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Sample records for china egypt ecuador

  1. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The...

  2. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  3. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless...

  4. Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Background notes and statistics on Ecuador are provided in the document. 271,000 sq. km. of jungle are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 11 million growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. The work force total 3.4 million. Ecuador claims a population comprised of 4 ethnic groups, predominantly Roman Catholic, and speaking Spanish in addition to Indian languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 88% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 51/1,000, while life expectancy is 66 years. 1990 GDP was $10.9 billion, and was growing at the rate of 1.5%. Per capita income was $1,043, while 1990 figures reported 50% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 17% of GNP, industry for 16%; 1990 international trade surplus totalled $0.7 billion. Additional data are provided on Ecuador's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Structural reform brought economic improvement in 1989. Public sector spending was tightened, monetary growth slowed, and external accounts improved. While progress stalled in 1990, additional steps combined with higher oil prices were expected to reduce the deficit and moderate inflation. Further reductions in government control over the economy, movement toward free-market interest rates, privatization of selected companies, trade liberalization, labor law reform, and the promotion of domestic and foreign private investment are called for.

  5. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that are...

  6. 78 FR 50110 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of a Hearing In Camera AGENCY: U.S...

  7. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  8. Interaction of China and Egypt in the Context of the Events of «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Bokeriya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the position of the People's Republic of China during the revolution in Egypt. The article discusses various points of view of the representatives of countries of the world on the events in Egypt. The article also analyzes the position of Egypt on the international arena. It also presents information about the collaboration between two countries before the events on the Middle East. The article is devoted to the relationship of People's Republic of China with Egypt in a context of “Arab spring”, the consequences of this event and influence on policy of the People's Republic of China. Various points of view of representatives of the People's Republic of China, and also the Russian Federation on events in Egypt are under analysis.

  9. PROVING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: A PROGRESS REPORT ON U.S. EPA'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR, MEXICO AND CHINA (EPA/600/F-98/008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication describes the progress of USEPA's Drinking Water Treatment Demonstration projects currently underway in Ecuador, Mexico and China. Material includes descriptions of problems faced and approaches used to improve water quality.

  10. 78 FR 5416 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Investigation Initiation Checklist: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China'' (``China Initiation Checklist''), at Attachment II, Analysis of Industry Support for the Petitions Covering...

  11. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p ancient Egypt as well as China between 3000 and 500 B. C. culminated each 500 years synchronously. No local events, confined to Egypt or China alone, can serve as an explanation. The rhythm of "dark ages" seems to continue beyond Egyptian and ancient Chinese history into the modern era and seems to be world-wide. It is a surprising fact, that this periodicity has been known already to the priests of Babylon, who ascribed this to the maleficient influence of god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of

  12. Spotlight: Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.

  13. Ecuador: CEPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The development of Ecuador's petroleum resources began slowly in 1911 with concessions to foreign explorers and drillers, but it was the mid-1960s before a major discovery by Texaco and Gulf opened up over a quarter of the country to foreign companies. Nationalization took place in 1972 with the formation of the Corporacion Estatal Petrolera Ecutoriana (CEPE) for the purpose of increasing national participation in oil development. The author outlines the goals and activities of CEPE as they have evolved. The report also covers export management and storage and transport activities of CEPE. 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  15. Ecuador : Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Ecuador's poor economic performance is not solely nor mainly the result of high volatility, but rather the result of poor economic management and, especially, weak productivity growth. This connection between productivity and economic growth has become even more relevant in recent years, after Ecuador decided to adopt the US dollar as the national currency in 2000, hence forgoing the optio...

  16. Accesibilidad web (CCFFAA, Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Presentación "Accesibilidad web" realizada en el "Seminario de socialización sobre los derechos y difusión de la gestión en entidades públicas y privadas en beneficio de las personas con discapacidad" organizado por el Ministerio de la Defensa del Ecuador el 28 de mayo de 2015 en Comando Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas del Ecuador.

  17. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  18. Medical education in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  19. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  20. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  1. IDRC in Ecuador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1990s also improved quinoa farming practices, raised people's awareness of the grain's nutritional value, and generated private sector interest in its production. Healthier farming practices. In the 1990s as Ecuador's agricultural- export sector grew, potato farming tech- niques changed and reliance on pesticides increased.

  2. IDRC in Ecuador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has supported research in. Ecuador since 1975. These analyses have improved food production, helped small producers expand markets, and validated traditional agricultural and indigenous knowledge. The Instituto Nacional Autónomo de. Investigaciones Agropecuarias, for example, developed superior quinoa.

  3. Area Assessment: Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-02

    recommended for the enrollment in a University in the United States is 9 or 10. D. EDUCATION DEGREES AND CERTIFICATES 1. Bachillerato en educacion ... EDUCACION Y Mejia 348 216-232 CULTURA "Ministry of Education and Culture" 15-4 ECUADOR NAME ... MINISTERIO DE FINANZAS Y CREDITO PUBLICO

  4. Collection for Ecuador

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the terrible earthquake in Ecuador on April 16th, 2016, a collection was organized at CERN and sent to the INEPE Institute in Quito to help the victims. CERN has received the following two letters that we want to share with you. We wish our Ecuadorian friends a prompt recovery and keep them in our thoughts! Dear Fabiola and Alessandro, […] As the CERN contact person in Ecuador, and as the Country Representative for Ecuador in the CMS Experiment, I would like to thank you, the offices you precede and, through you, the whole CERN community, for all the concern and generosity after the terrible earthquake in the coast of Ecuador.  Rather slowly, but full of hope, our people are overcoming this difficult situation.  Contributions from different sources abroad, like CERN's, combined with the rapid and generous local intervention, have greatly helped the affected communities cope with the most urgent needs in order to restart their lives. Once again, I express my ...

  5. Akkadian from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Akkadian, an ancient Semitic language from Mesopotamia written in the cuneiform script, wasemployed as a diplomatic lingua franca between the major powers of the Late Bronze Age.Akkadian from Egypt defines the language of the Akkadian texts that originated in Egypt. Thesewere probably written by Egyptian scribes. On various linguistic levels ranging from phonology tomorpho-syntax, Akkadian from Egypt differs from contemporary varieties of Akkadian. In severalcases, these differences can be an...

  6. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  7. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  8. Collection for Ecuador

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    After the violent earthquake that caused the death of hundreds of people, and left thousands wounded and homeless in Ecuador, we appeal to your generosity. We are starting a collection today to help the victims, and the funds will be donated to the INEPE Institute in Quito. This organization, known at CERN for many years as it has been supported by the Long Term Collections of the Staff Association, will be responsible for sending the proceeds of the collection directly to the victims in the field. On behalf of the CERN Management and the CERN Staff Association Fabiola Gianotti, Director General, and Alessandro Raimondo, President of the Staff Association =========================== Bank account details for donations: Bank account holder: Staff Association CERN - 1211 GENEVA 23 Account number: 279-HU106832.1 IBAN: CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 BIC: UBSWCHZH80A Please mention: Ecuador

  9. Ecuador: una democracia inestable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1979, tras una década de dictaduras militares, se inició la fase constitucional más larga en la historia del Ecuador. Ésta se levantó sobre las herencias del pasado y se caracterizó, de manera fundamental, por el tránsito desde un modelo estatal-desarrollista hacia uno de tipo empresarial, por el aparecimiento de nuevos agentes sociales, el multipartidismo político, la regionalización nacional, la presencia multicultural y la inserción del país en nuevas relaciones internacionales. Pero esos procesos trajeron como consecuencias centrales: la edificación de una economía inequitativa, una sociedad tensionada, la desestructuración institucional, la precarización del trabajo y la debilidad con la que la nación ha enfrentado el nuevo mundo unipolar. Todo ello ha configurado un cuadro de riesgos para la incipiente democracia. El Ecuador contemporáneo tiene, por tanto, una serie de desafíos económicos, sociales y políticos para escapar a la inestabilidad que ha acompañado a la construcción de su modernización democrática.___________________ABSTRACT:In 1979, after one decade of military dictatorships, the longest constitutional phase in the history of Ecuador was initiated. It was built upon the inheritance of the past and can be fundamentally characterized by the transition from a model that focused on the state as developing the economy (State-model to a model that focused on private business (enterprise-model. The appearance of new social agents, a multiparty system, national regionalization, multicultural presence and the country´s new international relationships are processes which show some important consequences: the establishment of an unequal economy, a society under tension, the breakdown of institutional structures, the vulnerability of working conditions and the weakness with which the nation faced the new polarized world. All this might put into danger this incipient democracy. And this is why Ecuador in these

  10. Biocomercio en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Puebla Quesada, Ana Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Biocomercio es una herramienta de protección, conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad, implementada mediante programas y proyectos, que promueven el comercio sostenible de bienes y servicios de la biodiversidad. El propósito de esta tesis es conocer la situación histórica, actual y las perspectivas del biocomercio en Ecuador. Para ello, se realizó un análisis de los programas y proyectos aplicados en el país, que generaron importantes resultados a nivel general, en términos de polít...

  11. All projects related to Egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt, Canada. Program: Networked ...

  12. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moreano, Hernan; Donoso, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    ... de la cultura politica ecuatoriana. En si el objetivo esta en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender como ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno...

  13. Ecuador: Construyendo radio y pueblo

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro Galarza

    2015-01-01

    En el Ecuador a diferencia de Argentina y Colombia, las radios populares crecen a ritmo lento. En la década pasada hubo estancamiento, pero en los años 90 hay un resurgir de estos medios, con nuevos estilos de trabajo. La coordinadora de radios Populares y Educativas del Ecuador, CORAPE, sigue de cerca esta evolución. El texto trata de la capacitación profesional.

  14. Accesibilidad Web en Ecuador 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Presentaciones del evento "Accesibilidad Web en Ecuador 2014", organizado por la Escuela Politécnica Nacional, la Secretaría Nacional de la Administración Pública, la Secretaría Técnica de Discapacidades y el Consejo Nacional de Discapacidades el 29 de mayo de 2014 en la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Quito, Ecuador). Sitio web: http://accesibilidadweb.epn.edu.ec/aw2014/

  15. Ecuador: Construyendo radio y pueblo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Galarza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Ecuador a diferencia de Argentina y Colombia, las radios populares crecen a ritmo lento. En la década pasada hubo estancamiento, pero en los años 90 hay un resurgir de estos medios, con nuevos estilos de trabajo. La coordinadora de radios Populares y Educativas del Ecuador, CORAPE, sigue de cerca esta evolución. El texto trata de la capacitación profesional.

  16. [Tuberculosis in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, B; Halioua, B

    2007-12-01

    Did Tuberculosis plague Ancient Egypt five millennia ago? Some medical papyri appear to evoke tuberculosis. Egyptian physicians did not individualize it, but they seem to have noticed some of its clinical expressions, such as cough, cervical adenitis, and cold abscesses. In Egyptian iconography, some cases of hump-backs were probably due to Pott's disease of the spine Descriptive paleopathology, born with the 20th century, has identified pulmonary and especially spinal lesions compatible with tuberculosis. Progress of molecular biology has made a decisive contribution with the diagnosis of tuberculosis on ancient samples. Tuberculosis has been identified using PCR in nearly a third of the Egyptian mummies recently examined. Spoligotyping has made it possible to re-evaluate the phylogenic tree of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Ancient Egypt. Tuberculosis certainly plagued the Nile Valley and appears to have been an important cause of mortality in Ancient Egypt.

  17. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A brief, standardized tool for measuring HIV-related stigma among health facility staff: results of field testing in China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, Laura; Jain, Aparna; Benkirane, Manal; Li, Li; Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; McLean, Roger; Turan, Janet M; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Guan, Jihui; Kwena, Zachary; Thomas, Wendell

    2013-11-13

    Within healthcare settings, HIV-related stigma is a recognized barrier to access of HIV prevention and treatment services and yet, few efforts have been made to scale-up stigma reduction programs in service delivery. This is in part due to the lack of a brief, simple, standardized tool for measuring stigma among all levels of health facility staff that works across diverse HIV prevalence, language and healthcare settings. In response, an international consortium led by the Health Policy Project, has developed and field tested a stigma measurement tool for use with health facility staff. Experts participated in a content-development workshop to review an item pool of existing measures, identify gaps and prioritize questions. The resulting questionnaire was field tested in six diverse sites (China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis). Respondents included clinical and non-clinical staff. Questionnaires were self- or interviewer-administered. Analysis of item performance across sites examined both psychometric properties and contextual issues. The key outcome of the process was a substantially reduced questionnaire. Eighteen core questions measure three programmatically actionable drivers of stigma within health facilities (worry about HIV transmission, attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV), and health facility environment, including policies), and enacted stigma. The questionnaire also includes one short scale for attitudes towards PLHIV (5-item scale, α=0.78). Stigma-reduction programmes in healthcare facilities are urgently needed to improve the quality of care provided, uphold the human right to healthcare, increase access to health services, and maximize investments in HIV prevention and treatment. This brief, standardized tool will facilitate inclusion of stigma measurement in research studies and in routine facility data collection, allowing for the monitoring of stigma within healthcare facilities and evaluation of

  19. A brief, standardized tool for measuring HIV-related stigma among health facility staff: results of field testing in China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, Laura; Jain, Aparna; Benkirane, Manal; Li, Li; Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; McLean, Roger; Turan, Janet M; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Guan, Jihui; Kwena, Zachary; Thomas, Wendell

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Within healthcare settings, HIV-related stigma is a recognized barrier to access of HIV prevention and treatment services and yet, few efforts have been made to scale-up stigma reduction programs in service delivery. This is in part due to the lack of a brief, simple, standardized tool for measuring stigma among all levels of health facility staff that works across diverse HIV prevalence, language and healthcare settings. In response, an international consortium led by the Health Policy Project, has developed and field tested a stigma measurement tool for use with health facility staff. Methods Experts participated in a content-development workshop to review an item pool of existing measures, identify gaps and prioritize questions. The resulting questionnaire was field tested in six diverse sites (China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis). Respondents included clinical and non-clinical staff. Questionnaires were self- or interviewer-administered. Analysis of item performance across sites examined both psychometric properties and contextual issues. Results The key outcome of the process was a substantially reduced questionnaire. Eighteen core questions measure three programmatically actionable drivers of stigma within health facilities (worry about HIV transmission, attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV), and health facility environment, including policies), and enacted stigma. The questionnaire also includes one short scale for attitudes towards PLHIV (5-item scale, α = 0.78). Conclusions Stigma-reduction programmes in healthcare facilities are urgently needed to improve the quality of care provided, uphold the human right to healthcare, increase access to health services, and maximize investments in HIV prevention and treatment. This brief, standardized tool will facilitate inclusion of stigma measurement in research studies and in routine facility data collection, allowing for the monitoring of stigma within

  20. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    http://www.thewire.com/global/2013/08/egypt-cairo-army-crackdown/68302/; Eyder Peralta and Mark Memmott, “‘Bloodbath’ In Cairo as Troops Move on Morsi...http://rt.com/. Peralta , Eyder, and Mark Memmott. “‘Bloodbath’ In Cairo as Troops Move on Morsi Supporters.” The Two-Way (Blog). 14 August 2013

  1. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some current activities. In Egypt, IDRC-supported research focuses on job creation, shaping climate change adaptation, enhancing women's safety and political participation, and testing the power of social media to address sexual harassment. □ Job creation after the Arab Spring. Funding: $112,400. Duration: 2012–2013.

  2. Iraqi refugees in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Yoshikawa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

  3. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  4. Análisis de los aspectos tributarios que podrían influir a la inversión de la industria de vehículos eléctricos de China en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrón Chávez, Carlos Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como propósito el análisis de las principales implicaciones tributarias que podrían tener los inversionistas chinos en la colocación de sus capitales en la industria del automóvil eléctrico en el Ecuador. Iniciaremos realizando un análisis de la matriz energética del Ecuador así como del cambio de la matriz productiva y de la legislación que posibilita dichos cambios. Se detallara una reseña de la industria automotriz y la evolución del auto eléctrico, así como de la...

  5. Quality of life in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), assessed using the IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) measure after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide: results of an international prospective observational cohort study in Poland, Egypt, Mexico and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohua; Chen, Shengliang; Zhang, Yali; Sha, Weihong; Yu, Xiaofeng; Elsawah, Hesham; Afifi, Afifi Fahmy; El-Khayat, Hisham Raafat; Nouh, Alaa; Hassan, Mohamed Fathalla; Fatah, Ayman Abdel; Rucker Joerg, Isabel; Sánchez Núñez, Juan Manuel; Osthoff Rueda, Rodolfo; Jurkowska, Grazyna; Walczak, Michal; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Linke, Krzysztof; Hartleb, Marek; Janssen-van Solingen, Gwendolyn

    2014-11-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) has a substantial impact on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) but high-quality data pre- and post-treatment using the IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) measure are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes from baseline of the IBS-QOL scores, symptom scores and health economic data in IBS patients, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide. This was a prospective observational cohort study in patients with IBS, diagnosed using the Rome III criteria in four countries (Poland, Egypt, Mexico and China). A total of 607 patients were enrolled. At baseline, the IBS-QOL total scores were 52.0 in Poland, 48.9 in Egypt, 51.9 in Mexico, 76.4 in China and 56.4 overall. Increases in IBS-QOL total score were statistically significant at Weeks 4 and 8 overall and in each country (overall: 11.8 at Week 4, 24.3 at Week 8; p mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide improved HR-QoL.

  6. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  7. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background ? Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods ? I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  8. El exilio posmoderno. Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Benavides Solís

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente hasta hace unas dos generaciones, entendíamos que la tierra de nuestros padres, era nuestra Patria. Ya no. Con la economía globalizada, sobre todo en los países no industrializados, el exilio es cada vez más frecuente, de gran magnitud y va acompañado de dolorosas circunstancias. El exilio es la expatriación legal e ilegal no voluntaria. Ser patriota, entregar la vida por la patria (rezago preindustrial ahora, carece de sentido. Tampoco sirve ser buen ciudadano (objetivo del estado industrial porque, el paradigma postmoderno es ser buen/gran consumidor. Solamente así, será posible disfrutar de la economía con libertad empresarial y de una forma de gobierno con democracia de mercado. La emigración en Europa ha sido un fenómeno natural, una experiencia de cinco siglos; en Hispanoamérica una experiencia de cinco décadas y en el Ecuador, de apenas diez años. En este corto plazo, la exportación de mano de obra no calificada, se ha convertido en la segunda fuente de divisas, después del petróleo. Son las consecuencias de la economía global que prescinde del lugar y prefiere el espacio de los flujos, cuya bonanza depende de los servicios y de las ideas antes que de las máquinas.__________________ABSTRACT:Approximately, until two generations ago, we understood that our parents’ Earth was our Mother country. Not any longer. With the economy globalized, mainly in the countries that are not industrialized, exile becomes more and more frequent, of great magnitude and it goes accompanied of painful circumstances. Exile is the involuntary legal and illegal expatriation. To be patriotic, to give the life by the Mother country (pre-industrial falling behind now, it doesn’t make sense. It is of no use to be a good citizen neither (the industrial state objective because; the post-modern paradigm is to be a good/great consumer. Only like that it is possible to enjoy the economy with enterprise freedom and of a form of

  9. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background - Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin...

  10. Political history of modern Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-01-01

    Under the Ottoman Empire, Egypt was granted some autonomy because as long as taxes were paid, the Ottomans were content to let the Egyptians administer them. Nevertheless, the 17th and 18th centuries were ones of economic decline for Egypt. In 1798, the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte landed in Egypt and defeated the Egyptians on land at the battle of the Pyramids, but he was utterly defeated at sea by the British navy, which made him abandon his army and leave Egypt. Subsequently, ...

  11. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa......For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution...... villages, and lack of good schools and other public services may cause families to split up. For some, however, resettlement in the new lands entails new social and economic possibilities. The paper concludes that while land reclamation may not be ecologically or economic sustainable, the new lands provide...

  12. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  13. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  14. Tracking the Origin and Deciphering the Phylogenetic Relationship of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Barrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.

