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were maily extracted from the articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Many Coltiviruses have been isolated not only from blood samples of patients with unknown fever or from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with encephalitis in Xishuangbanna area in Yunnan province, but also from mosquitoes collected in many areas in China. In some patients diagnosed as Japanese encephalitis or unknown fever, an increase of Coltivirus IgG antibody of fourfold, or more, has been detected using ELISA. Similarly, Coltivirus IgM antibody was positive in some patients with Japanese encephalitis or viral encephalitis. From most Chinese patients, except the northeastern, the isolates of Coltiviruses belong to subgroup B2, according to RT-PCR amplification of the ninth and twelfth segments of the isolates and sequence analysis of their amplicons. Some biological properties of Chinese Coltiviruses isolates are different from that of North American Coltiviruses.Conclusions The isolates of Coltiviruses from Chinese patients are one of the common agents causing viral encephalitis and unknown fever in summer-autumn season. It might be an important public health problem due to its high isolation rate and wide distribution in China. Mosquito is the main transmission vector of the virus.

  11. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  12. Retrospective Analysis of 139 Cases Hospitalized due to Corrosive Ingestion: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Efe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: We aimed to contribute to the epidemiological database of our country with regard to corrosive material ingestions. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 139 cases of corrosive ingestion who were admitted to Pediatric Surgery Department of Akdeniz University between 2005 and 2010. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, gender, socioeconomic level, the active substance and levels of the burn. In addition some of the data were obtained by phone contacts with the families. Results: The mean age of the most frequent intake of corrosive was 3.35±1.93. It was determined that most of the children were male. More than half of the mothers were primary school graduates and working. It was found that caustic substance intake was found to be most frequent in summer months. It was also determined that children took ether phosphate most frequently and that mothers of children purchased caustic substances in a closed container, but these substances were divided to another utensil at home. It was found that children ingested caustic substances found in their homes and families were brought their children to the hospital without doing anything. Conclusions: The increasing diversity of corrosive substances used in household cleaning, constitutes a great danger for children. In this respect, especially families at risk groups should be identified and these families need to be informed about the dangers of corrosive materials. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 107-13

  13. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (Psugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose. PMID:24780643

  14. Journalism Studies in China, 1903-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tuen-yu

    By analyzing the subject matter of journalism books published in China since 1903, a study reviews the scope and trends of Chinese journalism studies, specifically the post-1949 developments after the Chinese Communist Party came to power. The study analyzes 1,245 titles of journalism books from 1903 to 1985, compiled in the "China Journalism…

  15. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  16. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoltidis Melina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009, using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107 and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136. The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

  17. Experimental study on the effect of ingested lead shot on Estuarine crocodiles: significance for Finniss River field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead has long been recognised as a cumulative metabolic poison in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Because of the many industrial activities that have brought about its widespread distribution, lead is ubiquitous in the environment. For example, uranium mining at the Rum Jungle site on the Finniss River, Northern Territory, resulted in contamination of river sediments with lead. Today, lead levels remain at about 250 mg kg-1 of wet river sediment within the immediate vicinity of the mine. Another potential source of lead poisoning in wildlife is the use of lead gunshot for hunting. Mortality in wild waterfowl caused by the ingestion of spent lead shot has been recognised in North America and Europe for over a century. An experimental study was undertaken to assess the above hypothesis on the effects of lead in the environs of crocodiles. The specific effects of lead intoxication arise mainly from the interaction of lead with the enzymatic processes in the haem biosynthetic pathway. One of these enzymes, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), catalyses the condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid to produce the pyrrole, porphobilinogen, the building block of the haem molecule. ALAD is a metalloenzyme requiring zinc for activity and is inhibited by lead displacing the essential zinc. This inhibition of ALAD by lead has been used as a specific biomarker for lead poisoning in fish, birds and mammals. An assay system was developed for the measurement of ALAD activity in crocodilian blood. It was found that ALAD was inhibited by up to 90% during the first week after exposure of the crocodiles to lead shot. There was an inverse correlation between BPb and ALAD activity throughout the 42 week experimental period. BPb concentrations greater than 100 mg dL-1 produced significant inhibition of ALAD. The results indicated that ALAD inhibition could be used as a specific biomarker of lead toxicity in crocodiles

  18. Conditions for ingestion and organ content studies: Summary of data submitted by questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, food materials are blended locally and frozen for transport. Most participants will food materials in polyethylene containers by land or by air under refrigeration without any preservative such as formaldehyde. In most centres, a 'conventional' laboratory is used for sample preparation, but with additional facilities to prevent contamination of samples. A constant temperature electric oven, or vacuum drier if available, and blender (or mortar and pestle for some limited purposes) are being used. A blender with titanium blades is felt preferable by participants. In India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan and Vietnam (and probably in Bangladesh), NAA is used for most of the first priority elements, and PIXE for some elements. In China, Japan, Malaysia and Philippines, atomic absorption spectrometry, and ICP emission and mass spectrometry are to be employed. However, INAA or RNAA for iodine determination as well as PIXE are also used. For the latter case, samples are generally ashed in a muffle furnace with special care against inclusion of foreign materials; acid decomposition is accomplished with a borosilicate glass beaker and watch glass on a hot plate, and mostly using analytical grade acids. A PTF crucible or pressure vessel with an electric or microwave oven and high purity acids will be useful for ICP-MS determination of Th and U. Standardization procedures should be clearly described, such as the use of standard solutions or the preparation of laboratory standards for neutron irradiation or PIXE measurements. In general, natural matrix reference materials should not be used as calibration standards. Water used, partly in sample preparation, and in chemical analysis is mostly distilled and/or deionized water. Doubly distilled or doubly deionized water is also used. A laminar-flow clean bench (preferably with exhaust function for protection against acid fumes and biological hazard) was previously recommended. However, as also stated before, a conventional

  19. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    OpenAIRE

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either su...

  20. Study of the internal contamination of thorium through ingestion path way using the Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of thorium to the atmosphere can occur both from natural and anthropogenic sources, and emissions from the latter sources can produce locally elevated atmospheric levels of thorium over the background. Data regarding the fate and transport of thorium in the air are limited. The rate of deposition will depend on the meteorological conditions, the particle size and density, and the chemical form of thorium particles. In water, thorium will be present in suspended matters and sediments and the concentration of soluble, thorium will be low. In view of the kinetics of thorium in plant/soil medium, there exists a possibility of internal contamination of the general public located in the vicinity of high background areas. Literature study on the concentration of 232Th in the soil in Kollam district shows that the range of concentration is 54 -11976 Bq/Kg. The biological half life of thorium from the bones is about 8000 days and it is a health hazard as it emits about six alphas per disintegration. A method to estimate the dose due to internal contamination is by assessing the systemic uptake. ICRP 100 has recently published improved generic Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM), replacing the old Gastro Intestinal Tract Model (GITM) of ICRP 30 to compute distribution of ingested radionuclide in the body as information has become available on the location of sensitive cells and retention of radionuclides in different regions of the alimentary tract. In this study a computer programme has been written in FORTRAN to implement HATM in conjunction with the systemic biokinetic model. A series of coupled first order differential equations has been solved numerically. The programme has been validated by analyzing the sample problem of 90Sr published in ICRP100. This programme has been used to compute the daily faecal excretion rate for an intake of 1 Bq of 232Th and the values were compared with that obtained using the GITM. For example the ratio of the predicted daily

  1. A STUDY OF CLINICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WHO ATTEMPTED SUICIDE BY HAIR DYE SUPERVASMOL 33 INGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Babu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : All the patient in the study consumed the hair dye available in the market with the trade name Supervasmol 33. The prevalence of Super vasmol 33 hair dye poisoning has been on a surge for the past 2 - 3 years as has been observed by the increase in number of cases being admitted into the hospitals. It was observed that the tendency of poisoning by Super vasmol 33 hair dye was more in females than in males and was more in the age group of 15 - 35 years, as with any other poisoning. METERIALS AND METHODS: Study of Clinical, pathological and biochemical findings in patients who attempted suicide by hair dye ingestion (Supervasmol 3 who were admitted in Government General Hospital/Guntur medical college, Guntur during June 2013 to March 2015 brought to emergency department and those who were admitted into the HDU, ICU and medical wards of the hospital, after the following exclusion criteria were ruled out. RESULTS: A significant statistical correlation was found to exist between development of AKI and the levels of CPK in blood, rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. The morbidity rates were 100% for angioedema, 58% for rhabdomyolysis and 32% for acute kidney injury (AKI. Institutional mortality rate was about 8% due to refractory hemodynamic shock. CONCLUSION: As the burden of handling Supervasmol 33 hair dye poisoning cases has been recently increasing, primary care physicians, intensive care physicians and nephrologists need to be aware of its clinical manifestation and management

  2. Tabulating Ingestion of Mocha Solution (TIMS): a longitudinal prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staios, Gregory; Khan, Waqas U.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Sellings, Laurie H.; De Sousa, Kim; Wang, Shan; Lo, Steven; Elkader, Alexander K.

    2011-01-01

    The annual “Roll Up the Rim to Win” contest at Tim Hortons restaurants provides customers the opportunity to win prizes. This study investigated win ratios, prize types and patterns of coffee consumption. PMID:22159361

  3. Research of the Holiday kind: Tabulating Ingestion of Mocha Solution (TIMS): a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staios, Gregory; Khan, Waqas U; Chiuccariello, Lina; Sellings, Laurie H; De Sousa, Kim; Wang, Shan; Lo, Steven; Elkader, Alexander K

    2011-12-13

    The annual "Roll Up the Rim to Win" contest at Tim Hortons restaurants provides customers the opportunity to win prizes. This study investigated win ratios, prize types and patterns of coffee consumption. PMID:22159361

  4. Tabulating Ingestion of Mocha Solution (TIMS): a longitudinal prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Staios, Gregory; Khan, Waqas U.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Sellings, Laurie H; De Sousa, Kim; Wang, Shan; Lo, Steven; Elkader, Alexander K.

    2011-01-01

    The annual “Roll Up the Rim to Win” contest at Tim Hortons restaurants provides customers the opportunity to win prizes. This study investigated win ratios, prize types and patterns of coffee consumption.

  5. Simulation study of China's net primary production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ZhiQiang; LIU JiYuan

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation net primary production (NPP) in China was studied us-ing three light-use efficiency models (CASA, GLOPEM and GEOLUE) and two mechanistic ecological process models (CEVSA, GEOPRO). Based on spatial and temporal analysis (e.g. monthly, seasonally and annually) of simulated results from ecological process mechanism models of CASA, GLOPEM and CEVSA, the following conclusions could be made: (1) during the last 20 years, NPP change in China followed closely the seasonal change of climate affected by monsoon with an overall trend of increas-ing; (2) simulated average seasonal NPP was: 0.571±0.2 GtC in spring, 1.573±0.4 GtC in summer, 0.6±0.2 GtC in autumn, and 0.12±0.1 GtC in winter. Average annual NPP in China was 2.864±1 GtC. All the five models were able to simulate seasonal and spatial features of biomass for different ecological types in China. This paper provides a baseline for China's total biomass production. It also offers a means of estimating the NPP change due to afforestation, reforestation, conservation and other human activities and could aid people in using for-mentioned carbon sinks to fulfill China's commitment of reducing greenhouse gases.

  6. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  7. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  8. KELT-9b: A Case Study in Dynamical Planet Ingestion by a Hot Host Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan; Gaudi, B. Scott; Beatty, Thomas G.; Zhou, George; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert; Crepp, Justin R.; Pepper, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Nearly all of the known transiting extra-solar planets orbit stars with masses similar to, or less massive than, the Sun. Such stars typically do not evolve substantially over their hydrogen-fusion lifetime of roughly 10 billion years or more. In contrast, stars much more massive than the Sun evolve on much shorter timescales, and thus the planets they host represent important test cases for how such systems evolve as their parent stars expand -- perhaps engulfing their planets. Most planetary systems orbiting such massive stars have been found around stars that have already exhausted their core hydrogen, cooled, swelled, and likely erased the knowledge of their progenitor close-in planetary systems. In contrast, KELT-9b is a "hot Jupiter" orbiting a star with a mass of 2.2 Msun. The star is still unevolved and therefore still very hot (surface temperature ~ 10,000 K) and therefore the planet is extremely hot. The planet is on a near-polar orbit, likely resulting in orbital precession that will be detectable within a few years. Given the extreme planet temperature, large planet-to-star radius ratio, large planetary atmospheric scale height, and short orbital period, this system is an exceptionally good target for follow-up studies of the planet's atmosphere, which may exhibit unusual photochemistry due to the extreme amounts of high-energy radiation it receives.

  9. Studies in Korea on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now very important to collect the data about Korean standard human to establish guidance and limits for radiation protection purposes. Even though it will take a long time to collect the required data, many important experimental plans and tools must be set up at the first stage of this research. Since Korean is one people and area itself is not too large to consider many geographical factors, representative sampling will not be so difficult. Human diets samples will be collected by the way of using market basket study based on Korean standard food consumption scheme reported by the society of foods and nutrition in Korea. Even the collection of human tissues samples is not easy, the tissue samples of sudden death people can be collected by the help of forensic pathologists as many as possible. The analytical techniques to be used for this project will be mainly INAA, ENAA and RNAA. Newly constructed 30 MW research reactor which will be used for this research has been tested and will be operated normally with a Cd-lined irradiation hole. (author)

  10. Vietnam: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Vietnam, estimations of only dietary intakes of trace elements were carried out. Samples of duplicate diets were collected from four different regions of Vietnam namely, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Vinhphu and Dalat. The diet mainly consisted of ready to eat food items collected from public eating houses, food shops and canteens etc. Five samples of total diet were also prepared. The total diet samples (cooked), included 22-24 items as raw materials, which were washed and then cooked in typical Vietnamese style which meant boiling, frying, grilling and stewing of the food materials. In all, 18 diet samples of both the duplicate and total cooked diet were collected. The samples were homogenised and dried in oven at 50-60 deg. C for 5-6 days and finally ground into powder. INAA and RNAA were employed for determining the concentrations of most of the trace elements in diet samples. For Th and U however, the analysis was carried out at NIRS, using ICP-AES and ICP-MS

  11. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  12. STUDY OF RURAL TOURISM IN TURPAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYIM Parhad; YANG De-gang; ZHANG Xiao-lei

    2005-01-01

    Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development,and has become a development tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s.Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has shaped, with the core of Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu of China. But in Xinjiang, the westem part of China, there are hardly any studies in this field in spite of its richness of tourism resources. In this paper, development of rural tourism is studied in Turpan of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. With its rich natural and cultural tourism resources, Turpan has become one of the pioneer tourism destinations in China. But same to the rural tourism development of the other areas' of China, rural tourism programs in Turpan mainly aimed at sightseeing activities, and little attention had been paid to the protection and exploitation of national minority culture-an important factor to satisfy both tourists demand and local economic development. However, this kind of rural tourism development policy is harmful on the long run. Because, many tourists seek tourist destinations that offer pleasant experiences related to not only the natural environment but also historic heritage and cultural patterns. The study suggests that on the base of government support in the long term, to enhance tourism training, to protect and exploit national minority culture are essential elements of rural tourism development in Turpan.

  13. Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

    OpenAIRE

    Luc J. C. Van Loon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strat...

  14. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  15. Irish Studies in China: The Widening Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusha McCormack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the furthest reach from Ireland – whether in terms of size or geography or culture – China seems an unlikely place for Irish Studies. Yet over the last few years, Irish Studies has emerged as an acknowledged academic field in several key Chinese universities. This essay looks at the obstacles to Irish Studies in China as well as Ireland’s importance, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, in opening up discussion of such domestic issues as the role of literature in establishing a new national identity. The many unexpected similarities between Irish and Chinese culture have ensured that translations of Irish writers such as Wilde, Yeats, Shaw, Beckett and especially Joyce have played a distinctive role in ushering a newly emerging Chinese nation into its own version of global modernity. 

  16. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  17. Studies on gallstone in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Sen Shi; Jing-Yun Ma; Li-Hong Zhu; Bo-Rong Pan; Wang Zuo-Ren; Lian-Sheng Ma

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODCTlON Gallstone is one of the common primary diseases of bile system. Chinese researchers have done comprehensive and thorough studies on it, but there are still some problems we have not solved. It is necessary to review the achievements we have made in this field recently, to summarize the experiences and find the tendency so as to provide a sound foundation for the researches in the new century. Due to the popularization of molecular biological research methods, a rapid development of modern imaging techniques and medical equipment, the basic and clinical studies of cholelithiasis have set foot on the fast lane. Studies on the cause of cholelithiasis formation and its prevention have covered areas from epidemiological investigation at macroscopical level to molecular biological researches at microcosmic level. Clinical studies include prevention and treatment of cholelithiasis with traditional Chinese medicine, popularization of micro-injury surgery,treatment of complicated calculus of bile duct, and other aspects.

  18. Sudden death following accidental ingestion of a button battery by a 17-month-old child: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinet, T; Gaulier, J M; Moesch, C; Bagur, J; Malicier, D; Maujean, G

    2016-09-01

    Cases of ingesting button batteries by children are not common clinical situations in forensic medicine. Although it can be a cause of death when associated with digestive perforations, no cases of sudden death have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 17-month-old girl who presented at home with haematemesis, followed by failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The child had been treated on two occasions for nasopharyngitis, 14 and 18 days prior to her death. The post-mortem scan revealed a radio-opaque foreign body in the oesophagus. The autopsy revealed the presence of a round button battery, 20 mm in diameter, blocking the lumen of the oesophagus in its upper third, associated with two parietal oesophageal ruptures opposite each other. There was limited digestive haemorrhage, but above all significant bronchial inhalation of blood. Toxicology analyses showed slightly increased blood levels of the heavy metals of which the battery was composed (lithium, chromium, manganese and molybdenum). The anatomopathological analyses confirmed the recent nature of these ruptures. Ingestions of button batteries localised at the level of the oesophagus are the cases linking to the highest risk of complications, particularly for batteries with a diameter of more than 20 mm and in children under the age of 4. The main difficulty in such clinical situations is identifying when the ingestion occurred, as more often than not, no witnesses are present. We discuss the advantages of anatomopathology and toxicology examinations targeted towards heavy metals in these forensic situations. PMID:26886106

  19. What Does Foreign Study Do for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID LUNDQUIST

    2011-01-01

    China now leads thc world in sending students to the United States for education.Recent reporting on the experiences of those young men and women should cause us to question me value this has for the Chinese nation.Foreign study often conjures up ideas of acquiring new skills and opening one's eyes.Not only may those notions be over blown,there are also signifieant downsides that we rarely hear about.Foreign study might be a bad bet for China,all things considered.Earlier this year Business Week reportcd on bait and switch tactics used by American and Chinese student recmiters.Those agencies profited by taking hefty fees,in some cases,collecting fees on scholarships won by students.China Daily told of Chinese families moving to the United States under the EB-5 visa program for wealthy investors,not always sensitive to the adjust ment difficulties of their children.Neglected by wealthy Chinese parents,the teenagers benefited neither academically nor culturally from immersion in a foreign environment.One boy notably isolated himsclf ”in a Chinese world"of entertainment and media,all within his bedroom.

  20. Studies on Logistics and Logistics Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoYixin

    2005-01-01

    For further pushing ahead with the development of China's logistics industry, the author, based on the status quo of China's logistics industry, affirms the achievements made in the development course of the industry of China. By studying various respects of the industry including the understanding of logistics, standards of technical terms, logistics technologies and management, the author analyzes the major problems existence in China's current logistics industry and puts forward the rationalization proposal.

  1. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has

  2. Study of Solar Corona in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xueshang; ZHAO Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    Considerable progress for the study of solar corona physics has been achieved by China's space physics community. It involves the theoretical study of coronal process of solar active phenomena, solar wind origin, acceleration of solar wind and coronal mass ejections, observational and numerical study of these problems and prediction methods of solar eruptive activities (such as flares/CMEs). Here is a brief summary of the progress in this area. Main progress is put upon the following three topics: corona and solar wind, numerical method, prediction method.

  3. Oesophagus obstruction due to ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Cegin, Muhammet Bilal; Sayir, Fuat; Gonullu, Hayriye; Olmez, Sehmuz

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body (FB) is a potentially serious condition. In children, the most common years for FB ingestion are from the age of 6 months to 6 years. FB ingestion also occurs in those with psychiatric disorders or mental retardation and among adult prisoners and alcoholics. Most ingested FBs spontaneously pass out of the body via the gastrointestinal system. An endoscopic or surgical approach is only needed if the object fails to progress through the gastrointestinal tract. All objects impacted in the oesophagus require urgent treatment. This study reports a case of multiple FB ingestion and provides a literature review. PMID:27122280

  4. Comparative Study of Copyright Trade between China and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ting

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the development of Chinese copyright trade by comparing copyright trade between China and UK and finding out on which aspects China lags behind UK. With the deepening of Chinese reform and opening up, China has improved its copyright system and accelerated the development of our copyright trade. However, there still is a big gap compared with UK and other developed countries. Based on the comparative study of copyright trade between UK and China, we draw a conclusion so as to promote the development of China's copyright trade. We mainly adopted comparative research method, statistical research method and Empirical research methods in this study. The results show there is a big gap between China and UK on legal system, management of intellectual property right and main information channels etc. China still has a long way to go.

  5. Study on Forest Fire Occurrence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China is not rich in natural forest sources. Owing to natural and historical factors, forest fires have long been frequenting China. Forest fire prevention is the most important of all. Forest fire prevention and controlling have long been held as a very important factor in our ecological plans. Taking china 's special geographical location, topography, climate and the distribution of forest sources into consideration, we have every reason to believe that forest fires in China have their own special env...

  6. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo How-Ran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

  7. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  8. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  9. Ingestion model of COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the aims of the COSYMA ingestion model design was to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic food chain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computing times they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the data library form. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuffs and their time integrals normalized to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident to allow for calculations taking account the food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the ingestion model: structure, methods and libraries used for a nuclear accident consequence assessment. For the dose and risk calculations, both the 'Local production and consumption approach', where the doses are calculated for an average adult member of the population, and 'Agricultural production approach, where the collective ingestion dose is estimated from the amount of activity deposited, the concentrations of radioactivity in the foodstuffs per unit deposit, the annual amount of produce taken from the agricultural production data grid and the committed dose equivalent per unit intake of activity are presented. (author)

  10. Validation of NeQuick 2 model over the Kenyan region through data ingestion and the model application in ionospheric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Cesaroni, C.

    2016-07-01

    NeQuick 2 is an ionospheric electron density model which provides electron density for a given location. Its output depends on solar activity expressed by 12-month running average sunspot number (R12) or solar radio flux (F10.7). To improve the model capabilities to reproduce electron density, data ingestion techniques have been implemented which replace the standard solar activity indices input with effective parameters that allow adapting a model to a certain data sets. In regions like the Sub-Saharan Africa where few observational data were available until recently, the performance of the ingested model needs some validation. This study investigates the performance of NeQuick 2 in the Kenya region, a low latitude region by assisting the model with total electron content measurement from a single GNSS station. These measurements are used to calculate effective ionization level parameters, which enable the difference between the measured and modeled TEC over the station to be less or equal to 0.5 TECU. The results show that by using computed effective parameters values as inputs in nearby stations, the model performance is greatly improved for both the low and moderate solar activity. This work has also demonstrated the capability of the model to describe spatial distribution of the total electron content in the low- latitude ionosphere.

  11. Case Study of China's Commercial Pork Value Chain, A

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Dinghuan Hu; Cheng Fang

    2005-01-01

    In China, with the cost of improved technology rising, surplus labor shrinking, and demand for food quality and safety increasing, it will be just a matter of time before the country's hog production sector will be commercialized like that of developed countries. However, even if China's cost of production converges to international levels, as shown in this case study, China may continue to retain some competitive advantage because of the labor-intensive nature of the marketing services invol...

