WorldWideScience

Sample records for china diversity succession

  1. Bacterial diversity and community along the succession of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingchang; Kong, Weidong; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-06-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are common and play critical roles in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Bacteria, as an important community in BSCs, play critical roles in biochemical processes. However, how bacterial diversity and community change in different successional stages of BSCs is still unknown. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to investigate the bacterial composition and community, and the relationships between bacterial composition and environmental factors were also explored. In different successional stages of BSCs, the number of bacteria operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in each sample ranged from 2572 to 3157. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes were dominant in BSCs, followed by Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. At the successional stages of BSCs, bacterial communities, OTU composition and their relative abundance notably differentiated, and Cyanobacteria, especially Microcoleus vaginatus, dominated algal crust and lichen crust, and were the main C-fixing bacteria in BSCs. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased with the development of BSCs. OTUs related to Planomicrobium Chinese, Desulfobulbus sp., Desulfomicrobium sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Ahhaerbacter sp. showed higher relative abundance in bare sand than other successional stages of BSCs, while relative abundance of Sphingomonas sp. Niastella sp., Pedobacter, Candidatus solobacter, and Streptophyta increased with the development of BSCs. In successional stages of BSCs, bacterial OTUs composition demonstrated strong correlations with soil nutrients, soil salts, and soil enzymes. Additionally, variation of bacterial composition led to different ecological function. In bare sand, some species were related with mineral metabolism or promoting plant growth, and in algal crust and lichen crust, C-fixing bacteria increased and accumulated C to the desert soil. In later developed stage of BSCs, bacteria related with decomposition of organic matter, such as

  2. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  3. Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Matthias; Schmid, Bernhard; Hautier, Yann; Müller, Christine B

    2012-12-07

    Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of pollinator communities to investigate their consequences on the reproductive success of an obligate out-crossing model plant species, Raphanus sativus. Both fruit and seed set increased with pollinator FG richness. Furthermore, seed set increased with species richness in pollinator communities composed of a single FG. However, in multiple-FG communities, highest species richness resulted in slightly reduced pollination services compared with intermediate species richness. Our analysis indicates that the presence of social bees, which showed roughly four times higher visitation rates than solitary bees or hoverflies, was an important factor contributing to the positive pollinator diversity-pollination service relationship, in particular, for fruit set. Visitation rate at different daytimes, and less so among flower heights, varied among social bees, solitary bees and hoverflies, indicating a niche complementarity among these pollinator groups. Our study demonstrates enhanced pollination services of diverse pollinator communities at the plant population level and suggests that both the niche complementarity and the presence of specific taxa in a pollinator community drive this positive relationship.

  4. Genetic diversity for sustainable rice blast management in China: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla-Molina, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Disease management, genetic diversity, rice interplanting, competition, resource complementarity, technical efficiency, production function, Magnaporthe grisea

    The experience on rice blast in Yunnan Province, China, is one of the most successful and widely publicized examples

  5. Functional diversity changes during tropical forest succession.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Paz, H.; Breugel, van M.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) ‘those components of biodiversity that influence how an ecosystem operates or functions’ is a promising tool to assess the effect of biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning. FD has received ample theoretical attention, but empirical studies are limited. We evaluate

  6. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  7. Genetic diversity enhances restoration success by augmenting ecosystem services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reynolds

    Full Text Available Disturbance and habitat destruction due to human activities is a pervasive problem in near-shore marine ecosystems, and restoration is often used to mitigate losses. A common metric used to evaluate the success of restoration is the return of ecosystem services. Previous research has shown that biodiversity, including genetic diversity, is positively associated with the provision of ecosystem services. We conducted a restoration experiment using sources, techniques, and sites similar to actual large-scale seagrass restoration projects and demonstrated that a small increase in genetic diversity enhanced ecosystem services (invertebrate habitat, increased primary productivity, and nutrient retention. In our experiment, plots with elevated genetic diversity had plants that survived longer, increased in density more quickly, and provided more ecosystem services (invertebrate habitat, increased primary productivity, and nutrient retention. We used the number of alleles per locus as a measure of genetic diversity, which, unlike clonal diversity used in earlier research, can be applied to any organism. Additionally, unlike previous studies where positive impacts of diversity occurred only after a large disturbance, this study assessed the importance of diversity in response to potential environmental stresses (high temperature, low light along a water-depth gradient. We found a positive impact of diversity along the entire depth gradient. Taken together, these results suggest that ecosystem restoration will significantly benefit from obtaining sources (transplants or seeds with high genetic diversity and from restoration techniques that can maintain that genetic diversity.

  8. Genetic diversity enhances restoration success by augmenting ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura K; McGlathery, Karen J; Waycott, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance and habitat destruction due to human activities is a pervasive problem in near-shore marine ecosystems, and restoration is often used to mitigate losses. A common metric used to evaluate the success of restoration is the return of ecosystem services. Previous research has shown that biodiversity, including genetic diversity, is positively associated with the provision of ecosystem services. We conducted a restoration experiment using sources, techniques, and sites similar to actual large-scale seagrass restoration projects and demonstrated that a small increase in genetic diversity enhanced ecosystem services (invertebrate habitat, increased primary productivity, and nutrient retention). In our experiment, plots with elevated genetic diversity had plants that survived longer, increased in density more quickly, and provided more ecosystem services (invertebrate habitat, increased primary productivity, and nutrient retention). We used the number of alleles per locus as a measure of genetic diversity, which, unlike clonal diversity used in earlier research, can be applied to any organism. Additionally, unlike previous studies where positive impacts of diversity occurred only after a large disturbance, this study assessed the importance of diversity in response to potential environmental stresses (high temperature, low light) along a water-depth gradient. We found a positive impact of diversity along the entire depth gradient. Taken together, these results suggest that ecosystem restoration will significantly benefit from obtaining sources (transplants or seeds) with high genetic diversity and from restoration techniques that can maintain that genetic diversity.

  9. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Zoomer, H.R.; Berg, M.P.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Verhoef, H.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important areas in ecology is to elucidate the factors that drive succession in ecosystems and thus influence the diversity of species in natural vegetation. Significant mechanisms in this process are known to be resource limitation(1-3) and the effects of aboveground vertebrate

  10. [Genetic diversity of Sabina vulgaris populations at different succession stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Wang, Lin-He; Zhang, Guosheng; Enhe, Bayaer; Liang, Xiaorong

    2006-11-01

    By means of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, a molecular ecological study was made with Sabina vulgaris populations at 4 succession stages in Maowusu sandy grassland, aimed to reveal the relationships between molecular variation and succession stages. A total of 17 random primers were selected for amplification, and 190 repetitive loci were produced, of which, 173 were polymorphic. The data were analyzed by POPGENE 3. 2 Version 1. 31. The results showed that the genetic diversity of S. vulgaris populations was high, and changed with succession stages. The percentage of polymorphic loci in each S. vulgaris population ranged from 64.21% to 74.63%, with the highest in early succession stage Artemisia ordosica + S. vulgaris on semi-fixed sand dunes, and the lowest in sub-climax stage S. vulgaris on fixed dunes. The genetic differentiation among the populations was small (G(st) = 0.1761), and 82.39% of it was within the populations. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the populations at similar succession stage clustered together, suggesting that the genetic differentiation was closely related to succession stage. The genetic diversity indicated by Nei index ranged in 0. 2163 -0. 2564, and the gene flow (N(m) *) was 2.7972, indicating that more gene exchange occurred within the populations, which prevented the genetic differentiation among the populations at different succession stages.

  11. China in the Global Economy. Failure and Success

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Christer; Ljungberg, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    China’s present economic performance is frequently attributed to market reforms that have opened up the economy to foreign trade and investments. In this article we suggest that a historical comparative approach may cast new light on China’s present success. In imperial China the power of the mandarinate put limits on equality of opportunity and development of human capital, factors crucial for modern economic growth. Reforms and structural change in agriculture and expansion of primary and s...

  12. Diversity in research projects - A key to success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Taubner, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    According to demographers, psychologists, sociologists and economists diverse groups, which are groups of different race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation, are more innovative than homogeneous groups. This is also true for groups working together in research collaborations and international cooperation involving a culturally and functionally diverse mix of individuals who have to be integrated into an effective unit - a project team. If the goal is scientific excellence, diversity should be an essential ingredient to conduct science on high level productivity, quality and innovation. Effective teamwork is a key to project success and prime responsibilities of the project manager. Therefore, the project manager has to take into consideration different characteristics such as cultures, languages, and different values related to individual project partners. Here we show how diversity can affect the performance of a research project. Furthermore, the presentation indicates skills and abilities which are required for the management in order to deal also with the challenges of diversity in research projects. The presentation is based on insights experienced in the context of an Innovative Training Network (ITN) project within Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions of the European HORIZON 2020 program and TRION a Collaborative Research Project in the Framework of the Trilateral Program of the German Research Foundation.