  15. Egypt at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1992-01-01

    Egypt is the location of the 1994 International Population and Development Conference. Conditions in Egypt due to expected population growth rates are anticipated as headed for "ecological breakdown." There is loss of prime agricultural land to urban expansion and difficulties in providing employment and vital services. The fertility decline to 4 children/family is still inadequate to meet resource needs; a 2-child family norm must be adopted because the country can barely meet the needs of 90 million people. Cairo is becoming a mega-city of squatter settlements and slums. Population densities approach 140,000/sq. kilometers. The family planning (FP) program receives top political support. The contraceptive prevalence rate has risen to just over 50%, a 10% increase since 1988. Egypt is the first Muslim country to surpass the 50% mark. Credit for this accomplishment is given to public information and education campaigns to reduce family size, expansion of maternal and child health services and FP, the cooperation of Muslim clerics, and better educated women. Nongovernmental organizations have played an active role in FP. The future challenge is to improve services and outreach and keep up with demand. Attitudes in rural areas have changed, so that desiring children to help with farm work is the exception. Progress on arresting environmental destruction has not been as successful. There are still poor irrigation practices. The breadbasket the Nile River sustained no longer exists; Egypt is a net importer of food. Water shortages and water quality limit productivity. 57.2 billion cu. meters out of 58.4 billion cu. meters of freshwater available from the Nile River are used primarily for irrigation of the 17.6 million hectares of agricultural land along the river and its delta. Salts have polluted the river from fertilizers and pesticides and municipal and industrial wastes. Industrial dumping is illegal, but continues. Treatment plants are inadequate and water pipes

  16. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  17. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  18. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. Security policy as applied in the area is based on the presumption that the northern border is homogeneous. In fact, however, the three provinces that make up the area - Esmeraldas, ...

  19. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  20. Egypt and Greece Before Alexander

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Egypto-Hellenic contacts, here defined as contacts between the ancient Egyptians and the“haunebut”—the peoples of the Aegean—can be observed since the beginning of Greekcivilization. Both the Minoans and the Mycenaeans had intensive trade relations with Egypt andused Egyptian prototypes to craft their own objects, adapting the original Egyptian meanings intotheir own cultural contexts. In Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean influence can be traced in thecraftsmanship of pottery and textiles. The rela...

  1. Egypt/FOF reorganize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Egypt, both the national family planning program and the privately operated social marketing program, Family of the Future (FOF), are currently being reorganized. The Population and Family Planning Board, orginally charged with the responsibility of overseeing the national family planning program, was replaced by the newly created National Council. The reasons for the change and the type of program changes which will ensue from this organizational change are unclear. The FOF recently adopted a new management organizational structure, implemented a computerized management and information system, and initiated a staff training program. The management of the program's product line is now divided into 3 sections. There are separate sections for IUDs, barrier methods, and hormonal methods. Each section is responsible for developing a marketing plan for its products and overseeing the distribution of its products. The management staff is now provided with management skills training. To date, 9 managers have received training in management techniques in the US at George Washington University. Personal computers are being installed at the FOF office in Cairo. The system will be used to keep tract of inventory, volunteer activities, and product distribution and to handle accounting procedures. These innovations are expected to facilitate the handling of planned changes in FOF's product line. FOF will begin selling surgical gloves, as a supplemental item for its currently marketed IUD kit, and pregnancy testing kits for use by physicians and hospitals. Other anticipated introductions include Depo Provera, an injectable contraceptive, the new Ortho vaginal tablet which will replace the currently marketed Annan vaginal tablet, and possibly, the implant contraceptive, Norplant. Triton is currently under contract with the US Agency for International Development to provide technical assistance for the FOF program. This contract is due to expire in December, 1984, and a

  2. Loja musical capital of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to find the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This first approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical field, to be considered its capital? This first delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a field of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and specific competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.

  3. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Moreano; Claudia Donoso

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado,&#...

  4. President of Ecuador visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    On Friday, 24 October, Dr. Rafael Correa Delgado, President of the Republic of Ecuador, visited CERN.   Visiting Geneva to deliver a lecture at the UN, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa Delgado seized the chance to have a short but intense visit of the Laboratory. The President was met at LHC Point 1 by the Director for Research and Scientific Computing Sergio Bertolucci, who gave him an introduction to CERN’s activities.He was also introduced to the Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry, and Department Heads José Miguel Jiménez (TE), Livio Mapelli (PH) and Roberto Saban (EN). President Correa Delgado also met with Martijn Mulders, co-organiser of the CERN Latin America School of High-Energy Physics, which will be held in Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015. Shortly after that, he visited the ATLAS experimental cavern which he toured with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson David Charlton and Fernando Monticelli of t...

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-08

    Egypt following the government’s decision to cut public subsidies on flour , rice, and cooking oil in order to demonstrate to international lenders, such...keeping with a plan to reduce aid to both Israel and Egypt. The Administration requested $455 million in economic grants and $1.3 billion in military...23 U.S. Foreign Assistance to Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Economic Aid

  6. Sistema de salud de Ecuador The health system of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud en Ecuador y, con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la generación de información en salud, las tareas de investigación, y la participación de los ciudadanos en la operación y evaluación del sistema. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han implantado en el sistema ecuatoriano de salud dentro de las que destaca la incorporación de un capítulo específico sobre salud a la nueva Constitución que reconoce a la protección de la salud como un derecho humano y la construcción de la Red Pública Integral de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  7. Las necesidades desatendidas: refugiados colombianos en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Verney, Marie-Hélène

    2009-01-01

    La reciente evaluación de las necesidades realizada por ACNUR le ha permitido identificar y empezar a cubrir importantes lagunas en materia de protección y asistencia entre los refugiados colombianos en Ecuador.

  8. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-01-01

    The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed...

  9. Innovation for Productivity Growth in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Slavova, Stefka; Rubalcaba Bermejo, Luis; Merino De Lucas, Fernando; Franco-Temple, Ernesto; Kim, Maria Deborah; Victor, Jessica Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, Ecuador experienced inclusive growth fueled by a favorable external environment that financed a vast expansion of the public sector. The country is now facing severe external and fiscal challenges due to the significant extended fall in oil prices and the appreciation of the U.S. dollar. Since mid-2014, Ecuador has lost almost half of its merchandise export income due...

  10. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Moreano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba.

  11. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Donoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba

  12. E-commerce in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.

  13. Ecuador: Prensa, radio y tv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuly Meneses

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CIESPAL, realizó una investigación "Inventario de Medios de comunicación en América Latina", se refirió a 314 medios existentes en el país. El artículo se basa en la información de esta investigación y trata sobre: la potencia cobertura y redes; la propiedad pública y privada; estaciones televisivas por propiedad y carácter; tendencias de la programación televisiva; tendencias por grupos temáticos. Concluye el estudio en que la gran mayoría de medios de comunicación masiva en el Ecuador son de propiedad privada se localizan en las ciudades más importantes son esencialmente urbanos a excepción de la radio que atiende a sectores campesinos y urbano marginales

  14. Epidemiology of acromegaly in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The main trends of the international scenario for the next third of a century are discussed below. Certain analysts, consider that fundamental changes already took place, and the coming evolution will be driven by forces already present. Main feature in the plot is the globalisation phenomenon. Economic globalisation is considered irreversible by many, like the director of the World Trade Organisation. Also the secretary of the Democratic Confederation of the French Labour Party and an official of the World Bank, hold similar views. Globalisation is a process more than a state, leading to segmentation and planetary distribution of economic activities, as a function of competitive and comparative advantages, available in different locations. The process assumes and reinforces the following conditions: Free flow of goods, services and capital, inside and across boundaries of commercial blocks, aiming to a complete elimination of national, regional and other barriers for trade; Access with decreasing costs, to planetary networks of communications, transport and other services, with practical elimination of overheads due to coordination, transactions, transport of components and so on; General use of (now) advanced technologies, for information handling and progressive automation of complex activities. Rapid incorporation of the results of Research and Development into flexible production, with the result of shorter product lives in the markets and improved turning of their demands. (EHS) 55 refs.

  16. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  17. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  18. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  20. Stakeholders, responsabilidad social en ecuador Stakeholders, social responsibility in ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE radica en el involucramiento y el compromiso de la empresa hacia los diferentes grupos de interés que interactúan. Algunos grupos son afectados a causa de las actividades operacionales de las organizaciones, generando impactos en dimensiones sociales, económicas y ambientales. El enfoque central de la investigación es la determinación de la incidencia de la RSE en los patrones de vida de los grupos que intervienen en la cadena de valor ecuatoriana. En adelante estos son llamados stakeholders. Se precisa como antesala, los hechos y precedentes que marcaron la evolución y participación del modelo de negocio en los diferentes países de Latinoamérica. Sobre esta base, se realiza una revisión conceptual de la responsabilidad social en las empresas, la ISO 26000 y la posición de los stakeholders. El estudio se fundamenta en un análisis comparativo de países como: Chile, Colombia y Ecuador; identificando similitudes de su entorno, particularidades, fortalezas y debilidades en materia de RSE.

  1. U.S.-Egypt Security Cooperation after Egypt’s January 2011 Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Salute Naval Exercise n/a Annual Egypt Iron Cobra Special Operations Capable Exercise 3.5 Annual: through the 1990’s Egypt Source: http...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited U.S.- Egypt Security Cooperation after Egypt’s January 2011 Revolution A Monograph by...2011 2. REPORT TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jan 2011 – Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S.- Egypt Security Cooperation after

  2. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16.

  3. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  4. Malaria in highlands of Ecuador since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren L; Hunter, Fiona F

    2012-04-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context.

  5. New links between Ecuador and CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol recently signed in Quito opens the way to stronger links between the Ecuadorian scientific community and CERN. The operational framework provided by the protocol will enable scientists from Ecuador to take part in CERN’s projects, supported by the Ecuadorian authorities.   Picture taken during the signing ceremony at SENESCYT (Quito, Ecuador) on 12 July 2011. From left to right: Guillermo Solórzano, Minister for Coordination of Knowledge and Human Talent, Rene Ramirez Gallegos, National Secretary for Higher Education, Science and Technology - SENECYT, Felicitas Pauss and Jose Salicio from CERN. Ecuador’s involvement with CERN dates back to 1999 when a first International Co-operation Agreement was signed. However, despite these early beginnings,   only a few scientists from Ecuador, affiliated to non-Ecuadorian institutes, have since been directly involved in CERN’s projects, in particular the CMS experiment a...

  6. A new alamellate Hygrocybe species from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David

    2008-01-01

    The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data.......The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data....

  7. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  8. Revista digital para Ministerio del Ambiente Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Zurita Ibarra, Carlos Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of the digital magazine in Ecuador is part of the digital age, which has displaced the traditional media, such as radio, print and television. The digital magazine “MAE Avanza” is the product of the effort and initiative of a college student in order to accomplish this degree, join with the need of the Environment Ministry of Ecuador to develop a communicative editorial product, which allows the internal and external public to visualize and to be inform about the institution´s ...

  9. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY EGYPT – OLD ALLY, NEW STRATEGY by Joshua D. Wright COL USA A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty...In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: COL Dale C. Kuehl USA 06 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public...aid (calculated in historical dollars—not adjusted for inflation ), including $1.3 billion a year in military aid from 1987 to the present.22 This

  10. Myotonic dystrophy in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaino, G; Vicario, L

    1999-01-01

    Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaton, the heretical pharaoh, was a king of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. Statues and reliefs of him show an unhealthy man whose body has abnormal features. By studying the pictures of Akhenaton (the mummy has not yet been found), we conclude that he may have been affected by myotonic dystrophy (MD). Moreover, the available data on his family suggest that MD may have caused the end of the royal bloodline of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

  11. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-12-01

    Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher's method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances.

  12. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  13. Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... An order for Panama hats can trigger a weaving frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). If the request is large enough, every member's mother, sister, daughter, and neighbour starts weaving the fedora-like hats. Made from toquilla straw, the centuries-old ...

  14. Decomposing the Gender Wealth Gap in Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anglade, Boaz; Useche, Pilar; Deere, Carmen Diana

    2017-01-01

    ... it can sometimes vary markedly from the mean. This paper, drawing upon individual non-pension net wealth data for Ecuador, investigates the sources of the gender wealth gap among male and female sole household heads and compares these with the sources of the gap for heads who are partnered (married or in a consensual union). This ...

  15. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene.

  16. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  17. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  18. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  19. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  20. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  1. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecuador: A Low-Threat Environment for Drug Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    What is attracting transnational criminal organizations, such as the Mexican cartels, the Russian Mafia , and the Chinese Triads, to Ecuador...attracting transnational criminal organizations, such as the Mexican cartels, the Russian Mafia , and the Chinese Triads, to Ecuador? Furthermore, how has...Cartel, the Russian Mafia , and the Chinese Triads have similarly begun to operate within Ecuador.3 These organizations are relying on Ecuadorian

  3. Tropical ecosystems vulnerability to climate change in southern Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eguiguren-Velepucha, Paúl Alexander; Chamba, Juan Armando Maita; Aguirre Mendoza, Nikolay Arturo; Ojeda-Luna, Tatiana Lizbeth; Samaniego-Rojas, Natalia Soledad; Furniss, Michael J; Howe, Carol; Aguirre Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto

    2016-01-01

    .... We analyzed the vulnerability of ecosystems in a very heterogeneous tropical region in southern Ecuador, selected because of its exceptional biodiversity and its ecosystem services provided to people...

  4. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  5. Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini de Ecuador A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Ortega-León

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Eritrachys brailovskyi, una especie nueva del género Eritrachys Ruckes recolectada en Ecuador. Se describe e ilustra el macho de E. bituberculata Ruckes con nuevos registros para Panamá y Ecuador, y se da una clave para la separación de las especies del género.A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  6. Derecho de las telecomunicaciones en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Vintimilla, Juan Pablo

    2010-01-01

    El Derecho de Telecomunicaciones está constituido básicamente por disposiciones constitucionales, Leyes, Reglamentos, Decretos, Ordenanzas, etc., en materia de telecomunicaciones que conforman esta rama. Durante el desarrollo del presente trabajo investigativo se abordaron temas importantes en la historia de las telecomunicaciones del Ecuador y lo aspectos jurídicos relacionados con el tema, por ejemplo hemos visto la creación de los órganos que se han establecido como actores del sector, así...

  7. Area Handbook Series: Ecuador: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    mira) and required Indians to toil in textile sweatshops scattered through the highlands. Debts incurred through the Spanish mira often trans- formed...manufactured in hundreds of sweatshops , called obrajes, and exported throughout Latin America. Indian mitayos, who commonly worked from dawn to dusk...exports remained paramount. Manufacturing never became a sig- nificant economic activity in colonial Ecuador, but busy sweatshops , called obrajes, in

  8. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2007-01-01

    .... Egyptian failures of governance have taken place through three eras: monarchy and the liberal experiment, the period of Arab socialism, and Egypt's reopening to the West under Presidents Sadat and Mubarak...

  9. Stress among Mansoura (Egypt) baccalaureate nursing students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress among Mansoura (Egypt) baccalaureate nursing students. ... On average each student reported a mean of 4.6 stressors and academic pressures were the ... programs and psychiatric care into nursing health services of the University.

  10. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    2014. Available online at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 18 “Special Report: In Egypt, Jailed Islamists...August 22, 2012. 27 Although Egypt and Israel have been at peace since 1979, their relationship is often characterized as a “ cold peace.” (continued...to- people relations remain cold overall, Israel and the military-backed Egyptian government that has been in power since July 2013 have increased

  11. Clean waste management: Egypt's way to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed; Elgebaly, Ingy

    2007-01-01

    Today Egypt is in an enormous energy conflict; it faces choices about what energy sources it will use in the future. Conventional fuels are becoming increasingly expensive and there is recognition that these fuel resources are finite. Some estimates indicate that native natural gas and oil reserves, on which Egypt's electricity generation currently relies, will run out in about 30 or 40 years, making the transition to alternative energy sources a pressing need to avoid stagnant economic devel...

  12. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    much-disputed subsidies provided in Egypt.33 Rates of malnourishment reach about 40 percent in some areas, such as the Sinai Peninsula, Upper Egypt,34...and pockets of urban and Delta areas, even though overall malnourishment is declining. Not all news is bad—NGO and micro-financing “movements...Islamist attacks and counter raids. An Islamist assassinated secularist writer, Farag Foda, and even the Nobel laureate in literature, elderly Naguib

  13. Mesozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Meneisy, M. Y. [محمد يسري منيسي

    1986-01-01

    A geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Mesozoic is presented in this paper. This is essentially based on scrutinized isotopic age data. New K / Ar ages are also included. Three main phases are outlined: 1. Early Triassic- Late Permian (230 ± 10 Ma). 2. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (140 ± lOMa). 3. Late Cretaceous (90 * lOMa). An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events. يقدم هذا البحث تتابعا زمنيا للمراحل...

  14. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  15. A new species of Umanella Gauld (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin Broad; Ilari Sääksjärvi; Edgard Palacio

    2010-01-01

    Recently collected specimens of the distinctive pimpline genus, Umanella, from Colombia and Ecuador are assigned to Umanella caerulea Gauld (now known from Costa Rica and Colombia) and Umanella giacometti Broad & Saaksjarvi, sp. n. (from Ecuador). Variation within and between species is evaluated.

  16. A new species of Umanella Gauld (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Broad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently collected specimens of the distinctive pimpline genus, Umanella, from Colombia and Ecuador are assigned to Umanella caerulea Gauld (now known from Costa Rica and Colombia and Umanella giacometti Broad & Saaksjarvi, sp. n. (from Ecuador. Variation within and between species is evaluated.

  17. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  18. Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alaaeldin F. Mohamed

    ous albinism with white hair color, pinkish skin, red pupils, reduced visual acuity, nystagmus and photophobia and forty seven patients (41.59%) had partial oculocutaneous albinism with white blond skin, light brown hair, reduced visual acuity, nystagmus, photophobia, blue eyes. Ocular albinism was de- tected in 2 patients ...

  19. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    viewed as insular disciplines, with their own special history and set of material remains. The kinds of theoretically informed approaches and analyses with which the wider archaeological discipline has engaged over the past decades has often been viewed with scepticism, in terms of what it has to offer...... to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient...... and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the first...

  20. A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador (Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....

  1. SOME CARACTERISTICS WRESTLING DEVELOPMENT IN THE SLAVEHOLDING SYSTEM IN EGYPT AND GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališa Radović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest slaveholding countries were founded in the fertile valleys of the big rivers: Euphrates, Tigris, Hoangho, Yangtse – Kiang, Nile, Indies and Ganges in the period between 4000 and 3000 yeares BC, and they represented the beginning of slave- holding system which lasted until the year of 476. The first traces and knowledge on wrestling can be founded in the ancient civiliza- tions at first in Mesopotamia, then in the territory of Far East and in the Mediterranean which belongs to the territory of the Middle East. Vavylon, Egypt, Imolia, China, Crete, Mycenaee, Greece and Rome are rich with various archeological and other facts which mention wrestling as important fighting skill of that time. Wrestling in Egypt and Gree- ce had important place and role according to the historical facts, some of which wil be established in this study

  2. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  3. Butyltin compounds and imposex levels in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ítalo Braga; Arroyo, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The first appraisal of butyltins (BT) contamination linked with imposex incidence in the Pacific coast of South America was performed in the current study. Imposex occurrence was analyzed in three muricid species (Thais biserialis, T. brevidentata, and T. kiosquiformis) distributed along 14 sites from the coastal areas of Ecuador. All studied muricids species showed imposex, which was observed in 11 out of 14 sites. The highest imposex levels were observed in T. kiosquiformis collected inside the Gulf of Guayaquil [relative penis length index (RPLI) 9.0-40.7], whereas RPLI values for T. biserialis and T. brevidentata ranged from 4.0 to 26.1 and 0.0 to 1.9, respectively. Additionally, BT compounds [tributyltin (TBT), dibutylin (DBT), and monobutylin (MBT)] were determined in surface sediments collected in 6 of the sites (main harbor areas), and values ranged between 12.7 and 99.5 ng Sn g(-1) (dry weight) for TBT, 1.8 and 54.4 ng Sn g(-1) for DBT, and 44 and 340 ng Sn g(-1) for MBT. Although BT degradation indexes suggested an aged input of TBT, the high imposex levels detected in the current study suggest that international restrictions on TBT based antifouling paints were still not effective in Ecuador. Considering that the southern coast, especially nearby harbors inside the Gulf of Guayaquil, have shown to be contaminated by BTs, a combination of T. kiosquiformis and T. biserialis (the most sensitive species) can be used for future biomonitoring of Ecuador coastal areas.