  12. Tritium barrier material study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a tritium barrier material study in China. The program include : (1)development of resistance hydrogen stainless steel 316L and HR-1 by vacuum induction metallurgy (VIM) and electroslag refining (ER), (2)preparation of coating films (TiC, TiN, TiC+TiN, etc.) on the stainless steel surface by improved technology of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD), (3)experiments of hydrogen and tritium permeation through 316L SS and HR-1 SS as well as their coating materials at temperatures 300 to 500degC and pressures 500 to 1300Pa for tritium, but at 400 at 600degC and 103 to 105Pa for hydrogen. Since 1986, a lot of important progresses in both material research and permeation experiments have been made. (author)

  13. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  14. Introduction of China Society for Human Rights Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS) was founded in July 1993. It is the largest academic organization specializing in human rights studies in China, and a national non-governmental organization that has acquired consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

  15. Changes in the Daphnia magna midgut upon ingestion of copper oxide nanoparticles: a transmission electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Arbeille, Brigitte; Prensier, Gérard; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles

    2011-01-01

    This work is a follow-up of our previous paper (Heinlaan et al., 2008. Chemosphere 71, 1308-1316) where we showed about 50-fold higher acute toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) compared to bulk CuO to water flea Daphnia magna. In the current work transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine potential time-dependent changes in D. magna midgut epithelium ultrastructure upon exposure to CuO NPs compared to bulk CuO at their 48 h EC(50) levels: 4.0 and 175 mg CuO/L, respectively. Special attention was on potential internalization of CuO NPs by midgut epithelial cells. Ingestion of both CuO formulations by daphnids was evident already after 10 min of exposure. In the midgut lumen CuO NPs were dispersed whereas bulk CuO was clumped. By the 48th hour of exposure to CuO NPs (but not to equitoxic concentrations of bulk CuO) the following ultrastructural changes in midgut epithelium of daphnids were observed: protrusion of epithelial cells into the midgut lumen, presence of CuO NPs in circular structures analogous to membrane vesicles from holocrine secretion in the midgut lumen. Implicit internalization of CuO NPs via D. magna midgut epithelial cells was not evident however CuO NPs were no longer contained within the peritrophic membrane but located between the midgut epithelium microvilli. Interestingly, upon exposure to CuO NPs bacterial colonization of the midgut occurred. Ultrastructural changes in the midgut of D. magna upon exposure to CuO NPs but not to bulk CuO refer to its nanosize-related adverse effects. Time-dependent solubilisation of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the test medium was quantified by recombinant Cu-sensor bacteria: by the 48th hour of exposure to bulk CuO, the concentration of solubilised copper ions was 0.05 ± 0.01 mg Cu/L that was comparable to the acute EC(50) value of Cu-ions to D. magna (48 h CuSO(4) EC(50) = 0.07 ± 0.01 mg Cu/L). However, in case of CuO NPs, the solubilised Cu-ions 0.01 ± 0.001 mg Cu/L, explained only part of

  16. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (I, Cr, Sr, Th, U etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection for population in Vietnam we need to select representative population groups. This can be done using some basic information about relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical factors of Vietnam. It is also very importance to know the average food consumption, a characteristics and nutritive value of Vietnamese diet and the daily nutritional intake for this population groups. A general discussion have been made on proposal of sample collection, using analytical techniques to determine the elements of interest. There are also some primary results of analysis of iodine content in different kinds of foodstuffs in natural water and human urine. (author)

  17. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, I, Sr, U, Th etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of our investigation work carried out from November 1996 to April 1998 in the field of 'Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection'. This work related to the Co-ordinated Research Programme for Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2. The data reported are the daily individual intake of the elements of interest for some different socio-economic groups of Vietnamese population living in Hanoi, Hochiminh city Vinh Phu and Dalat areas. The obtained results showed that the average content for four elements (Cs, I, U, Th) in Vietnamese dietary intakes slightly changes from area to area in dependence on geographical, natural and socio-economical conditions, on type and composition of foods. (author)

  18. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna. PMID:27574986

  19. Characteristics of the population studies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a brief historical sketch of the origins of Chinese population studies and provides 8 characteristics of the post-1978 advances made in population science. Chinese scholars were among the 1st to research population issues but ceased their work in the 18th century. In the late 19th century scholars used the theories of Thomas Malthus to explain population growth. This research peaked in the 1st half of the 20th century and continued in the Malthusian tradition and sociological point of view. Soviet theories on population were popular in the 1930's and 40's, and adopted by the administration with the founding of New China in 1949. Sociologically oriented scholars were criticized, even for Marxist views. The 1978 3rd plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party adopted a policy which emphasized the quest for truth from facts, future planning, and unification. Between 1978-88 huge advances were made in population studies which attracted world attention and contributed to solving China's population problems. Demographic societies were founded at the national, provincial, and municipal levels. Institutions of higher education formed professional departments. Training centers were formed for government family planning officers, and exchanges of students and scholars were made with other countries. An extensive network of party schools and FP departments contributed to population studies. The 8 characteristics which contributed to the originality of the effort were as follows: 1) A blend of Western and Marxist theory was developed. 2) Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted, which surpassed the boring and abstract Soviet research and the Western research short on sociological analyses. 3) Theoretical research was combined with practical research, which lead to the publication of a 30 volume series. 4) Population studies have utilized the theories and methodologies of other related sciences such as economics

  20. Plutonium incorporation through ingestion by young animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine whether animals nursed by dams with a 239Pu burden would themselves acquire plutonium showed that rats incorporated about 0.019 percent of the amount injected into the dam, mice incorporated about 0.11 percent, and cats about 0.28 percent. Plutonium obtained in this fashion was avidly retained by bone and resulted in the appearance of two osteogenic sarcomas in a seven and one-half-year-old cat with an estimated terminal body burden of 0.23 to 0.27 μCi. In comparing the incorporation of ingested Pu-milk and Pu-citrate by rats of different ages, it was found that nurslings incorporated more than weanlings and weanlings more than adults. Also, 1.6 to 3 times as much plutonium was incorporated from ingested Pu-milk as from ingested Pu-citrate

  1. [Plasma levels of psoralens after celery ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gral, N; Beani, J C; Bonnot, D; Mariotte, A M; Reymond, J L; Amblard, P

    1993-01-01

    Psoralens are photosensitizing substances present in many vegetables, some of which are routinely consumed. These vegetables are responsible for contact phytophotodermatitis, but it was agreed that they did not produce photodermatitis when taken orally. Ljunggren has recently questioned this concept by reporting a case of phototoxic accident which occurred after ingestion of 450 grams of celery roots (Apium graveolens). In a study in healthy volunteers we looked for psoralens in blood and analyzed the cutaneous photosensitivity by the minimal phototoxic doses (MPD) method, after ingestion of celery in large amounts (500 grams and more). Plasma concentrations of psoralens were inexistant in all subjects and at all sampling times, and no phototoxic reaction was detected by MPD. Celery roots, therefore, do not seem to be photosensitizing, even after ingestion in large amounts, but they might increase the risk of phototoxicity in PUVA-therapy. The same applies to fennel and parsnip. PMID:8161113

  2. The Study of Foreign Languages in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Thomas F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses contemporary foreign-language teaching in China. The foreign languages taught, including Chinese dialects, are discussed, and observations of classes are reported. Teaching methods, textbooks used, and university curriculum are discussed. (RM)

  3. What Does Foreign Study Do for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID; LUNDQUIST

    2011-01-01

    China now leads the world in sending students to the United States for education.Recent reporting on the experiences of those young men and women should cause us to question the value this has for the

  4. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  5. Study of space mutation breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed

  6. Comparison on the Developmental Trends between Chinese Students Studying Abroad and Foreign Students Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a new period of political stability, cultural prosperity, and social harmony since its reform and opening-up in the late 1970s. At the same time, the number of Chinese students studying abroad (CSSA) and foreign students studying in China (FSSC) has grown rapidly and steadily in the past three decades. With China's…

  7. A review of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen J; Shi S

    2011-01-01

    Jing Chen, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent internationally, and constitute a substantial social and economic burden for patients, their families, and society. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the etiology of anxiety disorders in China in the last decade. We discuss the findings of these studies, and compare them with the results of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disord...

  8. Wave Energy Study in China: Advancements and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游亚戈; 郑永红; 沈永明; 吴必军; 刘荣

    2003-01-01

    The history and current status of research and development of wave energy in the world is briefly introduced. The main problems existing in these studies are pointed out. The description is focused on the current status and the advancements achieved in China. After analysis of the wave energy resources and practical situations in China, it is pointed out that the studies on wave energy should be not only concentrated on the conversion efficiency and costs of wave energy devices, but also focused on the technology of independent operation and stable output of electricity. Finally, the perspectives of application of wave energy in China are discussed.

  9. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity are presented, namely the hypothalamic induced monosodium glutamate model, the Zucker genetic model, and the dietary model. The principles of brain microdialysis are also presented, the technique applied to obtain representative samples of the extracellular fluid of brain sites involved in feeding control. The microdialysate levels of serotonin, an important anorexigenic neurotransmitter, are determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The immunoblot technique (Western blot is used to determine hypothalamic levels of proteins relevant to the anorexigenic effect of serotonin and to analyze the acute activation of the insulin signaling cascade in the hypothalamus. The final section addresses the potential applications of proteomics in the study of the central control of feeding.O sistema nervoso central controla a ingestão e o gasto de energia por meio de um complexo circuito de neurotransmissores e neuromoduladores. É de grande interesse entender a relevância fisiológica destes sistemas e o papel que desempenham nos distúrbios da obesidade. No presente artigo, discutem-se alguns dos métodos que têm sido utilizados no laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, em estudos neste campo. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns modelos de obesidade experimental em ratos, como a obesidade hipotalâmica induzida por glutamato monossódico, o modelo genético Zucker e também obesidades induzidas por dieta. Comenta

  10. Significance of ocean drilling and China's paleooceanographic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tungsheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ Many significant progresses of earth science in the mid to late 20th century were closely related to the international Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP). The sedimentary record obtained from underneath several thousands of seawater opened a new window for mankind to understand the Earth and its evolution. The Chinese earth science community learned the DSDP through the introduction of the plate tectonic theory in the 1970s, but deep-sea study remained remote and unrealistic for the then China. The onset of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) in 1985 triggered the hope for China to be involved in the international paleoceanographic studies. With the establishment of an "Ocean Drilling Program Committee of China", the aim was to bring China onto the new international frontier of science, but little could be done because of the lack of necessary conditions at the time.

  11. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Coordinated Research Program on Reference Asian Man (RAM) was conducted for a period of six years. The study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely: (1) anthropometric measurements, (2) organ mass measurements, (3) nutritional and dietary intake, and (4) pulmonary and water balance studies. Based on the research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appear to be important aspects of the RAM. Information to be generated from the elemental analysis of food and tissue would be used to characterize the intake, retention and release of radioactive elements coming from different population groups. This study also aims to establish the elemental composition profile of the average Filipino using simple and accurate methods of measurements. This report will present the protocol which is based to the extent possible on prescribed procedures required for the study. A standardized Protocol to be used in the study is important since stable elements are present only in trace quantities in biological samples of interest. The procedures presented in this document include: collection of one day diet samples and tissue samples (lung, liver, skeletal muscle, thyroid, bone and kidney) from average healthy adult Filipino. The sample treatment and preparation, analytical measurements, data evaluation and reporting will complete said protocol. The elements that are of importance to radiation protection are iodine, cesium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. The essential minor elements are calcium, potassium and sodium. Trace elements like copper. manganese, iron, selenium and zinc will also be included in the analysis. Concentrations of common toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium and lead may likewise be reported in this study. (author)

  12. Recommended ingestion of indispensable amino acids to young men . A study using stable isotopes, plasmatic amino acids and nitrogen balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously stated that the minimum physiological recommendations for the indispensable amino acids in health adults, as proposed by FAO/WHO/UNU in 1985, are far too low, except for the methionine. An amino acid stable isotopic kinetic study was conducted to seek further experimental support to this hypothesis. Twenty healthy young men received an l-amino acid based diet, supplying 140 mg N.kg-1.d-1, patterned on egg protein for 1 week, then for 3 weeks either i) a pattern based on current international recommendations (FAO diet, n=7), ii) a the tentative Laboratory of Human Nutrition of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, new amino acid recommendation pattern (MIT diet, n=7) or iii) again the egg hen pattern (EGG diet, n=6). All subjects were again studied for one final, consecutive week of the egg diet. At the end of the initial week, at the first and third week with the three experimental diets,and after three days following the return of the egg diet, an 8 h primed continuous intravenous infusion with l-13 C-leucine was conducted (3 h, fast, 5 h fed - while subjects received hourly meals supplying the equivalent of 5/12 total daily intake). Estimation of leucine balance were carried out with measurements plasma free amino acids changes. Daily nitrogen balances were obtained through the study. Interpretation of plasma amino acids profile, and changes of leucine kinetics balances, indicated that the FAO diet was not able to maintain amino acids homeostasis whereas the MIT and the egg diets sustained body amino acids equilibrium with a positive amino acid balance. nitrogen balances tended to be more negative with the FAO diet but failed to show statistically significant differences among the three diets. The finding point out that it would be prudent to use the new, tentative recommended amino acid pattern (MIT diet 0 as the minimum physiological amino acid needs of healthy human adults (author)

  13. Advances in ground motion studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许力生; 俞言祥; 陈运泰

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the works in the processing of strong ground motion data, the factors affecting strong ground motion, the modeling of strong ground motion and the calculating of broad-band response spectrum which have been done recent years by engineering seismologists and seismologists of China. In addition, we think back to the international cooperation in strong ground motion of the recent years and make some expectations for the future.

  14. Preliminary isotope studies of Poyang Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyang Lake is the largest fresh water lake in China, and the largest wetland protection area in Asia. The lake serves as the largest buffer for the Yangtze River as well. In order to make better understanding of the water dynamics, water balance, water chemistry, and the relations between lake, rivers and groundwater, isotope investigation has been carried out systematically for one and a half hydrological years. The paper will report the preliminary results from this program. (author)

  15. Biases and best approaches for assessing debris ingestion in sea turtles, with a case study in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Paolo; Freggi, Daniela; Paduano, Valentina; Oliverio, Marco

    2016-09-15

    In a sample of 567 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the central Mediterranean, debris occurrence varied according to methods and turtle source, and was up to 80% in pelagic turtles. Frequencies of plastic types, size and color are also reported. These results and a critical review of 49 studies worldwide indicate that: (i) the detected occurrence of plastic (% turtles) is affected by several factors (e.g., necropsy/feces, ecological zone, type and date of finding, captivity period for feces collection), (ii) mixed dataset and opportunistic approaches provide results which are biased , not comparable, and ultimately of questionable value, (iii) only turtles assumed to have had a normal feeding behaviour at the time of capture or death should be considered, (iv) turtle foraging ecology and possible selectivity may undermine the use of turtles as indicator species for monitoring marine litter, as recently proposed for the Mediterranean. PMID:27321803

  16. An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

  17. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and whey protein isolates enhance PGC-1α mRNA expression: a randomised, single blind, cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Karen M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whey protein isolates (WPI supplementation is known to improve resistance training adaptations. However, limited information is available on the effects of WPI plus carbohydrate (CHO supplementation on endurance training adaptations. Method Six endurance trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 29 ± 4 years, weight 74 ± 2 kg, VO2 max 63 ± 3 ml oxygen. kg-1. Min-1, height 183 ± 5 cm; mean ± SEM were randomly assigned to one of two dietary interventions in a single blind cross over design; CHO or CHO + WPI. Each dietary intervention was followed for 16 days which included the last 2 days having increased CHO content, representing a CHO loading phase. The dietary interventions were iso-caloric and carbohydrate content matched. On completion of the dietary intervention, participants performed an exercise bout, consisting of cycling for 60 min at 70% VO2 max, followed by time trial to exhaustion at 90% VO2 max and recovered in the laboratory for 6 hours. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were taken at various time points at rest and through the exercise trial and recovery. Results Compared to CHO, CHO + WPI increased plasma insulin during recovery at 180 mins (P Conclusion This study showed co-ingestion of CHO + WPI may have beneficial effects on recovery and adaptations to endurance exercise via, increased insulin response and up regulation of PGC-1α mRNA expression.

  18. Effects of meat cooking, and of ingested amount, on protein digestion speed and entry of residual proteins into the colon: a study in minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Bax

    Full Text Available The speed of protein digestion impacts on postprandial protein anabolism. After exercise or in the elderly, fast proteins stimulate protein synthesis more efficiently than slow proteins. It has been shown that meat might be a source of fast proteins. However, cooking temperature, acting on the macrostructure and microstructure of the meat could affect both the speed, and efficiency, of protein digestion. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effect of meat cooking on digestion parameters, in the context of a complete meal. Six minipigs fitted with an ileal cannula and an arterial catheter were used. In order to measure the true ileal digestibility, tested meat was obtained from a calf, the muscle proteins of which were intrinsically labelled with (15N-amino acids. Three cooking temperatures (60, 75 and 95°C; core temperature for 30 min, and three levels of intake (1, 1.45, and 1.90 g protein/kg body weight were tested. Following meat ingestion, ileal digesta and arterial blood were collected over a 9-h period. The speed of digestion, evaluated from the kinetics of amino acid appearance in blood within the first 3 h, was greater for the cooking temperature of 75°C, than for 60 or 95°C. The true ileal digestibility, which averaged 95%, was not affected by cooking temperature or by the level of meat intake. The amino acid composition of the digesta flowing at the ileum was not affected by cooking temperature. These results show that cooking temperature can modulate the speed of meat protein digestion, without affecting the efficiency of the small intestinal digestion, and consequently the entry of meat protein residues into the colon.

  19. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Lanza Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  20. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavender, G; Bird, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer...

  2. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  3. Comparative study of forensic psychiatric system between China and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gangqin; Gutheil, Thomas G; Hu, Zeqing

    2016-01-01

    Laws and regulations about the forensic psychiatric systems in China and America were compared, and suggestions for improving the forensic psychiatric system of China were provided. There are many differences regarding the role of the forensic psychiatrist, the initiation of the assessment and the admission of expert opinion because of elements in the legal systems in China and America. The Chinese system has the advantages of objectivity, cost saving and high efficiency; but it has deficiencies in procedural justice and the admission of expert opinion. China can persist with the current system while taking measures to give more rights to the litigants to participate in their assessment, and while improving the quality and utility of the expert opinion; however, this review article will compare broadly the two systems without addressing human rights issues or procedural justice issues, nor will it presume to address the entirety of Chinese systems. In addition, China is developing its legal system for dealing with the mentally ill defendant in situations involving the criminal justice system and civil commitment. Although China enacted new laws regarding the mandatory treatment for the mentally ill, both in criminal and civil systems, there remain many aspects to be improved, including but not limited to a system of review of the decision to detain a patient on psychiatric grounds, and the need for provisions in the laws preventing indefinite detention. From this viewpoint, America's laws and regulations are instructive for us, in matters such as the method of dealing with the mentally ill defendant who is "incompetent to stand trial", "not guilty only by reason of insanity" or "guilty but mentally ill". The conditional release of the committed mentally ill person and the special programs in the forensic security hospital are all worthy of study by China in order to manage the mentally ill offender and to reduce the recidivism rate. PMID:27292971

  4. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, a...

  5. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Levy, J.I.; Hammitt, J.K.; Evans, J.S. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health, Landmark Center

    2003-02-01

    Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. It was found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10{sup -5}, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10{sup -6}. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. The authors also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate.

  6. Study on self organized criticality of China power grid blackouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the complex system theory and the concept of self organized criticality (SOC) theory, the mechanism of China power grid blackout is studied by analyzing the blackout data in the China power system from 1981 to 2002. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail. The analysis of scaled window variance and rescaled range statistics of the time series show moderate long time correlations. The blackout data seem consistent with SOC; the results obtained show that SOC dynamics may play an important role in the dynamics of power systems blackouts. It would be possible to propose novel approaches for understanding and controlling power systems blackouts

  7. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  8. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  9. Value Differences between Generations in China: A Study in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaming; Wang, Xun

    2010-01-01

    The 1990 World Values Survey demonstrated that industrialization promotes a shift from traditional to secular-rational values. Drawing data from a sample survey of 2,350 respondents in Shanghai, this study examines the impact of social change on people's values in China. Specifically, we are interested in (1) are there significant differences in…

  10. Undergraduate Students' Motivation and Engagement in China: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenyan

    2016-01-01

    Viewing student engagement as a multidimensional construct, this study explored the motivation and engagement of undergraduate students in China. A sample of 1131 students from 10 full-time universities in Beijing participated in a survey. The results showed that the Motivation and Engagement Scale for university/college students is a promising…

  11. A Comparative Study on Flood Management in China and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This study examines flood management concepts and practices in China and Japan during different periods of time in history and the differences in the two countries’ current management of flood retarding basins. It reveals that during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–24 AD, China proposed to redirect a river course to gain sufficient flood retarding capacity, and this same concept was realized, either coincidentally or intentionally, during the Edo period of Japan (1603–1868. In modern times, however, the management of flood retarding basins differs fundamentally between China and Japan. In addition, this study investigates the differences in emergency evacuation practices between China and Japan. This is the first study to highlight the link between a Chinese concept and a Japanese practice that are separated by more than 1000 years.

  12. Understanding the Unique Characteristics of Suicide in China: National Psychological Autopsy Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG-HUAN YANG; MICHAEL R. PHILLIPS; MAI-GENG ZHOU; LI-JUN WANG; YAN-PING ZHANG; DONG XU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of suicides in the four main demographic groups: urban males, urban females,rural males and rural females in order to help clarify the demographic pattern of suicides in China. Methods A detailed psychological autopsy survey instrument was independently administered to 895 suicide victims in family members and close associates from 23 geographically representative locations from around the country. Results Pesticide ingestion accounted for 58% (519) of all suicides and 61% (318/519) of deaths were due to unsuccessful medical resuscitation. A substantial proportion (37%) of suicide victims did not have a mental illness. Among the 563 victims with mental illness, only 13%(76/563) received psychiatric treatment. Compared to other demographic groups, young rural females who died from suicide had the highest rate of pesticide ingestion (79%), the lowest prevalence of mental illness (39%), and the highest acute stress from precipitating life events just prior to the suicide. Conclusion Many suicides in China are impulsive acts of deliberate self-harm following acute interpersonal crises. Prevention of suicides in China must focus on improving awareness of psychological problems, improving mental health services, providing alternative social support networks for managing acute interpersonal conflicts, limiting access to pesticides, and improving the resuscitation skills of primary care providers.

  13. Recent Advances in Predictability Studies in China (1999-2002)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆穆; 段晚锁; 丑纪范

    2004-01-01

    Since the last International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) General Assembly (1999), the predictability studies in China have made further progress during the period of 1999-2002. Firstly, three predictability sub-problems in numerical weather and climate prediction are classified, which are concerned with the maximum predictability time, the maximum prediction error, and the maximum allowable initial error, and then they are reduced into three nonlinear optimization problems. Secondly, the concepts of the nonlinear singular vector (NSV) and conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) are proposed,which have been utilized to study the predictability of numerical weather and climate prediction. The results suggest that the nonlinear characteristics of the motions of atmosphere and oceans can be revealed by NSV and CNOP. Thirdly, attention has also been paid to the relations between the predictability and spatial-temporal scale, and between the model predictability and the machine precision, of which the investigations disclose the importance of the spatial-temporal scale and machine precision in the study of predictability. Also the cell-to-cell mapping is adopted to analyze globally the predictability of climate,which could provide a new subject to the research workers. Furthermore, the predictability of the summer rainfall in China is investigated by using the method of correlation coefficients. The results demonstrate that the predictability of summer rainfall is different in different areas of China. Analysis of variance, which is one of the statistical methods applicable to the study of predictability, is also used to study the potential predictability of monthly mean temperature in China, of which the conclusion is that the monthly mean temperature over China is potentially predictable at a statistical significance level of 0.10. In addition,in the analysis of the predictability of the T106 objective analysis/forecasting field, the variance and

  14. Recent Progress in Studies of Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyu; DING Yihui; ZHAO Zongci; ZHENG Jingyun; WU Tongwen; TANG Guoli; XU Ying

    2012-01-01

    An overview of basic research on climate change in recent years in China is presented. In the past 100 years in China,average annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) has increased at a rate ranging from 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 to 0.12℃ (10 yr)-1.This warming is more evident in northern China and is more significant in winter and spring.In the past 50 years in China,at least 27% of the average annual warming has been caused by urbanization.Overall,no significant trends have been detected in annual and/or summer precipitation in China on a whole for the past 100 years or 50 years. Both increases and decreases in frequencies of major extreme climate events have been observed for the past 50 years. The frequencies of extreme temperature events have generally displayed a consistent pattern of change across the country,while the frequencies of extreme precipitation events have shown only regionally and seasonally significant trends.The frequency of tropical cyclone landfall decreased slightly,but the frequency of sand/dust storms decreased significantly.Proxy records indicate that the annual mean SAT in the past a few decades is the highest in the past 400-500 years in China,but it may not have exceeded the highest level of the Medieval Warm Period (1000-1300 AD).Proxy records also indicate that droughts and floods in eastern China have been characterized by continuously abnormal rainfall periods,with the frequencies of extreme droughts and floods in the 20th century most likely being near the average levels of the past 2000 years.The attribution studies suggest that increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to be a main factor for the observed surface warming nationwide.The Yangtze River and Huaihe River basins underwent a cooling trend in summer over the past 50 years,which might have been caused by increased aerosol concentrations and cloud cover.However,natural climate variability might have been a main driver for the mean and

  15. A study of 210Pb and 210Po levels in various food components and computation of ingestion dose to the resident community at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210Pb is a member of 238U series and a beta (Emax: 0.017 MeV) and gamma (0.047 MeV) emitting isotope with half-life of 22 years. 210Po, the last radioactive member of 238U series, is an alpha emitter (5.3 MeV) having a half-life of 138.4 days which reportedly delivers a significantly high dose to human population via. ingestion route. According to Clayton and Bradley (1995) about 18% of the average internal dose to the population is due to ingestion of 210Po along with its precursor 210Pb. The main source of 210Pb and 210Po in the environment is 222Rn gas, a daughter product of 226Ra, which diffuses into the atmosphere from rocks and soil where it ultimately decay to 210Pb, 210Bi and then to 210Po in the atmosphere. 210Pb and 210Po attach themselves further electrostatically to aerosol particles, transported back to earth's surface to soil, plant and aquatic environments by dry deposition and washout and both are directly taken up by plants, either from the soil through the root system or by foliar sorption from the air. Besides these radionuclide are also generated in plants from 226Ra assimilated from soil and water. This paper presents the distribution of 210Pb and 210Po activities in food of plant origin and food of animal origin in addition to salt and drinking water collected in and around Kalpakkam. The ingestion dose received due to the intake of 210Pb and 210Po via. dietary sources by the public at Kalpakkam, was computed using the 210Pb and 210Po activity data in the analysed matrices

  16. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  17. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter...

  18. 中国土地利用研究%Land use studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱会义; 吕昌河; 李秀彬

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the current situation of China's land use and land use changes,major driving forces,and their impacts on the environment,through a review on land use studies in the past decades in China.

  19. Style Sheet: Frontiers of Literary Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Manuscripts submitted to Frontiers of Literary Studies in China for possible publication should be sent to scjr@hep.edu.cn. Since the identity of the author is not made known to the readers, authors should avoid identifying themselves in notes. A cover sheet with the title and the author's name should be provided; only the title should appear on the first page of the text. Likewise the identity of the readers will not be made known to the author.

  20. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Wang; Ping Liu; Xueliang Yuan; Xingxing Cheng; Rujian Ma; Ruimin Mu; Jian Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC) has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that t...

  1. Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyu Liu

    2011-01-01

    Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna Sinica ― Invertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna Sinica ― Vertebrata are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinicarum. Results of stud...

  2. Waste Incineration Plant in Wuhan, China : A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Sofia; Wänn, Annicka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study has been to investigate different conditions necessary when building a solid waste incineration plant with power generation in Wuhan, China. The conditions have been divided into four different main topics; situation in Wuhan, technology, law system, and economics. The section of the situation of Wuhan deals with the three different types of solid waste; municipal, industrial and hazardous waste. This section also identifies the climate of Wuhan and how t...

  3. Studies of osteoporosis in Shanghai, China, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Hologic QDR-2000 DEXA, the BMD determinations of subjects suffering from osteoporosis and normal persons are in progress in Shanghai, China. A primary correlation between the kidney disease and the osteoporosis has been obtained. The studies of multi elemental distribution in cancellous bone of femoral head are also performed by PIXE. According to IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), a further working arrangement has been planned. (author)

  4. Measuring Rural Poverty in China: a Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuqing Wang; Shujie Yao; Juan Liu; Xian Xin; Xiumei Liu; Wenjuan Ren

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures rural poverty in Hubei Province and Inner Mongolia in China. The poverty lines we derived by Ravallion's method differ from the official Chinese poverty lines. The official pan-country poverty line underestimates rural poverty in Hubei Province and overestimates rural poverty in Inner Mongolia. Poverty determinants are estimated by Logit as well as Probit models. The study notes that factors such as living in a mountainous area, lack of better irrigation conditions, a larg...

  5. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Jiayou

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and biocides. At the same time, the availability of resources {e.g. agricultural land) decreases. The objective of this study is to operationalize a methodology to assess the effectiveness of new crop and li...

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS AND STRENGTH STUDY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the past half century China has developed and formed her own system of high temperature materials for power, automobile and aero-engine industries in the temperature range from 550 ℃ to 1 100 ℃. These high temperature materials include heat-resisting steels, iron-base, nickel-iron-base and nickel-base superalloys. Some achievements in high temperature strength study, new technologies and new alloy development are also discussed.

  7. China:a key region for marine biodiversity studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ There are nearly 24,000 validated marine species in China,accounting for one sixth of the world total,which makes the country a key area for studies of marine biodiversity in the world,says Dr.lan Poiner,chair of the International Scientific Steering Committee of the Census of Marine Life (CoML),the largestever global marine biology research project.

  8. Observation Study of Aerosol Radiative Properities over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jietai; LI Chengcai

    2006-01-01

    With a simplified radiation balance model, study is performed of aerosol direct radiation forcing in relation to its optical properties and surface reflectance, indicating that with the thickened aerosol layer the earth-atmosphere system may increase or weaken the solar radiation albedo, depending upon different combinations of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, ω0), asymmetry factor (g), and surface albedo (αg)rather than relying directly on the aerosol optical depth (δ), which has its value just in proportion to the changed range of albedo alone.As indicated by the model results, systematic observations of aerosol radiative properties are required to make quantitative study of aerosol direct radiative forcing. Observational research of the properties has been undertaken based on ground and space measurements over China, including ground-based sunphotometeraerosol optical depth (AOD), nephelometer-aerosol scattering coefficients, aethalometer-aerosol absorption coefficients, and MODIS products-retrieved AOD. The satellite retrieved AOD is validated against in situ sun photometer measured AOD, ind icating that for eastern China remote sensing given AODs are acceptable owing mainly to lower surface reflectance there whereas for poor vegetation in the north of China the surface reflectance may be underestimated in AOD retrieval. However, appropriate modification of the scheme of aerosol remote sensing is likely to improve the retrieval accuracy. The aerosol single scattering albedo in dry condition is around 0.80 from surface-measured scattering and absorption coefficients. It requires further studies based on more observations to improve our understanding of the issue.