  13. Diversity begets diversity? The effects of board composition on the appointment and success of women CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alison; Glass, Christy

    2015-09-01

    Previous research on the effects of leadership diversity on firm outcomes has produced inconsistent and inconclusive findings. While some scholars argue that diversity increases organizational equity and enhances performance, others argue that diversity increases conflict, reduces cooperation and harms performance. This study tests the impact of a variety of compositional factors on firm outcomes. Specifically, we analyze whether and how board composition affects the advancement and mobility of women CEOs and firm performance. Our analysis relies on a unique data set of all Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Board of Directors (BODs) in Fortune 500 companies over a ten-year period. We find a marginally significant positive relationship between board diversity and the likelihood of a woman being appointed CEO. We further find that board diversity significantly and positively influences the post-promotion success of women CEOs. Our findings suggest that board composition is critical for the appointment and success of women CEOs, and increasing board diversity should be central to any organizational diversity efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Culturable Fungi in Heshang Cave, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiying eMan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of 3 phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by alpha-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40 %, 54 % and 52 % in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks and bat guanos respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Aspergillus accounted for 9 %, 22 % and 37 % in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples beta-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal

  15. The distribution, diversity, and conservation status ofCycasin China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Feng, Xiuyan; Gong, Xun

    2017-05-01

    As ancient gymnosperm and woody plants, cycads have survived through dramatic tectonic activities, climate fluctuation, and environmental variations making them of great significance in studying the origin and evolution of flora biodiversity. However, they are among the most threatened plant groups in the world. The principal aim of this review is to outline the distribution, diversity, and conservation status of Cycas in China and provide suggestions for conservation practices. In this review, we describe the taxonomy, distribution, and conservation status of Cycas in China. By comparing Chinese Cycas species with its relatives worldwide, we then discuss the current genetic diversity, genetic differentiation of Cycas, and try to disentangle the potential effects of Quaternary climate changes and topographical events on Cycas . We review conservation practices from both researchers and practitioners for these rare and endangered species. High genetic diversity at the species level and strong genetic differentiation within Cycas have been observed. Most Cycas species in southwest China have experienced population retreats in contrast to the coastal Cycas 's expansion during the Quaternary glaciation. Additionally, human activities and habitat fragmentation have pushed these endangered taxa to the brink of extinction. Although numerous efforts have been made to mitigate threats to Cycas survival, implementation and compliance monitoring in protection zones are currently inadequate. We outline six proposals to strengthen conservation measures for Cycas in China and anticipate that these measures will provide guidelines for further research on population genetics as well as conservation biology of not only cycads but also other endangered species worldwide.

  16. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-06-06

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession.

  17. Geographical patterns in the beta diversity of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    Beta diversity (i.e. species turnover rate across space) is fundamental for understanding mechanisms controlling large-scale species richness patterns. However, the influences on beta diversity are still a matter of debate. In particular, the relative role of environmental and spatial processes (e.......g. environmental niche versus dispersal limitation of species) remains elusive, and the influence of species range size has been poorly tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11 405 woody species in China (ca 9.6 ¿ 106 km2), we investigated 1) the geographical and directional patterns of beta diversity for all...... woody species and species with different range sizes, and 2) compared the effects of environmental and spatial processes on these patterns. Beta diversity was calculated as the decay of similarity in species composition with increasing distance. Variables representing environmental energy, water...

  18. Multiple metrics of diversity have different effects on temperate forest functioning over succession.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zuoqiang; Wang, Shaopeng; Gazol, Antonio; Mellard, Jarad Pope; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Xugao; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured by taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. How ecosystem functioning depends on these measures of diversity can vary from site to site and depends on successional stage. Here, we measured taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity, and examined their relationship with biomass in two successional stages of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China. Functional diversity was calculated from six plant traits, and aboveground biomass (...

  19. Higher phylogenetic diversity prevents loss of functional diversity caused by successive drying and rewetting cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Laura; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Moitinho, Marta Alves; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-12-29

    Microbial communities regulate nutrient cycling in soil, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of these communities can cause an imbalance of nutrients in the environment. Structural and functional changes of soil bacterial communities in two contrasting biomes in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and the Tropical Dry Forest (Caatinga), were studied by simulating, in microcosms, rainfall and drought events. Soil samples were collected in three Brazilian states: Bahia, Pernambuco and São Paulo, in a total of four sampling sites. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon libraries revealed changes in microbial communities after three drying-rewetting cycles (60-30% water holding capacity). Alpha diversity indexes were obtained for bacterial communities, as well as the functional diversity index (Shannon) based on the activity of the following enzymes: acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, cellulase, amylase, urease and phytase. In general, the soils of Caatinga showed a decrease in the diversity indexes studied, conversely, however, the soils of Atlantic Forest were found to be more resistant during the drying-rewetting cycles. Functional diversity was significantly different for the two biomes, with a decrease in Caatinga soils, while Atlantic Forest samples demonstrated a greater stability of enzymatic activity. Further, the Atlantic Forest samples showed more resistance when compared to samples from Caatinga. The results found in this study have confirmed the hypothesis that biomes, independent of climate, when subjected to successive events of drought and rewetting exhibit structural and metabolic changes.

  20. Stratigraphic architecture of the Cryogenian successions of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Yin, Z.; Zhang, J.; Condon, D. J.; Macdonald, F. A.; Liu, P.

    2014-12-01

    Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cryogenian glacial successions provide primary data for elucidating climatic change of this critical interval. The Cryogenian strata of South China were deposited in a rift basin, and exhibit dramatic facies change from the basin center to margin, which complicates stratigtraphic correlations. Here we present new sedimentological, geochemical and stratigraphic data based on the detailed analyses of more than ten well exposed sections along a basinward transect from north-south. In the basin center, Cryogenian strata are about 4000 m thick and characterized by two glaciogenic diamictite units separated by a diamictite-free siliciclastic interval. Initiation of the Chang'an glaciation (Sturtian equivalent) is conformable and gradational with dropstones appearing in siltstone at the basal part of the Chang'an Formation followed by a shoaling-up sequence that is interpreted to represent a glacio-eustatic sea-level fall. In the basin center, >600 m of graded beds of siliciclastic rocks and debrites of the Fulu Formation overlie the Chang'an Formation. The Fulu Formation is succeeded by a thin (factors of glacial dynamics and active tectonism into account, we develop a facies model to interpret the sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture of these successions. Combined with new geochronological data, our data will provide tests for Cryogenian climatic models.

  1. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  2. Contingencies for Success: Examining Diversity Committees in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Raul A.; Williams, Damon A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on an examination of the work of 10 diversity committees operating in 10 research institutions across the midwestern region of the United States. We explored the work of these committees with a focus on the concept of strategic diversity leadership. To conduct this examination we examined five contingencies impacting the work of…

  3. Altitudinal Patterns of Species Diversity and Phylogenetic Diversity across Temperate Mountain Forests of Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of biodiversity and their underlying mechanisms have been an active area of research for a long time. In this study, a total of 63 samples (20m × 30m were systematically established along elevation gradients on Mount Tai and Mount Lao, China. We explored altitudinal patterns of plant diversity in the two mountain systems. In order to understand the mechanisms driving current diversity patterns, we used phylogenetic approaches to detect the spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic structure along two elevation gradients. We found that total species richness had a monotonically decreasing pattern and tree richness had a unimodal pattern along the elevation gradients in the two study areas. However, altitudinal patterns in shrub richness and herbs richness were not consistent on the two mountains. At low elevation, anthropogenic disturbances contributed to the increase of plant diversity, especially for shrubs and herbs in understory layers, which are more sensitive to changes in microenvironment. The phylogenetic structure of plant communities exhibited an inverted hump-shaped pattern along the elevation gradient on Mount Tai, which demonstrates that environmental filtering is the main driver of plant community assembly at high and low elevations and inter-specific competition may be the main driver of plant community assembly in the middle elevations. However, the phylogenetic structure of plant communities did not display a clear pattern on Mount Lao where the climate is milder. Phylogenetic beta diversity and species beta diversity consistently increased with increasing altitudinal divergence in the two study areas. However, the altitudinal patterns of species richness did not completely mirror phylogenetic diversity patterns. Conservation areas should be selected taking into consideration the preservation of high species richness, while maximizing phylogenetic diversity to improve the potential for

  4. Characteristics of phylogenetic diversity in airborne bacterial populations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zahra; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Martins, J. V.

    2011-05-01

    Considering their potential implications for human health, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem stability, surprisingly little is known about the composition or dynamics of the atmosphere's biological aerosols. The few studies that have examined phylogenetic diversity in China focused on a single sampling period, whereas this study spans 3 months and includes over 300 samples. The 300+ samples were categorized by month and direction of their back-trajectory. DNA extraction was carried out on the pooled samples in a quantitative manner to allow for comparison between the amount of extracted material and the amount of initial total aerosol mass. Within an individual month, samples originating from similar land types and approximately equidistant to the sampling location exhibited similar diversity, whereas samples originating from much greater distances and from different land types included phyla unique to that location. Phyla from the same origin also varied from one month to the next. The biological diversity found from the Phylochips reinforces the hypothesis that air samples carry a biological record of their history.