  4. Medios digitales en Ecuador: perspectivas de futuro

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Punín Larrea; Alison Catherine Martínez Haro; Nathalie Angélica Rencoret Quezada

    2014-01-01

    El avance de la tecnología, en especial, en el ámbito de la comunicación, obliga a los medios a evolucionar constantemente para no morir en un escenario marcado por una serie de transformaciones y cambios mediáticos que han afectado al periodismo como profesión y a los medios de comunicación, proceso que ha generado estudios de todo orden. Este trabajo analiza el panorama mediático digital en Ecuador, las características de cultura periodística y el consumo de contenidos en la Red. Describe l...

  5. : Las nuevas constituciones de Bolivia y Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    La democracia en América Latina coexiste con estructuras sociales caracterizadas por desigualdades múltiples y masivas. Tal coexistencia significa que la igualdad política formal establecida por el sistema democrático no se traduce en un ejercicio real de los derechos políticos y civiles que fuera también (al menos relativamente) equitativo. Los proyectos políticos promovidos por los gobiernos de Evo Morales (Bolivia) y Rafael Correa (Ecuador) precisamente apuntan a cambiar esta situación. Un...

  6. HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... A global vision for small business in Egypt. Once overlooked and undervalued, small-scale businesses are now front and centre as Egypt takes bold steps to transform its economy, with the strat. View moreA global vision for small business in Egypt ...

  7. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the flora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic fluctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulfillment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.

  8. Comparison of health care financing in Egypt and Cuba: lessons for health reform in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C A

    2005-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule, which have embarked on economic liberalization since the 1990s. Cuba has achieved exemplary health status whereas health status in Egypt is lower than could be expected for its level of income. In this article, health care financing mechanisms in both countries are analysed on their effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, with the objective of identifying the determinants of success in the Cuban health system from which valuable lessons for current health reforms in Egypt may be derived.

  9. Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermina Ortega-León; Thomas, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Eritrachys brailovskyi, una especie nueva del género Eritrachys Ruckes recolectada en Ecuador. Se describe e ilustra el macho de E. bituberculata Ruckes con nuevos registros para Panamá y Ecuador, y se da una clave para la separación de las especies del género.A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama an...

  10. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  11. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-and-around the Cayapas-Mataje Ecological Reserve in northern Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador and certain stands of Rhizophora mangle in-and-around the Isla Corazon y Fragata Wildlife Refuge in central Manabi Province, Ecuador. Our field driven mangrove carbon estimate is higher than all but one of the comparison models evaluated. We find that basic latitudinal mangrove carbon models performed at least as well, if not better, than the more complex species based allometric models in predicting standing carbon levels. In additi...

  12. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Beckman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%, representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH, individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  13. Percepciones hemisfericas sobre la crisis colombiana: el caso de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay describes the securitization of Ecuador's policy regarding the Colombian conflict. The author argues that since 1999, distinct governments have adopted a policy that treats the Colombian conflict as a threat to the existential survival of Ecuador. In the first part of the essay, the author discusses the assumptions underlying this policy in light of the available empirical evidence on the effects of the armed conflict over the past five years. The second part deals with the process of securitization itself, illustrating the effects of perceptions of threat on the part of Ecuador's decision-makers, in particular the Armed Forces. The last two sections examine the links existing between Ecuador's policy and the regional interests of the United States, and the effects of the securitization process and its likely continuation in the future.

  14. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Quito: Programa de la Naciones Unidas Para el Desarrollo , 2004. 33. Catherine M. Conaghan, “Ecuador: Correa’s Plebiscitary President,” Journal of...neutrality with respect to Colombia’s internal conflict. Fifth, to compound these contradictions, Ecuador had taken an anti- Plan Colombia (the...Correa, who accused Colombia of planning the attack. It took the Ecuadorean Army 6 hours to reach Angostura, an area so remote that the last

  15. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...

  16. Herpetofauna of the Bilsa Biological Station, province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Andrade, H. M.; Bermingham, J.; Aulestia, C.; Paucar, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Bilsa Biological Station is located on the Mache-Chindul mountains and protects some of the last rainforest remnants in the province of Esmeraldas, northwestern Ecuador. Since 2004, we have been inventorying the amphibians and reptiles of Bilsa. We found 109 species of herpetofauna (37 amphibians and 72 reptiles), representing 8 % and 18 % of the known species from Ecuador, respectively. We report distribution extensions for Sachatamia albomaculata, Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, Pristimanti...

  17. Possible Transpacific Contact on the Coast of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, E; Meggers, B J; Evans, C

    1962-02-02

    The earliest pottery-producing culture on the coast of Ecuador, the Valdivia culture, shows many striking similarities in decoration and vessel shape to pottery of eastern Asia. In Japan, resemblances are closest to the Middle Jomon period. Both early Valdivia and Middle Jomon are dated between 2000 and 3000 B.C. A transpacific contact from Asia to Ecuador during this time is postulated.

  18. Consulta previa y democracia en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresmilo Simbaña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda un tema clave respecto de la efectiva participación política de los pueblos indígenas: el derecho a la Consulta Previa. En el Ecuador, la Constitución establece que el Estado tiene que consultar a las comunidades antes de poner en marcha iniciativas de desarrollo que podrían afectarlas directamente. No obstante, esa obligación ha sido sistemáticamente eludida por diversos gobiernos y los pueblos indígenas se han visto obligados a acudir a las instancias internacionales de protección de los derechos humanos para hacer respetar sus derechos. Tal es el caso del pueblo kichwa de Sarayaku. El autor ofrece un panorama de esa lucha histórica.

  19. Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.

    2014-02-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).

  20. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: the situation in 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald H. Guderian

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989 conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.

  1. Demo del programa radial Sumak-Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Yunga Patiño, Edwin René

    2008-01-01

    Desde que empecé mis estudios en la universidad, descubrí y me enamoré de la música folklórica y todo lo que respecta al mundo cultural y tradicional del Ecuador y Latinoamérica. Este trabajo es el resultado de años de curiosidad, investigación y colección musical. En nuestra sociedad cuencana, los procesos como la migración, están destruyendo de poco a poco el sentir cultural, nuestra música más autóctona está convirtiéndose en un breve espectáculo de festivales y fiestas populares. En la...

  2. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    condemned the orthodox as 139 Egypt: A Country Study "pulpit parrots " committed to a formalist practice of Islam but not to its spirit. The social origins of...suspected of politi- cal violence, drug smugglers , and illegal curr.ncy dealers. It also allowed detention of striking workers, pro-Palestinian student

  3. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  4. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    September 1974: Egypt and Israel conclude the “Sinai I” disengagement agreement brokered by U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. March 1975: Civil war ...... 304. 17. “Measuring Social Capital: Current Collections and Future Directions,” 2000, Discussion Paper, November, Australian Bureau of Statistics, available at ...

  5. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  6. in Zaranik Protected Area, North Sinai, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian British Biological Society (EBB Soc). A radiotelemetric study of the body ... Adel A. Ibrahim . Department of Biological Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish, Egypt. ..... emergence of lizards has been attributed to several factors including endogenous rhythms (Heath 1962),.

  7. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    these resources to foster growth and entrepreneurship . • Help Egypt regain access to capital markets by providing $1 billion in U.S.- backed loan...promote equitable economic development, and expand educational opportunities for disadvantaged Egyptian youth , including through scholarship...rise. They have argued that persistently high unemployment , especially among women and young people, could undermine Mr. Morsi’s government, causing

  8. Caulimoviral sequences in Dahlia variabilis in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    NZ (isolated from New Zealand dahlia cultivars), D10-DC (isolated from D. coccinea) and D10-Egypt. (isolated from Egyptian dahlia cultivars) in one clade. Key words: Dahlia variabilis, .... Additionally, tools such as meristem tip culture used for virus elimination are ineffective in virally- integrated genomes such as BSV ...

  9. Egypt | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our research support in Egypt has shifted focus with the country's changing needs. Early research investments in the 1970s led to improvements in such areas as irrigation, pest control, food processing, water conservation and treatment, and health-care services. Following uprisings that swept many Arab countries, we ...

  10. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    17 Sudan and the Conflict in Darfur ...allegations of Jewish involvement in blood libels, deny the existence of the Holocaust , and portray anti-Semitic publications, such as the Protocols of the...Conflict in Darfur One of Egypt’s primary foreign policy goals is to secure the headwaters of the Nile, the lifeblood of Egypt and its main source of

  11. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which

  12. in Zaranik Protected Area, North Sinai, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EBB Soc). A radiotelemetric study of the body temperature of Varanus griseus ... used for the first time in Egypt, this would pave the way for further ecological ..... might be a reflection of solar radiation and the soil temperature that reached its.

  13. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  14. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  15. Biosystematic studies on Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of the family Brassicaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material

  16. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  17. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    electricity blackouts. Urban consumer inflation has risen 8.2% over the past year. Food insecurity, malnutrition , and poverty rates also have climbed... child mortality rate by over 70%. See, U.S. State Department, Assistance to Egypt Fact Sheet, Office of the Spokesman, Washington, DC, May 19, 2011. 34

  18. Ecuador, lo que no se dice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Benavides Solís

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador es un país que hasta hace pocos años, no era noticia. Sumido en su distancia y aislamiento, es el único país sudamericano que no ha tenido un movimiento guerrillero y ha soportado los efectos de la violencia. Debido a su ubicación geográfica es rico en recursos naturales y encierra todo tipo de climas y paisajes. Tiene un alto índice de crecimiento de la población que supera los doce millones de personas. Su deuda externa, en menos de treinta años supera los doce mil millones de dólares y compromete al cincuenta por ciento de su presupuesto. Actualmente soporta un proceso de emigración que en los últimos tres años ha llevado a más de veinte países a tres millones de ecuatorianos cuyas remesas de dinero ya constituyen la tercera fuente de ingreso de divisas. País empobrecido por los malos gobiernos y por quienes los eligen.___________________ABSTRACT:Ecuador is a country that until a few years was not a piece of news. Submerged in its distance and isolation, it is the only South American country that has not had a guerrilla movement and has not tolerated violence effects. Due to its geographical location, it is wealthy because of its natural resources and it holds all type of weathers and landscapes. It has a high population growth index that exceeds twelve millions of people. Its external debt exceeds twelve thousand millions dollars and it compromises the fifty per cent of its budget. Nowadays, it endures an emigration process that in the last three years has taken to more than twenty countries, three millions of Ecuadorians whose remittance already represents the third source of foreign currency incomes. It is an impoverished country due to bad governments and the ones that elect them.

  19. Medios digitales en Ecuador: perspectivas de futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Punín Larrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El avance de la tecnología, en especial, en el ámbito de la comunicación, obliga a los medios a evolucionar constantemente para no morir en un escenario marcado por una serie de transformaciones y cambios mediáticos que han afectado al periodismo como profesión y a los medios de comunicación, proceso que ha generado estudios de todo orden. Este trabajo analiza el panorama mediático digital en Ecuador, las características de cultura periodística y el consumo de contenidos en la Red. Describe las tendencias de los principales medios digitales en el país, seleccionados para realizar un estudio de caso. El artículo toma como referencia central el estudio de las diez tendencias digitales en medios de comunicación de Cerezo-Gilarranz, especialista en estrategias digitales. Posteriormente se identifican las deficiencias que tienen los medios en Ecuador; principalmente por la falta de domino de los entornos tecnológicos y la escasa vinculación del proyecto empresarial y periodístico con soportes tecnológicos e innovadores, como el uso de redes sociales... El resultado final es una guía detallada de las debilidades y las fortalezas de cada medio digital en estudio. Asimismo, este trabajo propone tendencias fiables para que los medios estudiados puedan encaminarse firmes en entornos digitales, asumiendo a las herramientas tecnológicas como oportunidad de negocio y de servicio.

  20. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  1. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ríos-Touma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.

  2. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  4. Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt.

  5. LETTING GO: DE-RADICALIZATION IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  6. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  7. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-01-01

    Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent ed...

  8. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    Hamdi Abdelazim, an economist and former president of the Cairo-based Sadat Academy, “The success of the labor actions in 2007 and 2008 encouraged...December 28, Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah said We are facing a partnership [with Israel and the USA] by some Arab states, and complicity by some...spreading “Shiite ideology” inside Egypt. On April 10, Hezbollah chief Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah acknowledged that one of the plotters in custody had

  9. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    liberal youth , secular political parties, supporters of the Mubarak regime, and Coptic Christians. In recent days, prominent figures led by Nobel...Within 30 days of the issuance of that draft document, a public referendum would be held to determine its approval. Within 60 days of its approval, new...invest these resources to foster growth and entrepreneurship . • Help Egypt regain access to capital markets by providing $1 billion in U.S.- backed

  10. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  11. China’s Evolving Foreign Policy in Africa: A New Direction for China’s Non-Intervention Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    between China and Egypt.91 The Suez Crisis in 1956 found China supporting the Egyptian government and denouncing any efforts towards a Western...After studying the 2013 French-led intervention in Mali and the 2007 Darfur crisis in Sudan, evidence points to three main drivers pressing China’s...Press, 2006), 217. 6 Ibid; Sudarsan Raghavan, “With Oil at Stake, South Sudan’s Crisis Matters to its Customers,” The Washington Post, January 20

  12. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  13. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  14. Quality control tools applied to a PV microgrid in Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camino-Villacorta, M.; Egido-Aguilera, M.A. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar - UPM; Gamez, J.; Arranz-Piera, P. [Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The Instituto de Energia Solar has been dealing with quality control issues for rural electrification for many years. In the framework of project DOSBE (Development of Electricity Service Operators for Poverty Alleviation in Ecuador and Peru), a technical toolkit has been developed to implement adapted integral quality control procedures for photovoltaic systems (covering all components and equipment, installation and servicing), applicable at a local and regional scale, with the overall aim of increasing the confidence in photovoltaic systems. This toolkit was applied in the evaluation of an existing microgrid in Ecuador, which is described in this paper. The toolkit and the detailed results of its application are presented in a published document which is being widely distributed among the stakeholders of rural electrification in Ecuador and Peru. It can be downloaded from the web page of the DOSBE project: www.dosbe.org (orig.)

  15. Herpetofauna of the Bilsa Biological Station, province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bilsa Biological Station is located on the Mache-Chindul mountains and protects some of the last rainforestremnants in the province of Esmeraldas, northwestern Ecuador. Since 2004, we have been inventorying the amphibiansand reptiles of Bilsa. We found 109 species of herpetofauna (37 amphibians and 72 reptiles, representing 8 % and 18% of the known species from Ecuador, respectively. We report distribution extensions for Sachatamia albomaculata,Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, Pristimantis muricatus, and P. rosadoi, and report the presence of several putatively undescribedspecies. We propose the Mache–Chindul mountains as a Key Biodiversity Area within the West Ecuadorian Endemic Area.

  16. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    has been bullying its neighbors over disputed claims in the South and East China Seas, while continuing an arms build-up across from Taiwan. In...all of those claims. In addition, two other states ( Peru and Ecuador) unlawfully claim a 200 nautical mile territorial sea, in which they purport to

  17. Refractive errors among students enrolled in Assiut University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. H. Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Refractive error is a common cause of visual impairment among the group of adolescents admitted for university education in Upper Egypt. Myopia is particularly more prevalent than that reported in other regions of Egypt and other countries. Early detection and correction is essential to avoid ametropic amblyopia.

  18. A global vision for small business in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Once overlooked and undervalued, small-scale businesses are now front and centre as Egypt takes bold steps to transform its economy, with the strategic support of the SME Policy Project and research backed by IDRC. Most developing countries, including Egypt, lack a robust and dynamic medium enterprise sector similar ...

  19. Soil resilience mapping in selective wetlands, West Suez Canal, Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdel Kawy, W.A; Belal, Abdel-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    ... of degradation. In Egypt, the degradation of land resources is the main constraint to the development of agricultural sector, where the ratio between land and human resources is now the most critical problem. The main land degradation types in irrigated agriculture in Egypt are salinization, alkalization and water logging ( El-Kassas, 1999 ). The re...

  20. All projects related to Egypt | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, QUALITY OF EDUCATION. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, Uganda, Egypt. Total Funding: CA$ 1,696,280.00. La Main à la pâte : an Internet Site for Teaching Science to Schoolchildren (Egypte).

  1. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  2. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  3. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  4. Social Protection and the Working Poor in Egypt | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social Protection and the Working Poor in Egypt. The program of economic reform (stabilization, liberalization) pursued by the Government of Egypt since 1991 has stimulated growth and laid the basis for expansion of the private sector. However, it has done so at the expense of workers by "informalizing" their employment ...

  5. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  6. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  7. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  8. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  9. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  10. Isoflavones in processed soybean products from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inés Genovese

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy products produced in Ecuador, with a local developed and cultivated soybean variety (INIAP 306, were analysed for isoflavone content and profile. The products presented high total isoflavone contents, varying from 53 to 106 mg/100 g (wet basis, expressed as aglycones, the lowest content being for okara and the highest for the low fat soybean flour obtained by extrusion cooking of the seeds at the field moisture. Soy nuts showed the same content of isoflavones than the seeds, but with lower amounts of malonylglycosides and higher of the deesterified beta-glycosides. The malonylglycosides were the predominant form of the isoflavones in the flours, and the beta-glycosides in soymilk and textured soy protein. Genistein derivatives were the compounds present in the highest proportions in all the products analysed.Produtos derivados de soja produzidos no Equador, com uma variedade de soja (INIAP 306 desenvolvida e cultivada localmente, tiveram o teor e perfil de isoflavonas determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os produtos apresentaram altos conteúdos de isoflavonas, variando de 53 a 106 mg/100 g (base úmida, expresso como agliconas, sendo o menor conteúdo encontrado em okara e o maior na farinha parcialmente desengordurada obtida através de extrusão das sementes. Os snacks de soja apresentaram o mesmo conteúdo de isoflavonas que as sementes, mas com quantidades menores de malonilglicosídeos e maiores de beta-glicosídeos desesterificados. Os malonilglicosídeos foram as formas predominantes encontradas nas farinhas e os beta-glicosídeos no leite e na proteína texturizada de soja. Os derivados de genisteína foram os compostos presentes nas maiores proporções em todos os produtos analisados.

  11. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  12. SUBSISTENCE HUNTING FOR TURTLES IN NORTHWESTERN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Carr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 We describe the subsistence exploitation of an entire turtle fauna in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. We collected firsthand accounts and witnessed a number of capture techniques used by rural Afroecuadorian and Chachi inhabitants of the Cayapas-Santiago river basin. The diversity of techniques indicated a practical knowledge of the ecology of the species. Chelydra acutirostris, Kinosternon leucostomum, Rhinoclemmys annulata, melanosterna, and R. nasuta were captured and eaten. "Poziando" involved cleaning pools in a stream bed during the relatively dry season by removing live plants, organic detritus, and thenseining with baskets; we observed R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum captured in this way. Pitfall traps baited with fruit were used to catch R. melanosterna during forays on land. Basket traps (“canasto tortuguero” with a wooden slat funnel across the opening are floated with balsa lashed to the sides. Banana or Xanthosoma leaf bait in the basket traps caught R. melanosterna, R. nasuta, and K. leucostomum. Marshy areas were probed for R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum. Direct capture by hand was also common. Turtles were relished as food items; all turtles captured were consumed, usually in soup or stew. Use of turtles for food in the region was pervasive, perhaps because fish and game populations were depleted.Aprovechamiento de subsistencia de la fauna de tortugas en el noroccidente de EcuadorDescribimos la cacería de subsistencia de la fauna de tortugas en la provincia de Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Hemos recogido testimonios de primera mano y fuimos testigos de una serie de técnicas de captura utilizadas por los habitantes rurales afroecuatorianos y chachis de la cuenca de los ríos Cayapas–Santiago. La diversidad de técnicas indica un conocimiento práctico de la ecología de las especies. Chelydra acutirostris, Kinosternon leucostomum, Rhinoclemmys annulata, R. melanosterna y R.nasuta fueron capturadas y utilizadas como

  13. CASE STUDY: Ecuador — Preventing pesticide poisonings in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits Potato farmers in the province of Carchi in northern Ecuador suffer a number of health problems caused by high exposure to chemical insecticides. With funding from Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and other ...