  9. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V˙O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  10. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Hammitt, J.K.; Evans, J.S. [Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures and increased mortality and morbidity risk. Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model-CALPUFF. We found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10{sup -5}, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10{sup -6}. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. We also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate. Our analysis shows that this approach is applicable to a developing country and it provides reasonable population exposure estimates. (author)

  11. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan I.; Hammitt, James K.; Evans, John S.

    Epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures and increased mortality and morbidity risk. Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model—CALPUFF. We found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10 -5, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10 -6. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. We also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate. Our analysis shows that this approach is applicable to a developing country and it provides reasonable population exposure estimates.

  12. Education Abroad in China: Literature Review of Study Abroad Program Types, Outcomes and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brett

    2013-01-01

    While there has been an increase in students studying abroad in China, this increase has not been seen in the respective number of articles published in scholarly journals on education abroad in China. This paper summarizes articles from journals on the types of education abroad programs in China, organized by topic, and by the outcomes and…

  13. Study on ecological migration in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abliz Yusup; Osman Niyaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper expounds on the meaning of migration and the status quo of studies at home and abroad on migration and ecological migration. It focuses on the discussion of the necessity of ecological migration in Xinjiang, and the problems faced by the ecological emigrants, such as the lack of water, the serious land salination and basification,sand storms, and the adaptation to the environment. Besides, it probes into the problems existing in the ecological migration, including the unscientific design of the moving project, the defects of the reclamation work, and the irrational treatment of the relation between ecological migration and regional development. Based on this, we put forward some suggestions about and countermeasures against those problems.

  14. A review of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jing Chen, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent internationally, and constitute a substantial social and economic burden for patients, their families, and society. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the etiology of anxiety disorders in China in the last decade. We discuss the findings of these studies, and compare them with the results of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders outside China.Method: A literature search was conducted using the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals Database, the Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and PubMed, from 1989 to April 2009. We selected neuroimaging studies in which all participants and researchers were Chinese.Results: Twenty-five studies fit our inclusion criteria. Nine studies examined general anxiety disorder (GAD and/or panic disorder (PD, eight examined obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and eight examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Our literature review revealed several general findings. First, reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF was found in the frontal lobe and temporal lobe in patients with GAD and PD compared with healthy controls. Second, when viewing images with negative and positive valence, relatively increased or decreased activation was found in several brain areas in patients with GAD and PD, respectively. Third, studies with positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS imaging revealed that OCD patients exhibited hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion in some brain regions compared with healthy controls. Neuroimaging studies of PTSD indicate that the hippocampal volume and the N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA level and the NAA/creatine ratio in the hippocampus are decreased in patients relative to controls.Conclusion: Neuroimaging studies within and outside China have provided

  15. New advances in pollination biology and the studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pollination biology is the study of the various biological features in relation to the event of pollen transfer. It is one of the central concerns of plant reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology. In this paper, we attempt to introduce the main advances and some new interests in pollination biology and make a brief review of the research work that has been done in China in recent years. We also give some insights into the study that we intend to carry out in this field in the future.

  16. Progress in glial cell studies in some laboratories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system(CNS) consist of a heterogeneous population of cell types,each characterized by distinct morphological features,physiological properties,and specific markers.In contrast to the previous view that glial cells were passive elements in the brain,accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells are active participants in various brain functions and brain disorders.This review summarizes recent progress of glial cell studies from several groups in China,ranging from studies about the mechanisms of neuron-glia crosstalking to investigations on the roles of glial cells in various CNS disorders.

  17. Grit selection in waterfowl and how it determines exposure to ingested lead shot in Mediterranean wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Mateo, Rafael; Green, Andy J.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Lefranc, H.; Mentaberre, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl ingest lead shot because they confuse it with grit, but there has been limited study of differences among species and locations. The spatial and interspecific variation in the quantity and size composition of ingested grit and in the ingestion of lead shot by eight waterfowl species in the three main wintering areas in the western Mediterranean (Do˜nana, Ebro Delta and Camargue) was investigated. Variation in the mass of grit in the gizzard was r...

  18. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErinKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  19. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate. PMID:20065833

  20. A Study of Impacts on China Post after China Joins the World Trade Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China's about to join World Trade Organization (WTO) which means the Chinese post markets will be gradually open to the world, which will certainly have great impacts on its many industries and enterprises. As one of the state enterprises, China post will certainly be affected on many traditional and new postal services that it provides. In this paper we discuss the impacts on the three aspects: China post reform, postal market and postal management.

  1. Micropinocytic Ingestion of Glycosylated Albumin by Isolated Microvessels: Possible Role in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stuart K.; Devenny, James J.; Bitensky, Mark W.

    1981-04-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and nonenzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentration of 6% with respect to total albumin (the level found in ``non diabetic'' serum), only glycosylated albumin was ingested. At higher concentrations of glycosylated albumin (those found in diabetic serum), both albumin and glycosylated albumin are ingested. Glycosylation of endothelial membrane components results in stimulated ingestion of glycosylated albumin, persistent exclusion of unmodified albumin, and unaltered micropinocytic ingestion of native ferritin. These results indicate that nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum albumin may result in rapid vesicle-mediated extravasation of albumin. Chronic microvascular leakage of glycosylated albumin could contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

  2. MARKET STRATEGY STUDY – CASE UNIVERTICAL CHINA CO., LTD

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Univertical China is a foreign invested enterprise in China, it has good products and market reputation but the market share increasing is not satisfied by the shareholder. Since the author has been worked for Univertical China for 3 years therefore Univertical China consigned the author for analyzing the market situation and looking forward to find the possible solution. The subject of the report was to propose the market strategies for enlarging the market share. At the beginning th...

  3. A Study on Industrial Green Transformation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Li; Danhui, Yang; Pengfei, Li; Zhenyu, Ye; Zhou, Deng

    2013-01-01

    China's speedy industrialization has undertaken mostly a crude path with extensive energy consumption and severe environmental damage. In face of the challenge of global warming and resource restrictions, it calls for urgent green transformation for the sustainable development of China's industry. With huge potentials and more general benefits than costs, the industrial green transformation in China will have more positive effects and accelerate the whole process of the development of China's...

  4. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  5. Study on the Determinants of Energy Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍贤

    2002-01-01

    Based on the modern economic theory and the characteristics of China's energy consumption, this paper analyzes the determinants of energy demand in China, builds up a China's energy demand model, and examines the long-run relationship between China's aggregate energy consumption and the main economic variables such as GDP by using the Johansen multivariate approach. It is found that there exists unique long-run relationship among the variables in the model over the sampling period. An error-correction model provides an appropriate framework for forecasting the short-run fluctuations in the aggregate demand of China.

  6. Clinical Analysis of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Chang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management,and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of children aged between 1 and 15 yearsold admitted to Chang Gung Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestionfrom September 1997 through July 2003. The diagnosis of disc batteryingestion was based upon history, clinical symptoms, and results of imagingstudies. The clinical data reviewed included sex, age, clinical manifestation,hospital course, imaging findings, and endoscopic results.Results: We found 12 cases (8 males and 4 females of disc battery ingestion with amean age of 1.8

  7. Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R C; Darwish, H; Stewart, D A

    1974-09-21

    A comparative study was made of pulmonary complications following the use of ipecac syrup and gastric lavage for hydrocarbon ingestion. The selected 255 patients had chest radiography when first seen and again two to five days later. Of these patients 74 or 29% had been treated with ipecac syrup, 41 or 16% by gastric lavage. On follow-up radiographs 19% of the ipecac-treated group were unchanged or worsened, compared with 39% of the lavage group, suggesting that pneumonitis was significantly less severe in the ipecac-treated patients. Use of ipecac is preferred over gastric lavage for alert patients who have ingested an excessive amount of hydrocarbon. PMID:4153346

  8. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yiu Fai

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the world. Informed by intersectional and transnational feminist scholarship, this empirical study zooms in on one group of women, ethnic Chinese born and/or growing up in the Netherlands, to identify and recuperate their neglected lived experience in a particular historical-cultural context. It takes their own voices as central, hopefully to contribute to their visibility. It aims to provide an understanding of diasporic Chinese women as living in the dynamics not only of their multiple subordinations but also of their subjective consciousness, experienced autonomy, and agency. Drawing insights from the subjective accounts of both contestants and audiences of Miss China Europe, I suggest that one way to foreground marginalized women's agency is to understand their intersectionality in terms of movements and sensory experiences. On the one hand, while the contestants articulated a readiness to perform their modern and yet Chinese selves, they were making movements along two intersecting axes of inequality and power relations - Chineseness and Dutchness - precisely to negotiate their sense of inequality and power relations. On the other hand, among the audiences, two major topics - the blood issue (or whether Chineseness should be defined by ancestry) and the language problem (or whether Chineseness should be defined by the ability to speak Chinese) - were raised regularly, underscoring a complex viewing experience of seeing and hearing, of the tension between visual and audio identifications. PMID:21114082

  9. [Radiation Environment Study of Near Space in China Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiao-dong; Sun, Ji-lin; Li, Zheng-qiang; Chen, Xing-feng; Xing, Jin; Xu, Hua; Qie, Li-li; Lü, Yang; Li, Yang; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Aerospace activity in near space (20-50 km) has become a research hotspot for aviation big countries worldwide. Solar radiation study, as the prerequisite to carry out aerospace activity, is facing the barrier of lacking of observation in near space layer. Ozone is the most important factor that affects radiation value in this layer. Based on ECMWF reanalysis data, this input key parameter and its horizontal, vertical and temporal characteristics are analyzedwith results showing obvious regional features in temporal-spatial distribution and varieties. With meteorological data and surface parameters, near space over China is divided into 5 parts. Key factors' value is confirmed over each division. With SBDART radiation transfer model, solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation simulation in near space are conducted separately. Results show that it is influenced by latitude, total ozone and its vertical distribution, radiation varies under complex rules. The average year and monthly solar radiation strengthens changes with latitude reduction, while annual range changes reversely. Air absorbing is related to latitude and land-sea contrast and shows different values and seasonal variations. The ultraviolet radiation over South China Sea reaches its maximum value and minimum annual range, as well as minimum monthly range with value strengthening in summer and weakening in winter. In other areas radiation increases in summer while weakens in winter, monthly range shows double peaks with higher value in spring and autumn, lower in summer and winter. Air absorption in ultraviolet radiation is influenced by multiple factors, vertical varieties over areas besides South China Sea enhance in summer time. The vertical changes of monthly ranges affected by air absorption show consistence in higher and lower layer in June and July, while in other months ranges are bigger in higher layer. PMID:27400492

  10. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus and...

  11. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. PMID:27101456

  12. World Studies. Japan, India, China: Which Direction? Social Studies: 6478.20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Grace C.; Schmidt, Fran

    This Quinmester world studies elective course for grades 7, 8, and 9, focuses on the comparative study of three far eastern nations: China, India, and Japan. The study examines the successes and failures of each nation in dealing with the common problems of over-population, industrialization, and literacy education, leading to speculation as to…

  13. Radioactivity of Drinking-Water in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in China Based on a Large-Scale Monitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiang Miao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  14. A Review of Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of papers have been published and great efforts have been made in the recent 20 years by the Chinese oceanographic and meteorological scientists in the ocean-atmosphere interaction studies. The present paper is an overview of the major achievements made by Chinese scientists and their collaborators in studies of larger scale ocean-atmosphere interaction in the following oceans: the South China Sea, the Tropical Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. Many interesting phenomena and dynamic mechanisms have been discovered and studied in these papers. These achievements have improved our understanding of climate variability and have great implications in climate prediction, and thus are highly relevant to the ongoing international Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR)efforts.

  15. In-use vehicle emissions in China: Beijing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims (Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA (US)); Li, Mengliang; Qin, Kongjian; Zhang, Jianwei (China Automotive Research and Technology Center (CN)); Liu, Huan; He, Kebin (Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tsinghua Univ. (CN))

    2009-05-01

    China's economic boom in the last three decades has spurred increasing demand for transportation services and personal mobility. Consequently, vehicle population has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, especially in megacities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Tianjin. As a result, mobile sources have become more conspicuous contributors to urban air pollution in Chinese cities. Tianjin was our first focus city, and the study there took us about two years to complete. Building upon the experience and partnership generated through the Tianjin study, the research team carried out the Beijing study from fall 2007–fall 2008. Beijing was chosen to be our second focus city for several reasons: it has the largest local fleet and the highest percentage of the population owning vehicles among all Chinese cities, and it has suffered from severe air pollution, partially due to the ever-growing population of on-road vehicles.

  16. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear. PMID:26670991

  17. A Study of Tropospheric Ozone over China with a 3-D Global CTM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A global 3-D CTM model (OsloCTM2 has been used to study the tropospheric ozone distribution and budget over China. An area covering China and most of East Asia is chosen as the study area. Because of the very nevenly distributed emissions and population in China, the budget study has been done by splitting China into three sub-areas, according to the emission distribution and topography of the country. The model results indicate that in Western China (Area1 dynamic processes are dominating, and the contribution from photochemical ozone production is small. Central and South-East China (Area2 has on average 65% of the photochemical ozone production in China, since more than 80% of the anthropogenic emissions come from this area. Northeast China (Area3 is influenced both by natural and*9nthropogenic emissions. The seasonal variation of ozone budgets was calculated in order to understand how different processes vary with the seasons. The strongest influences of emissions from the continent over the West Pacific region are found in spring, because of the large eastward transport and increased photochemical activities. Most NOx is consumed close to the emission sources; therefore, only 4% of emitted NOx is transported out of China, whereas 70% of the emitted CO is exported. It is calculated that the average net chemical ozone production efficiency by NOx loss is 7.2 in China.

  18. Intercultural communication in the forest products business in China : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    OWARI, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The growing forest products business in China has attracted foreign companies to the Chinese market. This study examines the unique characteristics of intercultural communication in the forest products business in China, using an exploratory case study approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with executives of a multinational forest industry company. The qualitative data analysis identified ten topics concerning business communication in China: bureaucracy, negotiation, business protocol...

  19. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  20. Study of regenerative medicine in China: demands and clinical translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bing FU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The repair and regeneration of tissue is a well-discussed topic. Over the past 20 years, with the development of genetics, auxology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering, tissue repair and regeneration have rapidly developed as emerging "Regenerative Medicine". Regenerative medicine has significant market demand in China. Based on national statistics, injury and poisoning patients rank third in afflictions in city hospitals (accounting for 9.13% and rank second in afflictions in county hospitals (accounting for 14.07%. Totally, approximately one hundred million patients suffered from traumatic, genetic and metabolic diseases in China and demand reparative and regenerative medical treatment each year. The Chinese government and its related departments have always attached great importance and support to the development of regenerative medicine, and the Chinese academic circle is involved in a very wide range of diseases and injuries including regenerative medical theory and technology. Stem cell biology, organ engineering and duplication, tissue engineering research and production have developed rapidly, and great portion of these studies have started to appear in applications, which have aroused extensive concerns in international professional circle. In the next 10 years, the Chinese regenerative medical system will be further improved, in both statute and rules, clinical translation will be further accelerated. Breakthroughs are expected in induced differentiation of stem cells and synchronous repair and regeneration of multiple organs, construction of major organs by tissue engineering, large-scale applications of tissue engineering products, and other aspects.

  1. Study on genetic coadaptability of wild quail populations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Genetic coadaptability of wild Japanese quail, wild Common quail and Domestic quail populations in China was studied using 7 microsatellite DNA markers and Monte Carlo method to test genetic disequilibrium. The molecular effects of genetic coadaptability were analyzed through a new statistical model of neutral site. The results showed that genetic coadaptability dominated the genetic disequilibrium of the three quail populations, and totally 16.67%, 9.66% and 10.05% of non-allelic combinations were in the genetic disequilibrium in wild Japanese quail, wild Common quail and Domestic quail populations, respectively. Genetic coadaptability existed at almost all the tested sites. In the molecular point of view, genetic coadaptability plays an important role of keeping lots of polymorphisms in natural populations. Therefore, it is another key factor to the genetic disequilibrium in the population except for linkage. The results enrich the conceptions and connotations of genetic disequilibrium, and help us know more about genetic coadaptability and its effects, and lay a foundation of evaluation and protection of wild quail genetic resources in China.

  2. Case studies emphasising the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Darren J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is caused by the accidental ingestion of the eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE occurs frequently in rural western China due to the poor levels of hygiene, the close contact of people with dogs, and the lack of appropriate facilities for the correct and rapid diagnosis of the disease. Findings We describe a case of a patient with hepatic AE, and AE metastases of the brain. She was mistakenly diagnosed with suspected undifferentiated metastatic cancer of the liver and brain, and with a pulmonary bacterial infection, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed during a follow-up field survey for echinococcosis. The diagnosis of brain AE was confirmed by pathological examination of tissue biopsies removed during neurosurgery. We also briefly describe other symptomatic and asymptomatic AE cases, identified by chance, likely due to the inadequate facilities available in rural communities in China for AE diagnosis and management, since the rapid and accurate diagnosis of metastatic AE requires a high level of expertise in the appropriate diagnostic procedures. Conclusions This report highlights the necessity for an upgrade in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of AE in rural China.

  3. A Study of Devonian Reefs from Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three Devonian reefs (bioherms) from Yunnan and Guangxi, southern China, are studied in detail.Six microfacies types are differentiated. Colonial rugose corals (Columnaria, Disphyllum and Hexagonaria) at Qujing, tabulate corals (Alveolites) with massive stromatoporoids (Actinostroma and Stromatoporella) and sponges at Panxi, and massive stromatoporoids (Actinostroma, Trupetostroma and Stromatoporella) at Yangshuo belong to the most important reef builders. All the three reefs studied clearly reveal a successive evolution history. They developed on the carbonate banks, shallow carbonate platforms and platform margins in the Late Givetian and terminated in the Frasnian due to sea-level falls related to local uplifts of platforms. This coincides with a eustatic fall of relative sea level at the Frasnian/Famennian transition.

  4. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  5. Death following ingestion of methylone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, L; Grison-Hernando, H; Boels, D; Bouquie, R; Monteil-Ganiere, C; Clement, R

    2016-03-01

    Methylone is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It is sold principally on the Internet in powder form under the name «bath salts». Deaths following consumption are very rare. This report details the first case of a death in France (a 21-year-old man), following ingestion of methylone during an evening with friends. Anoxia was observed at the time of autopsy. Toxicological analyses highlighted a consumption of methylone and cannabis. However, biological analyses showed an absence of ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines, and opiate derivatives. Likewise, no medications were found. High concentrations of methylone were found in the peripheral blood (3.13 mg/L) and in the central blood (6.64 mg/L). Its presence in the gastric contents provides evidence that the substance was taken orally. The dosage of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suggests a recent cannabis consumption (THC 12.9 μg/L, THC-COOH 29.3 μg/L, 11-OH-THC 4.9 μg/L). This case illustrates that the consumption of methylone, which has a reputation of being less «powerful» than ecstasy, is not without its dangers. PMID:26071183

  6. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  7. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    While allergic reactions to soya are increasingly investigated, the normal immune response to ingested soya is scarcely described. In the present study, we wanted to characterise the soya-specific immune response in healthy mice ingesting soya protein. Mice fed a soya-containing diet (F0) and mic...

  8. Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Winzell, Maria Sörhede;

    2008-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate islet function after carbohydrate ingestion. Whether incretin hormones are of importance for islet function after ingestion of noncarbohydrate macronutrients is not known. This study therefore examined...

  9. Amount of ingested custard dessert as affected by its color, odor, and texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Polet, I.A.; Engelen, L.; Doorn, R.M. van; Prinz, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of nonoral sensations, such as visual texture and odor, on the size of the first bite were investigated in a series of studies using specially constructed food delivery cups with lower, from which custards were ingested ("ingested custard"), and upper, from which a custard was viewed and

  10. Study of the welfare cost of infl ation in China

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Yanbin; Ma, Lili

    2007-01-01

    Inflation is always an important indicator to measure whether economy is stable and healthy. This paper provides a substantive survey of the research on the welfare cost of inflation, and uses the methods of consumer's surplus and neo-classical general equilibrium models respectively to estimate the welfare cost of inflation in China. The results show that high inflation will cause huge welfare cost in China, so keeping low inflation is beneficial to the entire economic welfare of China.

  11. The past and the future of zooplankton diversity studies in China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoli Xu

    2011-01-01

    China has among the largest latitudinal ranges of any country on Earth. Environmental factors such as diverse climate, hydrology and topography jointly determine levels of marine environmental diversityand therefore patterns in zooplankton diversity in China seas. Studies of zooplankton diversity in China progressed through different stages from a main focus on species taxonomy, diversity of distribution pattern, to a focus on environment influences on the ecological group, and finally a focu...

  12. A Qualitative Study of E-Business Adoption in the Real Estate Sector in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN SUN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate e-business adoption into real estate agencies in China. This research focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of IT/IS (Information Technology/Information Systems integration through face to face interviews with property agency managers in Suzhou. Particularly, it looks into the real estate sector in China today and provides implications to improve service quality and stay competitive within local real estate agencies in Suzhou, China.

  13. PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) BETWEEN CHINA AND THE U.S.: AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Gidis, Murat; Mangir, Fatih; Ertugrul, Hasan Murat; Sawhney, Bansi

    2015-01-01

     This study investigates the validity of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in explaining China's real exchange rate with regard to the US over the period 2000-2012. It applies traditional unit root tests, and the procedure developed by Zivot and Andrews and Lee-Strazicich to endogenously determine potential structural breaks. The results indicate that while the PPP hypothesis holds under China's former fixed (“pegged”) exchange regime, that, in the long run, it no longer holds under China's curre...

  14. Studies on Co-opetition among National Petroleum Companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yu-Ying; Huang Chang-Sheng; Li Ning

    2013-01-01

    This study is trying to find the co-opetition basic strategy among domestic similar companies and focus on the strategy system of the formation of complementary advantages force and competitive energy when the China national petroleum corps in opening up the international market. With the obviously increasing dependence on petroleum in China and the entering of advanced international petroleum companies in China's market, the competition in petroleum industry becomes more serious than before....

  15. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol Study of ultrastructural alterations in gastrocnemius muscle of C57 BL10 mice after prolonged ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Guedes e Silva

    1996-06-01

    foi vista no citoplasma dos hepatócitos parecendo constituir uma evidência a mais da ação tóxica do etanol sobre o organismo. Concluímos que a ingestão prolongada de etanol, representando 14,4% de calorias totais, produz no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57BL10 bem nutridos um elenco de alterações ultraestruturais que refletem um efeito tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. As alterações constatadas são semelhantes àquelas descritas na miopatia alcoólica crônica humanaThe effects of chronic alcoholism on gastrocnemius muscle of well-nourished mice were morphologically studied to test the direct toxic role of ethanol on skeletal muscle. Thirty male young adult C57BL10 mice were divided in two groups: Group A (control consisting of ten mice that drank water and Group B (alcoholic consisting of twenty mice that drank 25% ethanol. All mice were allowed a balanced laboratory chow. The animals were kept on this ad libitum regimen under the same conditions of environment for 48 weeks and were weighed once a week. The daily dietary consumption and caloric intake were estimated, the animals having had a substantial weight gain, showing no signs of malnutrition. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed for morphological studies. No abnormalities were observed by conventional microscopy.Striking deviations from normal were verified by electron microscopy in all specimens. Dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum was a common feature, sometimes resulting in the formation of large vesicles and involving the terminal cisternae with the displacement of the triads. Areas of narrowing, splitting and loss of myofibrils were seen. Zones of complete disorganization of miofibrils could be occasionally observed. Mitochondria were generally normal. Peculiar tubular aggregates seen commonly in periodic paralysis and other human pathological conditions, were encountered in both control and alcoholic mice. Intramuscular nerves and neuromuscular junctions

  16. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  17. Pb Isotope Study of Some Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on Pb-Pb isochron data of more than 40 Precambrian polymetallic deposits, the authors consider that there are four mineralization periods for the Precambrian copper deposits in China, and the major copper deposits were formed at about 1800 Ma; there are three mineralization periods for gold deposits formed from Archaean to Proterozoic. By studying hundreds of lead isotope data from some Mesozoic continental subvolcanic Cu and Ag polymetallic deposits and fine-disseminated gold deposits, the authors found that the calculation based on the lead single-stage evolution model or two-stage evolution model cannot give the true ore-forming ages but can provide more information about mineralization and material sources of the deposits.

  18. A study of fairness judgments in China, Switzerland and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares judgments of the fairness of economic actions among survey populations in Switzerland, and both student and non-student groups in the People's Republic of China, with the earlier Kahneman, Knetsch and Thaler (1986a surveys of Canadians. The findings suggest that fairness concerns matter among all of these groups, and the general patterns of what was and was not considered to be fair were similar. However, there were also some significant differences with the influence of fairness being weaker in the two Chinese samples than in the groups from the Western countries, with the influence being weakest in the Chinese student population for the wage related topics. On the whole, almost no significant gender differences were found in any of the new surveys.

  19. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. PMID:26021783

  20. Building the World-Class Research Universities: A Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how China has strived to develop its world-class research universities and what are distinguishing characteristics of China's efforts to form these universities for the last decades. This study begins with a review of literature and research questions. It then touches on the background and rationale of…

  1. Study about sustainable scenario of nuclear fuel cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economy grows, demand of electricity is growing in China. However, building more thermal power plant is obviously improper choice, due to the concern about running out of fossil fuel. According to National Program for Medium-to-Long-Term Scientific and Technological development published by Chinese government, 40 GWe nuclear power capacity will be achieved by 2020. Regarding to the speed of nuclear power plant construction in China now, recent report said that the nuclear capacity might rise to 60 GWe even 70 GWe by 2020 and the further substantial increase to 200 GWe by 2030. However, to guarantee sustainable supply of electricity by nuclear power, a large amount of uranium is needed. While, there is a limitation of uranium resources, too. A light water reactor (LWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) matched scenario should be considered to prevent the crisis of running out of nuclear fuel. The purpose of this study is to find out the best LWR-FBR matched scenario which can reduce uranium requirement efficiently. Four scenarios which consist of 10 cases are selected in this study. After simulating each case by two computer codes, it is clear that scenario 3-1 is the most efficient case in the aspect of saving natural uranium. Scenario 3-1 is a scenario that LWRs loaded with MOX fuel partially (MOX fuel is a kind of nuclear fuel which is a mixture of PuO2 and UO2) are introduced in 2020 and then they were replaced by Fast Breeder Reactors in 2050. (author)

  2. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  3. A study on China's LUCC and carbon-sink response with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xiangyu; Ning, Jicai; Liu, Chaoshun

    2015-09-01

    Based on SPOT VEGETATION NDVI time-series data, multi-phase China's land use / land cover (LULC) data were extracted in this study, where land use degree method and land dynamic degree method were used to analyze the spatial and temporal change characteristics of China's LULC in the latest decade. Moreover, bookkeeping model was applied to analyze the response of China's carbon sink to LUCC. Research conclusions were achieved as follows. China's annual vegetation carbon sink was 0.22- 0.32PgC/year, equivalent to 26% -28% of China's industrial CO2 emissions over the same period. Dynamic changes in woodland and grassland led to carbon sink changed in 11.4-15.7TgC, and the increased carbon sink due to LUCC offset 1.3-1.4% of China's industrial CO2 emissions.

  4. Study on Urban Infrastructure Development Financing in China(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>4.Typical modes of infrastructure financing in China After summarizing the general situations of infrastructure financing in China,further analyses will be made on several typical modes of infrastructure financing on the basis of the interviews,surveys,and data collections in certain Chinese cities.