  5. Distribution and diversity of twelve Curcuma species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanyue; Wei, Jingwen; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Feng; Xian, Qiqiu; Su, Ping; Pan, Wanyi; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2018-02-01

    Genus Curcuma a wild species presents an important source of valuable characters for improving the cultivated Curcuma varieties. Based on the collected germplasms, herbariums, field surveys and other literatures, the ecogeographical diversity of Genus Curcuma and its potential distributions under the present and future climate are analysed by DIVA-GIS. The results indicate Genus Curcuma is distributed over 17 provinces in China, and particularly abundant in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The simulated current distributions are close to the actual distribution regions. In the future climate, the suitable areas for four Curcuma species will be extended, while for other three species the regions will be significantly decreased, and thus these valuable resources need protecting.

  6. Species diversity of house dust mites in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao; Yin, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Even though house dust mites are one of the most important allergens, there have been few studies in China for their identification and diversity. In this study, we reported that Dermatophagoides siboney was found for the first time in Beijing, China, in a temperate zone and it was also the first reported in Asia. This survey of mite prevalence was carried out in several districts of Beijing, a city of thirty million people. House dust samples were collected from 38 homes of mite-allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department from December 2008 to January 2010. Out of 345 house dust samples collected, 64% contained mites. Dermatophagoides farinae was the predominant species in the mite population found and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was second, and Dermatophagoides siboney was the third. The positive rates of samples were higher in single-story homes and lower buildings. The seasonal density distribution of house dust mites showed the highest mite concentration in September through October, followed by May through July, December to next January; and lowest in March and November.

  7. Critical Success Factors for Project Planning and Control in Prefabrication Housing Production: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of prefabrication housing production (PHP has been inevitably faced with diverse challenges. A number of factors affect the successful implementation of PHP. However, the critical success factors (CSFs remain unrevealed. This paper aims to examine the CSFs for the planning and control of PHP projects. A total of 23 factors were identified as a result of literature review, in-depth interviews and pilot studies with experts in the construction industry. A questionnaire survey was conducted with designers, manufacturers, and contractors in China. The result showed that the top five CSFs were: (1 designers’ experience of PHP, (2 manufacturer’s experience of PHP, (3 project manager’s ability to solve problems, (4 maturity of techniques used in the detailed design phase, and (5 persistent policies and incentives. The 23 CSFs were further categorized into five groups via exploratory factor analysis, namely: (1 technology and method, (2 information, communication and collaboration, (3 external environment, (4 experience and knowledge, and (5 competence of the project manager. In particular, “technology and method” played the dominant role. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge via a holistic approach covering the key actors of PHP such as designers, manufacturers as well as contractors to examine CSFs of PHP. These findings provided designers and project managers with a useful set of criteria for the effective project planning and control of PHP and facilitated the successful implementation PHP.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of successful ageing: a comparative study between China and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiush; Son, Joonmo; Zeng, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Successful ageing is often defined as a later life with less disease and disease-related disability, high level of cognitive and physical functions, and an active life style. Few studies have compared successful ageing across different societies in a non-Western social context. This study aims to compare prevalence and correlates of successful ageing between China and South Korea. The data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). A total of 19,346 community-dwelling elders over 65 years were included, 15,191 from China and 4,155 from Korea. A multidimensional construct of successful ageing was used, with the criteria of no major comorbidity, being free of disability, good mental health, engaging in social or productive activity, and satisfaction on life. Correlates of successful ageing included demographics (gender, age, and rural/urban residence), socioeconomic features (financial status, education, and spouse accompany), and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol-drinking, and exercising). The results showed that 18.6 % of the older adults in China was successful agers, which was less than 25.2 % in Korea. When gender and age were adjusted, older adults were 51 % less likely to be successful agers in China than Korea ( p  China and Korea. However, before the socioeconomic variables are under control, rural residence was negatively related to successful ageing in China, whereas this is not the case in Korea. And the gender gap of successful ageing was mostly explained by socioeconomic features and health behaviours in Korea, but not in China. In both countries, good financial condition was highly associated with successful ageing. The study suggests that advancement of public health system could better control progression of non-communicable diseases among old people and thus promote successful ageing.

  9. KIR diversity in three ethnic minority populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongxiu; Wang, Jue; He, Zhi; Li, Xiaojuan; Mao, Song; Huang, Shu; Bian, Guohui; Ma, Feng

    2015-07-11

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) show extensive variation in genetic content and allelic polymorphi sms among different populations. We analyzed the distribution of KIR genes in the Tibetan ethnic minority of Lhasa city, the Uyghur and Kazakh ethnic minorities of Urumqi city populations in China. Genotyping of 16 KIR genes was tested in 479 randomly selected individuals using the multiple PCR-SSP method. A total of 42 KIR genotypes were detected, of which, 29 were predicted to be AB genotypes, 12 were BB genotypes and one was AA genotypes. 27 KIR genotypes were identified in Kazakhs, 30 KIR genotypes were identified in Uyghurs and 20 KIR genotypes were identified in Tibetans. The predominant genotype 1(AA genotypes) occurred most frequently in Tibetans (52.7%, 118/224), Kazakhs (43.2%, 54/125) and Uyghurs (34.9%, 45/130). Not only the four framework genes were present in all individuals, but the pseudogene 2DP1 could also be detected in all Uyghur individuals. Tibetans were different from Kazakh and Uyghur groups in KIR genetic content and KIR allelic variation. Intriguingly, Tibetans (29.5%, 66/224) had lower frequencies of 2DS4-v when compared with Uyghurs (60.8%, 79/130) and Kazakh s (59.2%, 74/125). Uyghurs (25.4%, 33/130) displayed higher frequencies of Bx genotypes with C4Tx (absence of KIR3DS1-2DL5-2DS5-2DS1) than both Kazakhs (11.2%, 14/125) and Tibetans (3.6%, 8/224). The study showed that profile of KIR genotypes in three ethnic minority populations in China displayed ethnic diversity. It could be valuable for enriching the ethnical information resources for KIR gene, as well as facilitating further research on KIR-related diseases.

  10. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed.

  11. Bee Diversity (Hymenoptera: Apoidea in a Tropical Rainforest Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Smith-Pardo

    2007-01-01

    15.356 specimens were collected, belonging to four families and 287 species, representing 62% of all bee species found in Colombia. About 50% of all individuals sampled were stingless social bees (Apidae, Meliponini. Trigona (Trigona fulviventris was the most abundant species (~10% in the survey. Augochlora and Megachile were the most specious genera. The pasture and secondary forest showed high values of diversity and richness and were significantly higher than those of the mature forest and low shrubs. In all successional stages, except in the mature forest, the number of new species collected in each sample period approached zero and the species accumulation curves tended to stabilize as time and sampling area increased. The net was the most efficient method in all successional stages, except in the forest, where most bee species and individuals were collected with the Van Somer trap. However, a higher percentage (50% of rare species was collected with the Malaise trap. The number of new species collected in each sampled period and the species accumulation curves suggest that our survey was nearly sufficient to estimate the bee diversity in these early successional stages, but insufficient to study the mature forest apifauna. Due to the high efficiency of the Van Somer trap to attract bees in the forest, this trap should be used regularly in additional bee surveys in tropical rain forests. We also summarize the bee surveys in Colombia and highlight the importance of using other less common sampling methods to study bees from tropical ecosystems.

  12. Cretaceous sauropod diversity and taxonomic succession in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Faria, Caio César; Riga, Bernardo González; dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago; David, Leonardo Ortiz; Simbras, Felipe Medeiros; Castanho, Roberto Barboza; Muniz, Fellipe Pereira; Gomes da Costa Pereira, Paulo Victor Luiz

    2015-08-01

    The South American sauropod dinosaurs fossil record is one of the world's most relevant for their abundance (51 taxa) and biogeographical implications. Their historical biogeography was influenced by the continental fragmentation of Gondwana. The scenery of biogeographic and stratigraphic distributions can provide new insight into the causes of the evolution of the sauropods in South America. One of the most important events of the sauropods evolution is the progressive replacement of Diplodocimorpha by the Titanosauriformes during the early Late Cretaceous. The fluctuation of the sea levels is frequently related to the diversity of sauropods, but it is necessary to take into account the geological context in each continent. During the Maastrichthian, a global sea level drop has been described; in contrast, in South America there was a significant rise in sea level (named 'Atlantic transgression') which is confirmed by sedimentary sequences and the fossil record of marine vertebrates. This process occurred during the Maastrichtian, when the hadrosaurs arrived from North America. The titanosaurs were amazingly diverse during the Late Cretaceous, both in size and morphology, but they declined prior to their final extinction in the Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (65.5Yrs).