  14. Potato farming becomes healthier in Ecuador | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Without losing its important place in the life of Andean villages, potato growing is changing in Ecuador. Agricultural modernization has altered small-scale, traditional, subsistence farming systems. Many farmers combine traditional practices with machinery and agro-chemicals. They also may rely on highly ...

  15. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  16. Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteros, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of

  17. Property rights, nationalization and extractive industries in Bolivia and Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); C.F. Mena (Carlos); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo); I.M. Radhuber (Isabella)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSince the election of the left-leaning leaders Morales in Bolivia and Correa in Ecuador, there have been highly contested changes regarding the role of the state in the extractive industries of these countries. While the content of these changes differ and have manifested themselves

  18. Leptobasis linda sp. nov. from Ecuador (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jim T

    2016-09-28

    Leptobasis linda is described from the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador. The coloration of mature individuals is superficially similar to the widespread L. vacillans, but structural and color characteristics differentiate L. linda from all congeneric species. The male caudal appendages and the female posterior margin of the prothorax are unique among Leptobasis.

  19. Contested discourses, knowledge, and socio-environmental conflict in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how multiple types of knowledge – epistemic, technical, and anecdotal – are combined and used discursively within the claim-making process of a long-running socio-environmental conflict concerning copper extraction and its threat to biodiversity conservation in Ecuador's Intag

  20. Intersectoral Transfer, Growth, and Inequality in Rural Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Lanjouw, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study intersectoral transfer and its impact on the distribution of income in Ecuador. We find that income shares between farm and nonfarm activities are roughly equal, on average, although the rich in rural areas typically receive a greater share of income from nonfarm sources. Thus

  1. International Briefing 36: Training and Development in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Anormaliza, Richard; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier; Sabaté, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    This article examines educational policies in Ecuador. It outlines the main features of the education and training systems, and analyses the impact on productivity and national development. The efforts made by various national authorities to strengthen and encourage education at all levels is evident, as well as efforts to boost productivity by…

  2. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  3. Yaruqui-Ecuador: An ongoing district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Chiriboga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Tumbaco valley, 40 km northwest of the capital city of Ecuador, Quito, there is a group of eight small towns with a population of 150,000 inhabitants, most of whom are mixed race (Mestizo and 15% are indigenous people. The main source of income is agriculture, with an average monthly income of less than US$100.

  4. Democracia liberal e inestabilidad política en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade A.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Se explora el reciente cambio de gobierno en Ecuador a la luz de las siguientes hipótesis: 1 la inestabilidad política que caracteriza al Ecuador desde hace nueve años; 2 esta fase como resultado de las contradicciones creadas por el intento de reconciliar una economía organizada en torno al libre mercado con los procedimientos de una democracia representativa; 3 el proceso que ha llevado en los últimos trece años a la desarticulación de las instituciones democráticas en Ecuador. Se desarrolla cada una de estas consideraciones en las dos primeras secciones del ensayo, en la tercera se hace una “descripción reflexiva” de los acontecimientos que llevaron a la caída del presidente Gutiérrez y, en las conclusiones, se muestran las implicaciones teóricas y analíticas que el análisis de la presente fase de inestabilidad política tiene para el estudio de la política en Ecuador.

  5. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias, M; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.; Mosselman, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  6. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias Hidalgo, M.E.; Sanchez, D.; Mosselman, E.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.

    2017-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  7. Las políticas de desarrollo regional en Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronny Correa Quezada

    2017-01-01

    .... En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo un examen de Ecuador, país que bajo sus propias condiciones históricas, económicas y políticas planteó formas específicas en el diseño e instrumentación de su política regional...

  8. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  9. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  10. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Salvadoran experience, but at the same time it has its own unique story. Like El Salvador, Ecuador was colonized by the Spanish which largely resulted...Almost immediately after the Spanish conquistadores arrived, they instituted an externally focused, commodity driven export market. This type of

  11. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  12. Citizenship Education in Ecuador: Perceptions of Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Andres Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review literature about citizenship education in order to develop a framework for transformative citizenship education and compare that framework to the intended and implemented citizenship education curriculum in Ecuador. This study presents qualitative research carried out in eight schools in four provinces of…

  13. Local inequality and project choice : Theory and evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, M. Caridad; Ferreira, Francisco H G; Lanjouw, Peter; Özler, Berk

    This paper provides evidence consistent with elite capture of Social Fund investment projects in Ecuador. Exploiting a unique combination of data sets on village-level income distributions, Social Fund project administration, and province-level electoral results, we test a simple model of project

  14. Women in Egypt: new roles and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, A M; Sullivan, E L

    1986-01-01

    This is an extensive background presentation on the recent changes in Egyptian society, followed by results of a survey of attitudes toward family planning and the role of women. There have been remarkable social changes in Egypt recently, accompanied by rapid growth of the densely packed population. Virtually all of Egypt's 50 million people live on the banks of the Nile, 12 million of them in Cairo. Family planning has been government policy since 1981; the IUD and the pill are commonly used; but sterilization and abortion are illegal except for certain medical indications. Family subsidies and many public services have been eliminated, and even the lower classes are feeling the pinch of high cost of living, to the extent of desiring to balance their family size with their income. The survey was conducted by 35 students of the American University in Cairo, targeting middle and upper class adults, middle and upper class students, and lower class workers and domestics. The subjects were selected to be known to the interviewers to increase reliability of the data. This design created bias in the results, a preponderance of urban, student, single, childless and upper class subjects relative to the general population. The most common trend in the survey results was a conservatism among men, the lower class or less educated, or the rural lower classes. For example most women wanted 2 children, while those with traditional views valued male children and questioned the rights of women to be educated, to work outside the home, and to use contraception. The survey found that few people knew much about Egypt's Personal Status Law of 1979, which specifies women's rights regarding divorce, alimony, child support, and male polygamy. Women faced with divorce, however, rapidly learn their rights. This study revealed a consensus toward egalitarian values, along with distinct discord between the classes and sexes, and conflict between modern development and traditional roles for

  15. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huayan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: M. carinigena sp. n. (China, M. flava sp. n. (China, M. gracilis sp. n. (China, M. salebrosa sp. n. (China, M. semicircula sp. n. (China, M. spinitibia sp. n. (China and M. striatipleuron sp. n. (China. Ten species are redescribed: M. boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand, M. crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, M. dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia, M. indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, M. livingstoni Saraswat (China, India, M. peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam, M. rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and M. striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. The following five new synonyms are proposed: M. crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. crawfordi Kieffer; M. cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. indica Saraswat & Sharma; M. dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  16. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  17. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  18. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  19. Ancient Egypt, Sacred Science, and Transatlantic Romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Redd, Marques Jerard

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Egyptian culture has been a powerful influence on a major tradition of English literature that runs from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1596), one of whose major iconographic centers is the temple of Isis, to John Crowley's four-volume novel Ægypt (2007). My dissertation focuses on the Romantic period - the midpoint of this trajectory - because it is an extremely intense moment of this influence. In addition to the visions of Egypt presented in the Bible, Greco-Roman writers, a...

  20. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. SUBSISTENCE HUNTING FOR TURTLES IN NORTHWESTERN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN L. CARR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Describimos la cacería de subsistencia de la fauna de tortugas en la provincia de Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Hemos recogido testimonios de primera mano y fuimos testigos de una serie de técnicas de captura utilizadas por los habitantes rurales afroecuatorianos y chachis de la cuenca de los ríos Cayapas–Santiago. La diversidad de técnicas indica un conocimiento práctico de la ecología de las especies. Chelydra acutirostris, Kinosternon leucostomum, Rhinoclemmys annulata, R. melanosterna y R. nasuta fueron capturadas y utilizadas como alimento. El método de “pozeo” consiste en limpiar las pozas o quebradas durante la estación de menos lluvia; en el proceso se remueven las plantas vivas y detritus orgánicos y las tortugas se cazan con la ayuda de canastas, y observamos que R. melanosterna y K. leucostomum fueron capturadas de esta manera. Las trampas de caída, cebadas con frutas, se utilizaron para capturar R. melanosterna durante incursiones a tierra firme. El “canasto tortuguero” es un cesto de fibra vegetal que tiene la parte interna en forma de embudo, construido con listones de madera (generalmente chonta y en su exterior se atan dos trozos de madera de balsa para darle flotabilidad. Los canastos fueron cebados con plátanos u hojas de malanga (Xanthosoma para atrapar especies de Rhinoclemmys y K. leucostomum. En las zonas pantanosas, se usó la técnica de tanteo o pisoteo para colectar R. melanosterna y K. leucostomum. La captura directa o a mano también es un método común de caza. Las tortugas fueron preparadas como alimento principalmente en sopas o guisos. El uso de las tortugas en la alimentación se ha generalizado en la región, posiblemente porque ha disminuido la cacería de animales grandes.

  2. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

  3. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

  4. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... in the above mentioned classes by the researcher are offered in this paper. In the "Learning Situations" (LS) observed in Denmark, the interaction is interpreted as arranged in agreement with basic constructivist principles, whereas the interaction in Vietnam is predominantly student-teacher centered......, and the LS observed in Egypt is predominantly student-materials centered...

  5. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute?s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  6. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador ( Opiliones , Cyphophthalmi , Neogoveidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi; Adriano Brilhante Kury

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 ? Metagovea ligiae sp. n. ? is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The ge...

  7. Barriers to the use of basic health services among women in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chifa; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Higuchi, Michiyo; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women's use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of health services were categorized into three primary dimensions: structural, financial, and personal/cultural barriers. Distance and transportation to health facilities (structural barriers) prevented about 30 % of the women from seeing a doctor. Forty-two percent of them felt the difficulty paying for health services (financial barriers). Approximately a quarter of women answered that gaining family permission, allocating time to go to health facilities, or concern about lack of female physicians (personal/cultural barriers) was a big problem for them. After controlling for potential confounding factors, structural barriers showed an inverse association with the use of health services. Financial barriers indicated a strong association (OR=0.18, Pbarriers had no statistical significance with women's use of health services. Although the Egyptian government had successfully extended basic health service delivery networks throughout the country, women in rural Upper Egypt were still facing various barriers to the use of the services, especially structural and financial barriers.

  8. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Appropriate intellectual property (IP) rights policies could foster creativity and innovation, thereby promoting globally competitive African industries and services. Start Date: November 15, 2010. End Date: November 15, 2014. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COPYRIGHT, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: Egypt, Kenya ...

  9. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  10. All projects related to Egypt | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: COASTS, LITTORAL ZONES, CLIMATE CHANGE, FLOODS, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, DISASTER MANAGEMENT, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH. Region: Egypt, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 710,800.00. Ecohealth Emerging ...

  11. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... for knowledge building in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, VULNERABLE GROUPS, EMPOWERMENT, YOUTH, POLICY MAKING, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, WOMEN. Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, France.

  12. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ..., vessel tracking MIS, biometric scanners, personnel databases, computer peripherals, and systems... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait must complete and submit an application package for consideration by... application and supplemental application materials, including adequate information on the company's products...

  13. Biomimetic Potentials for Building Envelope Adaptation in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ElDin, N. Nour; Abdou, A; ElGawad, I. Abd

    2016-01-01

    ... of Fine Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract Biomimicry is a science that seeks sustainable solutions by emulating nature’s time-tested 3.8 billion years of patterns and strategies...

  14. Cohort Profile: The Ecuador Life (ECUAVIDA) study in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Chico, Martha E; Platts-Mills, Thomas Ae; Rodrigues, Laura C; Strachan, David P; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-10-01

    The ECUAVIDA birth cohort is studying the impact of exposures to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) parasites and early-life microbial exposures on the development of atopy, allergic diseases and immune responses in childhood. A total of 2404 newborns were recruited between 2006 and 2009 in a public hospital serving the rural district of Quininde, Esmeraldas Province, in a tropical region of coastal Ecuador. Detailed measurements were done around the time of the birth, at 7 and 13 months and at 2 and 3 years, and data collection is ongoing at 5 and 8 years. Data being collected include questionnaires for: sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial (at 4-6 years only) and dietary (at 6-7 years only) factors; childhood morbidity and clinical outcomes; stool samples for parasites; blood samples for DNA, measurements of vaccine responses and other measures of immune function/inflammation; and anthropometrics. Allergen skin prick test reactivity is done from 2 years and measures of airway function and inflammation at 8 years. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Five New Species Of Caucaea (Orchidaceae From Colombia And Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Caucaea Schltr. (C. caucana Szlach. & Kolan., C. pichinchae Szlach. & Kolan., C. dodsoniana Szlach. & Kolan., C. pseudoandigena Szlach. & Kolan., C. duquei Szlach. & Kolan. are described and illustrated. The taxonomic affinities of the new entities are discussed, and information about their habitat and ecology is provided. A key for identification of Caucaea species known from Colombia and Ecuador is provided.

  16. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, E.; Santander, T.; GUEVARA, J. E.; Gualotuña, R.; Ortiz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay National Park (SNP). One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, including noteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846) (White-bearded Hermit), Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan), P...

  17. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Margot S.; Matt Finer; Clinton N Jenkins; Holger Kreft; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Shawn F McCracken; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; English, Peter H.; Kelly Swing; Gorky Villa; Anthony Di Fiore; Voigt, Christian C.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives.METHODOLOGY...

  18. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  19. CASE STUDY: Quito, Ecuador — Quito's farms produce food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... I don't buy vegetables at the market anymore; I save something like $10 to $15 a month,” referring to US dollars, as Ecuador abandoned the inflation-plagued sucre in 2000. This is an important boost to the family income, as Rodríguez does not even earn the minimum monthly wage of US$300. The expert ...

  20. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne-Marie Linton; Pecor, James E; Porter,Charles H; Luke Brett Mitchell; Andres Garzon-Moreno; Foley, Desmond H.; David Brooks Pecor; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level...

  1. Comercio entre Huaquillas, Ecuador - Aguas Verdes, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Carpio

    2015-10-01

    This research aims to present the statistics on international trade between the major towns on the border Ecuador - Peru. This work seeks to show business opportunities framed in the Strategic Plan of the Productive Transformation matrix which seeks to increase domestic production through import substitution. Based on Huaquillas city, the research results show that the main imports are textiles and footwear, which represent over 50% of total imports and $ 107 million a year.

  2. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Ecuador. A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar V, H Marcelo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Racines V, José; Paucar C, Aura

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease is a complex public health problem that has been underestimated in Ecuador. Here we review the relevant published information, and present unpublished and new data that help to understand the current Chagas disease epidemiological situation and its evolution in the country. Three main characteristics have been identified: (i) persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in already known foci; (ii) a marked endemicity in some urban areas of Guayaquil; and (iii) the transformati...

  3. Societal Metabolism of Societies: The bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Fander Falconí; Jesús Ramos Martín

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  4. Societal metabolism of societies : the bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Falconí Benítez, Fander

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  5. National Intercultural Federation of Community Based Tourism of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, R.

    2004-01-01

    For approximately 20 years, the indigenous nationalities of Ecuador have been searching for new alternatives in order to adapt to the new social and cultural changes in the society and also to face economic problems. For this reason new alternatives of community based tourism have been built according to their own cultural rationalities. The tourism activity has facilitated the possibility to improve the living conditions and create intercultural encounters.

  6. Epidemiological study of fatal road traffic accidents in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algora-Buenafé AF

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents represent a priority for public health since they are responsible for high mortality tolls, elevated economic costs and a significant social impact. Ecuador ranks as the seventh country in the World with a higher mortality rate. Aims To describe the main epidemiologic characteristics of deaths caused by traffic accidents from a time and space perspective. Methods Transversal and descriptive study was conducted using the data from National Transit Agency. The data includes all deaths due to traffic accidents in Ecuador registered from January to December 2016. An analysis of percentages and frequencies of the traffic accident fatalities was performed based on demographic, temporal and geographic components. In addition, Gross Mortality Rates (x100,000 and adjusted (x1,000 per province were calculated. Results From 1,976 fatalities registered in Ecuador in 2016, 81.1 per cent corresponded to men and 18 per cent to women. Mortality Rate resulted as 13.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. With respect to men, the major portion of deaths correspond to drivers (52.1 per cent, when as for women, it correspond to passengers (51 per cent. Saturdays (21 per cent and Sundays (23.1 per cent correspond to the days with greater percentage of deaths. The incidence was greater in highways of Guayas (23.3 per cent and Pichincha (17.1 per cent. Selected by type, cause and implicated vehicles, the accidents that outstand are frontal side collision (28.5 per cent and pedestrian-motor vehicle collision (22.6 per cent, in addition to traffic law violations (46.9 per cent and motorcycle incidents (29.55 respectively. Conclusion The current study provides us, for the first time, a global perspective of the epidemiologic characteristics of fatal car accidents in Ecuador, contributing with better information for the design of national road safety regulations.

  7. Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata from agricultural areas of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil and leaf-litter samples of several agroecosystems (banana, cacao, coffee, and Monterey pine plantations in Ecuador were investigated regarding soil dwelling Uropodina. Short notes are given on the plantations and on the recorded mite species with description of a species new to science; Clivosurella zicsii sp. nov. Furthermore, diagnosis of the genus Clivosurella Hirschmann, 1979 is presented with a new key to the known species.

  8. Lo particular en el Ecuador del Siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luz Rodríguez Gonzáles

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana Luz Rodríguez González Socióloga, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.   Marie Danielle Démelas e Ivés Saint Geours, Jerusalén y Babilonia: Religión y Política en el Ecuador, 1780 - 1880, Biblioteca de Ciencias Sociales, Vol. 21, Corporación Editora Nacional, Quito, 1988, 213 pp.

  9. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study include...

  10. Situación de mujeres lesbianas en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Taller de Comunicación Mujer

    2010-01-01

    Este informe fue elaborado por el Taller de Comunicación Mujer. Presentado ante el Comité de Derechos Humanos de Naciones Unidas que supervisa el cumplimiento del Pacto Interna cional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos. Autoras: Tatiana Cordero y Natalia Marcos. Analiza el período 2008- 2009. Septiembre de 2009. Texto completo en: ‹http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/ngos/TCM_ Ecuador97_sp.pdf›.

  11. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  12. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  13. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite im...... images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  14. Hezbollah’s Man in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levitt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In November 2008, Egyptian authorities broke up what they said was a Hezbollah network plotting attacks in Egypt. While some of the charges appear to have been exaggerated, and it is clear that not all those arrested were in fact Hezbollah operatives, a careful examination reveals that a Hezbollah network was, in fact, operating on Egyptian soil. That it was originally tasked with carrying out neither surveillance nor attacks makes the case all the more intriguing, especially when compared with other cells that faced similar reassignments. As a case study, the Hezbollah network—which demonstrated the use of several known Hezbollah modus operandi—underscores how Hezbollah operates around the world in general, and in the Middle East in particular.

  15. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-09

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate.

  17. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  18. Path Dependence and Universal Health Coverage: The Case of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Ayman; Paolucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is the big objective in health policy which several countries are seeking to achieve. Egypt is no different and its endeavors to attain UHC have been going on since the 1960s. This article discusses the status of UHC in Egypt using theories of political science and economics by analyzing the historical transformations in the Egyptian health system and its institutional settings. This article then specifically examines the path dependence theory against the sociopolitical background of Egypt and assesses any pattern between the theory and the current UHC status in Egypt. The important finding of this analysis is that the health policies and reforms in Egypt have been significantly influenced and limited by its historical institutional structure and development. Both the health policies and the institutional settings adopted a dependent path that limited Egypt's endeavors to achieve the universal coverage. This dependent path also yielded many of the present-day challenges as in the weaknesses of the healthcare financing system and the inability to extend health coverage to the poor and the informal sector. These challenges subsequently had a negative impact on the accessibility of the healthcare services.

  19. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  20. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  1. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  2. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Armijos, Diego; Quezada-Ríos, Noelia; Soto-Armijos, Carolina; Mengual, Ximo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.