  5. A Comparative Study on Religion between Britainand China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩霞

    2012-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Religion in Britain In the UK, Christians constitute about 71% of the population, but Britain is a multi-faith society and all other religions, including; Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Sikhism are freely practiced. About 23% of Britons have no particular religion. Religion in China China is a

  6. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.F. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the w

  7. An Empirical Study of Faculty Mobility in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangcai; Yue, Ying; Niu, Menghu

    2015-01-01

    With the implementation of position appointment and contract system in China, faculty become more mobile than before in this emerging academic market, though in terms of mobility frequency and rate, they are still less active than their counterparts in the West. Using the data collected from 50 renowned research universities throughout China, this…

  8. Science & Technology for Sustainable Water in China A Perspective of the IAC Water Program and Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun

    2012-01-01

    Water is a big issue in the world. As we enter the 21st century, a global water crisis threatens the security, stability and environmental sustainability of all nations, particularly those in the developing world. The Inter-Academy Council (IAC) proposed to undertake a study of the current and emerging challenges and opportunities for sustainable water resources management at its 2009 Board meeting. This paper gives a perspective of the IAC Water Program, and the case studies conducted by China Working Group of the IAC Water Program on three key issues, namely climate change & water adaptive management, agricultural water & ecology, and urban water & environment. The purpose is to show the role of science & technology for sustainable water in China. These studies are the 1st phase of the IAC Water Program in China. Perspectives of new challenges and opportunities on this Program for the water future in the world and China are also given in the paper.

  9. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior. PMID:24570803

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of coeliac mucosa following ingestion of oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U; Jones, E; Carolan, J; Feighery, C

    2006-05-01

    There is now considerable clinical evidence that oats do not activate coeliac disease. Nonetheless, a reluctance to include oats in the gluten-free diet remains. Because gluten-induced damage is accompanied by activation of the gastrointestinal immune system, the purpose of this study was to investigate if similar changes were induced by oats ingestion. Small intestinal histological sections from 10 patients who ingested 50 g of oats daily for 3 months were investigated for possible evidence of immune activation. Tissue obtained before and after oats challenge was stained with a series of antibodies directed against the following molecules: human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), Ki-67, CD25, CD54 [intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)] and mast cell tryptase. None of the patients developed clinical or laboratory evidence of adverse effects. The distribution of intestinal HLA-DR expression was not affected by oats ingestion and the crypt epithelium remained unstained. In the pre-oats biopsies, the percentage of Ki-67 positive enterocytes, 29.5 +/- 6.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-45.0] did not differ significantly from that found in post-oats biopsies, 41.2 +/- 3.7 (95% CI, 32.8-49.6), P = 0.19, not significant. Furthermore, oats ingestion did not alter the number of CD25 positive and tryptase positive cells. Finally, the distribution and intensity of ICAM-1 staining was unchanged by dietary oats. In summary, detailed immunohistological studies of biopsies from patients ingesting oats for 3 months did not reveal evidence of immune activation. Together with other reported findings, this study strengthens the view that oats can be included safely in the diet of gluten sensitive patients. PMID:16634791

  11. Evaluation of 968 children with corrosive substance ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the etiology, treatment, and prognosis in children who had presented at our clinic with corrosive substance ingestion and comparison of our results with the literature. Materials and Methods: The patients were put on nil by mouth and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Oral fluids were started for patients whose intraoral lesions resolved and who could swallow their saliva. Steroids were not given, a nasogastric catheter was not placed, and early endoscopy was not used. Results: A total of 968 children presented at our clinic for corrosive substance ingestion during the 22-year period. The stricture development rate was 13.5%. Alkali substance ingestion caused a stricture development rate of 23%. A total of 54 patients required 1-52 sessions (mean 15 ± 12 of dilatation. Conclusion: We do not perform early endoscopy, administer steroids, or place a nasogastric catheter at our clinic for patients who had ingested a corrosive substance. This approach has provided results similar to other series. We feel that determining the burn with early esophagoscopy when factors that prevent or decrease the development of corrosive strictures will be very important.

  12. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24668608

  13. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  14. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  15. Melanosis ilei induced by prolonged charcoal ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun Min; Jun, Eun Jung; Kim, Yong Cheol; Park, Jin Min; Hong, Seok In; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Youn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal melanosis is observed most frequently in the colon it also can develop in the ileum, duodenum and esophagus very rarely. Melanosis ilei was thought that causative materials such as aluminum, magnesium, silicate, titanium and other compounds entered the body through the ingestion of agents. We experienced a case of melanosis in the terminal ileum that a 65-year-old female patient ingested 10 g edible charcoal everyday for 3 years to address symptoms of chronic abdominal pain. ...

  16. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  17. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...

  18. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  19. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. PMID:27131818

  20. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  1. Advances in genetic studies of substance abuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Shiqiu MENG; Jiali LI; Jie SHI; Lin LU

    2013-01-01

    Summary:The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China;these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described.

  2. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  3. Accumulating Human Capital While Increasing Educational Inequality: A Study on Higher Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…

  4. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  5. A study on an early Neolithic site in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Zhao

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available These are few sites about 10 000 BP in the early Neolithic period in North China; among these, the Donghulin site is the only one which included the remains of peoples' use of fire (hearth pits, stone implements, pottery objects, and human tombs. The excavation of the Donghulin site in 2001 provides very important information for research on people and culture in the early Neolithic period in North China. The finding of Donghulin Man has filled the gap in our knowledge of human development since the period of the "Upper Cave Man" (30 000a BP in North China. It is also important for research on people-land relationships.

  6. ON FRACTAL MECHANISM OF COASTLINE -A Case Study of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    MANDELBROT enunciated the uncertainty of the length of a coastline in his paper" How long is the coastline of Britain?" published in " Science" in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. According to the fractal theory and conditions of fractal research of coastline, the controls of faults and biologic function on the fractal character of coastline are preliminarily discussed on the basis of GIS in this paper . Finally, some significant conclusions are drawn: 1) the faults control the basic trends of coastlines of two study areas;2) the fractal dimension of coastline of Taiwan is smaller than that of Changle- Lufeng, because the faults of Taiwan more intensely control the trend and fractal dimension of the coastline;3) the larger the fractal dimension of the faults or the major faults, the more the controlling effect of them on the trend and fractal dimension of coastline; 4) the larger fractal dimension of the coastline of Changle- Lufeng indicates that the biologic function intensely shapes the coastline. In a word, the controls of faults and biologic function on the fractal character of coastline are discussed with a case study of China in this paper, it can be seen that faults and biologic function both have influence over the trend and fractal dimension of coastline, the fractal mechanism of coastline of two study areas may be so.

  7. Feasibility studies of D—3He fusion power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengBai-Quan; FengKei-Ming; 等

    1997-01-01

    The systematic study on D-3He advanced fuel fusion in China has been performed.Comparisons between D-3He and D-T fuel cycles in physics,engineering,environmental safety and so on have been made.D-3He fusion offers significant adavantages for reducing the neutron yield by a factor of 10-60,The 3He resource and mining possibility are investigated.The energy payback factor of 97 for mining lunar 3He resource is calculated.The operating parameter scope for D-3He fueled Tokamak reactor is analyzed.The prompt energy broadening for fusion products is calculated and results are consistent with those obtained by Lehner using a different method.Centrally peaked current drive with high efficiency is studied utilizing plasma synchrotron radiation.Centrally peaked current drive with gigh efficiency is studied utilizing plasma synchrotron radiation.More than 80% of plasma current required can be driven passively.A D-3He fueled Tokamak commercial reactor-Mooncity was designed.Neutronics calculations show that the radioactivity,afterheat,BHP value for Mooncity are 10-60 times less than those for D-T fusion.

  8. Study on China's low carbon development in an Economy-Energy-Electricity-Environment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions mitigation is a major challenge for China's sustainable development. We summarize China's successful experiences on energy efficiency in past 30 years as the contributions of Energy Usage Management and Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which are essential for low-carbon economy. In an Economy-Energy-Electricity-Environment (E4) framework, the paper studies the low-carbon development of China and gives an outlook of China's economy growth, energy-electricity demand, renewable power generation and energy conservation and emissions mitigation until 2030. A business-as-usual scenario is projected as baseline for comparison while low carbon energy and electricity development path is studied. It is defined as low carbon energy/electricity when an economy body manages to realize its potential economic growth fueled by less energy/electricity consumption, which can be characterized by indexes of energy/electricity intensity and emissions per-unit of energy consumption (electricity generation). Results show that, with EUM, China, could save energy by 4.38 billion ton oil equivalences (toes) and reduce CO2 emission by 16.55 billion tons; with IRSP, China, could save energy by 1.5 Btoes and reduce CO2 emission by 5.7 Btons, during 2010-2030. To realize the massive potential, China has to reshape its economic structure and rely much on technology innovation in the future. - Research highlights: → In an E4 framework China's low-carbon development is compared with BAU scenario. → Low carbon energy/electricity and their related measuring indexes are discussed. → China's successful experiences on energy efficiency are summarized as EUM and IRSP. → With them China could save energy by 5.8 Btoe and reduce CO2 by 22.2 Bton until 2030. → China must restructure its economy and rely on technology innovation for them.

  9. Progress in studies of natural gas conversion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changchun; Shen Shikong

    2008-01-01

    Progress in natural gas conversion in China is presented in this paper, including processes of natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas), syngas to liquid hydrocarbons, oxygenates synthesis, methanol to olefins (MTO), methane to aromatics and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM).

  10. A Comparative Study on Family Education in America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

      Family education is an important complement to school education. This paper focuses on the differences and simi-larities of family education in America and China to accelerate their learning from each other and improvement.

  11. WESTERNIZATION IN CHINA: A CASE STUDY IN PROCESSED POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: China, potatoes, westernization, food demand, convenience foods Abstract: The demand for convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in China. However, the contributing factors of this change in food preferences are still largely unknown. To measure this westernization trend, data from a survey of Chinese consumers in Beijing is evaluated using a multinomial ordered logit model to determine which consumer attributes influence the probability of consuming western foods ...

  12. Managing patient complaints in China: a qualitative study in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yishi; Ying, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qian; Tang, Sirui Rae; Kane, Sumit; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Qian, Xu; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the handling system for patient complaints and to identify existing barriers that are associated with effective management of patient complaints in China. Setting Key stakeholders of the handling system for patient complaints at the national, Shanghai municipal and hospital levels in China. Participants 35 key informants including policymakers, hospital managers, healthcare providers, users and other stakeholders in Shanghai. Primary and secondary outcome measures Semist...

  13. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that the information entropy of HEC increased gradually, and coal will be reduced by clean energies, such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The information entropy tends to stabilize and converge due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental protection and natural resource conservation, the structure of household energy consumption will be optimized. This study revealed that residents’ income level is one of the most critical factors for the increase of energy consumption, while the energy intensity is the only driving force for the reduction of HEC. The accumulated contribution of these two factors to the HEC is 240.53% and −161.75%, respectively. It is imperative to improve the energy efficiency in the residential sector. Recommendations are provided to improve the energy efficiency-related technologies, as well as the standards for the sustainable energy strategy.

  14. Thoughts on studies of China continental geology and tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guowei; GUO Anli; YAO Anping

    2006-01-01

    As an important part of the global continents, China continent has long been situated in the peculiar tectonic position and experienced extremely complicated activities, which resulted in the regional unique characteristics for China continent on the global common geological background. These characteristics contain abundant information regarding scientific key issues of modern geological frontier. Thus, China continent can be a natural laboratory and excellent arena for the modern geosciences. The modern earth sciences have started entering the era featured with earth systematic science and beyond plate tectonics. How to take the regional advantage and exploit the treasure resource to participate the new theoretical and methodological creation is a historic opportunity and great challenge we are facing. This paper generalizes research priorities in four fields on China continental geology and tectonics for discussion. They are: China continental tectonics and dynamics; Mesozoic-Cenozoic crustal deformation and deep-seated processes in China continent and the adjacent regions; deep-seated dynamic background and evolutionary trend of crustal tectonic activities on the time scale of human existence; deepseated background and processes of conjunction and transformation of different tectonic systems.

  15. A ingestão de prébioticos previne a malabsorção de ferro e anemia induzidas pela gastrectomia?: Estudo experimental em ratos Ingestion of prebiotics prevents gastrectomy-induced iron malabsorption and anemia ?: Experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Ratos gastrectomizados desenvolvem anemia, e a ingestão de galactooligossacarídeo (GOS e a polidextrose (PDX aumenta a absorção de ferro e promove a recuperação da anemia em ratos com deficiência de ferro. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se GOS e PDX estimulam a absorção de ferro em ratos gastrectomizados e normais. MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram laparotomizadas (controle falso-operado e parcialmente gastrectomizados (Billroth II em grupos de 20 animais. Os animais de ambos os tratamentos foram posteriormente submetidos à dieta controle (AIN-93M ou a mesma dieta suplementada com GOS e PDX (25 g/kg de dieta cada durante oito semanas e divididos em quatro subgrupos: sham-operados e gastrectomizados sem GOS e PDX, sham-operados e gastrectomizados com GOS e PDX. Dois animais morreram durante o experimento. Todos os ratos gastrectomizados receberam uma injeção intramuscular de vitamina B-12 a cada duas semanas. Hematócrito (HCT e concentração de hemoglobina (HGB foram dosados no início e nos dias 30 e 56 dias após o início da alimentação. No último dia do estudo, o sangue total foi coletado para determinação da concentração de ferro sérico. RESULTADOS: Na dieta com GOS e PDX a excreção de ferro nas fezes foi significativamente menor do que no grupo sem prebióticos. Absorção aparente de ferro e ferro sérico foram maiores nos grupos alimentados com GOS e PDX (ambos grupos: sham operados e gastrectomizados do que nos grupos não alimentados com GOS e PDX. O HCT e HGB foram significativamente menores nos ratos gastrectomizados que no grupo controle, entretanto, a suplementação com GOS e PDX melhorou os níveis de HGB neste grupo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de GOS e PDX aumenta a absorção de ferro em ratos shamoperados e gastrectomizados e ainda previne a anemia pós-gastrectomia.BACKGROUND: The ingestion of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS and polydextrose (PDX, leads to an increase in iron absorption and promotes

  16. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  17. Mineralogical Studies of Pyropes in Kimberlites from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振信

    1998-01-01

    Based on the measurements of refractive index,specific gravity,unit cell parameter,and mineral chemistry and infrared absorption spectrum analyses of pyropes in kimberlites from China,systematic studies of the Physical properties and compositional variations of pyropes of different colors and diverse paragenetic types,within and between kimberlite provinces have been undertaken,The origin of pyropes in the Kimberlites and the depth of their formation have been discussed.Pyropes of the purple series are different from those of the orange series in physical and chemical properties,for exaple,pyropes of the puple series are higher in α0,RI,SG,Cr2O3,MgO,Cr/(Cr+Al),Mg/(Mg+Fe),and Mg/(Mg+Ca),and lower in Al2O3,Fe2O3+FeO than those of the orange series.The classification of garnets in kimberlites from china by the Dawson and Stephens' method(1975) has been undertaken and clearly demonstrates that pyropes of diamond-rich kimberlites contain much more groups than those of diamond-poor,especially diamond-free kimberlites.The higher in α0,RI,SG,Cr2O(3.Cr/(Cr+Al),knorringite and Cr-component the pyropes are ,the richer in diamond the kimberlites will be.The infrared absorption spectrum patterns of pyropes change with their chemical composition regularly,as reflected in the shape and position of infrared absorption peaks.Two absortpion bands at 862-901 cm-1 will grade into degeneration from splitting and the absorption band positions of pyropes shift toward lower frequency with increasing Cr2O3 content and Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of pyropes,LREE contents of orange pyrope megacrysts are similar to those of porple pyrope macrocrysts,but the former is higher in HREE than the latter,showing their different chondrite-normalized patterns.The formation pressures of pyropes calculated by Cr-component,Ca-component,knorringite molecules of pyropes show that some pyropes of the purple series in diamondiferous kimberlites fall into the diamond stability field.but all pyropes of diamond

  18. REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM: THEORETICAL APPROACH AND EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-guang; CHEN Cai

    2003-01-01

    Regional innovation system (RIS) is the new research field of modern economic geography in the age of knowledge economy. Based on the researches of regional economic geography, the authors of the paper consider RIS as the integrated and interactive systems with innovation milieu, elements, units, structure and functions. Five aspects of evaluation indicators including innovation input scale and output scale, innovation milieu transition, innovation in-ner operation, as well as innovation outer impact are worked out for final indicators of RIS scale and quality. Accord-ing to different RIS situations, three patterns of independent, imitative and cooperative development are put forward for choosing. At the latter part of the paper, we select 12 provincial regions (including three municipalities and one au-tonomous region) of China for empirical study. The results show that there exists great difference among each region from the aspects of innovation scale and quality mainly owning to the diversification of RIS social and economic mi-lieu, the major innovative units of enterprises, universities and R&D institutes. Finally, the paper points out the innova-tion development decisions for each region.

  19. Bioenergy recovery from landfill gas: A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Yuxiang LUO; Zhou DENG

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) utilization which means a synergy between environmental protection and bioenergy recovery was investigated in this study. Pressure swing adsorption technology was used in LFG purification, and laboratory experiment, pilot-scale test, and on-site demon-stration were carried out in Shenzhen, China. In the laboratory experiment, A-type carbon molecular sieve was selected as the adsorbent by comparison of several other adsorbents. The oPtimal adsorption pressure and adsorp-tion time were 0.25 MPa and 2 min, respectively, under which the product generation rate was 4.5 m3/h and the methane concentration was above 90%. The process and optimization of the pilot-scale test were also reported in the paper. The product gas was of high quality compared with the National Standard of Compressed Natural Gas as Vehicle Fuel (GB 18047-2000), when the air concentration in feed gas was under 10.96%. The demonstration project was composed of a collection system, production system,and utilization system. The drive performance, environ-mental protection performance, and economic feasibility of the product gas -- as alternative fuel in passenger car,truck, and bulldozer-were tested, showing the feasibility technology for LFG utilization.

  20. Study on 220Rn equilibrium factor in China traditional dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 220Rn concentration (CTn) and its progeny concentration (Cp,Tn) in China traditional dwellings constructed with soil were studied. The results show that the spatial distribution of CTn appears a significant concentration gradient, and decreases exponentially from the distance of source (bare walls or ground), while there is a good linearity and repeatability. The seasonal variation of CTn displays maximum value in autumn and minimum value in winter. The seasonal variation of Cp,Tn comparing with CTn and Cp,Rn is similar, and its spatial variation can be ignored. Therefore, fixing the distance distance of 220Rn form source, there is a definite relationship between CTn and Cp,Tn. 220Rn equilibrium factors FTn respectively are 0.003±0.001 and 0.017±0.014 at the distances of 2.5 cm and 20 cm from wall. The Cp,Tn results of actual measurement in traditional houses are in good agreement with the calculated values by using FTn. The measurement to 220Rn gas is more easily achieved comparing with 220Rn progenies. The introduction of FTn provides a simple and reliable method for assessment of 220Rn exposure. (authors)

  1. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SAND-DUST STORM DISASTER AND COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As a kind of natural disasters, sand-dust storms frequently occur in deserts and their surrounding areas.The occurrence of this disaster in China's northwest and north China has exerted an extremely adverse effect upon the environ-ment in China. The management of sand-dust storms is of a systematic project closely related with the environment suchas agriculture, ecosystem, forestry, water conservancy, meteorology and other aspects. Therefore, studies of the forma-tion, the basic features, causes, temporal-spatial distribution, developing-trend and related disasters of sand-dust stormsin China are conducted based on satellite data. The experience of sand-dust storms control and countermeasures in the Unit-ed States and some other countries are referred. Meanwhile, preliminary countermeasures relating to sand-dust storms inChina are proposed.

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SAND—DUST STORM DISASTER AND COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQing-yang; ZHAOXi-you; 等

    2002-01-01

    As a kind of natural disasters,sand-dust storms frequently occur in deserts and their surrounding areas.The occurrence of this disaster in Chinaˊs north west and north china has exerted an extremely adverse effect upon the environ-ment in China.The management of sand-dust storms is of a systematic project closely related with the environment such as agriculture,ecosystem,forestry,water conservancy,meteorology and other aspects.Therefore,studies of the forma-tion,the basic eatures,causes,temporal-spatial distribution,developing-trend and related disasters of sand-dust storms in China are conducted based on satellite data.The experience of sand-dust storms control and countermeasures in the Unit-ed States and some other countries are referred.Meanwhile,preliminary countermeasures relating to sand-dust storms in China are proposed.

  3. Ingestion intake of fallout Pu in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingestion intakes of fallout Pu throughout Japan in the 1959-1962 and 1978-1980 periods were measured by analyzing composite samples of each foodstuff or duplicate composite food samples consumed by five persons for a period of 1 d. Cumulative ingestion intake in Tokyo for the period from 1954-1980 was estimated by regression analysis. The cumulative ingestion intake, calculated by simple regression analysis between the natural log of the intake and that of annual fallout deposition of Pu, was estimated to be 450 pCi. Calculated by a multiple regression analysis, including the natural log of annual fallout deposition rates for a previous year as an additional independent variable, it was estimated to be 600 pCi. Considering in combination an ingestion intake, the value of which is calculated by the multiple regression analysis; an absorption ratio from the gastrointestinal tract of 0.001 (a recently reported value for low-level soluble Pu independent of chemical form); and the metabolic model in ICRP Publication 30, it is possible to estimate that the contribution of ingestion intake to liver and bone burden would be approximately 30%

  4. Branding in senior care home services in China and Finland : Comparative case study in private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kittilä, Petri

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kittilä, Petri 2011. Branding in senior care home services in China and Finland: Comparative case study in private sector. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 88. Appendix 1. The objective of this thesis was to study how the private sector senior care home services are branded and how significant the care homes see the brand building. In addition, my objective was to study differences in service branding between China and...

  5. Cultural Awareness, a Form of Risk Management in International Business: Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Fadun Solomon Olajide

    2014-01-01

    Mutual awareness of cultural references is essential in international business as levels of formality vary greatly among cultures. The emergence of capitalism into China induces international firms¡¯ investment in the country. This resulted to creation of a production base to explore the inexpensive factors of production, particularly low-cost labour. The study examines cultural awareness as a form of risk management in international business, using China as a case study. The study uses ¡®XYZ...

  6. Study on the Sensitivity and Vulnerability of Wheat to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fang; YANG Xiu; LIN Er-da; JU Hui; XIONG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on B2 climate change scenario produced by PRECIS (providing regional climates for impacts studies), which was developed by the UK Hadley Center, and the wheat yield data outputted by CERES-wheat model, the sensitivity and vulnerability of wheat production to the future climate change in China were studied through analyzing the yield variation using the GIS (geographical information system) techniques. Results showed that, by the 2070s, there will be three negative sensitive areas of rain-fed wheat, i.e., northeastern China, the region of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and part of the Loess Plateau. Irrigated wheat is generally sensitive to the future climate change for most areas of China, with a lower sensitive degree and a distribution of sensitive areas similar to the rain-fed wheat. For the irrigated wheat, northeast and northwest of China are strongly negative sensitive, while the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the coastal areas of southern China and the southwest of China, are moderately negative sensitive to the climate change. With the appropriate adaptation to the climate change, the rain-fed wheat in most regions of China will not be vulnerable and even has a yield increase, while the irrigated wheat will still have a larger vulnerable area (occupying about 2/3 of its total area in China), with the highly vulnerable regions distributed in northeastern China and northwestern China, and the medium and light vulnerable areas distributed along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,Yunnan and Guizhou provinces.

  7. Paraquat Poisoning of the Lung: HRCT Findings According to the Amount of Ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Song, Sun Wha; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Su Lim; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat as determined with the use of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study included 15 patients exposed to paraquat based on a positive urine assay and the presence of pulmonary abnormalities as detected on HRCT scans. The pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat was evaluated. Patients were classified into five groups based on the amount of paraquat that was ingested. The groups were designated as indirect exposure, minimum exposure (the patient spat out the agent after swallowing), low exposure (<= 30 cc), medium exposure (31-60 cc) and high exposure (61-100 cc). Abnormal lung parenchymal patterns as depicted on HRCT images consisted of ground glass opacity (n = 9), consolidation (n = 9), irregular lines (n = 9) and the presence of nodules (n = 2). The most common distribution was in the lower and subpleural lung zone with no relation to the amount of ingestion. The most common patterns were the presence of irregular lines in the indirect exposure group and ground glass opacity in the high exposure group. The mean number of involved lobes increased in relation to the amount of ingestion. For paraquat poisoning, the pattern and extent of pulmonary abnormalities were related to the amount of ingestion, but the distribution of pulmonary abnormalities was not related to the amount of ingestion

  8. Doses to children from intakes by ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, sensitivities and doses to children from intakes of radionuclides by ingestion were studied relative to adults. Generally speaking, doses to children were higher due to their higher radio-sensitiveness to many radionuclides, even though they consume less food and water than adults. Therefore, the action levels in the Canadian guidelines for the restriction of radioactively contaminated food and water following a nuclear emergency were selected as the most restrictive among the six age groups that could lead to an individual receiving a dose equal to a specified intervention level of 1 mSv. For non-emergency situations, the specified intervention level is 0.1 mSv. At such a low intervention level, the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC) in drinking water are normally derived for adults. Although this is a common practice for guidelines in non-emergency operations, for those radionuclides when the doses to children are more than 10 times higher than the doses to adults, the MAC in non-emergency situations should be limited to, at least, as restrictive as the action levels for interventional action following a nuclear emergency. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the Canadian Government 2010. (authors)

  9. Study on Competitive Power of Rare Earth Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jiuhong; Li Guoping

    2004-01-01

    China is abundant of rare earth resources, it has been the biggest producer, consumer and supplier. The superiority and the scale within the last 40 years make it possible to develop China's rare earth industry in a higher degree.But the superiority of rare earth resources has not turned into the economic superiority, and the development of rare earth industry in China with high speed does not lead to high benefits. Therefore, it has become the hot point and vital task now how to resolve the main problems of rare earth industry in China and how to make its rare earth industry grow healthily and steadily through transforming resources, adjusting structure, escalating industry, bringing forth new ideas in technology. This article aims at analyzing the competitive power of China's rare earth industry in the application of "Diamond framework, Determinants of National Advantage" written by Michael Porter, the well-known economist,based on the analysis, the author puts forward a strategic proposal to raise the competitive power.

  10. Progress in Marine Meteorology Studies in China during 1999-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东晓; 秦曾灏; 施平

    2004-01-01

    The progresses of marine meteorology studies achieved in China during the four year period from 1999 to 2002 are summarized in six directions: air-sea flux, marine meteorology in high latitudes, marine disasters, connection between ocean and weather/climate in China, remote sensing applications and new methodologies in marine meteorology. Compared to the previous ones, these studies adopted much more first-hand datasets, and more scientific issues were involved. As an exciting remark, there were so many contributions done by the young scientists. A brief statement about the research strategy of marine meteorology in China for the coming years is also given.

  11. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  12. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  13. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  14. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  15. A pilot study to investigate nitrate and nitrite kinetics in healthy volunteers with both normal and artificially increased gastric pH after sodium nitrate ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers EPH; Hegger C; Kortboyer JM; Meulenbelt J; NVIC

    1996-01-01

    Door de afdeling Medische Toxicologie van het Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum (NVIC) van het RIVM is een pilot-studie uitgevoerd naar de kinetiek van nitraat en nitriet na een orale dosis van 10 mg natriumnitraat per kg lichaamsgewicht aan acht gezonde vrijwilligers ( vier mannen en vier

  16. Study of the development road map of China's renewable energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qili; Li Junfeng; Gao Hu

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) has been attached high attention around the world due to its carbon-free and indige-nous production in a sustainable way. China enjoys plenty of renewable energy resources, particularly the wind, solar, hydro- and biomass energy, which could be a sound basis for a large-scale exploitation. This report examines the current status of RE technology and industry, analyzes the challenges of promoting RE in China. In order to pave the way for a long-term development of RE, this paper outlines the basic principles and priorities for individual RE technology. In line with these, the paper puts forward the RE targets and further describes the RE road map by 2020, 2030 and extend to 2050, taking consideration of China's RE resources, industrial basis and energy demand etc. At last, this paper pro-vides some recommendations to ensure the achievements of the RE targets.