  13. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluating the impacts of slope aspect on forest dynamic succession in Northwest China based on FAREAST model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanshan; Ma, Jianyong; Shugart, Herman H.; Yan, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Mountain forests provide the main water resources and lumber for Northwest China. The understanding of the differences in forests growing among individual slope aspects in mountainous regions is of great significance to the wise management and planning of these natural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of slope aspect on forest dynamic succession in Northwest China by using the dynamic forest succession model (FAREAST). First, the simulated forest composition and vertical forest zonation produced by the model were compared against recorded data in three sub-regions of the Altai Mountains. The FAREAST model accurately reproduced the vertical zonation, forest composition, growth curves of the dominant species (Larix sibirica), and forest biomass in the Altai Mountains. Transitions along the forest zones of the Altai Mountains averaged about a 400 m difference between the northern and southern sites. Biomass for forests on north-facing slopes were 11.0, 15.3 and 55.9 t C ha-1 higher than for south-facing slopes in the Northeast, Central and Southeast sub-regions, respectively. Second, our analyses showed that the FAREAST model can be used to predict dynamic forest succession in Northwest China under the influence of slope and aspect. In the Altai Mountains, the north-facing slopes supported the best forest growth, followed by the west- and east-facing slopes. South-facing slopes consistently exhibited the lowest growth, biomass storage and forest diversity.

  15. Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumreicher, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    from European Union and China, agreed upon as a common result for the SUCCESS project, is as follows: "China is composed of a rich diversity of villages with many attractive qualities and essential resources for the future growth of the whole country; we recommend that policy makers cherish the human and natural potential of the rural economy and environment so that villages provide the foundation for sustainable development of this progressive nation" [Dumreicher, H., 2006. SUCCESS-a sustainable future for Chinese villages. International Symposium "Chinese Villages and their Sustainable Future", University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, January 16]. This sentence was used in papers that where sent to different Chinese authorities by the Chinese partners and found its way, as a sort of "unofficial Charta", towards governmental agencies at national and provincial levels. The team carried out a 5-year-research study in rural China, aiming at establishing future images under the premises of sustainability. But the basic topic that needed to be tackled with was the question whether at all those villages could persist in the coming decades of rapid development. Therefore, the first aim of the study was to establish the importance of the rural environment and living space as a basis for the future of China.

  16. "Guanxi" and School Success: An Ethnographic Inquiry of Parental Involvement in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ailei; Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the differential patterns of school success of rural students as a result of China's market transition. The process dimension, how families from different social backgrounds within rural society get involved in rural schooling and how this contributes to the inequality of school success within rural society, is investigated.…

  17. Multiple metrics of diversity have different effects on temperate forest functioning over succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuoqiang; Wang, Shaopeng; Gazol, Antonio; Mellard, Jarad; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Xugao; Loreau, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Biodiversity can be measured by taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. How ecosystem functioning depends on these measures of diversity can vary from site to site and depends on successional stage. Here, we measured taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity, and examined their relationship with biomass in two successional stages of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China. Functional diversity was calculated from six plant traits, and aboveground biomass (AGB) and coarse woody productivity (CWP) were estimated using data from three forest censuses (10 years) in two large fully mapped forest plots (25 and 5 ha). 11 of the 12 regressions between biomass variables (AGB and CWP) and indices of diversity showed significant positive relationships, especially those with phylogenetic diversity. The mean tree diversity-biomass regressions increased from 0.11 in secondary forest to 0.31 in old-growth forest, implying a stronger biodiversity effect in more mature forest. Multi-model selection results showed that models including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and single functional traits explained more variation in forest biomass than other candidate models. The models with a single functional trait, i.e., leaf area in secondary forest and wood density in mature forest, provided better explanations for forest biomass than models that combined all six functional traits. This finding may reflect different strategies in growth and resource acquisition in secondary and old-growth forests.

  18. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of

  19. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY AND ITS ATTRIBUTE FACTORS IN THE YUNMENG MOUNTAIN NATIONAL FOREST PARK IN BEIJING, CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Bai, Xiaohang; Shao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interaction of diversity with environmental gradients is an important topic in ecology. This study investigated the pattern of change in functional diversity in forest communities along an altitudinal gradient in Yunmeng Mountain National Forest Park, China. Forty-two quadrats measuring 10 x 10 m in the forest communities were set up along this altitudinal gradient; plant species, traits and environmental variables were measured and recorded. Six functional diversity indices, nam...

  1. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  2. The New Challenges of China's South to North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Water shortage has restricted the economic and social development of Beijing during recent years. The central route of China's South to North Water Diversion Project is planned to divert water from the Danjiangkou Reservoir to Beijing. Currently, the main local surface water source for Beijing is the Miyun Reservoir. We found that annual runoffs in both of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin and Miyun Reservoir Basin decreased significantly from 1956 to 2015. The decrease in runoff represents a decrease in available water resources. We classified each year between 1956 and 2015 as either a wet, normal or dry year based on the Pearson-III probability distribution of annual runoff. The probability of a simultaneous dry year in the two basins was about 8.8% during 1956 to 1989, while it increased to 33.7% during 1990 to 2015. The increase in probability of a simultaneous dry year could threaten the success of the water diversion project. We suggest that urgent adaptive measures are implemented in advance to face this challenge.

  3. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Successive Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Systems with Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new successive interference cancellation (SIC technique for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA systems with transmit diversity. The transmit diversity is achieved with a space-time block code (STBC. In our work we first consider hard decision SIC with an STBC, and then investigate the performance of soft decision SIC with an STBC. System performance over a Rayleigh fading channel is investigated and the analysis is confirmed by simulation.

  5. Key Success Factors of Innovation Projects of Vegetable Breeding Companies in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Zhen, Zhen; Kemp, R.G.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Huang, Caicheng; Dons, J.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The vegetable breeding industry is generally recognized as an innovation-driven industry. However, innovation is costly, time-consuming and uncertain. This study aims to identify the key success factors of innovation project performance of vegetable breeding companies (VBCs) in China. Based on

  6. A Survey of MNC Succession Planning Effectiveness in China, Summer 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Will

    2002-01-01

    Explains succession planning, an organizational management tool used to ensure continuous performance in an organization by identifying key internal people for work activities over time. Describes a survey of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in China that investigated human resource development practices, including localization of the…

  7. Innovation practices success in China: the use of innovation mechanisms in Chinese SOEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers-Ren, Liqin; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The climate for technical innovation has been improving in the past few years in China. This paper describes a case research concerning technical innovation practices success in three Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the manufacturing industry. This is executed by applying a

  8. Population diversity of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in China based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengnian; Jiang, Hongyan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Holford, Paul; Chen, Jianchi; Wallis, Christopher M; Zheng, Zheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing

    2018-04-24

    Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid, ACP) transmits "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP has been reported in 11 provinces/regions in China, yet its population diversity remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated ACP population diversity in China using representative whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences. Additional mitogenome sequences outside China were also acquired and evaluated. Sizes of the 27 ACP mitogenome sequences ranged from 14,986 to 15,030 bp. Along with three previously published mitogenome sequences, the 30 sequences formed three major mitochondrial groups (MGs): MG1, present in southwestern China and occurring at elevations above 1,000 meters; MG2, present in southeastern China and southeastern Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam) and occurring at elevations below 180 meters; and MG3, present in the United States and Pakistan. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes (cox2, atp8, nad3, nad1 and rrnL) contributed mostly in the ACP diversity. Among these genes, rrnL had the most variation. Mitogenome sequences analyses revealed two major phylogenetic groups of ACP present in China as well as a possible unique group present currently in Pakistan and the United States. The information could have significant implication to current ACP control and HLB management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of plant species diversity during succession under different disturbance regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Julie Sloan

    1980-07-01

    I suggest that between-community variations in diversity patterns during succession in plant communities are due to the effects of selection on life history strategies under different disturbance regimes. Natural disturbances to plant communities are simultaneously a source of mortality for some individuals and a source of establishment sites for others. The plant community consists of a mosaic of disturbance patches (gaps) of different environmental conditions. The composition of the mosaic is described by the size-frequency distribution of the gaps and is dependent on the rates and scales of disturbance. The life-history strategies of plant species dependent on some form of disturbance for establishment of propagules should reflect this size-frequency distribution of disturbance patches. An extension of island biogeographic theory to encompass relative habitat area predicts that a community should be most rich in species adapted to growth and establishment in the spatially most common patch types. Changes in species diversity during succession following large scale disturbance reflect the prevalent life history patterns under historically common disturbance regimes. Communities in which the greatest patch area is in large-scale clearings (e.g. following fire) are most diverse in species establishing seedlings in xeric, high light conditions. Species diversity decreases during succession. Communities in which such large patches are rare are characterized by a large number of species that reach the canopy through small gaps and realtively few which regenerate in the large clearings. Diversity increases during succession following a large scale disturbance.Evidence from communities characterized by different disturbance regimes is summarized from the literature. This hypothesis provides an evolutionary mechanism with which to examine the changes in plant community structure during succession. Diversity peaks occurring at "intermediate levels" of disturbance as