  3. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  4. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  5. [Scientific output in the health sciences in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisa, Iván; Espinel, Mauricio; Fornasini, Marco; Mantilla, Gonzalo

    2011-10-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics and trends of health sciences-related studies published in Ecuador from 1999-2009. Its objective is to contribute to the design and implementation of a research and development policy whose work is centered on the country's health priorities. Bibliometric indicators of production applied to publications in health sciences in Ecuador were used for the analysis. The publications were from the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. It was found that 625 articles were published from 1999-2009, primarily in the clinical-surgical areas (60%), followed by epidemiology (17.4%), basic sciences (14.1%), and health systems (8.5%). Only 4.3% and 7.2% of the production in this period was related to the primary causes of morbidity and mortality, respectively. It was found that private institutions generated more health research than public institutions, and hospitals (public, private, and mixed) produced a higher percentage than universities. The analysis showed that there was limited scientific production in health sciences in Ecuador during the study period, with a slight increase in the last two years that may be due in part to greater investment in research and development by the National Secretariat of Science and Technology (SENACYT). Investment increased from 0.20% to 0.44% of gross domestic product between 2006 and 2009.

  6. 75 FR 30776 - Exemption of Foreign Air Carriers From Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Reciprocity (Ecuador), 26 U.S.C. 4221 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... registered in Ecuador from certain internal revenue taxes on the purchase of supplies in the United States... 4221 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended (26 U.S.C. 4221), whether the Government of Ecuador has...

  7. Africa and China Higher Education Cooperation: Establishing Knowledge Sharing Partnership between Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonondo, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge sharing should not be confused neither with data sharing nor with information sharing; the knowledge sharing includes data and information sharing, skills and expertise communication, ideas exchange. Since the fourth FOCAC held in Egypt in 2009, many policies have been added to reinforce Africa and China educational cooperation,…

  8. Beyond Demographics is Destiny: Understanding Economic Mitigation Strategies for Demographic Change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bangladesh, Russia, Japan, Mexico , Philippines, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, Germany, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Thailand, France, United... prostitution .124 Concerns over economic impacts, demographic impacts, the imbalanced gender ratio and human rights have led many to believe that the one...are actually forced into prostitution .270 Overall, China appears likely to continue its high levels of employment of elderly workers, potentially

  9. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 1. China, 2. Colombia, 4. Ecuador, 1. Egypt, Arab Rep. 3. France, 4. Hong Kong SAR, China, 1. India, 37. Indonesia, 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. 10. Ireland, 3. Israel, 1. Italy, 12. Japan, 5. Jordan, 2. Kenya, 1. Korea, Republic of, 11. Lebanon, 1.

  10. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 97. Australia, 11. Azerbaijan, 5. Bahrain, 2. Belgium, 1. Benin, 4. Bolivia, 1. Brazil, 19. Canada, 15. Chile, 1. China, 22. Côte d'Ivoire, 1. Croatia, 3. Czech Republic, 5. Ecuador, 3. Egypt, Arab Rep. 8. Estonia, 1. France, 9. Germany, 4. Ghana, 4. Greece, 1. Guinea, 1. Hong Kong SAR, China, 1. Hungary, 1. India, 77.

  11. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  12. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  13. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador.

  14. Evidence of intense ongoing endemic transmission of hepatitis C virus in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. DeWolfe Miller; Laith J. Abu-Raddad; Kirk R. Smith

    2010-01-01

    ...% are chronically infected. Numerous HCV prevalence studies in Egypt have published various estimates from different Egyptian communities, suggesting that Egypt, relative to the other nations of the world, might be experiencing...

  15. La Banca y la propiedad de los medios: el caso de Ecuador/Banking and property of the media: the case of Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Checa-Godoy

    2012-01-01

      With the referendum called by President Rafael Correa in 2011, concludes a complex stage in the history of Ecuador, to take the financial power out of media ownership by law, supported by ratification at the polls...

  16. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeel, Amr; Dawson, Patrick; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt?s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were ...

  17. China in Africa: America’s Soft Power Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Has Not Won Over Africans" Center for Strategic and’ International Studies. http://csis.org/blog/why-africom-has-not-won-over-africans. Michel, Serge ...exportation of indigenous persons to become slaves in foreign lands.) 6 Serge Michel and Michel Beuret, China Safari: On the Trail of Beijing’s...US AFRICOM Public Affairs, US Africa Command Home, http://www.africom.mil/getArticle.asp?art==2152& lang =O (Arab Republic of Egypt remains a part of

  18. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  19. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  20. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  1. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgharably A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Elgharably,1,2 Asmaa I Gomaa,2 Mary ME Crossey,1,2 Peter J Norsworthy,1 Imam Waked,2 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Division of Digestive Health, Department of Surgery and Cancer, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebeen El Kom, Egypt Abstract: Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. Keywords: hepatitis C, Egypt, schistosomiasis

  2. Who Benefits from Public Healthcare Subsidies in Egypt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shoukry Rashad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct subsidization of healthcare services has been widely used in many countries to improve health outcomes. It is commonly believed that the poor are the main beneficiaries from these subsidies. We test this hypothesis in Egypt by empirically analyzing the distribution of public healthcare subsidies using data from Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and Egypt National Health Accounts. To determine the distribution of public health care subsidies, we conducted a Benefit Incidence Analysis. As a robustness check, both concentration and Kakwani indices for outpatient, inpatient, and total healthcare were also calculated. Results show some degree of inequality in the benefits from public healthcare services, which varied by the type of healthcare provided. In particular, subsidies associated with University hospitals are pro-rich and have inequality increasing effect, while subsidies associated with outpatient and inpatient care provided by the Ministry of Health and Population have not been pro-poor but have inequality reducing effect (weakly progressive. Results were robust to the different analytical methods. While it is widely perceived that the poor benefit the most from health subsidies, the findings of this study refute this hypothesis in the case of Egypt. Poverty reduction measures and healthcare reforms in Egypt should not only focus on expanding the coverage of healthcare benefits, but also on improving the equity of its distribution.

  3. Path Dependence and Universal Health Coverage: The Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Fouda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC is the big objective in health policy which several countries are seeking to achieve. Egypt is no different and its endeavors to attain UHC have been going on since the 1960s. This article discusses the status of UHC in Egypt using theories of political science and economics by analyzing the historical transformations in the Egyptian health system and its institutional settings. This article then specifically examines the path dependence theory against the sociopolitical background of Egypt and assesses any pattern between the theory and the current UHC status in Egypt. The important finding of this analysis is that the health policies and reforms in Egypt have been significantly influenced and limited by its historical institutional structure and development. Both the health policies and the institutional settings adopted a dependent path that limited Egypt’s endeavors to achieve the universal coverage. This dependent path also yielded many of the present-day challenges as in the weaknesses of the healthcare financing system and the inability to extend health coverage to the poor and the informal sector. These challenges subsequently had a negative impact on the accessibility of the healthcare services.

  4. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  5. Dermatoses among automobile mechanics in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Ismael, Ahmed Fawzi

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Sociodemographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45.4% and that of exclusively occupational skin diseases was 9.2%. Irritant contact dermatitis, eczema, and tar/oil acne were the most common types (4.6%, 3.1%, 3.1%, respectively). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of occupational dermatoses increased significantly with lack of use of personal protective equipment, longer duration of work, and presence of workplace chemicals (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] were 7.2 [2.7, 19.0], 4.3 [1.7, 10.9], and 3.7 [1.3, 10.5], respectively). Health education and safety measures are essential for prevention and control of hazardous workplace practices and exposure.

  6. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  7. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2016-03-26

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965–2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Detection of human arboviruses in the Northern Coast of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Aguilar, Sully Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of two papers related to detection of the arboviruses in the northern Coast of Ecuador, the first one is the study of four dengue serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) in a rural community located in Esmeraldas province near Colombian border. Serum samples from febrile patients obtained at Civil Hospital of Borbon were analysed by retrotranscriptase PCR during the period of 2010-2014. The second paper describes the detection of three arboviruses, Zika, Dengue and Chi...

  9. Key Concepts of Conservatism in Ecuador (1875-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa Fernández de Córdoba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand conservative political language in Ecuador during the last third of the 19th century as an expression of political modernity and as a discourse involving dialogue with liberal concepts. The conservative ideas of "Catholic freedom", "Catholic civilization" and "perfect society" are explored, and the reciprocal manner in which these concepts were defined relative to liberal notions is investigated. Using conceptual history, polysemantic political categories are analyzed in a context of struggle and in relation to the rise of modernity.

  10. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador : structure, eruptive history and hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M.L.; Robin, Claude; Beate, B.; Mothes, P.; Monzier, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Tungurahua, one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, is made up of three volcanic edifices. Tungurahua 1 was a 14-km-wide andesitic stratocone which experienced at least one sector collapse followed by the extrusion of a dacite lava series. Tungurahua 2, mainly composed of acid andesite lava flows younger than 14,000 years BP, was partly destroyed by the last collapse event, 2955 plus or minus 90 years ago, which left a large amphitheater and produced an approximately 8-km3 debris deposit. The...

  11. Eventos de mareas rojas: estrategias de manejo preventivas en Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Chuquimarca, Gladys Marlene

    2011-01-01

    En ésta investigación se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de la información existente sobre mareas rojas en el área costera e insular del Ecuador comprendidos entre 1968 y 2009, con el objetivo de liberar áreas y épocas de mayor concurrencia, als especies causantes de estos eventos y los registros de mortalidad de organismos. Los resultados evidenciaron 131 eventos de marea roja. Los años de mayor ocurrencia fueron 1985, 2001 y 2003. No todas las mareas rojas fueron causadas por las corri...

  12. Immunization rates among disabled children in Ecuador: unanticipated findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Nora Ellen; Ayora, Paola; Kaplan, Lawrence C

    2007-08-01

    Researchers hypothesize that impoverished parents in developing countries may forego provision of healthcare for disabled children, instead allocating scarce resources to nondisabled children or other household needs. We compared the immunization rates of 32 children with complex special heathcare needs with those of 95 nondisabled siblings in coastal Ecuador. Almost 100% (31 of 32) of the disabled children studied were immunized at a rate comparable with their nondisabled siblings. We propose that this finding is attributable to an effective national immunization program and to positive local sociocultural attitudes toward disability. These findings underscore the need for more research on disability across cultures.

  13. Political Bots on Twitter in #Ecuador2017 Presidential Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Puyosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the behavior of campaign hashtags on Twitter in the second round of Ecuador 2017 presidential elections. The study analyzed 10 trending hashtags attacking opponents. The data was captured and analyzed with NodeXL, an application used to analyze social network. The analysis verifies the central role of automated accounts or botnets in the creation of hashtags. The campaign against the opposing binomial, which combined real accounts of government party activists with botnets, was more effective versus the less coordinated opposition campaign against candidate Lenin Moreno. It also verifies the use of localized botnets, mainly in Argentina and Venezuela.

  14. Competitive Analysis of Small and Medium Enterprises in Cuenca, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Tobar Pesántez, Luis Bayardo

    2014-01-01

    Cuenca, the third largest city in Ecuador, has received a number of awards during its history. The latest award from Financial Times Magazine, rates it the as the number one city in the cost benefit category within the Small Cities of the Future 2013-2014 ranking. During five years it was among the ten cities in the world that had to be visited. Furthermore it is considered the best destination in the world for retirees due to its good living conditions, quality in public services and accessi...

  15. Use of media for recruiting clinical research volunteers in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Palacios; María Carolina Duarte; Rocío Santibáñez; Leonardo Tamariz; Ana Palacio

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN No se han realizado hasta ahora reportes acerca de los medios de comunicación como métodos de convocatoria para reclutar voluntarios de investigación en poblaciones latinoamericanas. Dado el surgimiento de la investigación clínica en Ecuador, realizar un estudio de este tipo en la población local será beneficioso para futuras investigaciones y probablemente sea aplicable a otros países de la región. MÉTODOS Se realizaron dos convocatorias públicas para un estudio trans...

  16. Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Stothert, Karen E

    2003-02-14

    Cucurbita (squash and gourd) phytoliths recovered from two early Holocene archaeological sites in southwestern Ecuador and directly dated to 10,130 to 9320 carbon-14 years before the present (about 12,000 to 10,000 calendar years ago) are identified as derived from domesticated plants because they are considerably larger than those from modern wild taxa. The beginnings of plant husbandry appear to have been preceded by the exploitation of a wild species of Cucurbita during the terminal Pleistocene. These data provide evidence for an independent emergence of plant food production in lowland South America that was contemporaneous with or slightly before that in highland Mesoamerica.

  17. Ecuador 1972-1999: del desarrollismo petrolero al ajuste neoliberal

    OpenAIRE

    Oleas Montalvo, Julio

    2013-01-01

    El inicio de la exportación de petróleo en agosto de 1972 determinó la aceleración de la industrialización y un corto auge de la inversión pública y privada, sin precedentes en la historia económica del Ecuador. Al mismo tiempo, esta súbita abundancia produjo distorsiones estructurales identificadas en la literatura del desarrollo económico como «enfermedad holandesa» que se mantuvieron durante el resto del periodo analizado, hasta finalizar el siglo XX, tornando más difícil la...

  18. Determinants of innovation in manufacturing MSMEs of Argentina and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Astudillo Durán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the determinants for each type of innovation - product, process in Micro, Small and Medium (MSMEs manufacturing enterprises, in respectively Argentina and Ecuador. The study is based on the panel data 2006-2010 of the World Bank Enterprise Survey. The results through the probit model indicate a positive and significant relationship between product, process innovation and R&D, and a positive and significant relationship between the process innovation and qualified employees and quality certification in the two countries.

  19. Derechos fundamentales y fuerzas de seguridad en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Enríquez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    La relación entre seguridad y derechos humanos, parece discordante sin embargo el ser humano en la actualidad requiere la protección del Estado, esta obligación estatal se ejerce por medio de las fuerzas policiales y fuerzas militares, cada una con características históricas diferentes que hoy juegan un papel protagónico en la seguridad del Ecuador, y cuya obligación es desplegar sus operaciones en el marco de los derechos fundamentales, evitando el uso indiscriminado de los...

  20. Hepatitis C in Egypt - past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgharably, Ahmed; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Crossey, Mary Me; Norsworthy, Peter J; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s) led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today.

  1. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...... antiquities trade. The book looks at the laws governing trade and export, both in theory and practice, and the changes over time. The practicalities of the trade are described: its seasons, the networks of supply, the various methods available for acquiring antiquities, and the subsequent routes......-chapels. The final part of the book contains a list, with short biographies, of over 250 dealers active in Egypt from the 1880s until the abolishment of the trade in 1983. Most of them are described here in detail for the first time....

  2. The Lower Paleozoic rock units in Egypt: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Wanas

    2011-10-01

    Integrated stratigraphic and sedimentological studies of the Lower Paleozoic rocks permit reconstruction of the paleogeography of Egypt at that time. Egypt has been largely controlled since the Cambrian by the pre-existing structural framework of the pre-Phanerozoic basement rocks inherited from the Late Proterozoic Pan-African event. Additionally, sedimentation processes were controlled during Cambro-Ordovician times by tectonic movements, whereas glacio-eustatic control predominated during the Late Ordovician–Silurian Period. These studies suggest that most areas of Egypt were exposed lands with episodically transgression by epi-continental seas related to the paleo-Tethys. These lands formed a part of a stable subsiding shelf at the northern Gondwana margin.

  3. Clinical Management of Gender in Egypt: Intersexuality and Transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazen, Inas A

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the literature on intersexuality (disorders of sex development [DSD]) and transsexuality in Egypt. Egypt's resources for the diagnosis and treatment of rare conditions, such as DSD and transsexualism, are quite limited. The birth of a child with a DSD is likely to be stressful, especially in regard to decisions on gender assignment, and genital abnormalities are associated with stigma and shame. Gender assignment may be biased toward the male gender, because female infertility precludes marriage and female gender adversely affects employment prospects and inheritance. Later gender change in either direction may also carry stigma. Gender reassignment surgery for transsexuals without somatic intersexuality was legalized in Egypt in 2005, but requires permission by a national Sex Identification and Determination Committee.

  4. A dynamic simulation model of desertification in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasmy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system dynamic model to simulate and analyze potential future state of desertification in Egypt. The presented model enhances the MEDALUS methodology developed by European Commission. It illustrates the concept of desertification through different equations and simulation output graphs. It is supplemented with a causal loop diagram showing the feedback between different variables. For the purpose of testing and measuring the effect of different policy scenarios on desertification in Egypt, a simulation model using stock and flow diagram was designed. Multi-temporal data were used to figure out the dynamic changes in desertification sensitivity related to the dynamic nature of desert environment. The model was applied to Al Bihira governorate in western Nile Delta, Egypt, as the study area, and the results showed that the urban expansion, salinization, and not applying the policy enforcement are considered the most variables provoking the desertification.

  5. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  6. Meningeal Preservation in a Child Mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, and it evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some 3000 years, lasting until the end of the Christian era. In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt), 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6-8 old-year male child with a damaged skull that allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador Situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Proaño-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972-2008 in a variety of the country's geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry's expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its by-products, intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program.La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad contagiosa crónica que afecta a los animales domésticos, los animales salvajes y los seres humanos. Es producida por Mycobacterium bovis; causa grandes pérdidas económicas y plantea una grave limitación para el comercio ganadero internacional. Por otro lado, en los países en desarrollo donde no hay controles de la tuberculosis bovina, la infección por M. bovis representa un problema de salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, la prevalencia de tuberculosis en el ganado se desconoce porque la información no se comunica o no se consigue. En el Ecuador no hay un programa nacional de control de la tuberculosis bovina. En este artículo se revisa la situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador, sobre la base de un análisis de los datos exhaustivos obtenidos de

  8. The Organ Transplant Debate in Egypt: a Social Anthropological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I take the heated debate about the ethics of organ transplantation in Egypt, to ask why Egypt is the only Muslim country in the world that has, for the past three decades, been unable to pass legislation for a national organ transplant program. Why is it that patients and even physicians articulate their antipathy to organ transplantation in terms of “Islam” when most Muslim scholars of Islamic law have argued that the donation of organs is permissible? I argue that we cannot r...

  9. Egypt Gas Export Potential Up To 2050 & Regional Gas Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Akyener, Oğuzhan; Maraşlı, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Althoughhaving around 3.5 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion m3 proved gasreserves, Egypt is facing with the crisis of meeting the demands of itsdomestic market. Mainly due to increasing in-country consumption volumes, Egypthas lost its position of being an energy exporter in 2014.In contrast tothese negative strides, new offshore gas discoveries again can change all thescenarios, and so Egypt’s plans to be an exporter after 2020.Inintercalary years, new discoveries in Egypt offshore inc...

  10. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Encuesta a productores para orientar el fitomejoramiento de frijol en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Garver Ernest, Emmalea; Falconí Castillo, Esteban; Peralta Idrovo, Eduardo; Nelly, James

    2007-01-01

    Encuesta a productores para orientar el fitomejoramiento de frijol en Ecuador. Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de produc...

  12. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  13. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  14. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  15. REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

  16. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates for two cities in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauval, C.; Yepes, H.; Monelli, D.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.

    2013-05-01

    The whole territory of Ecuador is exposed to seismic hazard. Great earthquakes can occur in the subduction zone (e.g. Esmeraldas, 1906, Mw 8.8), whereas lower magnitude but shallower and potentially more destructive earthquakes can occur in the highlands. This study focuses on the estimation of probabilistic seismic hazard for two cities: the capital Quito (˜2.5 millions inhabitants) in the Interandean Valley, and the city of Esmeraldas on the coast close to the subduction trench (location of the oil refineries and export facilities which are key for Ecuador economy). The analysis relies on a seismotectonic model developed for the Ecuadorian territory and borders (Alvarado, 2012; Yepes et al. in prep). Seismic parameters are determined using a recently published unified earthquake catalog extending over five centuries in the Cordillera region, and over 110 years in the subduction zone (Beauval, Yepes, et al. 2010, 2013). Uncertainties are explored through a simple logic tree. All uncertainties identified in the process are taken into account: source zone limits, recurrence time of large earthquakes, equivalent moment magnitude of historical events, maximum magnitudes, declustering algorithm, decisions for homogenizing magnitudes, seismic parameters, ground-motion prediction equations. The aim is to quantify the resulting uncertainty on the hazard curves and to identify the controlling parameters. Mean hazard estimates for the PGA at 475 years reach around 0.4-0.45g in Quito and 0.9-1.0g in Esmeraldas.