  17. Studies on Foreign Body Ingestion and their Related Complications in Ruminants Associated with Inappropriate Solid Waste Disposal in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Nugusu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out in Veterinary Clinics, Gondar town, Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. Totally 416 ruminants were recorded in the clinics in which 36 clinical cases (34 bovine and 2 sheep were operated for rumen problem. The overall prevalence of foreign bodies’ was 8.6%. The non-penetrating foreign bodies have higher prevalence than penetrating foreign bodies. The commonly recovered non-penetrating foreign bodies were plastics (36.6%, followed by sack thread (26.8%, rope (16.9%, leather (15.5% and hair (4.2%. The penetrating foreign bodies were wires (51.9% commonly occurred, followed by nail (37.0% and needles (11.1%. The common clinical symptoms observed were recurrent bloat (34.8%, suspended rumination (17.4%, scanty feces (10.9%, anorexia (8.7%, rough hair coat (6.5% and distended abdomen (21.7%. Outcome of this rumenotomy studies were significantly associated with relation to the quantities of foreign bodies recovered. Out of 36 animals operated 24 were well recovered, 4 faced postoperative complication and 8 died. Adult female animals were more affected than younger and male. The present study revealed that inappropriate solid wastes disposed in the study area not only pollute the environment but also have adverse effects on healthy ruminants. In conclusion, detection of the foreign bodies in fore stomach suggested as health risk to ruminants. Therefore, appropriate solid waste disposal system need to implement in the study area to prevent health risk of ruminants and also to protect the environment.

  18. Simulation of plutonium ingestion by grazing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model of plutonium ingestion by cattle grazing a uniformly contaminated pasture is I/sub Pu/ = I/sub v/C/sub v/ + I/sub s/C/sub s/ where I/sub Pu/ is the plutonium ingestion rate (pCi/day), I/sub v/ and I/sub s/ are vegetation and soil ingestion rates (g/day), C/sub v/ and C/sub s/ are plutonium concentrations (pCi/g) in vegetation and soil. In a ground zero area such as the inner compound of Area 13 (NTS), where the spatial distribution of plutonium is nonuniform and highly variable, the simple ingestion model seems to require a stochastic interpretation. This paper provides evidence for assuming that the five factors of the ingestion model are lognormally distributed. Estimates of the geometric means and standard deviations of the four factors on the right side of the model equation were used to generate synthetic random samples of I/sub v/, I/sub s/, C/sub v/, and C/sub s/. The means of these synthetic samples were then used to obtain iterative solutions of the model equation in which the factors on the right were varied randomly and independently within the limits specified by the synthetic geometric means and standard deviation. The resulting synthetic composite random sample of I/sub Pu/ (n = 500 days) indicated an average plutonium ingestion rate, for a hypothetical 410-kg cow grazing the inner compound of Area 13, of 557 +- 526 nCi/day. Subsamples (n = 100 days) ranged from 486 +- 330 to 629 +- 526 nCi/day. This result compares favorably with previous estimates: 565 nCi/day based on fistulated steer rumen contents (Smith et al., 1976), 620 nCi/g based on an assumed diet of winterfat and shadscale (Gilbert et al., 1977), and 585 nCi/day based on general theoretical considerations

  19. Atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition: Analysis of nationwide data and a case study in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of atmospheric dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) deposition is not very clear at present. Across China, the DON deposition was substantially larger than that of world and Europe, and we found significant positive correlation between contribution of DON and the deposition flux with pristine site data lying in outlier, possibly reflecting the acute air quality problems in China. For a case study in Northeast China, we revealed the deposited DON was mainly derived from intensive agricultural activities rather than the natural sources by analyzing the compiled dataset across China and correlating DON flux with NH4+–N and NO3−–N. Crop pollens and combustion of fossil fuels for heating probably contributed to summer and autumn DON flux respectively. Overall, in Northeast China, DON deposition could exert important roles in agro-ecosystem nutrient management and carbon sequestration of natural ecosystems; nationally, it was suggested to found rational network for monitoring DON deposition. -- Highlights: •Contribution and deposition flux of DON across China was positively correlated. •Deposited DON was more influenced by human in China than across the world and Europe. •DON of a farmland in Northeast China was mainly derived from agricultural activities. •Crop pollen and combustion of fossil fuels contributed to summer and autumn DON. •Deposited DON should not be neglected when evaluating its ecological impacts. -- Synthesis of DON deposition across China implied regional importance of anthropogenic sources, and an observation in Northeast China suggested the ecological significances of the DON flux should be considered

  20. A pilot study to investigate nitrate and nitrite kinetics in healthy volunteers with both normal and artificially increased gastric pH after sodium nitrate ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Colbers EPH; Hegger C; Kortboyer JM; Meulenbelt J; NVIC

    1996-01-01

    Door de afdeling Medische Toxicologie van het Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum (NVIC) van het RIVM is een pilot-studie uitgevoerd naar de kinetiek van nitraat en nitriet na een orale dosis van 10 mg natriumnitraat per kg lichaamsgewicht aan acht gezonde vrijwilligers ( vier mannen en vier vrouwen). Natriumnitraat is toegediend bij normale en kunstmatig verhoogde maagsap pH. De maagsap pH is verhoogd door inname van 40 mg omeprazol per dag gedurende 15 dagen voor de toediening van n...

  1. Studies on Foreign Body Ingestion and their Related Complications in Ruminants Associated with Inappropriate Solid Waste Disposal in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sileshi Nugusu; Ramaswamy Velappagounder; Chandrashekhar Unakal; Raja Nagappan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Veterinary Clinics, Gondar town, Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. Totally 416 ruminants were recorded in the clinics in which 36 clinical cases (34 bovine and 2 sheep) were operated for rumen problem. The overall prevalence of foreign bodies’ was 8.6%. The non-penetrating foreign bodies have higher prevalence than penetrating foreign bodies. The commonly recovered non-penetrating foreign bodies were plastics (36.6%), followed by sack thread...

  2. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection. Reference Asian man project (phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Reference Asian Man was conducted for a period of six years. This study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely, anthropometric measurements, organ mass measurements, nutritional and dietary intake, pulmonary and water balance studies. Results of this study participated by eight Asian member states including the Philippines are contained in the IAEA TECDOC-1005. Based on research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appears to be important aspects of the RAM. Hence, the first CRM for Phase 2 held in Manila July 1-4, 1996 strengthened the need to continue the project. Protocols on its implementation were discussed during this meeting. The Philippines presented a report that described the sampling and analytical methods that will be applied. This report aim to present the initial samples collected as well as the data generated from these samples. Elements of interest to radiation protection include Sr, Th, U, 1, Cs and trace elements present in food, water and in selected tissues such as liver, lung, kidney, thyroid and bone

  3. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  4. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  5. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G.; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  6. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  7. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 μg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for 232Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the 232Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body

  8. An Ethnographic Study Of Glocal Fashion Communication In Hong Kong And Greater China

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, HLT

    2015-01-01

    The rise of fashion businesses in mainland China and Hong Kong and the growth in their brands is attracting the attention of international fashion conglomerates. Recent case studies of socio-historical, economic and cultural influences in the greater China region were revisited applying communication, media and cultural studies theories. Participation observation and interviews were conducted in an attempt to reveal the nuanced process of fashion communication in Hong Kong’s fashion industry....

  9. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Hui Li; Ye Feng

    2014-01-01

    Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversi...

  10. Widening gap of educational opportunity? A longitudinal study of educational inequality in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-Dong Paul

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to convey an accurate and dynamic account of educational inequality in China during the last decade. The study finds that there is clear evidence of rapid expansion of education, and younger students all over China are benefiting from the expansion. One of the most notable achievements is the virtual elimination of gender bias against girls in educational attainment. However, analysis of province-level school enrolment data over the last decade shows evidence of persistent...

  11. Advances in Studying Oceanic Circulation from Hydrographic Data with Applications in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂华; 李荣凤; 闫长香

    2003-01-01

    Methods for studying oceanic circulation from hydrographic data are reviewed in the context of their applications in the South China Sea. These methods can be classified into three types according to their different dynamics as follows: (1) descriptive methods, (2) diagnostic methods without surface and bottom forcing, and (3) diagnostic methods with the above boundary forcing. The paper discusses the progress made in the above methods together with the advancement of study in the South China Sea circulation.

  12. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteri...

  13. Towards Efficient Road Transport in Logistics Operations : A Case Study of IKEA China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhu; Haoqi, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this research is to explore the role of road transport in logistics operations, and to investigate and analyze how IKEA China does operate on road transport in logistics operations. Design/methodology/approach- A single case study has been conducted at IKEA China, including semi-structured interviews and review of internal documents. Along with the case study, literature reviews have been conducted within the areas of efficient road transport in logistics operations.  ...

  14. Creating a collaborative ESL classroom through teacher leadership : a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Li

    2016-01-01

    This research looks into collaborative learning with teacher leadership in the ESL classroom of Guizhou, China. The phenomenon, purpose, research methods, main results and conclusions of the study are provided in the abstract. Under the phenomenon of New High School Curriculum Reform Program in China in 2004, all Chinese schools are trying new teaching methods to improve students’ English level. The purpose of the study is getting a better understanding of collaborative learning with teach...

  15. INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION:A STUDY ON MNC-BASED CHINA-SWEDEN TRADE FLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Wenwen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to offer a general picture of MNCs` freight transportation activities in China-Sweden trade, and to explore the reasons by comparison with related theories. The study has been based on interviews with eleven Swedish companies and two Chinese companies, who have transported their commodities between China and Sweden. Interviews have been used to collect the data that later on has been compared to the information collected by a literature study. The main conclusion...

  16. Study on Social Responsibility Information Disclosure of Listed Food Corporation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhumei Li; Hongwei He

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies on social responsibility information disclosure of listed food corporation in china. Taking 100 listed Food Corporation as a sample in 2011 in China; the descriptive statistical analysis has been done about Social Responsibility information disclosure from the aspects of three economic interests, environmental awareness and social relations. The study found: The vast majority of social responsibility information disclosure of the listed food corporations is at a lower level...

  17. Radiation exposure by ingestion of drinking water contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between concentrations of such mixtures of radioactive substances as may occur after a nuclear burst or rector accident resulting in the release of radioactive material and the radiation dose taken up with the drinking water, which was calculated with reference to the beginning and duration of ingestion as well as the ingested volumes of contaminated drinking water. Determined were the activities of all the radionuclides contained in 1 l drinking water, which together lead to a time-dependent effective uptake of 1 Sv at days 0, 1 and 7 as well as 1 month and 6 months after contamination of the drinking water. (orig./HP)

  18. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  19. Developing School Evaluation Methods to Improve the Quality of Schooling in China: A Pilot "Value Added" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen Jung; Thomas, Sally M.; Yang, Xijie; Li, Jianzhong

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the background and findings of a research project on school effectiveness and evaluation in one regional education authority in China. The study was the outcome of a China/UK academic link aiming to improve research capacity and the evaluation of educational quality in China, funded by the British Council in Beijing, on…

  20. Studies on Co-opetition among National Petroleum Companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu-Ying

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is trying to find the co-opetition basic strategy among domestic similar companies and focus on the strategy system of the formation of complementary advantages force and competitive energy when the China national petroleum corps in opening up the international market. With the obviously increasing dependence on petroleum in China and the entering of advanced international petroleum companies in China's market, the competition in petroleum industry becomes more serious than before. The cooperation and competition mode among national petroleum companies is an efficient way to push the development of petroleum industry in China. Based on the analysis of encountering difficulties in national petroleum industry, the necessity of co-opetition among national petroleum companies was proposed in this study. Moreover, basic orientation and path for co-opetition are analyzed. At last, the co-opetition for exploiting international petroleum market is proposed in this study.

  1. The Influence of Fluid Ingestion on Performance of Soccer Players During a Match

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Tirapegui; Turibio Barros; Rodrigo Chaves; Isabela Guerra

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on soccer performance. Twenty soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Players were allocated to two assigned trials according to their positional roles in the team: CHO group (ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution at regular 15 minutes intervals) and NCHO (ingesting no fluid) during 75 min on-field soccer game. During the trials, body mass loss, heart rate, time spent running, nu...

  2. The use of a metal detector to locate ingested metallic foreign bodies in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, B; Price, G. J.; Perez-Avilla, C A; Kenney, I J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to assess whether modern metal detectors can reduce unnecessary radiation in searching for ingested metallic foreign bodies. METHODS: Over a one year period, 20 children presenting to an accident and emergency department with suspected metallic foreign body ingestion were studied. Using an Adams Electronics AD15 metal detector, the radiographer recorded the location of metallic foreign bodies on a pictorial representation of neck, chest, and abdomen. The child then ha...

  3. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  4. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  5. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  6. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-05-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  7. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  8. Prince Alfred College 1993 Study Tour to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marten; Lake, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a trip to China by students of Mandarin Chinese at Prince Alfred College, Australia, in order to learn about the language and culture of the host country. Some continuing features of the stay were shopping, food, and attitudes of the local populace toward the foreigners. (Author/CK)

  9. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  10. A review on studies in forage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wenxing; YANG Xiaobo; QI Meiying

    2007-01-01

    A review is made of the achievements in the collection,conservation,and genetic diversity of forage germplasm resources;methods and goals for forage breeding;and development and utilization of forage in China.The current problems based on the researches in forage are analyzed,and some suggestions are put forward.

  11. Brief Review of Some CLIVAR-Related Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Climate Variability and Predictability(CLIVAR)program is one of the sub-programs of the World Climate Research Program(WCRP).In this paper,CLIVAR related research in China(2003-2006) is briefly reviewed,including four major components,namely,low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations,interannual variability,decadal variations in East Asia,and global warming simulations.

  12. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and bioc

  13. An Empirical Study on E-Commerce Service in the Western China's Tourism Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li; LI Shi-ming; GAN Lu

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's tourism industry, e-commerce will bring about new opportunity and challenge to tourism. Hotels and travel agencies play very important roles in tourism industry and their level of application of IT prominently shows the management level and information process of whole tourism. This study uses content analysis to evaluate the web sites service of travel agencies and hotels in the Western China. Moreover, this paper puts forward strategic suggestion for the future development of tourism e-commerce in the Western China.

  14. Button Battery Ingestion in Children: A Paradigm for Management of Severe Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinwand, Kristina; Brumbaugh, David E; Kramer, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal injuries secondary to button battery ingestions in children have emerged as a dangerous and difficult management problem for pediatricians. Implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach, with rapid and coordinated care, is paramount to minimize the risk of negative outcomes. In addition to providing a comprehensive review of the topic, this article outlines the authors' referral center's experience with patients with severe battery ingestion, highlighting the complications, outcomes, and important lessons learned from their care. The authors also propose an algorithm for clinical care that may be useful for guiding best management of pediatric button battery ingestion. PMID:26616899

  15. Comparative study on preventing avoidable blindness in China and in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yan

    2007-01-01

    Background "Vision 2020" was initiated in 1999 and many relevant activities are ongoing, but little information is available on what it has achieved and what constraints it faces. It is not yet clear if funding is the most important constraint. Nepal is one of the underdeveloped countries, but an advanced country in preventing avoidable blindness.The aim of this study was to compare the situation in China and in Nepal in prevention of avoidable blindness.Methods Data from literature review and a field visit were combined. All statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS Version 11.5. The chi-square test was used for comparisons involving categorical variables.Results The blindness rate is higher in Nepal than that in China (P<0.05). The average number of cataract operations performed by one ophthalmologist is much lower in China than in Nepal. The cataract surgical rate (CSR) is much lower in China than in Nepal (P<0.001). High cost of the surgery and inadequate qualifications of human resources were found in China. Cataract surgical outcome in China compared well with international standards.Conclusions Progress towards the "Vision 2020" target in China is much slower than that in Nepal. Further attention to address this issue is urgently needed.

  16. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  17. Methaemoglobinaemia after ingestion of amyl nitrite.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, R. J.; Moulden, A

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of methaemoglobinaemia in a 2 year old girl after ingestion of an 'aphrodisiac' containing nitrite. The availability of these products, their poor labelling, and their intended presence in domestic bedrooms all serve to increase the hazard they pose to young children.

  18. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. PMID:27130966

  19. Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnoll, G.; Moore, D; Douek, D.

    1993-01-01

    A case of ingestion of oil of cloves is presented, which resulted in coma, fits, a coagulopathy, and acute liver damage. This is not unlike the syndrome produced in the late stages of a substantial paracetamol overdose, and a similar treatment regimen is proposed.

  20. Data ingestion and assimilation in ionospheric models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Nava, B.; Galkin, I.; Angling, M.; Stankov, S. M.; Coisson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 235-253. ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * models * data assimilation * data ingestion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  1. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  2. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantia nigra, producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers. PMID:24093671

  3. Happy New Year to Our Readers and Greetings to China International Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Editors’ Note: The New Year approaches as we greet the first anniversary of China International Studies. Availing ourselves of this opportunity, we sincerely wish our readers a happy and prosperous New Year! China International Studies began its publication last December. Since its inception, various think-tanks and institutions of higher learning both at home and abroad as well as Chinese embassies in foreign countries and foreign embassies in Beijing have offered it great support. Many readers wrote to us giving their encouragement on this new-born publication. We are carrying some of the messages in this issue to express our deep appreciation. Articles in this issue are mainly on the Middle East situation, the Iran nuclear issue, China-EU relations, China-India relations and China’s peaceful diplomacy. We are also publishing a paper by a foreign scholar for the first time.

  4. A Study on Financial Reporting Standards and Accounting Quality- Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cheng-Hwai

    2013-02-01

    According to institutional theorists, the forms and business models of corporation are mainly shaped by factors such as politics, regulations, social norms and cultures. This paper examines how the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and institutional environment influence the accounting quality, in response to the threat of political extraction in China. We took mainland China as an example instead in our study, following the accounting quality definition of Barth et al. [2], we found that the developments of Chinese government performance audit are conspicuously different by region; to reflect such differences, we elaborated our research by dividing mainland China into 31 categories (provinces or cities). We set 2003-2010 as the time horizon for this study. After testing the Regression model, our empirical research achieved two conclusions: 1) IFRS adoption in China should significantly improve the accounting quality, and 2) IFRS and institutional environment should synthetically influence the quality of accounting as well.

  5. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  6. A study of Cross‐cultural issues of Spanish Companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Roca-Ribas Vives, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    The present study is focused on cross-cultural analysis of different Spanish companies operating in China. Mainly, the research examines the impact that cultural factors can have on the Spanish firms in China. And these cultural factors affect, first, to the external activity of the company, and secondly to human resources management, the formation and execution of strategy, form of organizational structure, and corporate governance within the enterprises. This thesis is a qualitative stud...

  7. Housing markets, government behaviors, and housing choice: a case study of three cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Youqin Huang

    2004-01-01

    Housing reform in urban China has introduced market mechanisms into a previously welfare-oriented housing system. Although microlevel factors such as household characteristics begin to shape housing behavior in urban China as is the case in the West, macrolevel constraints and opportunities defined by not only housing stocks and housing markets but also local government behaviors continue to be crucial. By studying housing choice in Beijing, Chongqing, and Jiangyin, I find that local governme...

  8. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiqi Wang; , Wei Zhang; Rendong Yang; Yuanxiu Huang; Lin Zhang; Peishan Ning; Xunjie Cheng; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu; Hongyan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicte...

  9. Rural–urban migration and mental and sexual health: a case study in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiushi

    2013-01-01

    Massive rural–urban temporary migration has taken place amid China's rapid economic growth and development. Much has been written about the economic causes and consequences of this massive migration; less studied are the potential health and behavioral impacts of migration on migrants. Using data from a population-based sample survey conducted in southwestern China, this paper examines the potential impact of rural–urban migration and post-migration urban living on migrants' mental health and...

  10. The quality of childbirth care in China: women’s voices: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, Joanna; van den Broek, Nynke; TAO, FANGBIAO; Kun, Huang; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of improved utilisation of health care and outcomes, rapid socio-economic development and health system reform in China, it is timely to consider the quality of services. Data on quality of maternal health care as experienced by women is limited. This study explores women’s expectations and experiences of the quality of childbirth care in rural China. Methods Thirty five semi-structured interviews and five focus group discussions were conducted with 69 women who had ...

  11. Study on long-term aerosol distribution over the land of East China using MODIS data

    OpenAIRE

    Q. He; C Li; F. Geng; Lei, Y.; Li, Y.; X. Tie; Yin, Q.

    2011-01-01

    East China is among the fastest developing and most populous area in Asia, where atmospheric aerosol loading is high due to heavy urban and industrial emission. These aerosols may have significant impact on regional climate and environment. In this report, MODIS level 2 aerosol products (2000–2007) were used to study aerosol spatial and temporal distributions, as well as their variations with local meteorological conditions over East China. By combining Aerosol Optical Depth...

  12. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zuxun; Liu, Junan

    2013-01-01

    Background With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. Methods A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community he...

  13. Neurobehavioral effects of HIV-1 infection in China and the United States: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Jin, Hua; Franklin, Donald R.; Morgan, Erin E.; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Taylor, Michael J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott; Ake, Christopher; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in China has been increasing exponentially, yet there have been no studies of the neurobehavioral effects of HIV infection in that country. Most neuroAIDS research has been conducted in Western countries using Western neuropsychological (NP) methods, and it is unclear whether these testing methods are appropriate for use in China. Twenty-eight HIV seropositive (HIV+) and twenty-three HIV seronegative (HIV−) individuals with comparable gender, age, and education distributions ...

  14. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Luo; Qi Wang; Zuxun Lu; Junan Liu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. METHODS: A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community ...

  15. Studying Suicide with Psychological Autopsy: Social and Cultural Feasibilities of the Methodology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F.; JIANG, CHAO; Zhou, Li; Jia, Shuhua; Sun, Yueji; Jin, Shenghua; Conwell, Yeates

    2002-01-01

    As China opens its door to the world, suicide research is making rapid progress using methods and instruments developed in the West. This is a feasibility study of the psychological autopsy methodology applied in China, with its emphasis on the social and cultural environments. With samples of 66 completed suicides and 66 community normal living controls, the authors found that it is feasible to interview at least two informants for each suicide case and each control, between 2 and 6 months a...

  16. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Hu; Qian Jin; Philip Kavan

    2014-01-01

    In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide a...

  17. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  18. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowski Matthew D; Wilcoxon Rebecca M; Miron Joel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols') often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC), a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2) to de...

  19. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of these engines (distributed propulsion). A conceptual design study is therefore performed to determine the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion engines for a conventional number of engines i...

  20. Micropinocytic ingestion of glycosylated albumin by isolated microvessels: possible role in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S K; Devenny, J J; Bitensky, M W

    1981-01-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and non-enzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentra...

  1. The safety mining theory studying for coal resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; SUN Hong-xing; PENG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The coal resource has an important role in the energy development strategy in China. Because the coal resources are a kind of non-renewable resources, a kind of exhausting resource, which is limited in quantity, and the exploitation of the recourses are not economized now, so how to realize the sustainable development for coal resource in China is very important. In this paper, two parts were researched to optimize the coal mining. In order to optimize the mining order of different mining areas, the fuzzy logic evaluation was used to build the evaluation system. The economic control theory model was built to realize the proper period to explore the coal recourses for the same mining areas.

  2. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha, nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis, insect pathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium spp. and Chinese medicinal fungi (Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, have been genome sequenced and extensively analyzed in China. The biology, evolution, and pharmaceutical application of these fungi and their interacting with host nematodes and insects revealed by genomes, comparing genomes coupled with transcriptomes are summarized and reviewed in this paper.

  3. Recent Studies on Attributions of Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zongci; DING Yihui; LUO Yong; Wang Shaowu

    2005-01-01

    Attributions of floods/cooler along the Yangtze River Valley and droughts/warmer in North China for the last 25 years have been reviewed in this paper. Both natural climate variability and human activities are considered. Some stronger evidences contributed to the natural climate variability, such as decadal and interdecadal variabilities of East Asian summer monsoon, the periodicities and transitions of rainfall and temperature changes in China, abrupt climate change, NAO, AO, AAO, ENSO, and snow cover. The signals produced by the human activities such as greenhouse gases and "brown clouds" likely play the role for the patterns. But the physical feedbacks and mechanisms still keep ambiguous and vague. More researches should be carried out in future to solve this issue.

  4. The Study of Two Geomagnetic Jerks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Suqin; Yang Dongmei; Li Qi; Zhao Yongfen

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the first differences of the annual means (annual rate) for the Y and Z components of the geomagnetic field from nine magnetic observatories in China, measured from 1985 to 2003. The 1991 jerk was obvious in the Y component measured but not clear for the Z component. Rapid changes in the Z components were ubiquitous around 2000 -2001, but not seen for the Y component. External effects were removed from the monthly means by comparing the monthly mean of the geomagnetic field components at the observatories with the monthly time series of the Ap geomagnetic index. However, some examples were analyzed and showed whether external effects were removed or not, there was no marked distinction in determining the jerks in China for the Y component and the Z component of the geomagnetic field. Finally, the isolines of the first differences of the annual means were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of the jerks.

  5. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Zhang; Xiaoli Cheng; Xingzhong Liu; Meichun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha), nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis), insect pathogens (Beauveria bas...

  6. A study on Changing Image of Teachers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林渊

    2011-01-01

    <正>Teachers have enjoyed high social status in China from old times to recently,and teacher’s career image has been always important.With the development of society,however,teachers’ traditional ’authority’ and the fixed image have met new challenge. As the teachers of new century,how to create positive and effective career image to gain recognition from students and the public,and to achieve good educational results,are worthy of discussion.

  7. Determinants of FDI into China and Vietnam: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi-Hong-Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of economic reforms, China in 1978 and Vietnam in 1986, both countries have become successful examples of transition to a market economy. Over their courses of reform, attracting substantial and rising amounts of inward FDI has been a key focus of their market-oriented policy reforms. Yet, the last two decades have experienced a widening gap in inward FDI between these two countries even though the context and characteristics of their economic reform are relatively similar...

  8. Study of regenerative medicine in China: demands and clinical translation

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of tissue is a well-discussed topic. Over the past 20 years, with the development of genetics, auxology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering, tissue repair and regeneration have rapidly developed as emerging "Regenerative Medicine". Regenerative medicine has significant market demand in China. Based on national statistics, injury and poisoning patients rank third in afflictions in city hospitals (accounting for 9.13%) and rank second in afflictions in county ...

  9. Study to elevator inspection market in Deyang city, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Yimou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and identify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, Sichuan province, China. To describe the market by using PEST analysis, which stands for P( political), E( economy), S( social), T( technology). In order to indentify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, interviewing methods will be applied in this thesis to collect primary data. Scattered distribution of elevator owner is the first characteris...

  10. Study on Environmental Tax: A Case of China

    OpenAIRE

    Huifeng Li; Xuanwei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Since the industrial age, along with the promotion of economic development, problems of ecological destruction and environmental pollution are becoming more serious. To solve this problem, the implementation of environmental tax is an effective measure. Based on the analysis of the theoretical foundation of environmental taxes, international practice and experience in environmental tax system, in this paper, the authors describe the status quo of China’s environmental tax system, and frames...