  10. Density and diversity of OpenStreetMap road networks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjia Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap is a geographic information platform designed to provide real-time updates and user-generated content related to its freely available global map, and it is one of the most widely used examples of volunteered geographic information, a technique associated with so-called neogeography. This paper, based on the data from China’s OpenStreetMap road network in May 2014, taking 340 prefecture-level cities in China as its study area, presents the geometric-related (road density and attribute-related (type diversity spatial patterns of the OpenStreetMap road network, and explores their relationship. The results are as follows. (1 The distribution of OpenStreetMap road density in Shenzhen, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Macao predominantly obeys a “positive skewness distribution”. OpenStreetMap data for eastern China shows a higher overall and circular structure. In central China, there are noticeable discrepancies in the road density, whereas in western China, the road density is low. (2 The OpenStreetMap road diversity shows a normal distribution. The spatial pattern for the so-called “Hu Huanyong line” was broken by the effect of diplomatic and strategic factors, showing a high diversity along the peripheral border, coastal cities, and core inland cites. (3 China’s OpenStreetMap is partitioned into four parts according to road density and diversity: high density and high diversity; low density and low diversity; high density and low diversity; and low density high diversity. (4 The OpenStreetMap geographical information-collection process and mechanism were analyzed, demonstrating that the road density reflects the preponderance of traffic in the real world. OpenStreetMap road diversity reflects the road-related geographic information demand and value, and it also reflects the interests of users toward to OpenStreetMap geographical information.

  11. Genetic diversity of Ustilago scitaminea Syd. in Southern China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymorphism and similarity relationships among 35 mating-type isolates of Ustilago scitaminea collected from Southern China were determined with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analyses. These fungal isolates were collected from 16 sugarcane cultivars ...

  12. Morphological diversity of wild medicinal Paris L. from China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris L. (Trilliaceae) is a temperate genus of about 24 perennial herbaceous species distributed from Europe to Eastern Asia. Paris is notable in China for its medicinal value. An investigation was conducted to determine the variations of 27 morphological characters of 196 accessions from 8 populations of medicinal Paris ...

  13. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  14. Genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China based on microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... The genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China was surveyed using 15 microsatellites. The five goat breeds included Tangshan dairy goat (TSD), Liaoning cashmere goat (LNC), Nanjiang yellow goat (NJY),. Chengde polled goat (CDP) and Leizhou black goat (LZB). The mean polymorphism information ...

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was.

  16. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  18. Invasion success and genetic diversity of introduced populations of guppies Poecilia reticulata in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K; Breden, Felix; Alexander, Heather J; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Thakurta, Sumita G; Brooks, Robert

    2005-10-01

    High genetic diversity is thought to characterize successful invasive species, as the potential to adapt to new environments is enhanced and inbreeding is reduced. In the last century, guppies, Poecilia reticulata, repeatedly invaded streams in Australia and elsewhere. Quantitative genetic studies of one Australian guppy population have demonstrated high additive genetic variation for autosomal and Y-linked morphological traits. The combination of colonization success, high heritability of morphological traits, and the possibility of multiple introductions to Australia raised the prediction that neutral genetic diversity is high in introduced populations of guppies. In this study we examine genetic diversity at nine microsatellite and one mitochondrial locus for seven Australian populations. We used mtDNA haplotypes from the natural range of guppies and from domesticated varieties to identify source populations. There were a minimum of two introductions, but there was no haplotype diversity within Australian populations, suggesting a founder effect. This was supported by microsatellite markers, as allelic diversity and heterozygosity were severely reduced compared to one wild source population, and evidence of recent bottlenecks was found. Between Australian populations little differentiation of microsatellite allele frequencies was detected, suggesting that population admixture has occurred historically, perhaps due to male-biased gene flow followed by bottlenecks. Thus success of invasion of Australia and high additive genetic variance in Australian guppies are not associated with high levels of diversity at molecular loci. This finding is consistent with the release of additive genetic variation by dominance and epistasis following inbreeding, and with disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on fitness traits.

  19. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China

  20. Effects of plant diversity, habitat and agricultural landscape structure on the functional diversity of carabid assemblages in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Duan, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.; Yu, Z.; Axmacher, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of plant diversity, habitat type and landscape structure on the functional diversity of the carabid assemblages in the agro-landscape of the North China Plain. We hypothesize (i) small, herbivorous and omnivorous carabids are more strongly affected by local plant diversity, while large and predatory carabids are strongly affected by landscape structure, and (ii) habitat type influences the diversity across functional groups. 2. In 2010, carabid beetles w...

  1. Soil pH determines fungal diversity along an elevation gradient in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Li; Wang, Juntao; Zhang, Limei

    2018-01-03

    Fungi play important roles in ecosystem processes, and the elevational pattern of fungal diversity is still unclear. Here, we examined the diversity of fungi along a 1,000 m elevation gradient on Mount Nadu, Southwestern China. We used MiSeq sequencing to obtain fungal sequences that were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to measure the fungal composition and diversity. Though the species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the fungal community did not exhibit significant trends with increasing altitude, they were significantly lower at mid-altitudinal sites than at the base. The Bray-Curtis distance clustering also showed that the fungal communities varied significantly with altitude. A distance-based linear model multivariate analysis (DistLM) identified that soil pH dominated the explanatory power of the species richness (23.72%), phylogenetic diversity (24.25%) and beta diversity (28.10%) of the fungal community. Moreover, the species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the fungal community increased linearly with increasing soil pH (Pdiversity along elevation gradients in Southwestern China.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  3. Locus of control and academic success among ethnically diverse baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, April Moy; Saylor, Coleen; Cohen, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study used quantitative and qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of the perceptions of locus of control and the academic success of baccalaureate nursing students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Students who were more likely to attribute academic outcomes to forces beyond their personal control were more likely to have lower medical-surgical theory grades, more likely to be Filipino or from other Asian groups, and more likely to be students for whom English was their second language. The most frequently reported factors students identified as contributors to academic success were good study strategies, persistence, and supportive social connections.

  4. Reactor physics standards: The key to successfully dealing with technical diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuckles, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Effective and valuable reactor physics standards can be successfully developed to accommodate diversity in available calculations tools and promote improvement in existing methods. The issues encountered and lessons learned in the standard, 'Calculation of Doppler Reactivity for Use in Thermal Light Water Reactor Analysis' (now under development by the ANS 19.7 working group), demonstrate this point. With a diversity of reactor physics tools available, differing levels of user experience, and a variety of procedures for calculating reactor physics parameters important to safety, it is not surprising that there are differing levels of quality in the calculational result of the same parameters. An approach that effectively deals with this technical diversity is standardization of the calculational process. This approach assures that the user's expectations are consistently met. In order for a standard to be effective, it must recognize and address three essential elements of this process: the user, a set of codes, and associated procedures

  5. Diversity and distribution of freshwater testate amoebae (protozoa) along latitudinal and trophic gradients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Lihua; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Wilkinson, David M

    2014-11-01

    Freshwater microbial diversity is subject to multiple stressors in the Anthropocene epoch. However, the effects of climate changes and human activities on freshwater protozoa remain poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae from the surface sediments were investigated in 51 Chinese lakes and reservoirs along two gradients, latitude and trophic status. A total of 169 taxa belonging to 24 genera were identified, and the most diverse and dominant genera were Difflugia (78 taxa), Centropyxis (26 taxa) and Arcella (12 taxa). Our analysis revealed that biomass of testate amoebae decreased significantly along the latitudinal gradient, while Shannon-Wiener indices and species richness presented an opposite trend (P trophic status (P trophic status on diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in China. Therefore, our results provide valuable baseline data on testate amoebae and contribute to lake management and our understanding of the large-scale global patterns in microorganism diversity.