  17. Mass wasting triggered by the 5 March 1987 Ecuador earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.L.; Nieto, A.S.; O'Rourke, T. D.; Crespo, E.; Plaza-Nieto, G.

    1996-01-01

    On 5 March 1987, two earthquakes (Ms=6.1 and Ms=6.9) occurred about 25 km north of Reventador Volcano, along the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains in northeastern Ecuador. Although the shaking damaged structures in towns and villages near the epicentral area, the economic and social losses directly due to earthquake shaking were small compared to the effects of catastrophic earthquake-triggered mass wasting and flooding. About 600 mm of rain fell in the region in the month preceding the earthquakes; thus, the surficial soils had high moisture contents. Slope failures commonly started as thin slides, which rapidly turned into fluid debris avalanches and debris flows. The surficial soils and thick vegetation covering them flowed down the slopes into minor tributaries and then were carried into major rivers. Rock and earth slides, debris avalanches, debris and mud flows, and resulting floods destroyed about 40 km of the Trans-Ecuadorian oil pipeline and the only highway from Quito to Ecuador's northeastern rain forests and oil fields. Estimates of total volume of earthquake-induced mass wastage ranged from 75-110 million m3. Economic losses were about US$ 1 billion. Nearly all of the approximately 1000 deaths from the earthquakes were a consequence of mass wasting and/ or flooding.

  18. Migration decisions, agrarian structure, and gender: the case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-ureta, B E; Quiroga, R E; Brea, J A

    1996-07-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on migration in Latin America and examines migration decision making in Ecuador. Aggregate data are obtained from the 1974 census of agriculture and population for cantones. Individual level data are obtained from the 1982 census of population. Migration refers to all census persons who recorded differences in their present and previous place of residence during 1974-82. Migration is modeled as dependent upon gender, age, education, marital status, income at origin and at destination, and population pressure or agrarian reform. Logistic model findings indicate that migration decisions are influenced by individual characteristics of migrants and contextual variables. Migration varied by gender. The results confirm Todaro's hypothesis that the probability of migrating is related to income differences between place of destination and origin, but only for males. Findings suggest that females migrate for primary reasons other than economic ones. The probability of migration was greater with increased levels of education. The decision to migrate was affected by quality of life differences, such as literacy rates and levels of urbanization. The probability of migration was reduced by the effects of land reform. Population pressure had a significant effect in increasing migration. The effects of land reform differ from findings in Mexico by William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders. Land reforms were initiated in 1964 in Ecuador, but by 1974 there was still considerable inequality in land distribution and increased population pressure. Traditional haciendas were modernized, and peasants increased their dependency on non-farm income.

  19. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  20. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  1. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  2. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  3. [Food labeling in Ecuador: implementation, results, and pending actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Veliz, Paula Mariana; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Mafla, Carina Vance; Altamirano, Luz María Martínez; Jones, Cecilia Vaca

    2017-06-08

    Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines. One of these is implementation of a traffic-light nutritional labeling system for processed foods, in late 2014, aimed at guaranteeing people's right to timely, clear, accurate, and non-deceptive information on the content and characteristics of these foods. This article analyzes implementation of processed food labeling and results to date, and proposes complementary measures needed to reach the goal in the National Plan for Good Living, in light of new scientific evidence and different agreements and regulatory frameworks in our Region. Methods included a literature and documentary review, key informant interviews, and analysis and processing of secondary sources.

  4. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Ecuador. A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Marcelo Aguilar V

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex public health problem that has been underestimated in Ecuador. Here we review the relevant published information, and present unpublished and new data that help to understand the current Chagas disease epidemiological situation and its evolution in the country. Three main characteristics have been identified: (i persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in already known foci; (ii a marked endemicity in some urban areas of Guayaquil; and (iii the transformation of new Amazon foci into truly endemic areas. The situation in other suspect areas remains uncertain. Five Triatominae species have been implicated in the transmission of T. cruzi to people in Ecuador (Triatoma dimidiata, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, R. pictipes, R. robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus, but some others may also play a role in some areas (P. rufotuberculatus, P. howardi, T. carrioni and P. chinai. Other Triatominae reported seem to have little or no epidemiological relevance (T. venosa, T. dispar, Eratyrus mucronatus, E. cuspidatus, P. lignarius and Cavernicola pilosa. High frequency of acute cases and severe chronic disease has been observed. Although cardiomyopathy is more frequent, serious digestive disease is also present. It is estimated that around 120,000-200,000 people may be infected. 2.2 to 3.8 million people are estimated to live under transmission risk conditions.

  5. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  6. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  7. Security of IP Telephony in Ecuador: Online Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Estrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.

  8. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  9. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  10. Free Trade Area of the Americas: A Three Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala , Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and...investment as well as an enormous potential in earnings. To protect these existing “products” as well as emerging ones such as biotechnology and e...Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala , India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan

  11. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  12. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in Egypt and Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a worldwide initiative assessing entrepreneurial activity in about 100 countries. The study will compare findings from GEM data collected post-Arab Spring (2012) with results from 2008-2010 for Egypt and Tunisia, two countries at the forefront of the Arab Spring. It will examine ...

  13. (SNP) of GH gene in camel breeds reared in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hend

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... INTRODUCTION. The population of old world camelidae in the world is .... pastoral systems in vast pastoral areas in Asia and Africa. (Ishag et al. ..... Arab. Republic of Egypt, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Oct. 2009. Vize P, Wells J (1987). Spacer alterations, which increase the expression of ...

  14. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus ..... Int. Pest J. Manage. 47 23–40. Cridland CC 1968 Results of exposure of batches from highly susceptible and less susceptible strains of Biomphalaria alexandrina from Egypt to strains ...

  15. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... INFORMATION: In June 2012 the Department of Commerce initiated recruitment for participation in the U.S. Trade...

  16. Archaeocidaris M’Coy (Echinoidea) from the Carboniferous of Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Collections in museums usually have boxes of specimens which remain ‘undiscovered’ and yet which may be of importance or interest. The recent rediscovery of specimens of Archaeocidaris in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, from the Carboniferous of Egypt illustrates this point. These

  17. Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... With limited basic human rights and in the context of very poor living conditions for Egyptians in general, Palestinians in Egypt have had to employ an array of both tangible and intangible assets to survive. By providing an account of how they marshalled these assets, this book aims to contribute to the ...

  18. Power competition in Nasser´s Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemou, Athina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has a double aim. First, to present briefly part of the basic theoretical aspects of ‘sociology of power’approach and, second, to expose the results obtained by its application on the case of Egypt during the years 1952-1970. This paper is based on a previous research, published under the title “Nasser’s National Interest. A ‘Sociology of Power’ Analysis”. For the purposes of this paper, we develop a part of the theoretical framework of the previous work, we skip its application on the case of Egypt and we present directly in the second part the conclusions we have obtained from the theory’s application in the case study of Egypt during the former research. The first part, the theoretical one, is analysing four main concepts of our approach: actors, elites, circular relations and differential accumulation of power and resources of power. A short reference follows to the pushing need for the international relations’ discipline to study the relations between actors, crossing the national boarders, in accordance to the theoretical framework previously exposed. After the theoretical part, the second part focuses on the empirical case, with the purpose to present the conclusions from the application of the theoretical framework on Nasser’s Egypt.

  19. Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... that have limited distribution in time and/or space (Danin,. 1986). Several studies have beendone on the floristic composition of North Sinai (Boulos, 1960; Täckholm ...... (eds.), Dr. W. Junk Publishers, London. p. 380. Batanouny KH, Aboutabl E, Shabana M, Soliman F (1999). Wild. Medicinal plants in Egypt.

  20. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  1. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  2. Caulimoviral sequences in Dahlia variabilis in Egypt | Abdel-Salam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cluster dendogram based on the amino acid sequences of movement protein of all known caulimoviruses placed D10-US (isolated from US dahlia cultivars), D10 – NZ (isolated from New Zealand dahlia cultivars), D10-DC (isolated from D. coccinea) and D10-Egypt (isolated from Egyptian dahlia cultivars) in one clade.

  3. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  4. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  5. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    with SRTM 3 elevation data and satellite imagery, provide the means for immediate WAsP wind resource assessments anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource...

  6. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 82 responses represent 74.5% of the 110 fully-trained pediatric surgeons currently working in Egypt. Sixty-one (74.4 %) of responders used invertogram for preoperative diagnosis of ARM. A further seven (8.5%) combined invertogram with perineal ultrasonography or MRI. The remaining 14 (17.1%) used either perineal ...

  7. Discursive Legitimation and De-legitimation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Linn

    2008-01-01

    Between 100 and 140 million girls and woman have undergone the practice of female circumcision. This thesis study legitimation and de-legitimation of this practice in the language used by six informants with a special knowledge of the public Egypt discourse of female circumcision. The analysis is conducted within a discourse analytical framework.

  8. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-09-30

    Refugees and migrants in transit countries such as Egypt have links to wider diaspora networks that help support them and enable them to support their families back home in conflict zones. Start Date: September 30, 2009. End Date: October 1, 2012. Topic: REFUGEES, MIGRANTS, REMITTANCES, PEACE RESEARCH, ...

  9. ICTs for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development in Egypt ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Competitiveness on the part of Egyptian enterprises is regarded as one of the key factors in the country's economic development. Egypt has a large number of small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs) that are unable to compete in a global context where knowledge counts more than physical capital or natural ...

  10. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  11. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  12. The Administration of Sasanian Egypt: New Masters and Byzantine Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sänger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The papyri and literary testimonia that mention various administrative positions and functions, especially as regards taxation, allow us to trace elements of change and continuity in the period of Persian occupation of Egypt (A.D. 619-629.

  13. Egypt beyond representation : materials and materiality of Aegyptiaca Romana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, S.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops and applies a new approach to study Aegyptiaca Romana from a bottom-up, Roman perspective. Current approaches to these objects are often still plagued by top-down projections of modern definitions and understandings of Egypt and Egyptian material culture onto the Roman world.

  14. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent ...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  16. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  17. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  18. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  19. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  20. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  1. Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mahmoud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

  2. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  3. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Democratic transformations in the Arab world have reignited debate around the need for more inclusive political systems where the rights of different ethnic and religious groups are a priority in the transition period. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, ETHNIC GROUPS, POLICY MAKING, POLITICS. Region: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, ...

  4. A Global Vision for Small Business in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Development Challenge: Help small businesses join the global economy. Big business is often seen as the ticket to a country's economic growth. Particularly in the past century, large-scale firms capable of mass-producing goods or services have been the symbol of a “modern” economy. By this measure, Egypt's ...

  5. Raves and ecstasy use in Egypt: a subcultural paradigm | Hussein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to investigate the main aspects of the growing subculture of ecstasy (MDMA) users in Egypt. It criticizes post-modern theoretical orientations that devalue subcultural theories of deviance on the basis that they can no longer support an understanding of recreational substance use among youth today.

  6. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  7. Desperate lives: urban refugee women in Malaysia and Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale Buscher; Lauren Heller

    2010-01-01

    ... the plight of Burmese refugee women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and of Iraqi, Somali, Sudanese, Eritrean and Ethiopian refugee women in Cairo, Egypt. Unsafe at home or at work in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia is host to a large number of migrant workers and an estimated 100,000 refugees and asylum seekers, most of whom are from persecuted Burmese ethnic groups. Forty ...

  8. Egypt goes olympic: 1914 to 1932 | Wacker | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was nominated a member of the International Olympic Committee IOC in 1910, founded the Egyptian Olympic Committee EOC in 1914, becoming its first Secretary-General and planning for an African Games in 1929. Between the poles of ethnical emancipation on one side and colonial influence in Egypt of the early ...

  9. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin...

  10. Fuzzy Logic Methods to Evaluate the Quality of Life in the Regions of Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Carlos Martin; Christian Stalin Viñán

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a methodological framework that calculates a synthetic indicator of satisfaction of citizens of the nine geographical areas of planning and development of Ecuador (zones...

  11. Del desplazamiento forzado interno en Colombia a la migración transfronteriza hacia Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana González Gil

    2015-01-01

    .... A significant and sustained growth in the number of displaced people seeking refuge in the Colombian borders with Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela since late 90's showed another dimension of the problem...

  12. A new species of Molynocoelia Giglio-Tos (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....

  13. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  14. Land use change and human systems dynamics: Cotacachi Ecuador 1963-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reports on a study to analyze land-use change over 40 years in Cotacachi, Ecuador, link land-use change to human system dynamics, and discuss implications for sustainability. BA-2 (SANREM-Andes Research)

  15. On the World Politics Curb: American Indians of Ecuador in the Struggle for Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Bedini Evis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contemporary peculiarities of American Indians movements in Ecuador in the context of recognition of their rights for life and wellbeing by the world community.

  16. Potential use of vegetal Biomass as insulation in extreme climates of Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis Velasco Roldan; Leonardo Goyos Pérez; Luis Freire Amores; Alexander Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, a factor of great ecological wealth is linked to its tradition in the use of fibers and other organic waste composite character as filler element, reinforcement or insulation in the field...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 National, Provincial, and Park Boundaries, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and the...

  18. Medios comunitarios como ejercicio de ciudadanía comunicativa: experiencias desde Argentina y Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... y los desafíos de los medios populares, alternativos y comunitarios. El presente trabajo, basado en dos investigaciones de tipo cualitativo, una en Argentina y otra en Ecuador, analiza algunas experiencias concretas en este campo. El marco...

  19. Planning for Integral Development. Public Policies, Economic Growth and Social Improvements in Santa Rosa (Ecuador)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Prada-Trigo

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador is immersed, since the adoption of the 2008 Constitution, in a process of economic, social and political changes, following the steps on their path to a more equal, post-extractive and democratic society...

  20. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Uses and management of Aphandra Natalia (palmae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available UTILISATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN EQUATEUR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod est un palmier Phytelephantoidé de l’Amazonie occidentale. En Équateur il est exploité commercialement pour ses fruits comestibles, et pour les fibres de la gousse et du pétiole de la feuille dont on se sert pour fabriquer les balais dans tout le pays. Les fibres sont extraites principalement des individus sauvages de la forêt ou de ceux qui se trouvent dans les pâturages et les zones agricoles et qui sont exploités in situ. L’exploitation comprend la protection du palmier lorsque la forêt est coupée, l’enlèvement sélectif d’autre végétation et des techniques de récolte non-destructives. De temps à autre A. natalia se cultive. USOS Y MANEJO DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN ECUADOR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod es una palma Phytelephantoideae de la Amazonia occidental. En el Ecuador es explotada comercialmente por sus frutos comestibles, y por las fibras de la vaina y del pecíolo de la hoja que son usadas para la producción de escobas en todo el país. Las fibras son extraídas principalmente de individuos en el bosque natural o de plantas dejadas en los pastizales y en los campos agrícolas, y manejadas in situ. El manejo incluye dejar en pie la palma cuando el bosque es talado, la remoción selectiva de otra vegetación y las técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Ocasionalmente A. natalia es cultivada. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod is a Phytelephantoid palm from the western Amazon. In Ecuador it is commercially exploited for its edible fruits, and for its leaf sheath and petiole fibers which are used for brooms throughout the country. Fibers are extracted mainly from wild individuals in the forest or those left in pastures and agricultural areas and managed in situ. Management includes protecting the palm when forest is cleared, selective removal of other vegetation, and non

  2. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida M.R. Barakat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (Trematodes of the genus Schistosoma (S.. It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Ancient Egypt. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years old. Scott was the first to describe the pattern of schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60% both in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley South of Cairo in districts of perennial irrigation while it was low (6% in districts of basin irrigation. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the Nile Valley South of Cairo. The building of the Aswan High Dam -which was completed in 1967 – did not cause any increase in schistosomiasis prevalence. In 1990, a study conducted in nine governorates of Egypt confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper Egypt there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium except in Sohag, Qena, and Aswan governorates. However, foci of S. mansoni were detected in Giza, Fayoum, Menya and Assiut. All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Egypt from 1953 to 1985 adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. In 1997, the National Schistosomiasis Control Program (NSCP was launched in the Nile Delta. It adopted morbidity control strategy with Praziquantel mass treatment as the main component. In 1996, before the NSCP, 168 villages had S. mansoni prevalence >30%, 324 villages 20–30% and 654 villages 10–20%. By the end of 2010, in the whole country only 29 villages had prevalence >3% and none had

  3. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas Morsy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1–24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977 was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc. The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6 and Qc = (900 ± 195 at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where η ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56η1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  4. Qena Valley Evolution, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Remotely sensed topographic and optical data were used to identify tectonic phenomena in Qena Valley. Using digital elevation model, morphotectonic features were identified. Processing and analysis were carried out by the combined use of: (1) digital elevation model, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) optical data analysis, and (4) lineament extraction and analysis. Structural information from other sources, such as geological maps, remotely sensed images and field observations were analyzed with geographic information system techniques. The analysis results reveal that the linear features of Qena Valley controlled by several structural elements have different trends NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends. Basement rocks at Qena valley has a major NE-SW trending and the sedimentary rocks are dominated by a NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends while, E-W are less abundant. The NE-SW trends at north Eastern Desert Egypt attain to normal faults that reflect extension in NW-SE direction, which is related to strike slip faulting along NW-SE directed Najd fault system. Further, the NE-SW is abundant as joints and fractures seem to have controlled the path of the Nile in Qift - Qena area. The NW-SE direction are abundant in the rock fracture trends (Gulf of Suez or Red Sea) and reflects Neoproterozoic faults have been reactivated in Neogene during rifting events of the Red Sea opening and marked the sedimentary rocks at Qena valley. The results of the lineament density map reveals that Qena valley was originated along one fault that trend like the Gulf of Suez and the range of the Red Sea Hills. This major fault was dissected by several lateral faults are seen well exposed at numerous places within the valley, especially on its eastern side. Both sides of Qena valley have a similar density matching may attain to that this lineaments affected Qena valley during rifting. This rifts it probably happened in Early Miocene associated with Red Sea tectonics. The general southward slope of

  5. On the edge of an open pit : access to land & natural resources in Tundayme, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Elaine Benham

    2016-01-01

    This research will explore how the presence of the Mirador open pit copper mine has altered access to land and natural resources in Tundayme, Ecuador. The mine is located in southern part of the country along the border of Peru in a rural region of the Ecuadorian Amazon known for its exceptional biodiversity. Ecuador's economy is heavily dependent upon income from petroleum extraction but the present administration plans to significantly increase mineral extraction. The Mirador project is s...

  6. Biodiversidad de los Valles Secos Interandinos del Ecuador. Anfibios y Reptiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Almendáriz,Ana

    2011-01-01

    Los bosques secos de la región Interandina del Ecuador se hallan ubicados en los sectores con el mayor número de asentamientos humanos tanto de tiempos pasados como de los actuales. La región Andina del Ecuador es la más deforestada del país; sin embargo, mantiene una flora Y fauna única y rica en especies que en la actualidad crece en lugares escarpados y poco accesibles.

  7. Diversity and distribution models of horse flies (Diptera : Tabanidae) from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, R. E.; Buestan, J.; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide information about Tabanidae is biased toward taxonomical research, which has been the main source of diversity data for this group of flies. In Ecuador, studies on horse flies have been irregular since the first descriptions of three Andean specimens in 1848. Catalogues, checklists and collections in national museums demonstrate that despite its size, Ecuador is at present the richest country in number of tabanids species in the Neotropics after Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, and has ...

  8. Potential use of vegetal Biomass as insulation in extreme climates of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Velasco Roldan; Leonardo Goyos Pérez; Luis Freire Amores; Alexander Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, a factor of great ecological wealth is linked to its tradition in the use of fibers and other organic waste composite character as filler element, reinforcement or insulation in the field of housing construction, which carries great potential under the most viable architecture. The climate variability in Ecuador and the low purchasing power of their inhabitants forced to use local available building materials inexpensive or at no cost, in order to achieve economic and comfortable ...