  11. MARKETING PLANS FOR COSMETIC INDUSTRY IN CHINA : Case Study: Sephora

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hanbing

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic industry has developed at a very fast speed in China. Cosmetic industry includes a lot of products which has a great influence on people’s daily life. Chinese people who have reached a better standard of living and like to pay more attention to their appearance and they are more interested in cosmetic products which make them look better. Both females and males have increased their demands on cosmetic products. The competition in the cosmetic industry has increased, as doing busi...

  12. Development of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xianglian; Qin Guodong; Lou Ping

    2013-01-01

    For the energy shortage in China’s coastal areas, which has exerted severe impact on economy development, a growing number of attentions have been paid to ocean energy utilization. In this paper, a review of related researches as well as development of ocean energy in China is given. The main part of this paper is the investigation into ocean energy distribution and technology status of tidal energy, wave energy, and thermal energy, especially that of the tidal energy and wave energy. Finally...

  13. Executive Remuneration, Option Incentives--- An Empirical Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, DAN

    2006-01-01

    Prior executive remuneration researches are mainly concentrated on the risk neutral valuation of stock options; or measuring the sensitivity of the pay for performance relationship based on data collected from US. However, this paper aims to investigate the scheme implementation in the biggest developing country: China. According to the first hand information collected from a survey of executive stock option scheme in Zhongguancun, we are able to depict the general picture of such equity-base...

  14. An Empirical Study of MEH in China's Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing

    2007-01-01

    MEH (Market Efficiency Hypothesis) has been discussed for several decades in world wide with has proposed by Fama in his PHD dissertation in 1965. This paper examines whether the market is efficient and to what extent the market is efficient in China's Stock Market. For statistic tests are applied involving unit root test, run test, serial correlation test and gradual efficiency test. According to the results of the tests on daily close price of eight indices in Shanghai stock exchange for fi...

  15. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Christopher T Wright; Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    China has abundant biomass resources, which can be used as a potential source of bioenergy. However, China faces challenges implementing biomass as an energy source, because China has not developed the highly networked, high-volume biomass logistics systems and infrastructure. This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to the U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum under different scenarios in China. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study shows that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/ dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be down to $36.01/ dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also performed a sensitivity analysis to find the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. A sensitivity analysis shows that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, causing a variation of $6 to $12/metric ton.

  16. Medical management of paraquat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Gawarammana, Indika B; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Poisoning by paraquat herbicide is a major medical problem in parts of Asia while sporadic cases occur elsewhere. The very high case fatality of paraquat is due to inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatments. We conducted a systematic search for human studies that report toxicokinetics, mechanisms, clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Paraquat is rapidly but incompletely absorbed and then largely eliminated unchanged in urine within 12–24 h. Clinical features are largely due to ...

  17. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversity based on the data of habitat area, as well as calculated the optimal price for forest biodiversity assessment. The result showed that forest biodiversity habitat assessment of the optimal price is 9,970 RMB Yuan/ha and there is a dynamic model for forest biodiversity assessment. Finally, the study suggested that studies of forest biodiversity assessment in China, in particular, studying of valuation of forest biodiversity should consider using shadow price and the social, economic and other factors should be taken into account

  18. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠

    2011-01-01

    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  19. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  20. Study on the operational safety performance indicator of nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational Safety Performance Indicator system (SPI) has been more and more regarded recently for their clear and effective characteristic in safety assessment for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). A large developing plan for NPPs construction is being discussed and considered in P.R. China. As one of important nuclear country, China expects to ensure the normal operation of NPPs and improve the safety level. National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA), National Nuclear Regulatory Agency of China, has put high attention on safety and SPI area, and many endeavours and attempts have been done or being carried out for an establishment of SPI system in China. NNSA intends to build an integrated SPI system to monitor all of the NPPs operation in China, based on the SPI system currently used in the world. NNSA believes that the SPI system will help to more effectively enforce the function of surveillance and management. The paper will introduces the status of study on the operational safety performance indicator of Nuclear Power Plants in China. (author)

  1. Social Class and Social Capital in China and Britain: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojun Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We use the China General Social Survey (2005 and the Home Office Citizenship Survey (2005 to study civic engagement and neighbourhood trust in China and Britain in this paper. We focus on class differences in participation in sports/recreation, religion, children's/adult education and public-welfare activities, and trust in the neighbours. We find higher levels of civic involvement in Britain but greater neighbourhood trust in China. This is mainly due to structural differences. China has a large proportion of peasants who have very low levels of civic involvement but very high levels of neighbourhood trust. Among the non-peasant population, the two countries have similar levels of class differences in civic (except religious involvement. There are small class differences in China on neighbourhood trust, but marked effects in Britain. Overall, there is a greater similarity than difference in class effects in both civic engagement and social trust in the two countries. While differences in demographic attributes (and China's specific institutional arrangement, the household registration system, or hukou account for some of the observed patterns, we also find more pronounced class than demographic effects in the two countries. Class plays a major role in the development of social capital.

  2. Cost Aspects of Ingest and Normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Archives, and The Royal Library and the State and University Library are in the process of developing a cost model for digital preservation: Each of the functional entities of the OAIS Reference Model are broken down into measurable, cost-critical activities, and formula are...... being tailored for each of these in order to create a generic tool for estimating the short and long-term costs of digital preservation. This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the costs of digital preservation and describes the method used to develop the Danish Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP). It then describes how the OAIS functional entity, Ingest, has been included in the model. For institutions basing their digital preservation strategy on migration, a major cost pertaining to Ingest is normalization, a digital migration from production to preservation format and structure...

  3. Internal Wave Study in the South China Sea Using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-Kuang; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the internal wave distribution maps in the China Seas have been compiled from hundreds of ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and Space Shuttle SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images from 1993 to 1999. Based on internal wave distribution map, most of internal waves in the northeast part of South China Sea were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the South China Sea. Based on the observations from drilling rigs near DongSha Island by Amoco Production Co., the solitons may be generated in a 4 km wide channel between Batan and Sabtang islands in Luzon Strait. The proposed generation mechanism is similar to the lee wave formation from a shallow topography. Both depression and elevation internal waves have been observed in the same RADARSAT ScanSAR image on May 4, 1998 near DongSha Island. Furthermore, depression and elevation internal waves have also been observed by SAR at the same location on the shelf in April and June, 1993 (in different seasons) respectively. Numerical models have been used to interpret their generation mechanism and evolution processes. Based on the SAR images, near DongSha Island, the westward propagating huge internal solitons are often encountered and diffracted/broken by the coral reefs on the shelf. After passing the island, the diffracted waves will re-merge or interact with each other. It has been observed that after the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, the phase of wave packet is shifted and wavelength is also changed. Examples of mesoscale features observed in SAR images, such as fronts, raincells, bathymetry, ship wakes, and oil spills will be presented. Recent mooring measurements in April 1999 near Dongsha Island, future field test ASIAEX (Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment) planned for April 2001, and some pretest survey data will be discussed in this paper.

  4. The Study on Differential Charges of Universities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-zheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the "double-track charge" system (price prejudice charge system) in theory and practice. The author explains and analyzes the "differential charges phenomenon" of universities in China by taking "Pareto optimality" as regulation standard and "Darwin optimality" as empirical standard, combining regulation standard with practice standard, realistic standard of value judgment with ultimate standard, and fairness with efficiency. This paper provides theoretical reference and an operation platform for application and implementation differential charges and the containment of corruption in college enrollment.

  5. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy from Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha Emily Cutler; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities.  We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion.  Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  6. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  7. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. PMID:26365568

  8. Study on Residential Water Use in North China: Analysis of Nationwide Statistical Data and Case Study of Taiyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ji; Zhang Haiping; Imura Hidefumi

    2006-01-01

    Residential water use is gradually becoming the focus in China's municipal water supply planning and management in recent years. Little is known, however, about the residential water use in modem China due to the transition of economy and enhancement of management on water conservation. In order to better understand the characteristics of residential water use in North China, a model for identifying the determinants of residential water use was established and analyzed by using panel data and cross-section data methodologies. Then Taiyuan city, the capital city of Shanxi Province in Northern China was selected as a case study. Both the analyses and field investigation indicate that the relatively slow increase of residential water use in recent years may result from the implementation of strict laws and regulations on water conservation. And through the investigation,first-hand information about water consumption pattern, water reuse/conservation, people's attitude toward water quantity and quality, etc. have been obtained.

  9. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  10. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Yoji Kato; Tokio Domoto; Masanori Hiramitsu; Takao Katagiri; Kimiko Sato; Yukiko Miyake; Satomi Aoi; Katsuhide Ishihara; Hiromi Ikeda; Namiko Umei; Atsusi Takigawa; Toshihide Harada

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out...

  11. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  12. Coresidence with Elderly Parents: A Comparative Study of Southeast China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. Y. Cyrus; Xie, Yu; Yu, Ruoh Rong

    2011-01-01

    Using recent survey data from the Panel Study of Family Dynamics (PSFD) on 1,655 married persons born in 1964-1976 in southeastern China and Taiwan, we studied coresidence with elderly parents using a multinomial probit model for coresidence type and an ordered probit model for residential distance. The study yielded four findings: (a) Patrilocal…

  13. Comparison of Social Studies Education in the United States, China, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.; Choi, Jungsoon; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief picture of social studies education in the United States, China, and South Korea. It begins with a brief account of the K-12 curriculum structure and history of social studies education in each country in the 20th century. It then turns to a contemporary look at the social studies, the national curriculum standards…

  14. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A;

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order....... Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat...... hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks. The...

  15. Fast reactor development strategy targets study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is a big developing Country who needs a huge energy resources and a rapid growing rate. Considering energy resources limited and environment issues it is sure that the nuclear energy will be becoming one of the main energy resources. The Government has decided to develop the nuclear power capacity to 40 GW in 2020. It is envisaged that it will reach to 240 GW in 2050. It is stimulate us to consider conscientiously the development of the fast breeder reactor's and related closed nuclear fuel cycle by the limitation of Uranium resources and uncertainties of international Uranium market. Followings are the proposed strategic targets of fast reactor development in China. (1) To realize the operation of commercial fast breeder reactors with an unit size of 800-900 MWe and one site-multi reactors in 2030. (2) To develop the nuclear power capacity to 240 GW in 2050. (3) To replace step by step the fossil fuel utilization in large scale by nuclear energy beyond 2050. (authors)

  16. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  17. A Study on the "Bocheonga" of Joseon and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Yang, Hong-Jin; Lee, Yong Bok; Ahn, Young Sook

    2009-09-01

    Korean historical constellations and their names are similar to Chinese ones. Although Korean historical astronomy is influenced by China, they have distinct differences in each shape and names of the constellations. We, therefore, compare Bocheonga (?) of the early Joseon dynasty (?, 1392 ~ 1910) preserved in Gyujanggark (?) with that of the Sui dynasty (?, 581sim618) of China written by Wang Ximing (?) in terms of star charts and descriptions of the contents. We find out that the two books are partly different all over the books. First, there are definite differences in preface, three area of constellations (?) in the heaven, and the description of the Milky Way. Second, some of constellations show different in shape, the number of stars. Especially connecting pattern in some constellations shows different in each other. Third, Joseon Bocheonga describes their colors for some stars. These mean that Joseon has a unique tradition of star maps unlike Chinese one. We also summarize the differences and distinctive characteristics of Joseon star charts compared with Chinese ones.

  18. Feasibility study of wind energy potential in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarkable economic achievements have been made in China since the economic reform in 1978. High agricultural and industrial productivity as well as rapid development of the tertiary industry and continuous improvement of living standard have resulted in a jumping power demand. The pressing need for updating the current infrastructure, power industry in particular is the key to the sustainable economic growth and continuous industrialisation. The crucial role of rural industry in economic development and the fact of over 70% of the rural population have brought a great opportunity for wind energy development. One of the most cost-effective ways to diffuse wind power technology is through technology transfer based on joint venture activities due to the enormous initial capital investment and complexity of wind power technology to ease the severe domestic power shortage. Foreign and investment will no doubt have a stimulatory effect on wind energy development in China. The future benefits in terms of technology transfer and international trade will easily outweigh the current problems and thus contribute to sustainable economic development in many years to come. (author)

  19. Psychology studies' drive to educational reform in the last 20 years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da-jun; Xu Xing-chun

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform,this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China.The study shows that:(1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems;(2) Research fields have been expanded and research directions have been localized;(3) The theoretical basis for quality education has been derived from education psychology studies;(4) The psychological foundation for curriculum reform and instruction has been implemented,and (5) China has committed to serve and expand current educational practices.

  20. Dengue is still an imported disease in China: a case study in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shaowei; Chen, Bin; Wu, Haixia; Yang, Zhicong; Di, Biao; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaobo; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-06-01

    Dengue virus and its four serotypes (DENV 1-4) infect approximately 390 million people worldwide each year, with most cases in tropical and subtropical regions. Because of repeated introduction of DENV from epidemic regions and suitable weather conditions, many regions have shifted from hypo-endemicity to hyper-endemicity over recent decades. Since the first dengue outbreak in 1978, it is crucial to understand the current situation in China over nearly 40 years. The purpose of the study was to examine whether dengue in China was endemic or not, which is essential for relevant dengue control and prevention strategy implementation in China. The study, combining epidemiological characteristics of dengue from the disease notification system, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, showed that all four serotypes had been detected in Guangzhou, China, which was dominated by DENV 1-2. The Maximum Likelihood tree analytic results showed that the virus detected in Guangzhou localized in different clades, except of virus of 2002 and 2003 clustered together. There existed the mutual introductions between Guangzhou and Southeast Asia. Most of the viruses were imported from Southeast Asia and the sources of outbreaks in Guangzhou mainly originated from Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The study indicates that dengue in China still remains as an imported disease, with the possibility of localization. PMID:25772205

  1. Empirical study on optimal reinsurance for crop insurance in China from an insurer’s perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xian-hua; WANG Yun-bo; ZHANG Hua-dong; WANG Ke

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the optimal reinsurance for crop insurance in China in an insurer’s perspective using the data from Inner Mongolia, Jilin, and Liaoning, China. On the basis of the loss ratio distributions modeled by AnHua Crop Risk Evalu-ation System, we use the empirical model developed by Tan and Weng (2014) to study the optimal reinsurance design for crop insurance in China. We ifnd that, when the primary insurer’s loss function, the principle of the reinsurance premium calculation, and the risk measure are given, the level of risk tolerance of the primary insurer, the safety loading coefifcient of the reinsurer, and the constraint on reinsurance premium budget affect the optimal reinsurance design. When a strict constraint on reinsurance premium budget is implemented, which often occurs in reality, the limited stop loss reinsurance is optimal, consistent with the common practice in reality. This study provides suggestions for decision making regarding the crop reinsurance in China. It also provides empirical evidence for the literature on optimal reinsurance from the insurance market of China. This evidence undoubtedly has an important practical signiifcance for the development of China’s crop insurance.

  2. Study on China's future sustainable energy development strategy using MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China MARKAL model, an integrated energy and environment model, is built to study China's future sustainable energy development strategy. On the basis of reasonable assumptions for future social and economic development, the model is employed to study China's final energy consumption and mix, primary energy consumption and mix, power generation and mix, CO2 emission etc, through 1995 to 2050. The contributions of increased share of oil, gas and electricity in the final energy consumption, and applications of advanced thermal power generation technologies as well as new and renewable energy and nuclear to CO2 mitigation are analyzed. Moreover, oil products and hydrogen making from coal to meet future sharp rising requirement for transportation fuel, and syngas making from coal to promote vast use of clean energy in urban to cure pollution are also studied with application of the model

  3. Empirical Study on Arbitrage Opportunities in China Copper Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    No-arbitrage bound is established with no-arbitrage theory considering all kinds of trade costs, different deposit and loan interest rate, margin and tax in fuuaes markets. The empirical results find that there are many lower bound arbitrage opportunities in China copper futures market from August 8th, 2003 to August 16th, 2005. Concretely, no-arbitrage opportunity is dominant and lower bound arbitrage is narrow in normal market segment. Lower bound arbitrage almost always exists with huge magnitude in inverted market segment. There is basically no-arbitrage in normal market because spot volume is enough, so that upper or lower bound arbitrage can be realized. There is mostly lower bound arbitrage in inverted market because spot volume is lack.

  4. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm-3. The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm-3, which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  5. The Study on the Proportion of quotations In China Daily and the New York Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茶琪燕

    2011-01-01

    Since the widespread influence of mass media,the news,as a main means of diffusing information,becomes the subjects of many researchers.Under this trend,the study of quotations in news papers has drawn a lot interest of scholars.How about the situation in the other topics?This resarch takes China Daily and The New York Times as its objects,and makes a tentative study on the situations of directindirect and partial quotations using in the two main newspapers,mainly focus on the proportion of directindirect,partial quotation in China Daily and The New York Times,and separately on ten topics.

  6. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities and differe......, giving priority to environmental concerns, even highlighting sustainability as a future developmental goal. Denmark has also established a much more effective regulation of the different sectors contributing to the pollution of the ecosystems than China has.......This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...

  7. Technology roadmap study on carbon capture, utilization and storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology will likely become an important approach to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and optimize the structure of energy consumption in China in the future. In order to provide guidance and recommendations for CCUS Research, Development and Demonstration in China, a high level stakeholder workshop was held in Chongqing in June 2011 to develop a technology roadmap for the development of CCUS technology. This roadmap outlines the overall vision to provide technically viable and economically affordable technological options to combat climate change and facilitate socio-economic development in China. Based on this vision, milestone goals from 2010 to 2030 are set out in accordance with the technology development environment and current status in China. This study identifies the critical technologies in capture, transport, utilization and storage of CO2 and proposes technical priorities in the different stages of each technical aspect by evaluating indices such as the objective contribution rate and technical maturity, and gives recommendations on deployment of full-chain CCUS demonstration projects. Policies which would support CCUS are also suggested in this study. - Highlights: • A technology roadmap for CCUS development in China from 2010 to 2030 is presented. • Sound data and analysis in combination with expert workshops are used. • Critical technologies in CCUS are identified. • Priority actions of all stages are identified and proposed. • Guidance and recommendations for CCUS RD and D are provided

  8. RECENT ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON MULTIPHASE AND REACTING FLOWS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周力行

    2002-01-01

    The recent developments and advances of studies on multiphase and reacting flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid and reacting flows, in China are reviewed. Special emphasis is laid on the fundamental studies and numerical models. Some important experimental results are also reported. But measurement techniques are not covered.

  9. Family and Friend Relationships of Only Children: A Study of Adult Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary

    If personal networks of only children differ from those of children with siblings, then study of the different patterns of personal association is especially relevant to the understanding of social change in China, where the population of children without siblings is rapidly increasing. A study of these differential social networks used data…

  10. Empirical Study on Chinas Stock Market Anomaly: Examining the Related Data of Aggregate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we study on the anomaly in Chinas stock market. There are many phenomena that cannot use the existing asset pricing model and the classical theories of capital market to explain in the stock market, especially the emerging markets. It has become a hot research issues to explore and provide a satisfactory explanation of these anomalies. Calculates the Chinas stock market rate of return, risk-free interest rate and rate of consumables growth based on the accumulation of market data, to find the actual change in relationship among these data. These prove that there are some phenomenon of higher equity premium and stock prices excess volatility in the China's stock market which validate existing puzzles of the equity premium and the excess volatility and the great long-term market volatility further verify that the Chinese stock market is inefficient market.

  11. Extreme climate events,migration for cultivation and policies:A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce (men older than 16 years of age), the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China), the extreme climate events in North China, and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661―1680, a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation. This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China. The upsurge of migration, which occurred in 1665―1680, was a response to the drought period during 1664―1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China. There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration, which corresponded to the three drought events. The peaks of migration, however, often lagged behind the drought events about 1―2 years. The encourag-ing-migration policy, which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China, did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty. It did, however, provide a policy background, which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters. As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664―1667, a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668. Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China, the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy. The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events. The extreme climate events in North China, migration to Northeast China for cultivation

  12. Extreme climate events, migration for cultivation and policies: A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG XiuQi; YE Yu; ZENG ZaoZao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce(men older than 16 years of age),the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China),the extreme climate events in North China,and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661-1680,a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation.This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China.The upsurge of migration,which occurred in 1665-1680,was a response to the drought period during 1664-1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China.There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration,which corresponded to the three drought events.The peaks of migration,however,often lagged behind the drought events about 1-2 years.The encouraging-migration policy,which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China,did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty.It did,however,provide a policy background,which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters.As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664-1667,a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668.Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China,the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy.The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events.The extreme climate events in North China,migration to Northeast China for cultivation,and the related management policies showed

  13. A comparative study of energy utilization efficiency between Taiwan and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh Tsailien, E-mail: tlyeh@mcu.edu.t [Department of International Business, Ming-chuan University, No. 250, Sec. 5, Chung-shan North Road, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Institute of International Business, National Taipei University, No. 151, University Road, Sanhsia 23701, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Chen Tseryieth, E-mail: chenty@mail.ntpu.edu.t [Department of International Business, Ming-chuan University, No. 250, Sec. 5, Chung-shan North Road, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Institute of International Business, National Taipei University, No. 151, University Road, Sanhsia 23701, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Lai Peiying, E-mail: aka_jin0422@yahoo.com.t [Department of International Business, Ming-chuan University, No. 250, Sec. 5, Chung-shan North Road, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Institute of International Business, National Taipei University, No. 151, University Road, Sanhsia 23701, Taipei County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper employs data envelopment analysis to evaluate energy utilization efficiency between China and Taiwan from 2002 to 2007. The most important contributions of this paper are the clear description of the systematic process of energy utilization efficiency, the efficiency comparison between China and Taiwan, the remarkable demonstration of their outputs through two non-desirable outputs (CO{sub 2} emissions and SO{sub 2} emissions) in the data envelopment analysis framework, and the valuable results and insights gained from the application of economic development and environmental protection. Empirical results show that the Eastern region of China enjoy higher energy utilization efficiency than the Western region. Energy utilization efficiency in Taiwan is higher than that in the Eastern region of China. In China, CO{sub 2} emissions were 11.28% greater than they should be (from 2002 to 2007). By contrast, CO{sub 2} emissions in Taiwan were only 1.50% in excess of what they should be since Taiwan began conducting an uninterrupted energy-saving policy and a CO{sub 2} emission regulation policy. Finally, this study employs the business strategy matrix constructed by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG Matrix) to illustrate individual evidence of the relationship between economic development efficiency and greenhouse gas efficiency.

  14. A comparative study of energy utilization efficiency between Taiwan and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Tsai-lien [Department of International Business, Ming-chuan University, No. 250, Sec. 5, Chung-shan North Road, Taipei 111 (Taiwan); Chen, Tser-yieth; Lai, Pei-ying [Institute of International Business, National Taipei University, No. 151, University Road, Sanhsia 23701, Taipei County (Taiwan)

    2010-05-15

    This paper employs data envelopment analysis to evaluate energy utilization efficiency between China and Taiwan from 2002 to 2007. The most important contributions of this paper are the clear description of the systematic process of energy utilization efficiency, the efficiency comparison between China and Taiwan, the remarkable demonstration of their outputs through two non-desirable outputs (CO{sub 2} emissions and SO{sub 2} emissions) in the data envelopment analysis framework, and the valuable results and insights gained from the application of economic development and environmental protection. Empirical results show that the Eastern region of China enjoy higher energy utilization efficiency than the Western region. Energy utilization efficiency in Taiwan is higher than that in the Eastern region of China. In China, CO{sub 2} emissions were 11.28% greater than they should be (from 2002 to 2007). By contrast, CO{sub 2} emissions in Taiwan were only 1.50% in excess of what they should be since Taiwan began conducting an uninterrupted energy-saving policy and a CO{sub 2} emission regulation policy (). Finally, this study employs the business strategy matrix constructed by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG Matrix) to illustrate individual evidence of the relationship between economic development efficiency and greenhouse gas efficiency. (author)

  15. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  16. A comparative study of energy utilization efficiency between Taiwan and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs data envelopment analysis to evaluate energy utilization efficiency between China and Taiwan from 2002 to 2007. The most important contributions of this paper are the clear description of the systematic process of energy utilization efficiency, the efficiency comparison between China and Taiwan, the remarkable demonstration of their outputs through two non-desirable outputs (CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions) in the data envelopment analysis framework, and the valuable results and insights gained from the application of economic development and environmental protection. Empirical results show that the Eastern region of China enjoy higher energy utilization efficiency than the Western region. Energy utilization efficiency in Taiwan is higher than that in the Eastern region of China. In China, CO2 emissions were 11.28% greater than they should be (from 2002 to 2007). By contrast, CO2 emissions in Taiwan were only 1.50% in excess of what they should be since Taiwan began conducting an uninterrupted energy-saving policy and a CO2 emission regulation policy. Finally, this study employs the business strategy matrix constructed by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG Matrix) to illustrate individual evidence of the relationship between economic development efficiency and greenhouse gas efficiency.

  17. Acceptability and adoption of handheld computer data collection for public health research in China: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Xia; Raymond, H Fisher; Wen, Tiancai; Ding, Ding; Wang, Qian; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Yang, Gonghuan; Chai, Wanxing; Zhang, Peng; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Background Handheld computers for data collection (HCDC) and management have become increasingly common in health research. However, current knowledge about the use of HCDC in health research in China is very limited. In this study, we administered a survey to a hard-to-reach population in China using HCDC and assessed the acceptability and adoption of HCDC in China. Methods Handheld computers operating Windows Mobile and Questionnaire Development Studio (QDS) software (Nova Research Company)...

  18. Exposure risk of young population to lead: A case study in Le'an River Basin in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Lu, Qun; Yan, Zhenghong; Ding, Aizhong

    2016-02-01

    Blood lead (Pb) level of children has widely been attracting public concern in China, particularly in the sites near mining or industrial areas. However, the policies about how to efficiently reduce the Pb intake of children are still under discussion. We collected six food types based on the local dietary habits and soils from Dexing, Leping, and Poyang Counties situated along the Le'an River Basin from upstream to downstream, and their Pb contents were analyzed. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the dietary chronic daily intake of Pb (CDIPb) from various foods and ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities and its non-carcinogenic risk to children indicated by hazard quotient (HQ). Only in the rural area of Dexing, its soil and vegetables both had higher Pb content than the national tolerance limits of China, resulting its the highest CDIPb among all the areas. The Pb contents of the six food types and soils in other sites were overall below the limits. Vegetables and rice accounted for from 63% (Leping, urban) to 85% (Dexing, rural) of the total CDIPb and ingested soil overall took up ∼6%. In the rural area, Dexing had the highest proportion (82.8%) of children with HQ > 1, followed by Leping (36.1%) and Poyang (27.7%). Different order was found in the urban areas, i.e. Dexing (46.7%) > Poyang (41.0%) > Leping (26.4%). Vegetables and rice were overall the two major contributors to the total CDI of Pb, which should be focused on to control the Pb intake by the local children, especially for those living in the rural area of Dexing County. PMID:26681548

  19. A method to estimate sediment ingestion by fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed to use naturally occurring radionuclides of the 238U decay series as mass balance tracers to estimate sediment ingestion by benthic fish. The mass balance tracer method can take two forms: one that does not account for tracers that would be ingested in invertebrate food items (simple mass balance tracer method) and one that does (adjusted mass balance tracer method). The contents of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts from 17 Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) were analyzed using the proposed method to determine the proportion of sediment in the fish gut. The proportion of sediment in the GI tract samples was also determined using a method developed by , where the percent soil in wildlife is estimated from the acid insoluble residue (AIR) content of their scat and an assumed level of digestibility of their food (AIR method). The mean mass of sediment in the GI tracts of the 17 fish sampled, calculated using the simple mass balance tracer method, was observed to be 1.14 g (standard deviation 0.99 g) or approximately 46% (standard deviation 16%) of the dry weight of total GI tract contents. A mean of 0.97 g (standard deviation 0.85 g), or approximately 38% (standard deviation 13%) of the dry weight of total GI tract contents, was observed when the mass of sediment in the GI tract was calculated using the adjusted mass balance tracer method. When using the AIR method, the mean percentage of sediment in the GI tracts was observed to be 30% (standard deviation 16%). The findings in this study support the assertion that direct ingestion of sediment by benthic fish may be an important pathway for contaminants in aquatic food webs.