  6. Bacterial diversity in relation to secondary production and succession on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mia M; Sjøtun, Kjersti; Lanzén, Anders; Øvreås, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Kelp forests worldwide are known as hotspots for macroscopic biodiversity and primary production, yet very little is known about the biodiversity and roles of microorganisms in these ecosystems. Secondary production by heterotrophic bacteria associated to kelp is important in the food web as a link between kelp primary production and kelp forest consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial diversity and two important processes in this ecosystem; bacterial secondary production and primary succession on kelp surfaces. To address this, kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, from southwestern Norway was sampled at different geographical locations and during an annual cycle. Pyrosequencing (454-sequencing) of amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was used to study bacterial diversity. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine was used as a measure of bacterial production. Our data show that bacterial diversity (richness and evenness) increases with the age of the kelp surface, which corresponds to the primary succession of its bacterial communities. Higher evenness of bacterial operational taxonomical units (OTUs) is linked to higher bacterial production. Owing to the dominance of a few abundant OTUs, kelp surface biofilm communities may be characterized as low-diversity habitats. This is the first detailed study of kelp-associated bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing and it extends current knowledge on microbial community assembly and dynamics on living surfaces. PMID:22763650

  7. Pollinator diversity and reproductive success of Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz (Orchidaceae in anthropogenic and natural habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rewicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Epipactis helleborine is an Eurasian orchid species which prefers woodland environments but it may also spontaneously and successfully colonise human-made artificial and disturbed habitats such as roadsides, town parks and gardens. It is suggested that orchids colonising anthropogenic habitats are characterised by a specific set of features (e.g., large plant size, fast flower production. However, as it is not well known how pollinator diversity and reproductive success of E. helleborine differs in populations in anthropogenic habitats compared to populations from natural habitats, we wanted to compare pollinator diversity and reproductive success of this orchid species between natural and anthropogenic habitat types. Methods Pollination biology, reproductive success and autogamy in populations of E. helleborine from anthropogenic (roadside and natural (forest habitats were compared. Eight populations (four natural and four human-disturbed ones in two seasons were studied according to height of plants, length of inflorescences, as well as numbers of juvenile shoots, flowering shoots, flowers, and fruits. The number and diversity of insect pollinators were studied in one natural and two human-disturbed populations. Results Reproductive success (the ratio of the number of flowers to the number of fruits in the populations from anthropogenic habitats was significantly higher than in the natural habitats. Moreover, plants from anthropogenic habitats were larger than those from natural ones. In both types of populations, the main insect pollinators were Syrphidae, Culicidae, Vespidae, Apidae and Formicidae. With respect to the type of pollinators’ mouth-parts, chewing (39%, sponging (34% and chewing-sucking (20% pollinators prevailed in anthropogenic habitats. In natural habitats, pollinators with sponging (55% and chewing mouth-parts (32% dominated, while chewing-sucking and piercing-sucking insects accounted for 9% and 4% respectively

  8. Loss of heterozygosity drives clonal diversity of Phytophthora capsici in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora capsici causes significant loss to pepper (Capsicum annum in China and our goal was to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for P. capsici and characterize genetic diversity nationwide. Eighteen isolates of P. capsici from locations worldwide were re-sequenced and candidate nuclear and mitochondrial SNPs identified. From 2006 to 2012, 276 isolates of P. capsici were recovered from 136 locations in 27 provinces and genotyped using 45 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial SNPs. There were two main mitochondrial haplotypes and 95 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs identified. Genetic diversity was geographically structured with a high level of genotypic diversity in the north and on Hainan Island in the south, suggesting outcrossing contributes to diversity in these areas. The remaining areas of China are dominated by four clonal lineages that share mitochondrial haplotypes, are almost exclusively the A1 or A2 mating type and appear to exhibit extensive diversity based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Analysis of SNPs directly from infected peppers confirmed LOH in field populations. One clonal lineage is dominant throughout much of the country. The overall implications for long-lived genetically diverse clonal lineages amidst a widely dispersed sexual population are discussed.

  9. Environmental determinants of woody plant diversity at a regional scale in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qian

    Full Text Available Understanding what drives the geographic variation of species richness across the globe is a fundamental goal of ecology and biogeography. Environmental variables have been considered as drivers of global diversity patterns but there is no consensus among ecologists on what environmental variables are primary drivers of the geographic variation of species richness. Here, I examine the relationship of woody plant species richness at a regional scale in China with sixteen environmental variables representing energy availability, water availability, energy-water balance, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity. I found that temperature seasonality is the best predictor of woody species richness in China. Other important environmental variables include annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest month, and potential evapotranspiration. The best model explains 85% of the variation in woody plant species richness at the regional scale in China.

  10. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  11. Prognostic factors for treatment success in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y-M; Ding, S-P; Bao, Z-J; Wu, L-M; Zhen, L-B; Xia, Q; Zhu, M

    2018-03-01

    To examine the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in China. This retrospective study involved 243 patients with MDR-TB. All patients received standard regimens containing para-amino salicylic acid (PAS) and/or cycloserine (CS). The demographic, social and clinical characteristics of patients were recorded and the patients were followed up for 24 months. Treatment success was closely associated with young age, non-farming occupations, shorter history or smoking, normal urine results, initial MDR-TB treatment regimen, increased haemoglobin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and lower white blood cell, neutrophil and blood platelet counts (all P factors for treatment success in MDR-TB. Higher haemoglobin and TSH levels, normal urine results and initial MDR-TB treatment regimen might predict successful treatment of MDR-TB.

  12. Molecular analysis and genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Peien, Leng; Xuejun, Wang; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species, which can carry Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and more than twenty arboviruses. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and samples collected from 17 populations, we investigated the molecular character and genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus from China. Altogether, 25 haplotypes were detected, including 10 shared haplotypes and 15 private haplotypes. H1 was the dominant haplotype, which is widely distributed in 13 populations. Tajima'D value of most populations was significantly negative, demonstrating that populations experienced rapid range expansion recently. Most haplotypes clustered together both in phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis without clear phylogeographic patterns. However, neutrality tests revealed shallow divergences among Hainan and Guangxi with other populations (0.15599 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.75858), which probably due to interrupted gene flow, caused by geographical isolations. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus populations showed low genetic diversity in China.

  13. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Corylus mandshurica in China Using SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zong

    Full Text Available Corylus mandshurica, also known as pilose hazelnut, is an economically and ecologically important species in China. In this study, ten polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were applied to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 348 C. mandshurica individuals among 12 populations in China. The SSR markers expressed a relatively high level of genetic diversity (Na = 15.3, Ne = 5.6604, I = 1.8853, Ho = 0.6668, and He = 0.7777. According to the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.1215, genetic variation within the populations (87.85% were remarkably higher than among populations (12.15%. The average gene flow (Nm = 1.8080 significantly impacts the genetic structure of C. mandshurica populations. The relatively high gene flow (Nm = 1.8080 among wild C. mandshurica may be caused by wind-pollinated flowers, highly nutritious seeds and self-incompatible mating system. The UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. Moreover, the results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that C. mandshurica populations fell into two main clusters. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among populations of C. mandshurica. Group I accessions were located in Northeast China, while Group II accessions were in North China. It is worth noting that a number of genetically similar populations were located in the same geographic region. The results further showed that there was obvious genetic differentiation among populations from Northeast China to North China. Results from the Mantel test showed a weak but still significant positive correlation between Nei's genetic distance and geographic distance (km among populations (r = 0.419, P = 0.005, suggesting that genetic differentiation in the 12 C. mandshurica populations might be related to geographic

  14. A spider species complex revealed high cryptic diversity in South China caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2014-10-01

    Cryptic species, which are an important component of biodiversity, have rarely been studied in South China karst. We investigated cryptic diversity in the cave species complex Telema cucurbitina, which has a narrow niche but widespread distribution among multiple caves. We sampled another 15 populations (caves) in addition to the population from the type locality. Phylogenetic results indicated that individuals from the same cave constituted well-supported clades. Species diversity within this species complex was assessed in a coalescent framework, first with a Bayesian extension of the general mixed Yule coalescent (bGMYC) model and a Bayesian species delimitation method (BPP). Both species delimitation methods identified each cave population as a separate species. We propose that each cave population within this species complex was a separate evolving lineage and therefore 16 OTUs were recovered based on our molecular data despite their high morphological similarities. We also propose that the unrecognized organism's diversity within South China caves might be extremely large considering our case. Furthermore, our work reveals that species discovery of cave organisms by morphological data has a high probability of underestimating hidden diversity. Our work also highlights the need for conservation strategies to protect this largely neglected diversity of cave organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called "Dahongjun" or "Big Red Mushroom" by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The ectomycorrhizal mushroom "Dahongjun" from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

  16. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China

    OpenAIRE

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  17. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  18. Low Microbial Diversity and Abnormal Microbial Succession Is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbler, Priscila T.; Procianoy, Renato S.; Mai, Volker; Silveira, Rita C.; Corso, Andréa L.; Rojas, Bruna S.; Roesch, Luiz F. W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased efforts, the diverse etiologies of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) have remained largely elusive. Clinical predictors of NEC remain ill-defined and currently lack sufficient specificity. The development of a thorough understanding of initial gut microbiota colonization pattern in preterm infants might help to improve early detection or prediction of NEC and its associated morbidities. Here we compared the fecal microbiota successions, microbial diversity, abundance and structure of newborns that developed NEC with preterm controls. A 16S rRNA based microbiota analysis was conducted in a total of 132 fecal samples that included the first stool (meconium) up until the 5th week of life or NEC diagnosis from 40 preterm babies (29 controls and 11 NEC cases). A single phylotype matching closest to the Enterobacteriaceae family correlated strongly with NEC. In DNA from the sample with the greatest abundance of this phylotype additional shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed Citrobacter koseri and Klebsiella pneumoniae as the dominating taxa. These two taxa might represent suitable microbial biomarker targets for early diagnosis of NEC. In NEC cases, we further detected lower microbial diversity and an abnormal succession of the microbial community before NEC diagnosis. Finally, we also detected a disruption in anaerobic microorganisms in the co-occurrence network of meconium samples from NEC cases. Our data suggest that a strong dominance of Citrobacter koseri and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae, low diversity, low abundance of Lactobacillus, as well as an altered microbial-network structure during the first days of life, correlate with NEC risk in preterm infants. Confirmation of these findings in other hospitals might facilitate the development of a microbiota based screening approach for early detection of NEC. PMID:29187842

  19. Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikun Du

    Full Text Available Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter. A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221 waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224 waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001 contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns.