  9. The new reform educational in the Ecuador and its application in education special

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio Ernestina García Liscano; Verónica Alexandra García Liscano; María Enrriqueta Liscano Solano

    2017-01-01

    The Ecuador over the years, the government of the citizen revolution has made drastic changes in the education system,with the aim of improving the quality of learning of Ecuadorians. This article is aimed at analyzing the educational reform in Ecuador from the new institutions of the country, which constitutes the government of Econ. Rafael Correa Delgado with the new educational model that began in January 2010, from this restructuring conducted an analysis of special education in our count...

  10. Is there a gender gap in housing? Marital property rights in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Twyman, Jennifer; Deere, Carmen Diana

    2011-01-01

    This study conducts a gender analysis of homeownership in Ecuador, drawing upon data collected through the nationally-representative 2010 Ecuador Household Asset Survey carried out by the authors. The survey collected data on asset ownership both at the household and individual levels. This allows us to overcome a typical problem faced by gender analyses, that of only having the sex of the household head and not the sex of the owner(s). The study explores gender differences in homeownership a...

  11. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  12. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cartelle Gestal

    Full Text Available Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted.In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases.Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported.Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  13. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  14. Documental sobre la historia de la religión Bahá’í en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Armas Aguayo, Janeth Estefanía; Espinosa Manzano, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This work has as its objective to let people know about the existence of a new religion set in Ecuador around 70 years ago. That's the reason why this communicative product is named "Documentary about Bahá’i's Religion in Ecuador". It exposes the existence of this community in the country and its activities, with the aim of promoting Ecuador's interculturality. That's why this documentary takes as reference, the main concepts of communi...

  15. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium from Amazonian Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guayasamin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities.

  16. PREDICTIONEER’S GAME: THE COLLECTIVE VIOLENCE IN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mochťak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses collective violence in Ecuador from the end of September 2010. The situation was characterized as a Coup d'état when violent clashes between hostile camps were identified. The president was attacked by rebellious units of state police that had protested against the planned cuts of benefits and salaries in the law enforcement sector. The society was threatened by local riots, temporary anarchy and violent clashes that led to the declaration of state of emergency by president Correa. On the basis of empirical data, the prediction model is designed according to the analytical tool “Predictioneer’s Game“ defined by Bruce Bueno de Mesquita. The prediction is aimed at the forecast of the stability of regime in the context of the events from the 30th September 2010.

  17. The ethnomedicine of the Waorani of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E W; Yost, J A

    1983-12-01

    The Waorani Indians of eastern Ecuador are one of the least acculturated tribes in South America and hence provide a unique opportunity for studying the role of medicinal plants in an isolated Amazonian people. Biomedical studies conducted by a team from Stanford and Duke Universities have revealed a surprising dearth of endemic disease among recently contacted Waorani. An intensive ethnobotanical study in the spring of 1980 found a perspicacious knowledge of ethno-ecology among all adult Waorani, but discovered relatively few medicinal plants. Partial results of this survey and a discussion of Waorani disease concepts are presented. The implications in terms of the origin of plant medicines among indigenous peoples are discussed. Are the Waorani unique because of their isolation or do they represent a pattern of medicinal plant use closer to the aboriginal situation before the impact of Western disease? The conclusions challenge the orthodox view of the native and the origins of his prodigious knowledge of medicinal botany.

  18. El compromiso con el desarrollo sostenible: Principios de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo Vázquez Dolores

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el desarrollo sostenible es el hecho por excelencia de las últimas décadas. El sector financiero ha apostado por el tema abordando prácticas de gestión social, ambiental y económica que conduzcan a acciones socialmente responsables. Las entidades hoy se preocupan por la responsabilidad social corporativa y enfocan sus negocios bajo la filosofía del “Triple Resultado”. Con la adopción de los Principios de Ecuador los bancos disponen de un conjunto de directrices para la gestión de los temas sociales y ambientales relacionados con la financiación de grandes proyectos de desarrollo.

  19. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  20. Estado de diarios, revistas y medios digitales de Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronel Salas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación radica en la necesidad de situar, conocer y analizar la situación de los medios impresos (diarios, revistas y páginas webs dedicadas a la información y  comunicación en Ecuador. Con una muestra de más de 100 medios se accede a conocer su forma y fondo, en sí, su morfología distribuida en organización legal y societaria, situación geográfica, contenidos, alcance, y servicios prestados. La misma, es una aproximación a la realidad informativa que vive el país y que forma parte de la macro investigación denominada “Mapa de la comunicación de Ecuador” realizada  en la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.

  1. A historical approach to English for Specific Purposes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sandra Pibaque Pionce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of experiences in the process of doctoral training in Educational Sciences, allows proposing the historical analysis of English for Specific Purposes in Ecuador, preferably in International Business Degree students, as the basis for the theoretical analysis for the scientific assessment of educational research works. The definition and justification for the periods established in time are presented, which aims at assessing the historical development of the teaching-learning process of English for Specific Purposes related to business formation, upon which is necessary to address the effectiveness of teaching English. Thus the lingo-cultural competence focuses on the ability to negotiate cultural meanings and implement effective communication behaviors concentrating connected aspects of languages directly with specific cultural facts of a society. This research work has been based on bibliography analysis, inductive - deductive and analysis – synthesis methods.

  2. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670

  3. In land of chieftains! Populist leadership and democracy in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Freidenberg

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar las características del populismo a partir de la experiencia de Ecuador, uno de los países de América Latina que ha tenido más procesos de este tipo. La idea es identificar semejanzas en el modo en que se ejerce el estilo de liderazgo populista a partir de cuatro casos: José María Velasco Ibarra, Abdalá Bucaram Ortiz, Álvaro Noboa Pontón y Rafael Correa, a pesar de las diferencias existentes entre esos líderes políticos. El argumento es que, a diferenci...

  4. Migration, Remittances and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rural Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de la “Encuesta de condiciones de vida (ecv 2005-2006”, este artículo analiza el impacto de la migración internacional y las remesas en la iniciativa emprendedora en el Ecuador rural. Los resultados sugieren que ni la migración internacional ni las remesas afectan la probabilidad de que los hogares rurales ecuatorianos posean un negocio familiar. En cambio, otras variables como la educación, el crédito y la disponibilidad de servicios básicos tienen un efecto positivo en la probabilidad de que un hogar rural posea un negocio. Contrariamente a lo esperado, el test Smith-Blundell no pudo rechazar la hipótesis nula de exogeneidad de la migración internacional y las remesas respecto de la probabilidad de poseer un negocio rural.

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis “Chiclero's Ulcer” in Subtropical Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136

  6. Incidencia de las intoxicaciones: un caso en hospital de Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura-Osorio, Marisela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intoxication is a public health problem and one of the main causes of admission in emergency rooms nationwide and internationally. An exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional research of a directed observation was conducted to determine the incidence of intoxication in patients of General Teófilo Dávila Hospital in El Oro Province, Ecuador, in 2012; patients were classified by age, sex, origin, and the most frequent toxicant in this area. The highest incidence was February (16.35%, in the sample of 104 intoxicated males predominated (66.35%, urban origin (88.46% and the age group of 20-49 years (60.58%. The circumstances were: accidental (78.85%, intentional (16, 35 % and employment (4.81%. The most important mechanism is the intake (84.62 %, the agent types are food / beverages (29.81 % and substance abuse (25%.

  7. Unicef: Los niños del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . UNICEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Informe de UNICEF (1992 "Bienestar de los niños en el Ecuador", es una radiografía general de la sociedad ecuatoriana. El trabajo documenta temas esenciales para la comprensión de la situación del país: demografía, urbanización, medio ambiente, pobreza, derechos del niño, mortalidad y educación. La comparación de datos correspondientes a las últimas tres décadas valoriza el análisis, señala las tendencias en curso y advierte sobre las situaciones que requieren más urgente atención.

  8. [Serratia marcescens outbreak in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Guayaquil, Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Claudia; Nieto, Nelson; Villacís, José E; Lainez, Sara; Cartelle, Mónica

    2016-12-01

    We report a Serratia marcescens outbreak occurred in the NICU of a pediatric hospital in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Nine cases of infection were detected, from which septicemia was developed in 55.5%. The index case was a newborn derived from another institution with septic arthritis caused by the outbreak strain. The infection rate was 17.6% and mortality rate was 33.3%. All isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Clonality analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed the presence of two closely related clones confirming the horizontal spread. Measures were taken by the committee such as: strengthening the hand hygiene, patient hygiene and cohort studies of gastrointestinal colonization, which allowed the control of the outbreak.

  9. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Maynard, Ross J; Lynch, Ryan L; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yakusp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27-0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3-5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yakusp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities.

  10. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  11. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates from Southern Ecuador

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    Roldán Torres-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobium-legume symbioses play relevant roles in agriculture but have not been well studied in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates associated with Phaseolus vulgaris from southern Ecuador. Morpho-cultural characterization, biochemical tests and physiological analyses were conducted to authenticate and determine the diversity of bacteria Rhizobium-like isolates. The genetic diversity of the isolates was determined by molecular techniques, which consisted of bacteria DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The nodulation parameters and nitrogen fixation for P. vulgaris under greenhouse conditions were also assessed to determine the phenotypic diversity among isolates. Furthermore, bacteria indole-acetic-acid production was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Morpho-cultural and biochemical characteristic assessments demonstrated that Rhizobium-like bacteria was associated with the P. vulgaris nodules. The diversity among the isolates, as determined by physiological analyses, revealed the potential of several isolates to grow at different pH values, salinity conditions and temperatures. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the Rhizobium genus in every sampling site. From a total of 20 aligned sequences, nine species of Rhizobium were identified. Nodule formation and biomass, as well as nitrogen fixation, showed an increase in plant phenotypic parameters, which could be influenced by IAA production, especially for the strains R. mesoamericanum NAM1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6. These results demonstrated the efficiency of native symbiotic diazotrophic strains inoculants for legume production. This work can serve as the basis for additional studies of native Rhizobium strains and to help spread the use of biofertilizers in Ecuadorian fields.

  12. A new species of Enyalioides (Iguanidae: Hoplocercinae from southwestern Ecuador

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Enyalioides from lowland cloud forests in southwestern Ecuador. This represents the third species in the genus known to occur west of the Andes in South America; the other two species are E. heterolepis and E. oshaughnessyi. Among other characters, the new species can be distinguished from other members in the genus by having small, keeled, paravertebrals; a series of skin folds on the lateral aspects of body and neck; size-homogeneous scales on body and limbs; distinct caudal segments; and an extensive dark patch on the gular region of adult males. Morphological similarity suggests that the new species, which we call E. touzeti, is closely related to E. oshaughnessyi.Describimos una especie nueva de Enyalioides del bosque nublado al suroccidente de Ecuador. Esta representa la tercera especie de este género que habita al occidente de los Andes en América del Sur; las otras dos especies occidentales son E. heterolepis y E. oshaughnessyi. La especie nueva se diferencia de otras especies del género por tener, entre otras características, paravertebrales pequeñas y quilladas, pliegues dermales a los lados del cuello y cuerpo, escamas homogéneas en el cuerpo y extremidades, segmentos caudales visibles, y un parche oscuro que cubre gran parte de la región gular en machos. Semejanzas morfológicas sugieren que la especie nueva, a la cual llamamos E. touzeti, está cercanamente relacionada con E. oshaughnessyi.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of inguinal hernia surgery in northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; Sanders, David L; Teresa Butrón-Vila, M; Kingsnorth, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness of tension-free inguinal hernia repair at a private 20-bed rural hospital in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, was calculated relative to no treatment. Lichtenstein repair using mosquito net or polypropylene commercial mesh was provided to patients with inguinal hernia by surgeons from Europe and North America. Prospective data were collected from provider, patient, and societal perspectives, with component costs collected on site and from local supply companies or published literature. Patient outcomes were forecasted using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Uncertainty in patient-level data was evaluated with Monte-Carlo simulation. Surgery was provided to 102 patients with inguinal hernias of various sizes. Local anesthesia was used for 80 % of operations during the first mission, and spinal anesthesia was used for 89 % in the second mission. Few complications were observed. An average 6.39 DALYs (3,0) were averted per patient (95 % confidence interval: 6.22-6.84). The average cost per patient was US$499.33 (95 % CI: US$490.19-$526.03) from a provider perspective, US$118.79 (95 % CI: US$110.28-$143.72) from a patient perspective, and US$615.46 (95 % CI: US$603.39-$650.40) from a societal perspective. Mean cost-effectiveness from a provider perspective was US$78.18/DALY averted (95 % CI: US$75.86-$85.78) according to DALYs (3,0) averted using the West Life Table level 26, well below the Ecuadorian per-capita Gross National Income (US$3,850). Results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Inguinal hernia repair was cost-effective in western Ecuador through international collaboration.

  14. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks From the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Suzan Bakri

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their pr...

  15. Evidence of intense ongoing endemic transmission of hepatitis C virus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, F. DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2010-01-01

    Egypt has the highest prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. An estimated 9.8% are chronically infected. Numerous HCV prevalence studies in Egypt have published various estimates from different Egyptian communities, suggesting that Egypt, relative to the other nations of the world, might be experiencing intense ongoing HCV transmission. More importantly, a new national study provided an opportunity to apply established epidemiologic mo...

  16. 'Discourse on the Go': Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El-Nashar; Heba Nayef

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations.  Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel disenfranchised by the wider society.  The data comprise (614) written graffiti taken from both highway and in-city vehicles from different parts of Egypt. ...

  17. Team player styles, team design variables and team work effectiveness in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan El-Kot, Ghada Awed

    2001-01-01

    The literature has revealed few studies of management in Arab countries in general and particularly in Egypt. Many Egyptian organisations implemented the team concept a number of years ago, however, there do not appear to be any studies investicitaýt inc",D team work effectiveness in Egypt. The literature review and the findings of a pilot study emphasised the need for empirical research in team work in Egypt. Team effectiveness models are examined in order to identify the fact...

  18. U.S. Egyptian Relations After the Cold War: Egypt's Growing Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marr, Phebe

    1994-01-01

    Despite several well publicized problems -- rising violence from Islamic extremists, an uninspired political climate, and continued unemployment and poverty -- Egypt's regime is in no immediate danger of collapse...

  19. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  4. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  5. Oldest epiphyseal osteochondroma in a subadult from Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Albert; Catalán, Josep Maria; Prat, Carme; Torner, Ferran

    2017-08-01

    Benign bone tumours are pathologies frequently encountered in archaeological human remains, with the most common being osteoma and osteochondroma. We present the case of a juvenile individual recovered from the Necropolis of Sharuna, Middle Egypt and dated to the end of Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (circa 2150 BC), showing an osteochondroma arising from the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia which, in all likelihood, affected the patellar tendon in life. Osteochondromas are usually discovered during childhood and adolescence. These lesions are commonly located at the metaphysis and diaphysis of long bones and directed away from the joint, with the epiphysis being a rare location. To our knowledge, there have been no similar cases published to date from ancient times and we conclude that this is the oldest case of epiphyseal osteochondroma reported.

  6. Heterogeneity in Returns to Investment in Education in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Santiago; Badr, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998–2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number work...

  7. What happened to real earnings in Egypt, 2008 to 2009?

    OpenAIRE

    Cichello, Paul; Abou-Ali, Hala; Marotta, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Nominal earnings in Egypt did not respond to the increase in inflation between February 2008 and February 2009, resulting in a 12.3 (9) percent decline in average (median) real earnings among 25 to 60 years old workers. Changes in earnings differ significantly by groups: (i) those with higher initial earnings (reported and predicted) suffered the largest declines in earnings; (ii) men lost more than women but after controlling for initial earnings, women lost considerably more than men; (iii)...

  8. Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.

  9. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  10. Pliocene Coralline Algae, South Of Safaga (Red Sea, Egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, H [حامد خليفة محمد

    1984-01-01

    Coralline algae are highly abundant in the Pliocene succession of the area south of Safaga (Red Sea, Egypt). The articulated corallines (Corallinoideae) are represented here by a single genus, Amphiroa. The crustose coralline group (Melobesioideae) are relatively common in the studied sections. They are represented only by two genera, Lithophyllum and Lithoporella. Thirteen species of coralline algae are here recorded and described, for the first time, from the Pliocene rocks of the concer...

  11. On A New Haemogregarine Of Varanus Griseus From Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, Nadia F. [نادية فريد رمضان; Saoud, Mohammad Fathy A.; Mohammed, Shadia H.; Fawzi, Samia M.

    1996-01-01

    Ten monitors, Varanus griseus collected from various localities in Egypt were examined for protozoan blood parasites. A new species of the genus Haemogregarina senso lato is reported from six of these monitors. Blood forms of Haemogregarina roshdyi n.sp. are described. These forms produce changes to the shape and structure of infected cells including stretching and slight dehaemoglobization of infected cells and displacement of the nuclei. Despite of the low parasitaemia observed in the blood...

  12. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  13. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Economic Organization, Translated by Talcott Parsons , New York: Oxford, 1947. Weiner, Myron, "Political Participation Crisis of the Political Process...industriali- zation and education have on the development of political culture in Egypt, but rather that the importance of these factors of modernization...kinship and subsequently on the political culture become more understandable. The impact of education perhaps more than any other factor of

  14. Egypt : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les transformations démocratiques dans le monde Arabe ont relancé le débat concernant la nécessité d'avoir des systèmes politiques plus inclusifs permettant aux droits des différents groupes ethniques et religieux une priorité pendant la période de transition. Région: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, ...

  15. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae del suroccidente de Ecuador A new natural hybrid of Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from southwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Javier Zambrano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.A new natural hybrid of Dracula from Ecuador is described and illustrated, Dracula x pinasensis, which was recently discovered in the Andean wet forest from Southwestern Ecuador. The new hybrid is compared with the South American D. mantissa, D. mopsus, and D. ophioceps, as well the Central American D. pusilla, the closest allies. D. mopsus and D. ophioceps are pointed out as the putative parents of this natural hybrid.

  16. Opportunity without Equity: Educational Inequality and Constitutional Protections in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jackson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The claim that the law can be an inequality-reducing weapon is a staple of legal and political discourse. Although it is hard to dispute that legal provisions sometimes work to reduce inequality, we argue that, at least in the domain of equal opportunity in education, the pattern of these effects can be more perverse than has typically been appreciated. Positive laws implemented in the name of promoting equality of opportunity may yield only a narrowly formal equality, with the goal of substantive equality undermined because a high-profile reform will often expose the pathway to educational success. The pathway, once exposed, can then be navigated and successfully subverted by the socioeconomically advantaged. We illustrate such pitfalls of a positive legal approach by examining educational inequality in Egypt, a country with long-standing constitutional protections for equality of opportunity in education. Using data recently collected from a cohort of young people, we show that despite the institutional commitments to equality of opportunity present in Egypt, privileged families have a range of options for subverting the aims of positive legal provisions. We argue that the pattern of educational inequality in Egypt is distinctive relative to countries without similar legal protections.

  17. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.

  18. Future of Energy in Egypt and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Nokraschy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available If the whole world, which Egypt is a part of, continues business as usual in the field of electricitygeneration, namely, using the same regimes adopts today, burning fossil fuels and Uranium fission,both fuels will run out within sixty years at most and the world will definitely return to the Stone Age.Shall this be the end of the Egyptian people … the history makers?Generating energy is the next necessity to human life after water and food, since it is the majorstimulus of development. However, what is the aim of development if it is only momentary; thenfollowed by an endless abyss?Shall we wait till fossil and nuclear fuels run out? Jostling over the remaining fuel will certainly befierce and we will pay a high price for it, a matter that will subsequently lead to demolishing theingredients of development.Considering that oil is now dominating our way of life, it shall be wise to start immediately planning forthe post-oil age, provided that it is a sustainable plan set up to continue its validity as long as humanslive on this planet; this cannot be achieved except if we shift to renewable energies.Looking at Egypt and its available renewable energy sources, it becomes evident that the solarenergy, particularly in Upper Egypt, can give more than the present and future needs of the Egyptiansociety and even cover the demand of the whole world for electricity.