  20. [Gastric rupture after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A rupture of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric rupture. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943

  1. Ingested bony foreign body abutting thoracic aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Travis William; Kuthubutheen, Jafri

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 38-year-old female who presented with an ingested oesophageal foreign body (lamb bone) following consumption of a casserole. The bone was initially not seen on plain x-ray but CT imaging revealed a 21×20 mm pyramid shaped bone distending the proximal oesophageal mucosa and lodged only 2 mm from the aortic arch. Cardiothoracic surgery services were available on standby to perform an emergency thoracotomy in the event of any haemorrhage. However, the bone was r...

  2. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  3. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    environment change, formation mechanism and prediction theory of major climate and weather disasters in China, technologies of efficient use of clean energy, energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency, development and utilisation technology of renewable energy and new energy. The EU recognises that developing countries, such as China and India, need to strengthen their economies through industrialisation. However this needs to be achieved at the same time as protecting the environment and sustainable use of energy. The EU has committed itself to assisting developing countries to achieve their goals in four priority areas: 1) raising the policy profile of climate change; 2) support for adaption to climate change; 3) support for mitigation of climate change; and 4) capacity development. This comparative study is part of the EU funded SPRING project which seeks to understand and assess Chinese and European competencies, with the aim of facilitating greater cooperation in future climate and environment research.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing

  5. Study on Analysis and Countermeasure of China's Legal System of Food Safety and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to solve the food safety problems existing in the real life, ensuring the food health safety, based on the “ Food Hygiene Law of the People's Republic of China” promulgated in 1995 by China, starting from the aspects such as production, marketing, regulatory to the integrate the standards of edible farm product quality safety standards, food hygiene standards, food quality standards and relevant food industry mandatory standards, establishing scientific and standardized food safety supervision system, food safety risk assessment system, food safety monitoring system and food safety standards, regulating the food inspection and food production and management responsibility to strengthen safeguard measures of citizens’ rights and interests to develop "The Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China", to look forward to benefit the theoretical research and legislation improvement of the control law of China's food safety.

  6. High-frequency over-the-horizon radar and ionospheric backscatter studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le-Wei

    1998-09-01

    China is one of the countries that employs high-frequency over-the-horizon radars for both military and civil applications. The first Chinese high-frequency over-the horizon backscatter radar was developed in the 1970s. This paper briefly introduces the first Chinese over-the-horizon backscatter radar system and reviews ionospheric backscatter and propagation studies in China. The paper discusses the motivation for establishing over-the-horizon radar systems in China, the experimental system, target recognition and detection,and estimation of over-the-horizon radar availability. Observations of aircraft, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the effects of a remote nuclear explosion are also presented. Finally, the real-time Chinese ionosonde network and frequency predictions using backscatter ionograms are discussed.

  7. Study on the Characteristics of Seismic Activity in West China and Its neighboring Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuwei; Shen Yelong; Ling Xueshu

    2001-01-01

    The controlling and influencing effects of the joint action of plates surrounding China on strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland are discussed, and the characteristics of seismic activities in the West of China and neighboring regions are further studied. The results show that the seismic activity in the West of China and neighboring regions not only has the characteristics of high tide and low tide alternation but also has the characteristics of rising in one region while falling in another, and the rise and fail of seismicity are in some proportion. The above characteristics are useful for the prediction of main body region of strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland, especially for the judgement of the ending time of the high fide period.

  8. An Empirical Study on Corporate Governance and Market Valuation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chong-En; LIU Qiao; LU Joe; SONG Frank M.; ZHANG Junxi

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically studies the relationship between the governance mechanisms and the market valuation of publicly listed firms in China.The authors construct measures for corporate governance mechanisms and measures of market valuation for all publicly listed firms on the two stock markets in China by using data from the firm's annual reports.They then investigate how the market-valuation variables are affected by the corporate governance variables while controlling for a number of factors commonly considered in market valuation analysis.A corporate governance index is also constructed to summarize the information contained in the corporate governance variables.The index is found to have statistically and economically significant effects on market valuation.The analysis indicates that investors pay a significant premium for well-governed firms in China,benefiting firms that improve their governance mechanisms.

  9. A Review of Decadal/Interdecadal Climate Variation Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇银; 何金海; 朱锦红

    2004-01-01

    Decadal/interdecadal climate variability is an important element in the CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability) and has received much attention in the world. Many studies in relation to interdecadal variation have also been completed by Chinese scientists in recent years. In this paper, an introduction in outline for interdecadal climate variation research in China is presented. The content includes the features of interdecadal climate variability in China, global warming and interdecadal temperature variability,the NAO (the North Atlantic Oscillation)/NPO (the North Pacific Oscillation) and interdecadal climate variation in China, the interdecadal variation of the East Asian monsoon, the interdecadal mode of SSTA (Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly) in the North Pacific and its climate impact, and abrupt change feature of the climate.

  10. Distinctive features of China for business development: findings from case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Martínez Caraballo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as a major player on the global scenario, having lead, during the last three decades, a great magnitude process of economic and social transformation. Nevertheless, selling Western produce -mainly, food products- in China is, the most complicated challenge which companies that decide to operate in this market should face. This paper aims to offer a panoramic vision of several China particularities with the purpose of reviewing its potential for Western business development. Hence, a number of cases studies of companies that have succeeded to enter the Chinese market and different examples of wrong decisions or failure cases are presented, trying to provide an analytical evaluation and managerial guidelines.

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春爽; 汪集旸

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of sea-bottom temperature and geothermal gradient, and by means of the phaseboundary curve of gas hydrate and the sea-bottom temperature versus water depth curve in the South China Sea, thispaper studies the temperature and pressure conditions for gas hydrate to keep stable. In a marine environment, methanehydrate keeps stable at water depths greater than 550 m in the South China Sea. Further, the thickness of the gas hydratestability zone in the South China Sea was calculated by using the phase boundary curve and temperature-depth equations.The result shows that gas hydrate have a better perspective in the southeast of the Dongsha Islands, the northeast of theXisha Islands and the north of the Nansha Islands for thicker stability zones.

  12. A qualitative study of treatment-seeking heroin users in contemporary China

    OpenAIRE

    Lembke, Anna; Zhang, Niushen

    2015-01-01

    Background Heroin has emerged as the primary drug of concern in China, with as many as three million contemporary users. Once a Chinese citizen has been identified by Chinese law enforcement as a ‘drug addict’, that individual is ‘registered’ in an official government tracking system for the rest of his or her life, independent of verified rehabilitation and recovery. Most of what is known about heroin users in China is based on studies of registered heroin users participating, often involunt...

  13. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1) the Kundun incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2) the production of Mulan in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a te...

  14. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Zhang; Jiquan Zhang; Liupeng Jiang; Xingpeng Liu; Zhijun Tong

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Xinli; Yu Lu; Winter Sam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response...

  16. Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend <0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.

  17. Carbon prices and CCS investment: A comparative study between the European Union and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon Capture and Storage is considered as a key option for climate change mitigation; policy makers and investors need to know when CCS becomes economically attractive. Integrating CCS in a power plant adds significant costs which can be offset by a sufficient CO2 price. However, most markets have failed: currently, the weak carbon price threatens CCS deployment in the European Union (EU). In China, a carbon regulation is appearing and CCS encounters a rising interest. This study investigates two questions: how much is the extra-cost of a CCS plant in the EU in comparison with China? Second, what is the CO2 price beyond which CCS plants become more profitable than reference plants in the EU and in China? To address these issues, I conducted a literature review on public studies about CCS costs. To objectively assess the profitability of CCS plants, I constructed a net present value model to calculate the Levelised Cost of Electricity and the breakeven CO2 price. CCS plants become the most profitable plant type beyond 115 €/tCO2 in the EU vs. 45 €/tCO2 in China (offshore transport and storage costs). I advise on the optimal plant type choice depending on the CO2 price in both countries. - Highlights: • I develop a method to objectively update and compare CCS costs in the EU and China. • To represent investment choices, intra and inter CO2 switching prices are required. • EU CCS plants are profitable for a CO2 price higher than 115 €/t (offshore storage). • Chinese CCS plants are profitable beyond 45 €/tCO2 (35 €/tCO2 with onshore storage). • With 2030 projections, CCS (coal) plants are profitable in China but not in the EU

  18. Geological and Geochemical Studies of Heavy Oil Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡见义; 徐树宝; 等

    1989-01-01

    Thickened heavy oils in China are genetically characteristic of continenta .As to their physico-chemical properties,these oils are very high in viscosity and low in sulphur and trace element con-tents.In the group constituents,the concentrations of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltene are very high but those of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatics are very low.The gas chromatograms of alkanes show that these heavy oils have high abundances of iso-alkanes and cyclic hydrocarbons.In all the steroids and terpenoids ,bicyclic sesquiterpenoids,tricyclic diterpenoids,re-arranged steranes and gammacerane are strongly bildegradation-resistent.The formation of heavy oil reservoirs is controlled mainly by late basin ascendance,biodegradation,flushing by meteoric water and oxidation in the oil-bearing formations.Ac-cording to their formation mechanisms,heavy oil reservoirs can be classified as four categories:weathering and denudation,marginal oxidation,secondary migration and thickening of bottom water .Spacially,heavy thick oil reservoirs are distributed regularly:they usually show some paragenetic relationships with normal oil reservoirs.Heavy oil reservoirs often occur in structural highs or in overlying younger strata.Their burial depth is about 200m.Horizontally,most of them are distributed on the margins of basins or depressions.

  19. China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Prospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction:Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Rachel P Dreyer; Xi Li; Xue Du; Nicholas S Downing; Li Li; Hai-Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the rapid growth in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in China, there is limited information about patients' experiences after AMI hospitalization, especially on long-term adverse events and patient-reported outcomes (PROs).Methods: The China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE)-Prospective AMI Study will enroll 4000 consecutive AMI patients from 53 diverse hospitals across China and follow them longitudinally for 12 months to document their treatment, recovery, and outcomes.Details of patients' medical history, treatment, and in-hospital outcomes are abstracted from medical charts.Comprehensive baseline interviews are being conducted to characterize patient demographics, risk factors, presentation, and healthcare utilization.As part of these interviews, validated instruments are administered to measure PROs, including quality of life, symptoms, mood, cognition, and sexual activity.Follow-up interviews, measuring PROs, medication adherence, risk factor control, and collecting hospitalization events are conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after discharge.Supporting documents for potential outcomes are collected for adjudication by clinicians at the National Coordinating Center.Blood and urine samples are also obtained at baseline, 1-and 12-month follow-up.In addition, we are conducting a survey of participating hospitals to characterize their organizational characteristics.Conclusion: The China PEACE-Prospective AMI study will be uniquely positioned to generate new information regarding patient's experiences and outcomes after AMI in China and serve as a foundation for quality improvement activities.

  20. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE INTERNET MARKETING STRATEGY OF COACH IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Cui

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to study an American brand—Coach’s online marketing strategy in China. It starts with a basic introduction to Coach Brand; and then the writer offers a SWOT analysis on Coach’s Internet marketing strategies. The last chapter is dealing with the Internet marketing strategy adopted by Coach.

  1. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2015-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  2. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  3. College Education and Attitudes toward Democracy in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Liyun; Han, Rongbin

    2015-01-01

    The modernization theory contends that there is a link between education and democracy. Yet few empirical studies have been done to investigate the role of higher education on promoting democratic values in the Chinese context. Using China General Social Survey 2006, this paper generates several findings which are not completely consistent with…

  4. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  5. American College Students Studying Abroad in China: Language, Identity, and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hang

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of qualitative analyses of data drawn from monthly informal individual interviews of 29 American college students who were spending one semester studying Mandarin Chinese abroad in a program in China. While some data confirm previous findings that some students' identification as Americans was strengthened during…

  6. Learning to Live and Study in Canada: Stories of Four EFL Learners from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi

    2004-01-01

    During the past five years, an increasing number of younger international students from mainland China have appeared on Canadian campuses to pursue their first university degrees. What is it like being a international student studying in a foreign language and culture at such a young age? Through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the…

  7. Study on Student Health Literacy Gained through Health Education in Elementary and Middle Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…

  8. A round robin study of polymer solar cells and small modules across China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Gevorgyan, Suren; Søndergaard, Roar R.;

    2013-01-01

    A round robin study across 15 laboratories in China was carried out using single junction devices with an active area of 1 cm2 and differently sized small module with an active area of 20 and 24 cm2 respectively. The devices represented the state of the art in terms of processing as they did not...

  9. Valuing Water Quality Improvement in China : A Case Study of Lake Puzhehei in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua; Shi, Yuyan; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    While polluted surface water is encountered across most of China, few economic valuation studies have been conducted on water quality changes. Limited information about the economic values associated with those potential water quality improvements or deteriorations is a disadvantage for making proper choices in water pollution control and clean-up activities. This paper reports an economic...

  10. The Study on the Market Position for China Post to Launch International Financial Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Qiu-hong; ZHOU Zhi-cui; DU Yu-wei

    2005-01-01

    The article studies the international financial service, which might be opened by China Post. Based on defining postal financial service, it analyses the face-to-face circumstances and challenges by using the method of normal market position and the method of General Electric Company (GEC). Finally it defines the market position of Postal Financial International Service(PFIS).

  11. Promoting media literacy education in China: a case study of a primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wen; 徐雯

    2013-01-01

    With the changing media environment, media literacy education begins to be an emerging field in China. There are many studies showing the significance of media literacy education; however, few studies on school practices are presented. The existing studies are mostly based on the context of western discourse. Even the curriculum framework in this case is influenced by western scholars. There have been a few studies investigating media literacy education in the Asian context. It is still stru...

  12. In-depth study of Marxist population theory, promote China's population science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J

    1983-01-01

    The 3rd National Population Science Seminar, held in Beijng from Feb. 21-27, 1981, brought together over 270 Chinese population researchers and professionals, as well as social science and family planning workers. Participants presented over 220 papers and reports, which showed a higher level of scholarship than previous seminar papers. Chen Dau, the head of the Planning Bureau of the Chinese Academy for Social Sciences, gave the opening address and explained the seminar's 2 tasks: 1) to exchange academic ideas and 2) to found the Population Association of China (PAC), and suggested 3 topics for theoretical discussion: 1) Marxist theory on the 2 kinds of production, 2) the differences between China's population control and old and NeoMalthusianism, and 3) the 1 child policy. Xu Dixin, the vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, spoke on socialist population laws, planned population control, and potential problems with the 1 child family policy. 8 special groups at the seminar discussed 1) Marxist theory on the 2 types of production, 2) Marx and Malthus on population, 3) China's population control policy, 4) population studies, 5) China's population problems, 6) problems with population control in rural areas, 7) urban population issues, and 8) the population problems of minority nationalities. Participants founded the PAC on the last day of the seminar. Vice-premier Cheu Muhua also addressed the seminar on the tremendous success the family planning program has had in the last 2 years and the difficulty of the task of controlling China's population growth. Population research must explain China's population laws so that growth can be controlled. PMID:12313987

  13. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable. PMID:27195146

  14. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  15. Seismic While Drilling Case Study in Shengli Oilfield, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Tong, S.; Zou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is a promising borehole seismic technique with reduction of drilling risk, cost savings and increased efficiency. To evaluate the technical and economic benefits of this new technique, we carried out SWD survey at well G130 in Shengli Oilfield of Eastern China. Well G130 is an evaluation well, located in Dongying depression at depth more than 3500m. We used an array of portable seismometers to record the surface SWD-data, during the whole drilling progress. The pilot signal was being recorded continuously, by an accelerometer mounted on the top of the drill string. There were also two seismometers buried in the drill yard, one near diesel engine and another near derrick. All the data was being recorded continuously. According to mud logging data, we have processed and analyzed all the data. It demonstrates the drill yard noise is the primary noise among the whole surface wavefield and its dominant frequency is about 20Hz. Crosscorrelation of surface signal with the pilot signal shows its SNR is severely low and there is no any obvious event of drill-bit signals. Fortunately, the autocorrelation of the pilot signal shows clear BHA multiple and drill string multiple. The period of drill string multiple can be used for establishing the reference time (so-called zero time). We identified and removed different noises from the surface SWD-data, taking advantages of wavefield analysis. The drill-bit signal was retrieved from surface SWD-data, using seismic interferometry. And a reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) data set for the continuous drilling depth was established. The subsurface images derived from these data compare well with the corresponding images of 3D surface seismic survey cross the well.

  16. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  17. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  18. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  19. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans. PMID:21171852

  20. Professional identity formation : a case study of three English teachers in mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaoyang; 刘朝阳

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that language teacher identity makes the difference in classroom teaching and has increasingly become a valuable focus in the field of language teaching research. However, a review of the research literature shows that there have been limited studies about the professional identity formation and even fewer studies involving teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of mainland China. English language teaching (ELT) has increasingly gained attenti...

  1. The role of grandparents in childhood obesity in China - evidence from a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bai; Adab, Peymané; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2015-01-01

    Background The current literature on the influences of family environment on childhood obesity is predominantly based on western populations and has focused on the role of parents. This study examined the influence of grandparents on the development of obesity among Chinese primary school aged children. Methods A mixed methods study was conducted in four socioeconomically distinct primary school communities in two cities of southern China. The qualitative study (17 focus groups and four perso...

  2. The corporate governance structure and corporate performance: empirical studies of China's listed real estate companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Qiulin

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the corporate governance mechanisms and their impact on corporate performance, using the data of one industry sector-China's listed real estate companies. The studies include four parts: (l). the ownership structure, (2). the board structure; (3). the manager compensation and (4). the agency costs measured by asset utilization efficiency and manager discretionary expenses. The empirical studies cover three years (2000 to 2002). Here I classify the list...

  3. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Wang; Hasim Altan; Jian Kang

    2015-01-01

    The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which ar...

  4. Flash flood hazard mapping: a pilot case study in Xiapu River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Da-wei Zhang; Jin Quan; Hong-bin Zhang; Fan Wang; Hong Wang; Xiao-yan He

    2015-01-01

    Flash flood hazard mapping is a supporting component of non-structural measures for flash flood prevention. Pilot case studies are necessary to develop more practicable methods for the technical support systems of flash flood hazard mapping. In this study, the headwater catchment of the Xiapu River Basin in central China was selected as a pilot study area for flash flood hazard mapping. A conceptual distributed hydrological model was developed for flood calculation based on the framework of t...

  5. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  6. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  7. The Impact of Life Skills Training on Behavior Problems in Left-Behind Children in Rural China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…

  8. Assessing South China (Guangzhou) High School Students' Views on Nature of Science: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Tzung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research on students' views on nature of science (VNOS) in Asian countries such as China is notably lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure South China high school students' VNOS. Based on the previously acquired qualitative data, the instrument included seven VNOS dimensions which reflect the crucial…

  9. Causes of Sandstorm Disaster and Strategies against Desertification——A Case Study of Hexi Corridor in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This case study outlines the problems faced by the peoples of the Hexi Corridor. These problems are serious and urgent, and are representative of those faced by other communities right across western China. The root causes are outlined and some remedies are suggested. The practical measures proposed under China's National Action Plan to Combat Desertification are described and discussed.

  10. Source apportionment of DDTs in maricultured fish: a modeling study in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Yiruhan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-04-01

    Fish is one of the most important nutrition sources for humanity. Contaminant exposure risk in fish farming will eventually deliver to the crowd through diet. China is the largest fish producing as well as exporting country, where mariculture plays an important role in fish production, especially in South China. Previous investigations indicated that a variety of compartments in farming areas of South China Sea were polluted by persistent organic pollutants, including DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its derivatives, some of which is designated as DDTs. In the present study, Hailing Bay and Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China, were selected as the study sites and DDTs as the target compounds. A fish enrichment model was developed to assess the relative contributions of various pathways to the mass loadings of DDTs in the fish. Average concentrations (and concentration ranges) of DDTs in various environmental compartments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were included in modeling and analysis. Modeling results indicated that fish food and seawater contributed approximately the same proportions for the DDTs in maricultured fish. Antifouling paint was supposed to be the primary source of water DDTs in mariculture zone of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay, which contributed 69 % of the total DDTs to the mariculture water. We suggest that in order to protect people from consuming highly contaminated maricuture zone fish, the most effective and feasible methods are using environment-friendly antifouling paint and applying less polluted fish food in the fish reproduction process. PMID:26081772

  11. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  12. The availability of soil-associated radionuclides for uptake after inadvertent ingestion by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of the radiological impact of radionuclides released into the environment generally take into account the inadvertent ingestion of radionuclides associated with soil or sediment. Such assessments often assume that gut uptake factors for radionuclides that are biologically incorporated in food are also applicable when the ingested activity is associated with soil. Studies of the availability of soil-associated radionuclides after ingestion have been mainly conducted on ruminant animals and few data exist for humans. The digestive tract of ruminants is totally different from that of a mono-gastric animal and so the availability estimated from the animal studies may not be valid in the case of man. A simple in-vitro enzymolysis procedure was therefore developed to simulate human digestion closely. The measured availability of 137Cs, 241Am, 239PU and 90Sr associated with loam, sand and peat soils was about 3%, 3%, 10% and 50% respectively. (author)

  13. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  14. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was also analysed in terms of the contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The results of the analysis were used to derive a set of release-specific Emergency Action Guidance Levels (EAGLs) of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods, which comply with NRPB's ingestion ERL recommendations. The EAGLs were supplemented with a corresponding set of EAGLs for grass, for use in situations where crop samples were not readily available. (author)

  15. Ingestion of Rhus chicken causing systemic contact dermatitis in a Korean patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K H; Seo, S J; Li, K; Hong, C K

    2010-10-01

    Rhus chicken is a common traditional remedy used to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food in Korea. Unfortunately, systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) due to the ingestion of Rhus occasionally occurs. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings were reviewed and analysed for 30 Korean patients with SCD developing after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Summer was found to be the commonest period for hospital visits because of this condition. The mean period of incubation for SCD, was 4 ± 1.5 days. The commonest skin features were generalized maculopapular eruptions. Of the 30 patients, 10 had a known history of allergy to Rhus chicken. Many of the patients developed neutrophilia and leucocytosis. All the patients responded well to standard treatments. The commonest reason for their ingestion of Rhus chicken was indigestion. We conclude that SCD often occurs in Koreans after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Patients should be educated about the harmful effects of Rhus chicken and advised not to ingest it. PMID:20456389

  16. Effect of culinary preparation and food processing on the amount of activity ingested by an individual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of activity actually ingested by an individual is the sum of the quantities of food consumed multiplied by their activity. As regards the quantities ingested, figures are available only for the gross quantities which enter households. - as regards radioactivity, consideration is generally given exclusively to the levels of activity calculated or measured when the produce is obtained. At the practical level, certain parameters governing a decrease in quantity or activity apply and make it possible to obtain a more accurate estimate of the activity ingested. In this exposition, values taken from the literature or calculated or estimated, are presented and compared in order to illustrate the relative importance of the different activities listed and defined. In addition, detailed figures on the whole food chain will be presented together with the study of the sensitivity of the results with respect to the main parameters. The chain comprises: - contamination of the air, water and ground vectors; - transfer of radionuclides between the above vectors and the plants; - concentration of the radionuclide in the foodstuffs; - actions leading to real ingestion of the radionuclide; - doses resulting from ingestion

  17. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  18. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the motor skill proficiency of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeederberg, C; Leach, L; Lambert, E V; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C; Hawley, J A

    1996-12-01

    This study examined the effects of ingesting a glucose-polymer (GP) solution on the motor skill proficiencies of association football (soccer) players from two teams playing during two matches in a cool environment. Fifteen minutes before each match and at halftime, players from both teams ingested 5 ml/kg of either placebo or a 6.9% GP solution. GP ingestion did not improve tackling, heading, dribbling, or shooting ability. On the contrary, the mean of successful tackles was lower with GP ingestion than with placebo. The success rate for heading, dribbling, and shooting also tended to be lower in the GP than in the placebo condition. In contrast, success in passing and ball control was similar in the two conditions. Improvements in passing and ball control may have been related to a decrease in the intensity of play in the second half of the game. These data indicate that there are no measurable benefits of GP ingestion for the motor skill proficiencies of soccer players during games played in a cool environment. PMID:8953337

  19. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  20. A study on the tourism practitioners perception of tourism impact a case study of Hainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Chen Yongsheng; Qiu Penghua; Li Pengshan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the urban population of tourism practitioners'perceptions of economic,environmental,and social impacts on cultural,convention,and sport tourism may have in Haikou and Sanya,Hainan,China the study uses a modified Urban Tourism Impact (UTI) to examine economic,environmental and social perceived impacts.Analysis of the data includes testing three models of structural relationships between tourism impacts and support for development in each of the tourism market sub-divisions through a confirmatory factor analysis.The results of this study show that the positive economic impacts consistently exert influence on predicting support for tourism development in all three models.However,the social impacts play a greater explanatory role with all three market segment,the negative environmental impacts play a role in determining support for .sport tourism only.Dif ferences have been found with those with a higher education level in predictmg support for cultural tourism,but not Convention or sport tourism.

  1. Kant in China : A Study on the Introduction and Interpretation of Immanuel Kant's Philosophy from Late Qing China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the introduction and interpretation of Kant from late Qing China.The thesis is divided into five parts. The first part introduces the historical context in which Kant was introduced and interpreted. The historical context considers both China and Japan, due to the use of Japanese sources by the early authors writing on Kant’s philosophy. The historical analysis also examines some aspects of the reception of Western science and philosophy when these can provide insight int...

  2. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  3. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  4. Combined Hysterolaparoscopy for the Diagnosis of Female Infertility: a Retrospective Study of 132 Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Erhong; Zhang, Yanan; Fang, Li; Li, Qingdong; Gu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects and safeness of combined hysterolaparoscopy on evaluation the causes of infertility. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology (The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from January 2011 to April 2014. Patients aged 21–43 years with infertility were included in this study. The prevalence of different lesions was collected to analyze. Results: 132 infertile patients were inclu...

  5. Ethical decision making in complex host country settings : A study of Swedish managers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Mika; Andersson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: In this study we have turned to the complex host-country environment of China to investigate Swedish companies doing business in a highly corrupt business context to see which dilemmas managers meet and their approaches to these dilemmas. The importance of adapting to the local culture and environment is something researchers stress in the business literature. In the beginning of our study we ask if the same statement is true when it comes to ethical decision making and from the fin...

  6. Social media for informal science learning in China: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Zhang; Fei Gao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a case study on a popular informal science learning community via social media in China, named GuoKr (meaning “nutshell” in English). Data were collected through a variety of Chinese social media and social networking sites, web-based community portals, and discussion boards. Content analyses and data mining were conducted to investigate how GuoKr successfully attracted and engaged public in informal learning on scientific topics in particular. The study found three key c...

  7. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    OpenAIRE

    Staub Peter O; Geck Matthias S; Weckerle Caroline S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Sh...

  8. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, P O; Geck, M S; Weckerle, C S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. METHODS: The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research i...

  9. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Fan; HU Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; ZHAO, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and ...