  20. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhenzhou; Chen, Qianqian; Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking "Golden triangle" and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong.

  1. The second great wall of China: evolution of a successful policy of population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1989-10-01

    In 1949, Mao Tse-tung professed that overpopulation could not occur under communism and more people and socialist organization leads only to more wealth and power. Yet 3 decades later communist China has adopted Malthusian population policies claiming them as socialist with a Chinese approach. This shift is ideology came about due to rapid population growth, concomitant food shortages, and insufficient economic growth. Since 1982 China has added 13 million persons/year to its population of 1 billion. In 1963, urban fertility began to decline from 6 children/woman to 3 at the end of the decade. The early 1970s marked the beginning of the politicization of birth control. Unlike Western nations and other developing countries that emphasize the health of mothers and children in their family planning campaigns, China emphasizes political goals. For example, the Chinese purports that family planning can speed world revolution by reducing family size. The Chinese prefer to persuade others to use contraceptives rather than coercing them to do so. Actually Chinese prefer very small families (2 in urban areas and 2 in rural areas). This persuasion and the introduction of oral contraceptives (OCs) and a simpler technique for female sterilization (minilaparotomy) contributed to the high contraceptive usage of 70% for couples of childbearing age and a high abortion rate of 318/1000 live birth by the end of the 1970s. The Chinese constitution states that family planning is the duty of each couple rather than a right. Further, the government has a 1 child/couple population policy. Even though China has had many successes, it has not reached a below replacement level (1989 total fertility rate=2.4), however.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Sitodiplosis mosellana in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Duan

    Full Text Available The wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, is an important pest in Northern China. We tested the hypothesis that the population structure of this species arises during a range expansion over the past 30 years. This study used microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to conduct population genetic analysis of S. mosellana across its distribution range in China. We found strong genetic structure among the 16 studied populations, including two genetically distinct groups (the eastern and western groups, broadly consistent with the geography and habitat fragmentation. These results underline the importance of natural barriers in impeding dispersal and gene flow of S. mosellana populations. Low to moderate genetic diversity among the populations and moderate genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.117 between the two groups were also found. The populations in the western group had lower genetic diversity, higher genetic differentiation and lower gene flow (F ST = 0.116, Nm = 1.89 than those in the eastern group (F ST = 0.049, Nm = 4.91. Genetic distance between populations was positively and significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.56, P<0.001. The population history of this species provided no evidence for population expansion or bottlenecks in any of these populations. Our data suggest that the distribution of genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and population structure of S. mosellana have resulted from a historical event, reflecting its adaptation to diverse habitats and forming two different gene pools. These results may be the outcome of a combination of restricted gene flow due to geographical and environmental factors, population history, random processes of genetic drift and individual dispersal patterns. Given the current risk status of this species in China, this study can offer useful information for forecasting outbreaks and designing effective pest management programs.

  3. Sediment enzyme activities and microbial community diversity in an oligotrophic drinking water reservoir, eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihan Zhang

    Full Text Available Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH₃-N/(g·24 h. The highest average well color development (AWCD was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir.

  4. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  5. Religious diversity and patrimonialization A case study of the Nianli Festival in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the neologism ‘intangible cultural heritage’ in 2003 and the adoption of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People’sRepublic of China in 2011 various popular religious practices in China which used to be considered as feudal superstitions started to be recognized as examples of cultural heritage worthy of protection. If we examine the concept of religious diversity at a local level in contemporary China, the process of a ‘patrimonialization’ of popular religious practices that reflect the dynamic relationships which can be detected across diverse discourses, multiple stakeholders and cultural policies in different arenas could offer us a new perspective on religious practices to explore. In this article I offer an analysis, based on fieldwork conducted between 2013 and 2016 on the Leizhou Peninsula in southern China’s Guangdong Province, of the varying degrees of acceptance, accommodation and resistance prompted by the actualization of popular religious practices in this era of patrimonialization.

  6. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  7. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Chen, S F; Mou, X; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J

    2015-03-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising.

  8. Voices of successful science teachers in an urban diverse single gender girls' school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for female students of color in their classrooms. Ethic of Care, equity pedagogy and culturally responsive pedagogy, created the theoretical framework for interpretation of the powerful narratives and storytelling that influenced this group of successful teachers. Data were collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Constant comparative method and narrative analysis were used to code and categorize the data. Analysis was conducted after each interview to discover emergent themes. Teachers conducted member checks throughout the process. The findings from the study yielded the following: (1) teachers had a passion for science and incorporated ongoing scientific developments and real-life examples and applications in their teaching, (2) teachers adopted a caring, concerned, and student-centered approach to teaching, (3) teachers acknowledged certain benefits to a single-sex girls education which included fewer distractions, increased confidence and comfort level of students, (5) teachers built relationships with students that encouraged students to engage with rigorous course content and meet higher expectations for performance. Themes that emerged included: care, culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally relevant curriculum.

  9. Genetic diversity of Centella asiatica in China analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers: combination analysis with chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Han, Ting; He, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Lei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica is an important plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine. To help the efficient use and conservation of this species, the genetic diversity of C. asiatica populations in China was investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Fourteen natural populations comprising 162 individuals were included to estimate genetic diversity. At the species level, genetic diversity was relatively high (P = 66.33%, H = 0.2183, I = 0.3305). At the population level, the genetic diversity of JH (Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, China) and JJ (Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province, China) populations was relatively high (P = 43.88%, 38.78%, H = 0.1610, 0.1301, I = 0.2376, 0.1957, respectively), whereas the genetic diversity of GA (Guang'an, Sichuan Province, China) and EM (E'mei, Sichuan Province, China) was relatively low (P = 10.2%, 5.1%, H = 0.0383, 0.0211, I = 0.0570, 0.0309, respectively). On the basis of Nei's G(st) value, more genetic differentiation among populations was determined (G(st) = 0.6573). In addition, the 14 populations were clustered into four groups in view of abundant ISSR data, which further defined the genetic relationship among populations. Interestingly, the genetic clustering result was similar to previous chemical clustering results based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data, which would also classify the 14 populations into four groups. Thus, we combined the clustering results and compared their difference. The combined analysis and genetic diversity data provide a scientific basis for conserving populations of relatively high genetic diversity such as JH and JJ populations and establishing good agricultural practices (GAP) for C. asiatica.

  10. Successful aging in the United States and China: a theoretical basis to guide nursing research, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2015-03-01

    Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Fengshui forests conserve genetic diversity: a case study of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y J; Liu, Y J; Shen, A H; Lin, X C

    2015-03-20

    Fengshui forests (sacred groves) are important in traditional Chinese culture and home to many endangered species. These forests may provide protection for some endangered plant species outside the nature reserves, but little is known about their role in genetic conservation. Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, we compared the genetic diversity of 6 populations of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang, a commercially important woody species, which is under second-class national protection and endemic to China. Samples were collected from the nature reserves and Fengshui forests in southern China. Herein, we show that Fengshui forest populations are capable of maintaining some level of genetic diversity. For nature reserve populations, the average NA and NE were 1.58 and 1.39, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 1.39 and 1.12, respectively. For nature reserve populations, Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's index (I) were 0.32 and 0.11, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 0.22 and 0.07, respectively. We discuss the reasons for the genetic differences between populations of the Fengshui forests and nature reserves and propose conservation strategies for the Fengshui forest.

  12. [Diversity of culturable actinomycetes in sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai Bay, Dalian, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Tan, Yi; Chen, Feifei; Zhou, Hongxia; Wang, Yiguang; He, Weiqing; Wang, Yong

    2011-02-01

    To study the diversity of culturable actinomycetes isolated from the sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai bay, Dalian, China. By using five different media strains we isolated actinomycetes strains from the sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai bay, Dalian, China. Partial 16S rRNA sequences were carried out to characterize the diversity of culturable actinomycetes. A total of 1215 colonies with phenotypical actinomycetes were isolated, of which 271 were classified by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. The data showed that 251 strains were homologous with Actinobacteria (92.26% ) including 15 genera of 11 families, and the remaining 20 strains were possible members of the phylum Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. There were 7 strains (3-166, 3-117, 3-435, 5-186-2, 5-9, 5-171, 3-134) to be preliminarily identified as unreported species. A high diversity of culturable actinomycets both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition was presented from the sea deposit of Tiger beach in Bohai bay.