  19. Distribution of the GNSS-LEO occultation events over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoniem, Ibrahim; Mousa, Ashraf El-Kutb; El-Fiky, Gamal

    2017-06-01

    The space-based GNSS RO technique is a promising tool for monitoring the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere (Mousa et al., 2006). The current paper presents the distribution of the occultation events over Egypt using the operating LEO satellites and GNSS by its two operating systems. By the present research, Egypt could raise NWP Models efficiency by improving meteorological data quality. Twenty operating LEO missions (e.g. Argentinean SAC-C, European MetOp-A, German TerraSAR-X, Indian OceanSat-2, etc.) sent by different countries all over the world were used to derive the occultation events position through Egypt borders by receiving signal from the American global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (GLONASS). Approximately 20,000 km Altitude satellites are transmitting enormous number of rays by the day to approximately 800 km satellites passing by the Earth atmosphere. Our mission is to derive all of these rays position (start and end) by calculating satellites position by the time, determine the rays in the occultation case and derive the atmosphere tangent point position for all occultating rays on the Earth surface (Occultation Events).

  20. RECURRENT/PERSISTENT PNEUMONIA AMONG CHILDREN IN UPPER EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Saad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt. Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.   Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests for recurrent/persistent pneumonia to determine its prevalence and to find out the underlying causes.   Results: 113 out of 1228 patients (9.2% met the diagnosis of recurrent/persistent pneumonia. Identified causes were;  aspiration syndromes (17.7%, pulmonary TB (14%, congenital heart disease (11.5%, bronchial asthma (9.7%, immune deficiency disorders (8.8% and vitamin D deficiency rickets (7%. Other causes included; congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract, interstitial lung diseases, bronchiectasis, and sickle cell anemia. No predisposing factors could be identified in 15% of cases. Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 10 children with pneumonia in our locality had recurrent/persistent pneumonia. The most frequent underlying cause for recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt is aspiration syndromes, followed by pulmonary TB.

  1. Dimensions of quality of antenatal care service at Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman El Gammal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 5 th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC, quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider′s satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ° 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians′ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement.

  2. Autumn Migration of Passerines in Bahariya Oasis, Egypt - Where Do They Come from and Where Do They Go?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Stêpniewski; Matthew L J White; Mary Megalli

    2011-01-01

    ...][Oasis in Egypt - where do they come from and where do they go?] Ring 33, 1-2: 27-36. We present the results of studies on directional preferences of passerine migrants in Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt...

  3. Crisis, ingresos y mercado de trabajo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Au court des dernières qannées, l'Équateur a traversé une profonde crise économique et politique. Les indicateurs d'inégalité, dont les déterminants sont sanalysés à fond dans ce travail, montrent des changements entre 1995 et 1998. Les données indiquent que les facteurs les plus significatifs qui expliquent l'inégalité sont : la scolarité, l'appartenance au secteur agricole, le sexe et le degré de formalité de l'emploi. En désagrégant ces caracteristiques de l'e´chantillon, les différentes contributions de chaque facteur à l'inégalité se manifestent. La raison pourrait en être les changements survenus dans la structure productive de la famille, parmi lesqueles se trouvent la participation des femmes et le phénomène migratoire, qui s'est accentué depuis 1998. Ecuador ha atravesado una profunda crisis económica y política los últimos años. Los indicadores de desigualdad, cuyos determinantes se analizan con profundidad en este trabajo, muestran variaciones entre 1995 y 1998. La evidencia indica que los factores más significativos para explicar la desigualdad son la escolaridad, la pertenencia al sector agrícola, el género y el grado de formalidad del empleo. Al desagregar la muestra por estas características, se encuentran diferencias en la forma en que cada uno de estos factores contribuyen a la desigualdad. La explicación se encontraría en que se han dado cambios en la estructura productiva de la familia, entre los cuales destacan la forma de participación de la mujer y un proceso migratorio al extranjero que se aceleró justamente a partir de 1998. In recent years, Ecuador has gone through a severe economic and political crisis. Inequality indicators for the 1995-1998 period, which are analized in depth in this paper, exhibit a rising trend. The evidence indicates that the most significant factors that contribute to inequality are education, belonging to the agricultural sector, gender, and the degree of

  4. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM's ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student's T or chi-square, as appropriate. Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in the developing world and also provides a

  5. Modelling Ecuador's rainfall distribution according to geographical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Vladimiro; Wyseure, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is known that rainfall is affected by terrain characteristics and some studies had focussed on its distribution over complex terrain. Ecuador's temporal and spatial rainfall distribution is affected by its location on the ITCZ, the marine currents in the Pacific, the Amazon rainforest, and the Andes mountain range. Although all these factors are important, we think that the latter one may hold a key for modelling spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall. The study considered 30 years of monthly data from 319 rainfall stations having at least 10 years of data available. The relatively low density of stations and their location in accessible sites near to main roads or rivers, leave large and important areas ungauged, making it not appropriate to rely on traditional interpolation techniques to estimate regional rainfall for water balance. The aim of this research was to come up with a useful model for seasonal rainfall distribution in Ecuador based on geographical characteristics to allow its spatial generalization. The target for modelling was the seasonal rainfall, characterized by nine percentiles for each one of the 12 months of the year that results in 108 response variables, later on reduced to four principal components comprising 94% of the total variability. Predictor variables for the model were: geographic coordinates, elevation, main wind effects from the Amazon and Coast, Valley and Hill indexes, and average and maximum elevation above the selected rainfall station to the east and to the west, for each one of 18 directions (50-135°, by 5°) adding up to 79 predictors. A multiple linear regression model by the Elastic-net algorithm with cross-validation was applied for each one of the PC as response to select the most important ones from the 79 predictor variables. The Elastic-net algorithm deals well with collinearity problems, while allowing variable selection in a blended approach between the Ridge and Lasso regression. The model fitting

  6. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  7. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Johnson, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM’s ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. Methods: All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student’s T or chi-square, as appropriate. Results: Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%, fever (15.1% and trauma (10.8%. Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%, upper extremity radiograph (9.4%, and electrocardiogram (9.0%. There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Conclusion: Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study

  8. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  9. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Margot S; Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Kreft, Holger; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; McCracken, Shawn F; Pitman, Nigel C A; English, Peter H; Swing, Kelly; Villa, Gorky; Di Fiore, Anthony; Voigt, Christian C; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-19

    The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV): Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha) and landscape (gamma) diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1) large size and wilderness character, 2) intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3) IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4) likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in Yasuní jeopardizes its conservation values. These findings form the scientific basis

  10. Development discourses at the mining frontier: Buen Vivir and the contested mine of El Mirador in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teijlingen, K.; Hogenboom, B.

    2014-01-01

    In Ecuador, the recent introduction of mineral mining led to a conflictive debate on mining and evelopment, particularly Buen Vivir. This article examines the discourses on the mining-development nexus articulated in the conflict around the first large-scale mine of Ecuador, El Mirador. The findings

  11. Primary healthcare providers' views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Orozco, M.; Ibarra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods: Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicarag...

  12. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  13. Four new species and one new subspecies of the catfish genus Corydoras from Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzman, S.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1970-01-01

    This paper contains figures and descriptions of four new species of Corydoras, C. atropersonatus, C. orphnopterus, from Ecuador, C. simulatus from Colombia, and C. pauciradiatus from Brazil. One new subspecies, Corydoras pastazenisis orcesi from Ecuador is figured and described as new. The

  14. La aleación inestable. Origen y consolidación de un Estado transformista: Ecuador, 1920 – 1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ospina Peralta, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    La historia del Ecuador se ha caracterizado por una vida política “apacible”, ajena a las guerras civiles, los asesinatos políticos y las muertes de manifestantes en las calles. ¿Qué distingue a Ecuador para explicar una historia política de más de medio siglo de resultados tan inusuales? Este

  15. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations in... Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date: February 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27, 2013...

  17. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  18. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Haiti, India, Iran, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives , Mauritius, North Korea, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka...http://www.state.gov/documents/ organization /143224.pdf. The text is also available at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/ archives/speeches/1983/31083c.htm...International Maritime Organization , Status of Multilateral Conventions and Instruments in Respect of Which the International Maritime Organization or its

  19. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  20. La televisión en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Merino Utreras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La falta de estudios de los medios audiovisuales en el Ecuador y América Latina y la necesidad de contar con una base metodológica para futuras indaga­ciones sobre la televisión, son factores que han influído poderosamente para efec­tuar esta primera investigación sobre las programaciones de televisión de Quito y Guayaquil, ciudades en las que se hallan concentradas las estaciones televisivas. De lo afirmado se establece la importancia de este trabajo que nos proporcionará datos sobre el verdadero contenido de los programas, para que los estudiosos de la comunicación establezcan la influencia de aquellos en el público televidente. Además el estudio tiende a descubrir la cantidad de mensajes que suscita en el receptor la alienación cultural; es conocida la inmensa cantidad de "enlatados" que difunden los canales de televisión, con material procedente del extranjero y especialmente de Europa y Estados Unidos.

  1. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.

    2017-06-01

    Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  2. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Diego; Palacio, Ana; Nuñez, Jose; Briones, Wladimir; Beier, John C; Pareja, Denisse C; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the April 2016 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador on the incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) cases. We used the national public health surveillance system for reportable transmissible conditions and included suspected and laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases. We compared the number of cases before and after the earthquake in areas closer to and farther from the epicenter. From January to July 2016, 2234 patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were reported in both affected and control areas. A total of 1110 patients had a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and 159 were positive for ZIKV. The cumulative incidence of ZIKV in the affected area was 11.1 per 100 000 after the earthquake. The odds ratio of having ZIKV infection in those living in the affected area was 8.0 (95% CI = 4.4, 14.6; P < .01) compared with the control area and adjusted for age, gender, province population, and number of government health care facilities. A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care.

  3. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  4. Cognitive impairment in rural elderly population in ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Wong-Achi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48, and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94 of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3 and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2 in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.

  5. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicaiza E.G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA, trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  7. Patters of Indian Depopulation in Early Colonial Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newson, Linda

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines regional variations in Indian population decline Ecuador in the sixteenth century. It examines the impact of Old World diseases and the economic enterprises the Spanish established in the region. Although the population declined by 85 percent, this figure masks considerable variations. There was no marked variation in levels of depopulation between the highlands and lowlands, but variations within those broad regions.

    Algunos autores han estimado que la población amerindia de Boriquén (Puerto Rico al comienzo del Período de Contacto era alta. Un sinnúmero de fuentes documentales y estudios arqueológicos nos obligan a cuestionar estos estimados. Dado que Puerto Rico se considera uno de los centros del «taíno clásico», creemos necesario reevaluar en profundidad los cálculos sobre la población prehispánica de la región

  8. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Cole

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  9. Environmental influences on human migration in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change.

  10. The species of Hemiancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro

    2017-05-29

    At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.

  11. Maternal deaths databases analysis: Ecuador 2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC. Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC’s website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women’s socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet.

  12. Local e-Government in Egypt : Integrating Lessons into the Next ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Egypt has had an electronic government program (Egypt Local e-Government Development Program - ELGDP) at the governorate level in place since 2001. The country has been ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events. View moreNew ...

  13. "Discourse on the Go": Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Mohamed; Nayef, Heba

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel…

  14. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  15. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  16. Influence of Safety Problems on the Development of International Tourism in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina G. Dzhilavyan

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description of the ancient lands – Egypt. Issued linked to repeated terrorism threads affecting the tourism industry in Egypt are considered. The drawbacks in the tourism industry the holiday makers might encounter are shown.

  17. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  18. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book...

  19. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  20. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  2. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. FINDINGS: Adult...... Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according...... to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling....

  3. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. The new reform educational in the Ecuador and its application in education special

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ernestina García Liscano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuador over the years, the government of the citizen revolution has made drastic changes in the education system,with the aim of improving the quality of learning of Ecuadorians. This article is aimed at analyzing the educational reform in Ecuador from the new institutions of the country, which constitutes the government of Econ. Rafael Correa Delgado with the new educational model that began in January 2010, from this restructuring conducted an analysis of special education in our country, if considered in the reforms and if taken due importance concerning the preparation of disabled people. This analysis also helps to demonstrate what are the benefits generated by the educational reform within specialized educational units, based on the perspective of before and after, and as by their application has been made to strengthen the processes of quality improvement, relevance, equity and efficiency of special education in Ecuador.

  5. Leukemia in children and youths of the Azuay province, Ecuador: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Mariagrazia; Ugalde, Jorge; Arteaga, Francisco Salgado; Biggio, Giuseppe; Flore, Valeria; Nonne, Tinucia; Satta, Giannina; Blangiardo, Marta; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    We mapped leukemia risk among children and youths in the Azuay province, Rio Paute river basin, Ecuador, in 2000-2010, using a Bayesian disease mapping model. We assessed the comprehensiveness of the list of leukemia cases from the Sociedad de Lucha contra el Càncer en el Ecuador (SOLCA) Hospital in Cuenca, the only referral center for oncology in the whole Rio Paute area, by comparison to the Quito cancer registry. Risk of leukemia did not vary significantly by canton within the Azuay province. However, a moderate increase in risk of borderline statistical significance was observed in the city of Cuenca and particularly among males in a heavily industrialized parish, who had an almost eight-fold excess (95% CI 3.03, 20.39, p = 0.01) of AML. Analytical studies are warranted to properly address specific etiological factor of leukemia among children and youths of the Azuay province of Ecuador.

  6. «Ecuador» de Henri Michaux: fazer a viagem é que é a viagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia de Carvalho Casa Nova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Uma viagem que pode não ter acontecido, mas que merece o nome de viagem. Uma desconstrução do paradigma desse gênero. Relato que plasma a configuração de um eu imaginário à procura de um ultrapassamento e de estar en dehors de soi-même.Palavras-chave: Henri Michaux; Ecuador; gênero; viagem.Resúmé: Un voyage qui peut n’avoir existé, mais qui mérite le nom de voyage par son caractère de desconstruction d’une littérature de ce genre. Récit de voyage qui  montre une autre configuration d’un sujet imaginaire à la recherche d’être en dehors de soi-même.Mots-clés: Henri Michaux; Ecuador; genre; voyage.Keywords: Henri Michaux; Ecuador; gender; journey.

  7. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  8. Implicaciones comerciales de la Diplomacia Petrolera China en el Amazonas ecuatoriano. 2007 - 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Ariza, María Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente Estudio de Caso tiene como objetivo analizar en qué medida las dinámicas comerciales de la Diplomacia Petrolera China han convertido a Ecuador en un socio estratégico para la RPCh. El petróleo como fuente de energía es primordial para llevar a cabo los procesos de industrialización y mantener el crecimiento económico del león Asiático. Por eso su búsqueda se ha convertido en un tema principal dentro de la agenda de política exterior. Ecuador, el tercer país de Suramérica con más r...

  9. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1 of 5 Vols. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The International Energy Assessment Program between Egypt and the U.S. was formulated from mid-March to mid-July, 1978. The assessment identified energy demand and supply options for Egypt that are consistent with its indigenous energy resources; assessed Egypt's ability to effectively use those options; and identified measures by which Egypt's energy-planning activities could be improved. The assessment addressed all known and potential energy supply options (oil, gas, coal, oil shale, hydroelectric, nuclear power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass). Using the Reference Energy System, two future energy supply/demand balances are constructed (for 1985 and the year 2000) and these are compared with a historical (1975) supply/demand balance. The feasibility of each of the options is established in terms of the availability of the required resources and of the processing, conversion, transport, and utilization technology.

  10. Análisis y mejoramiento de los procesos de abastecimiento de Primax en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilánez Vásconez, Christian

    2010-01-01

    La comercialización de combustibles en el Ecuador se desarrolla en un mercado regulado por el Gobierno, debido a las subvenciones que se aplican a los mismos. Este estudio comprende el análisis de los procesos de abastecimiento de la comercializadora Primax en el Ecuador, específicamente las actividades de compras, en un entorno donde existe un solo proveedor que es el Estado, y con precios de combustibles regulados. La tesis tiene el propósito de plantear mejoras en términos d...

  11. The economic exiles. The new Spanish emigration to Ecuador (2008-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    María Jara Rodríguez-Fariñas; Juan Manuel Romero-Valiente; Antonio Luis Hidalgo-Capitán

    2015-01-01

    El artículo analiza la emigración española a Ecuador entre 2008 y 2015, con los objetivos de definir el perfil del nuevo emigrante español a Ecuador, conocer las causas de su emigración, detectar los problemas iniciales de su proceso migratorio, identificar las condiciones de su situación actual y conocer sus expectativas de futuro. Para ello se ha utilizado una estrategia metodológica mixta, cuantitativa y cualitativa, combinando la investigación de primer y segundo orden. Hemos concluido qu...

  12. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  13. Natural infection of Lutzomyia tortura with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi in an Amazonian area of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Guevara, Angel G; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa. The species of this sand fly was identified as Lutzomyia (Lu.) tortura on the basis of morphologic characteristics. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequence identified the parasite as L. (Viannia) naiffi. We report the distribution of L. (V.) naiffi in Ecuador and detection of a naturally infected sand fly in the Ecuadorian Amazon and natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites in the New World.

  14. Modelo de autoregulación para organizaciones no gubernamentales microfinancieras-ONGs en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Guerrón, Yamile Yessenia

    2009-01-01

    100 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 2830 La presente investigación tiene por objeto diseñar un modelo de autoregulación que consolide el desarrollo de las ONGs microfinancieras en el Ecuador, como mecanismo alternativo de financiamiento a los sectores rurales y urbano marginales.Busca facilitar un modelo de "Autoregulación" para ONGs, dado que en el Ecuador no existe una regulación o una institución estatal que supervise a este tipo de operadores. Esta propuesta se sustenta en ...

  15. La situación de refugio y desplazamiento forzado en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Entender esta situación de refugio y desplazamiento forzado en el Ecuador es permitirnos ver la conflictividad que acontece y tiene sus repercusiones más dramáticas en todo el cordón fronterizo. La región fronteriza entre Colombia y Ecuador se ha visto afectada por el conflicto armado en Colombia y con mayor intensidad en los últimos años con la implementación del Plan Colombia, lo cual ha traído graves consecuencias en términos de migraciones y derechos humanos. En la región ha existido ...

  16. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  17. Symptomatic and subclinical infection with rotavirus P[8]G9, rural Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Endara, P; Trueba, G; Solberg, OD; Bates, SJ; Ponce, K; Cevallos, W; Matthijnssens, J; Eisenberg, JN

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, rotavirus genotype G9 has spread throughout the world, adding to and sometimes supplanting the common genotypes G1?G4. We report evidence of this spread in a population sample within rural Ecuador. A total of 1,656 stool samples were collected from both patients with diarrhea and asymptomatic residents in 22 remote communities in northwestern Ecuador from August 2003 through February 2006. Rotavirus was detected in 23.4% of case-patients and 3.2% of controls. From thes...

  18. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: Prevalence of Infection on the Ecuador-Colombia Border in the Province of Esmeraldas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guderian Joy R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology, Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology, La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology, and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology. A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border

  19. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 5 of 5 Vols. Annexes 11--13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal features of the existing environment of Egypt are characterized and the main problem areas identified in Annex 11. The environmental, health, and associated social issues that must be considered in choosing from among the options available to Egypt for meeting projected future energy needs are identified. The environmental impacts associated with these options are discussed and observations are made of alternte ways to minimize environmental insults. Annex 12, Manpower, analyzes the energy-related manpower situation of Egypt. Manpower education and training resources of Egypt; the existing manpower base of Egypt; manpower needs of the energy strategies; a comparison of manpower needs and existing manpower base; and the underlying economic and social factors that will make Egypt energy facility development very difficult to plan and execute are discussed. Annex 13 summarizes a preliminary analysis of the capital, labor, materials, and equipment resources required to implement alternative Egyptian energy futures and documents the assessment of several Egyptian energy development programs selected by the DOE. It egins with brief overviews of the ESPM model and data base. It then describes the method by which the system was adapted to Egyptian conditions and the results of this modification. The comparison Case energy development program is described, followed by a summary of ESPM-derived facility and resource requirements. Finally, the sensitivity of these results to several alternative energy strategies is illustrated.

  20. Globalising China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    In 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China decided to gradually open up its economy to achieve more economic development. Three and a half decades later, China has become an economic force to be reckoned with, surpassing Japan as the second largest economy in the world in 2010. China’s