  10. Correlation between brand Identity and brand Image : Study of Zara in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmi Gonzalez, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the Spanish global fast fashion retailer Zara, Inditex Group. The purpose of the study is to analyse how well Zara’s brand identity is aligned with its brand image in China. The thesis consists of a theoretical section and an empirical section. The theoretical section covers the concepts that support a better understanding of the findings. The empirical section consists of quantitative research. The research questionnaire was designed based on Keller’s Brand Equi...

  11. Nonfarm activity and rural income inequality : a case study of two provinces in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Nong; Luo, Xubei

    2006-01-01

    Nonfarm activity plays an increasingly important role in rural household income. Based on data from the Living Standards Measurement Study in the provinces of Hebei and Liaoning, the authors study the distribution of nonfarm income in rural China. First, they assume nonfarm income as an exogenous transfer to total income to decompose the Gini index. Second, they assume nonfarm income as a potential substitute for farm income to take household choices into account and simulate household income...

  12. Population dynamics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Gu Weiming; Pérez-Losada Marcos; Tazi Loubna; Xue Lin; Crandall Keith A; Viscidi Raphael P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gonorrhea is a major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in many countries worldwide. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance has complicated efforts to control and treat this disease. We report the first study of the evolutionary processes acting on transmission dynamics of a resistant gonococcal population from Shanghai, China. We compare these findings with our previous study of the evolution of a fluoroquinolone sensitive gonococcal population from Baltimore, MD. Me...

  13. Study on Electronic Journal Reading Behaviour of Social Scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    王梅玲、肖希明、朱慶華 Mei-Ling Wang, Xi-Ming Xiao, Qing-Hua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the electronic journal reading behaviour of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China. The main purposes of the study are as follows: to explore the importance of e-journals amongst social scientists’ research; to explore the e-journal reading behaviour of Taiwanese and Chinese social scientists; to unearth factors affecting e-journal article reading thereby allowing comparisons to be made between the e-journal reading behaviour of social scientists in ...

  14. Academic culture and citizenship in transitional societies: Case studies from China and Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Szelényi, K; Rhoads, RA

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing types of citizenship along the dimensions of locally informed to globally informed and individualist to collectivist. Implications emphasize the hybr...

  15. Studies on women's sexuality in China since 1980: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Petula, SYH; Yuxin, P; Lun, NM

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, women's sexuality has become one of the most written about and intensely debated subjects in sexology, sociology, and women's studies in mainland China. From these studies, one can trace the development of academic discourse on women's sexuality through three distinct phases: from a predominantly medical discourse, to the use of survey methods to investigate women's real experiences, and finally to a phase in which Western theories have become increasingly influential....

  16. Genetic and hematopoietic effects of long-term tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positive effects seen using the somewhat insensitive dominant lethal test system and the effects seen on the blood-forming cells indicates that at least in the mouse there is a hazard in the continuous ingestion of HTO at a concentration of 3 μCCi/ml. A direct comparison of these results to the human drinking an equivalent amount of HTO is impossible due to the obvious differences in water metabolism between the two species. Until further experimentation at lower levels of ingestion are completed, it is difficult to comment concerning the significance of these results as related to current concepts of maximum permissible concentration. Studies are now underway examining the possible effects of lower concentrations of chronic HTO ingestion

  17. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown. PMID:19924012

  18. Neuroimaging studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing FAN; Zeping XIAO

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder of uncertain etiology.Neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD in China started to appear in the late 1990s,identifying structural abnormalities in the gray matter and white matter of the prefrontal lobe,the corpus striatum,and the thalamus.Studies using positron emission tomography (PET),functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have found increased metabolism and activation in these brain regions that are correlated with the duration,severity and cognitive symptoms of OCD.After surgery for OCD the activation in these target areas decreases.These results in China are similar to those presented in previous neuroimaging studies,including several meta-analyses from other countries.

  19. Progress in the Study of Molecular Genetic Improvements of Poplar in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Zhi Lin; Zhi-Yi Zhang; Qian Zhang; Yuan-Zhen Lin

    2006-01-01

    The poplar is one of the most economically important and intensively studied tree species owing to its wide application in the timber industry and as a model material for the study of woody plants. The natural resource of poplars in China is replete. Over the past 10 years, the application of molecular biological techniques to genetic improvements in poplar species has been widely studied in China. Recent advances in molecular genetic improvements of poplar, including cDNA library construction, gene cloning and identification, genetic engineering, gene expression, genetic linkage map construction, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular-assisted selection, are reviewed in the present paper. In addition, the application of modern biotechnology to molecular improvements in the genetic traits of the poplar and some unsolved problems are discussed.

  20. Current status and trends of wheat genetic transformation studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yi; WANG Qiong; ZENG Jian; SUN Tao; YANG Guang-xiao; HE Guang-yuan

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the ifrst report on successful genetic transformation of wheat. With the establishment and improvement of transformation platform, great progresses have been made on wheat genetic transformation both on its fundamental and applied studies in China, especial y driven by the National Major Project for Transgenic Organism Breed-ing, China, initiated in 2008. In this review, wheat genetic transformation platform improvement and transgenic research progresses including new techniques applied and functional studies of wheat quality, yield and stress tolerant related genes and biosafety assessment are summarized. The existing problems and the trends in wheat transformation with traditional methods combined with genomic studies and genome editing technology are also discussed.

  1. SPECIAL REPORT ON INGESTED INORGANIC ARSENIC: SKIN CANCER; NUTRITIONAL ESSENTIALITY (SAB REVIEW DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technical panel of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum has studied three special issues regarding certain health effects, particularly skin cancer, associated with arsenic ingestion: (1) the validity of the Taiwan study and its use for dose-response assessment in the U.S. population, (...

  2. A Study on Port Alliance between Incheon Port and Major Ports in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Won Chung

    2009-01-01

    <正>Recently,amount of cargoes from main ports in Northeast Asia have rapidly increased,and as well surplus port development in same region corresponded with the boom in external trade that resulted from successful export-oriented economics strategy by China,Japan and South Korea.To cope with this business circumstances, a certain form of port alliance is desperately needed to provide a suitable service to customer and establish their countervailing power against the shipping alliance.Nevertheless,Incheon seaport has not made a definite port alliance system with main ports in Northern China yet.Thus,the purpose of this study is to identify the key success factors to form a port alliance through examining previous studies.We have benchmarked previous studies which are related to main ports in global region and the questionnaire on customers of ports.By studying this,we are able to suggest a few strategies for forming successful port alliance to enhance Incheon port’s capabilities in the long term plan.As a policy proposal,this study suggests Incheon port and main ports in Northern China should construct a logistics infrastructure through mutual investment and provide an incentive system when the ocean carrier makes port call to both ports.

  3. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil

  4. Effects of lead shot ingestion on selected cells of the mallard immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The immunologic effects of lead were measured in game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that ingested lead shot while foraging naturally, mallards intubated with lead shot, and unexposed controls. Circulating white blood cells (WBC) declined significantly in male mallards exposed to lead by either natural ingestion or intubation, but not females. Spleen plaque-forming cell (SPFC) counts were significantly lower in mallards intubated with lead pellets compared to controls. Declines in WBC and SPFC means with increasing tissue lead concentrations provide further evidence that lead exposure reduced immunologic cell numbers. Hormonal activity and diet may have influenced the immunologic effects of lead exposure in this study.

  5. Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staley A. Brod

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a unifying hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis of autoimmunity that defines autoimmunity as a type I interferon (IFN immunodeficiency syndrome. We have examined toxicity and potential efficacy in two phase I (type 1 diabetes [T1D], multiple sclerosis [MS] and phase II clinical trials in T1D and MS. In a phase I open label trial in T1D, ingested IFN-alpha preserved residual beta-cell function in recent onset patients. In a second phase I trial in MS, there was a significant decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma production after ingesting IFN-alpha. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in MS, 10,000 IU ingested IFN-alpha significantly decreased gadolinium enhancements compared to the placebo group at month 5. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma cytokine secretion in the 10,000 IU group at month 5 showed a significant decrease that corresponded with the effect of ingested IFN-alpha on decreasing gadolinium enhancements. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in T1D, patients in the 5,000 unit hrIFN-alpha treatment group maintained more beta-cell function one year after study enrollment compared to individuals in the placebo group. Ingested IFN-alpha was not toxic in these clinical trials. These studies suggest that ingested IFN-alpha may have a potential role in the treatment of autoimmunity.

  6. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  7. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time to...

  8. AN INTERESTING CASE OF MULTIPLE INGESTED FOREIGN BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Ingested Foreign bodies are a frequent occurrence in ENT practice. The diagnosis and management are based on clinical and radiological findings. We report a case of 22 year old female who attempted suicide by ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

  9. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  10. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  11. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  12. Flash flood hazard mapping: a pilot case study in Xiapu River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood hazard mapping is a supporting component of non-structural measures for flash flood prevention. Pilot case studies are necessary to develop more practicable methods for the technical support systems of flash flood hazard mapping. In this study, the headwater catchment of the Xiapu River Basin in central China was selected as a pilot study area for flash flood hazard mapping. A conceptual distributed hydrological model was developed for flood calculation based on the framework of the Xinanjiang model, which is widely used in humid and semi-humid regions in China. The developed model employs the geomorphological unit hydrograph method, which is extremely valuable when simulating the overland flow process in ungauged catchments, as compared with the original Xinanjiang model. The model was tested in the pilot study area, and the results agree with the measured data on the whole. After calibration and validation, the model is shown to be a useful tool for flash flood calculation. A practicable method for flash flood hazard mapping using the calculated peak discharge and digital elevation model data was presented, and three levels of flood hazards were classified. The resulting flash flood hazard maps indicate that the method successfully predicts the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards, and it can meet the current requirements in China.

  13. ICAO safety management systems (SMS) development in environmental contexts: A field study of greater China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Steven M.

    This was a mixed-methods exploratory study to investigate association between environmental context and the implementation status of Safety Management Systems (SMS) at airports in Greater China. Using a framework of Institutional Theory, this study looked at three regions of Greater China and explored internal and external environments of SMS at airports within each region. It used ICAO standards to evaluate the implementation status of SMS at those airports based on the perceptions of 126 participants. This research also employed snowballing technique to spread a survey tool to participants in Greater China through several key gatekeepers, and then applied the Delphi method for interviews with key gatekeepers themselves. Analysis of the data suggested several associations between various sub-concepts of the external environment and different components of SMS in the three regions. In addition, the data suggested a relationship between the internal environment as a whole and the overall status of SMS implementation in each region. Lastly, the study makes several recommendations for future research regarding global standards implemented in local environments, the evaluation of SMS implementation status, and the theoretical implications of this study.

  14. Change analysis of karst rocky desertification for almost 40 years: a case study of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Guoqing; Mao, Guodong; Shi, Yujun; Zhang, Rongting; Su, Chengjie

    2015-12-01

    The paper first studied the geometric correction of historical CORONA satellite imagery in the 1960s and used the historical imagery to extract KRD (karst rocky desertification). The study area is located in the karst region of Guangxi Province, China. Finally, we used the Landsat-5 imagery to extract rocky desertification in 2005, then we could find the changes of the karst rocky desertification in Guangxi from 1960s to 2005 about nearly 40 years. And comparison analysis was conducted and the results showed that, over the 40 years, Guangxi karst rocky desertification area has significantly changed. Guangxi has typical karst environment and is one of the most serious areas of rocky desertification in southwest China provinces, thus our research on this has great practical significance.

  15. Joint Implementation Analysis: A Case Study of the Japan-China Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One of the key issues for "Joint Implementation" is how to define a plausible baseline, a necessary benchmark for calculating net Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission reductions through a comparative approach. Based on a thorough case study of the China-Japan Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) project, the first approved pilot project in China under the "Activities Implemented Jointly" (AIJ) framework, the paper not only describes in detail the complete procedure of baseline definition of the case project, but also discusses its approach to baseline determination. Furthermore, cost-benefit analysis of GHGs mitigation is conducted according to the baseline. This empirical case study, based on real AIJ project data, will be beneficial for the development of future projects under Kyoto mechanisms such as "Clean Development Mechanism" and "Joint Implementation".

  16. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture

  17. The Effects of Social Reforms on Mental Disability in China: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have explored how mental disabilities have changed with the waves of Chinese social reforms that occurred between 1912 and 2006. The present study evaluated population-based data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability to investigate these trends and their effects on mental disabilities. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association between social reforms and mental disabilities. The confounding variables considered were as follows: survey age, gender, residence in 2006, ethnicity, and living arrangements in 2006. The highest risks of mental disabilities were observed in subjects born during the Mao Zedong era. Subjects who experienced social turbulence during their early development may have increased risks of mental disabilities in adulthood. The results and discussion herein contribute to our understanding of mental disabilities in China within the context of changing political, socioeconomic, and health system conditions and a developing mental health system. PMID:26969637

  18. Does Industrial Relocation Work - A Case Study from China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Li; Li Bin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Chinese policy makers have tried to balance development in different regions of the country by relocating industrial production from prosperous zones to less developed areas. However, this type of industrial relocation is usually accompanied by the transfer of pollution problems. To shed more light on the costs and benefits of this important policy tool, this study looks at the relocation of ceramics production from one region of Guangdong Province to another. This study anal...

  19. Discrimination Based on Health Grounds : Case Study: Hepatitis B Virus Discrimination in China Labour Employment

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B in China, millions of carriers are faced with discrimination when they come to work, study, health care or even marriage. The same situation also happens to those physically disadvantageous people especially in the access to employment. Employment discrimination detracts from the principle of equality and directly impairs social justice and human dignity. Series of institutional responses are needed to effectively prevent employment discrimi...

  20. How Long, Narrowly Constructed Wetlands Purify Irrigation Return Water: A Case Study of Ulansuhai Lake, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xufeng Mao; Donghai Yuan; Liansheng He; Xiaoyan Wei; Qiong Chen; Libo Bian; Junqi Li

    2015-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands (CWs) in the treatment of raw wastewater in China has proved to be very successful in recent decades. However, it is not known whether surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively purify irrigation return water. To investigate the performance of a constructed wetland in terms of meeting the goals of pollutant purification, the 8th drainage of Ulansuhai Lake was used for this study. Pollutant removal performances, as well as hydrological characteristic vari...

  1. Children’s buying behaviour in China: A study of their information sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Reports an empirical study on children’s buying behaviour in China with a special focus on their information sources. Design /Methodology The key literature on consumer socialisation of children is reviewed. Primary data was collected from a sample of 155 children aged 10 to 13 using questionnaire survey. Various statistical methods such as Pearson correlation and tests were employed to analyse the data. Findings Chinese children regard TV commercials as an importan...

  2. Lead markets for clean coal technologies: A case study for China, Germany, Japan and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Horbach, Jens; Chen, Qian; Rennings, Klaus; Vögele, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high CO2 emission intensity of fossil and especially coal fired energy production, these energy carriers will play an important role during the coming decades. The case study identifies the main technological trajectories concerning more efficient fossil fuel combustion and explores the potentials for lead markets for these technologies in China, Germany, Japan and the USA taking into account the different regulation schemes in these countries. We concentrate on technologies that ...

  3. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  4. Study of Herding Behavior on China's Real Estate Market Price Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Beijing housing market is the research object. From the point of asset prices, using chang to put forward CSAD, refers to the DongZhiYong, HanXu ‘s Generalized Capital Asset Pricing Model of the measurement method of the securities market behavior to the basic idea of the flock of empirical analysis. The empirical research shows that China's real estate price fluctuations exist serious herd behavior.

  5. Study on spatial and temporal distribution of planktonic amphipoda in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Mei; WANG Yunlong; YUAN Qi; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative distribution of planktonic amphipoda in the East China Sea is analyzed and the relation with environmental factors and mackerel and scad fishing grounds is studied. The result shows that the characteristic of biomass is great seasonal and interannual variety during the passing three decades. The distribution of planktonic amphipoda basically reflects the movement, decay and intensification of the different water systems in the survey area.

  6. A study of intranet implementation for the Republic of China Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi

    1997-01-01

    An intranet is a computer network based on the data communication standards of the World Wide Web. These standards can contribute to enhance communication, collaboration, and information distribution within this organization. The adoption and implementation of this technology by industry has been swift, and broad, a organizations have quickly recognized the benefits to be realized from this technology for new organizational networks. This study presents a review of the Republic of China Navy'...

  7. Characterization and interaction of driving factors in karst rocky desertification: a case study from Changshun, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, E. Q.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in Southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evo...

  8. Characterization and interaction of driving factors in karst rocky desertification: a case study from Changshun, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, E. Q.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have ...

  9. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwei Wu; Bernard Vincent; Sami Bouarfa; Jinzhong Yang; Alain Vidal

    2008-01-01

    This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding crop...

  10. Studies of South China Sea circulation and thermal structure using a three dimensional numerical model

    OpenAIRE

    Edmons, Nathan L.

    1996-01-01

    The seasonal ocean circulation and thermal structure in the South China Sea (SCS) were studied numerically using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with 20 km horizontal resolution and 23 sigma levels conforming to a realistic bottom topography. A sixteen month control run was performed using climatological monthly mean wind stresses and restoring type salt and heat fluxes as surface forcing terms and observational oceanic inflow/outflow at the open boundaries. The seasonally averaged effects of...

  11. Recent gentrification tendencies in China : A case study of potentials and threats in Changzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In nearly 30 years of urban development in the emerging economies, as China, gentrification has evidently been the dynamic urbanization changes of urban social space which is driven by government and marketing. With the impacts of current neo-liberalization, the case study of Changzhou indicates how the government and marketization functions in planning. Simultaneously, the process of urban renewal in historical blocks is redistributed by a kind of residential differentiation and gentrificati...

  12. Wetland Transitions and Protection under Rapid Urban Expansion: A Case Study of Pearl River Estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhao; Xiaodan Wang; Yanjiang Cai; Weilong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding wetland changes under urbanization is important for wetland management. In this study, net transition intensity (NTI) and total transition intensity (TTI) are presented to characterize wetland transitions based on spatial data obtained from Landsat satellite images of Pearl River estuary in South China. NTI is commonly used to represent changes in absolute amounts for each class of wetland, while TTI reflects the internal transition activities and amounts. The third index, the u...

  13. Use of ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Data to Study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-12-19

    General goals: 1) Facilitating the deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Ancillary Facility (AAF) in China in 2008, 2) Processing, retrieving, improving and analyzing observation data from ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments; 3) Conducting a series of studies to gain insights into the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation using both

  14. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potentia...

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in suixi, china: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Miao; Du Jianzhong; Hovell Melbourne F; Sallis James F; Ding Ding; He Haiying; Owen Neville

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correl...

  16. Study on Analysis and Countermeasure of China's Legal System of Food Safety and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study is to solve the food safety problems existing in the real life, ensuring the food health safety, based on the “ Food Hygiene Law of the People's Republic of China” promulgated in 1995 by China, starting from the aspects such as production, marketing, regulatory to the integrate the standards of edible farm product quality safety standards, food hygiene standards, food quality standards and relevant food industry mandatory standards, establishing scientific and standardized fo...

  17. The Impact of Board Structure on Corporate Performance: an Empirical Study on Listed Companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Wenxiu

    2014-01-01

    The topic of corporate governance, as an important research field enjoys great popularity in many countries. In some rapidly growing markets like China, investors have strong desires to improve the governance mechanism. In recent years, a great many of researches on this topic have been made. However, these studies and researches seem to be not so successful and have not obtain a certain key finding due to various uncertain factors such as the different management approaches and methods adopt...

  18. Unmarried male migrants and sexual risk behavior: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ke-Wei; Wu, Jun-Qing; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhao, Rui; Ying ZHOU; Ji, Hong Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, there is increasing concern because of the rapid increase in HIV infection recorded over recent years. Migrant workers are recognized as one of the groups most affected. In this study, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried migrant workers in Shanghai are investigated, with the aim of providing critical information for policy makers and sex educators to reinforce sexual health services and sex health education targeting the behavior and sexual...

  19. A study on regional disparities of cost-sharing in China

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at exploring regional disparities of cost-sharing in China by addressing following questions: What is the relationship between the amount of governmental funds per student and level of local economic development; What are the relationship between individuals‟ share of costs, public share of costs and local economic development; What is the relationship between tuition fee and residents‟ affordability? A quantitative research strategy with secondary analysis of official statist...

  20. Service Recovery Activities and Customer Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Justice Dimensions: A Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang XiaoRan; Rozeyta Omar

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and its contribution to service quality improvement, especially through effective service recovery programs, are not new to researchers. Several studies have identified the impact of service recovery activities on customer post-recovery satisfaction mostly in Western countries, and very few have examined how Asian consumers react to service recovery efforts, especial in China. It implicates that the impact of a hotel’s service recovery strategies is derived from three ju...

  1. Consumers’ WTA for GM rice cookie: an experiment study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses experimental auction method to study the WTA for GM rice cookies of Chinese consumers. The bid data are collected from 353 randomly recruited undergraduate students participated in Wuhan, China, during the spring and early summer of 2008.The experiment auction suggest most participant hold a positive WTA for GM rice cookie, which suggest that consumers regard GM rice an inferior substitutes for non-GM rice. Information favorable of GM rice will decrease the WTA, while negative...

  2. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiliang,Zhang; Gan, Lin; Shuhua, Gu; Wenqiang, Liu

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building, and to international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development an...

  3. High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets. PMID:22492122

  4. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  5. A study on the implementation of joint research projects in the field of nuclear technology between Korea and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Suh, In Suk; Lee, Eui Jin; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Lee, Byung Wook; Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Chung, Whan Sam; Lee, Man Ki; Lee, Hyo Se; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Byung Bae; Hong, Young Don; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Moon Ki; Sim, Suk Ku; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Oh, Won Zin

    1999-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, the current status of energy industry was carefully reviewed. An increase of energy consumption, both in industrial and home purposes, implored introduction of nuclear power as an alternative energy production source. Secondly, the current status of China's nuclear development programs together with future prospects was reviewed. Through this review, more effective implementation of nuclear cooperative programs could be devised. Thirdly, China's newly developed nuclear infrastructure was analyzed. The re-structuring of the CNNC was reviewed. Based on this analysis, future cooperative programs could be identified. Lastly, proper strategies for future cooperation between the two countries on a complementary basis were studied. Recommendations for better cooperation programs, particularly for the nuclear policy-making process, were presented. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. The findings of this study could serve as the database for future nuclear cooperation between the two countries. It is hoped that all local nuclear related organizations in Korea could use some valuable references derived from the study. Information generated from the study could also be used as a benchmark for continued cooperation with China. Various

  6. A study on the implementation of joint research projects in the field of nuclear technology between Korea and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, the current status of energy industry was carefully reviewed. An increase of energy consumption, both in industrial and home purposes, implored introduction of nuclear power as an alternative energy production source. Secondly, the current status of China's nuclear development programs together with future prospects was reviewed. Through this review, more effective implementation of nuclear cooperative programs could be devised. Thirdly, China's newly developed nuclear infrastructure was analyzed. The re-structuring of the CNNC was reviewed. Based on this analysis, future cooperative programs could be identified. Lastly, proper strategies for future cooperation between the two countries on a complementary basis were studied. Recommendations for better cooperation programs, particularly for the nuclear policy-making process, were presented. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. The findings of this study could serve as the database for future nuclear cooperation between the two countries. It is hoped that all local nuclear related organizations in Korea could use some valuable references derived from the study. Information generated from the study could also be used as a benchmark for continued cooperation with China. Various contacts by experts from

  7. Study of Thermotherapy against Citrus Huanglongbing in Fujian Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guocheng; Liu, Bo; Lie, Xiongjie; Cai, Zijian; Hu, Hanqing; Wang, Xianda; Ruan, Chuanqing; Lu, Lianming; Sequeira, Ronald; Xia, Yulu

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a major threat to world citrus production. In this study, we investigated using a heat treatment technique for managing HLB-affected citrus trees in the field. A total of 72 5-to-8-year old mandarin citrus, Citrus reticulata Blanco, trees were used for the study. Nine trees were regarded as a replicate or a block with four replicates per treatment. A randomized complete block design was used for field experimental design. The treated trees were covered by using plastic ...

  8. Institutional challenges for EIA implementation in China: a case study of development versus environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lixin; Sheate, William R

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides a complete case study analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) implementation in China from planning to legal challenge, which is typical but rarely reported. The analysis takes an historical perspective on the regulatory and institutional structures through which EIA has been implemented in China, in order to evaluate the extent to which EIA has matured over the last 10 years. The case study relates to a proposed recreation/tourist development at Dianshan Lake, a protected water resource for Shanghai. Legal and administrative challenge began in 1993, when the case was initiated with a letter from the public, and concluded in 1996, when the case was decided in a court judgment. More recent follow-up research indicates that many issues have continued to be problems for EIA implementation in China. Policy implications in terms of regulatory structure, institutional arrangement, EIA procedure, EIA practitioners, and public participation can be drawn, and lessons learned for both the government and the developers. The study emphasizes the problem of relying on reorientation of existing institutions to promote new (environmental) priorities. PMID:15983862

  9. Driver's Critical Gap Calibration at Urban Roundabouts: A Case Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jie; YANG Xinmiao; DENG Wei; HUANG Xin

    2008-01-01

    Roundabouts have been used successfully in cities throughout the world and are wildly used in China. The critical gap is a required parameter for calculating the capacity of roundabouts and deciding the needs for stop signs. While many studies on gap acceptance characteristics at roundabouts have been car-ried out in America and Europe, few have been done in China. This study was conducted to calibrate the critical gap in a roundabout in China. The differences between critical gaps on different days (workdays and weekends) and during different times (rush hour and non rush hour) were checked. The study was per-formed at a three-lane roundabout formed by a two-way and four-lane local road and a six-lane divided ar-tery. The data was collected at this site by a video camera. The evaluations included the cumulative prob-ability distributions of the acceptable and rejected gaps which resulted in critical gaps for all cases. The re-sults show that the critical gap during the rush hour is shorter than after the rush hour, but the difference is not large and the cumulative probability distributions can be fit by the Iogit functional form with parameters estimated using linear regression.

  10. Comparative study of SEA experiences between EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    decision making, such as: How inclusive will the system be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators? And how can the appropriate aggregation level for indicators be found? This paper makes a comparative study of the experiences of using indicators in SEA in two European countries and...

  11. Overview of Studies on Grain Security in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shuhua; Ma, Weipeng; Nie, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Through overview of relevant literature and on the basis of basically grasping frontier study and development trend, this paper discussed the grain security from industrial structure, farmland protection, grain import, urbanization and industrialization, grain reserve, ecological protection, and grain security pre-warning, in the hope of providing some convenience and reference for future related researches.

  12. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  13. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  14. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea;

    2015-01-01

    also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac) was...... administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C...... after oral than after iv amino acid challenges (P = .006), whereas there was no significant difference in the glucagon response. Intact and total GIP rose after oral but not after iv amino acid administration, whereas intact and total GLP-1 levels did not change significantly in either test. CONCLUSION...

  15. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Northern China: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.

  16. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  17. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Bratton, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. PMID:26807984

  18. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (pextraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  19. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Muguerza, Natalia Bellostas; Petersen, Atheline Major; Kveiborg, Britt; Madsen, Christian Rask; Thomas, Hermann; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.; Køber, Lars; Sørensen, Hilmer; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Domínguez, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would be the case...

  20. Effects of Pancreas Transplantation on Insulin Secretion in the Rat During Ingestion of Varying Glucose Loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Following alloxan induced diabetes in rats, transplantation of neonatal pancreases under the kidney capsule was successfully carried out. The insulin response to oral ingestion of 150 and 750 mg of glucose was studied. The responses in controls and in rats 40 days after transplantation demonstrated