  13. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a total of 77 actinomycete strains were isolated from 15 South China Sea sponge species. Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 12 families and 20 genera, among which three rare genera (Marihabitans, Polymorphospora, and Streptomonospora) were isolated from marine sponges for the first time. Subsequently, β-ketoacyl synthase (KSα) gene was used as marker for evaluating the potential of the actinomycete strains to produce aromatic polyketides. As a result, KSα gene was detected in 35 isolates related to seven genera (Kocuria, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, and Streptomyces). Finally, 10 strains were selected for small-scale fermentation, and one angucycline compound was detected from the culture extract of Streptomyces anulatus strain S71. This study advanced our knowledge of the sponge-associated actinomycetes regarding their diversity and potential in producing aromatic polyketides. PMID:26483773

  14. Soil aggregation and intra-aggregate carbon fractions in relation to vegetation succession on the Loess Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Man; Xiang, Yun; Xue, Zhijing; An, Shaoshan; Darboux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Revegetation has been reported to be one of the most effective measures for reducing soil erosion on the Loess Plateau in China. The Yunwu observatory, located in the northwestern Loess Plateau of China, was selected to study the effect of vegetation succession on total carbon (C), aggregate C, and intra-aggregate particulate organic matter-carbon (iPOM-C) concentrations. The vegetation types studied, listed from the shortest to the longest enclosure duration order, were abandoned graze...

  15. Plant species diversity as a driver of early succession in abandoned fields: a multi-site approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, W H; Mortimer, S R; Hedlund, K; Van Dijk, C; Brown, V K; Lepä, J; Rodriguez-Barrueco, C; Roy, J; Diaz Len, T A; Gormsen, D; Korthals, G W; Lavorel, S; Regina, I Santa; Smilauer, P

    2000-07-01

    Succession is one of the most studied processes in ecology and succession theory provides strong predictability. However, few attempts have been made to influence the course of succession thereby testing the hypothesis that passing through one stage is essential before entering the next one. At each stage of succession ecosystem processes may be affected by the diversity of species present, but there is little empirical evidence showing that plant species diversity may affect succession. On ex-arable land, a major constraint of vegetation succession is the dominance of perennial early-successional (arable weed) species. Our aim was to change the initial vegetation succession by the direct sowing of later-successional plant species. The hypothesis was tested that a diverse plant species mixture would be more successful in weed suppression than species-poor mixtures. In order to provide a robust test including a wide range of environmental conditions and plant species, experiments were carried out at five sites across Europe. At each site, an identical experiment was set up, albeit that the plant species composition of the sown mixtures differed from site to site. Results of the 2-year study showed that diverse plant species mixtures were more effective at reducing the number of natural colonisers (mainly weeds from the seed bank) than the average low-diversity treatment. However, the effect of the low-diversity treatment depended on the composition of the species mixture. Thus, the effect of enhanced species diversity strongly depended on the species composition of the low-diversity treatments used for comparison. The effects of high-diversity plant species mixtures on weed suppression differed between sites. Low-productivity sites gave the weakest response to the diversity treatments. These differences among sites did not change the general pattern. The present results have implications for understanding biological invasions. It has been hypothesised that alien

  16. A Nursing Workforce Diversity Project: Strategies for Recruitment, Retention, Graduation, and NCLEX-RN Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ted A; Pole, David C; Ciarlo, Erica M; Holmes, Shearon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a collaborative project designed to recruit and retain students from underrepresented minorities and disadvantaged backgrounds into nursing education. Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in the nursing workforce in comparison to the general population. The numbers of minorities enrolled in nursing education programs are insufficient to meet the health care workforce diversity needs of the future. High school students were provided with a preprofessional education program to prepare them for admission into a nursing program. Retention strategies were implemented for newly admitted and enrolled nursing education students. Twenty-one high school students enrolled in a nursing education program. The students enrolled in the nursing education program graduated and passed the licensure examination. Early recruitment and multiprong retention programs can be successful in diversifying the registered nurse workforce.

  17. "Biomedical Workforce Diversity: The Context for Mentoring to Develop Talents and Foster Success Within the 'Pipeline'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Like all biomedical research fields, AIDS research needs the broadest diversity of experiences and perspectives among researchers in the field if creative advancements are to be achieved. Mentors and mentoring are the most important vehicles by which the talents of young scientists are developed. However, mentoring as a teaching and learning paradigm is very complex and idiosyncratic, and often inadvertently fails to provide the same quality and quantity of opportunity to aspiring scientists who are 'different' from those doing the mentoring. This article provides a theoretical and practical framework for understanding how differences of race, ethnicity, gender, skin color, social status and other identifiable characteristics can play into scientific development during mentoring 'within the pipeline'. It also serves as a foundation upon which mentoring in AIDS is considered by subsequent papers in this series. Finally, it goes beyond mentoring to propose systematic coaching as an effective complement to research mentoring to promote success, especially for individuals from underrepresented groups.

  18. Feasibility of recruiting a diverse sample of men who have sex with men: observation from Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available Respondent-driven-sampling (RDS has well been recognized as a method for sampling from most hard-to-reach populations like commercial sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men. However the feasibility of this sampling strategy in terms of recruiting a diverse spectrum of these hidden populations has not been understood well yet in developing countries.In a cross sectional study in Nanjing city of Jiangsu province of China, 430 MSM were recruited including 9 seeds in 14 weeks of study period using RDS. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk behavior were collected and testing was done for HIV and syphilis. Duration, completion, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors were used for assessing feasibility of RDS. Homophily of key variables, socio-demographic distribution and social network size were used as the indicators of diversity.In the study sample, adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence were 6.6% and 14.6% respectively. Majority (96.3% of the participants were recruited by members of their own social network. Although there was a tendency for recruitment within the same self-identified group (homosexuals recruited 60.0% homosexuals, considerable cross-group recruitment (bisexuals recruited 52.3% homosexuals was also seen. Homophily of the self-identified sexual orientations was 0.111 for homosexuals. Upon completion of the recruitment process, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors indicated that RDS was feasible for sampling MSM in Nanjing. Participants recruited by RDS were found to be diverse after assessing the homophily of key variables in successive waves of recruitment, the proportion of characteristics after reaching equilibrium and the social network size. The observed design effects were nearly the same or even better than the theoretical design effect of 2.RDS was found to be an efficient and feasible sampling method for recruiting a diverse

  19. Genetic diversity patterns of microeukaryotic plankton communities in Shenhu Bay, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Yongbo; Yu, Lingyu; Liu, Lemian

    2017-06-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton is an abundant and diverse component of marine environments and plays an important role in microbial food webs. However, few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of microeukaryotes in the subtropical bays of China. In the present study, we investigated the microeukaryotic plankton in the Shenhu Bay by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of prominent bands. Our results indicated that Copepoda and Dinophyceae were the most diverse groups, and that the microeukaryotic communities varied significantly between summer and autumn, with the autumn communities exhibited a higher diversity than summer communities. Furthermore, the community composition and diversity from both surface and bottom waters showed more significant differences in summer than in autumn. Environmental parameters also displayed obvious seasonal patterns. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that temperature was the most significant environmental factor shaping the seasonal patterns of the microplanktonic members in the Shenhu Bay. Community-level molecular techniques such as DGGE appear as useful tools to detect the presence of red tide causing species and to guide the management of coastal water mariculture.

  20. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA major capsid gene (g5 was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS, temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.

  1. Grazer diversity interacts with biogenic habitat heterogeneity to accelerate intertidal algal succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Matthew A; Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to coexistence by allowing species with different traits to persist when different species perform best at different times or places. This interaction between niche differences and environmental variability may also help explain relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few data are available to rigorously evaluate this hypothesis. We assessed how a biologically relevant aspect of environmental heterogeneity interacts with species diversity to determine ecosystem processes in a natural rocky intertidal community. We used field removals to factorially manipulate biogenic habitat heterogeneity (barnacles, bare rock, and plots that were 50/50 mixes of the two habitat types) and gastropod grazer species richness and then tracked algal community succession and recovery over the course of 1 yr. We found that herbivore diversity, substrate heterogeneity, and their interaction played unique roles in the peak abundance and timing of occurrence of different algal functional groups. Early successional microalgae were most heavily grazed in diverse herbivore assemblages and those with barnacles present, which was likely due to complementary feeding strategies among all three grazers. In contrast, late successional macroalgae were strongly influenced by the presence of a habitat generalist limpet. In this herbivore's absence, heterogeneous habitats (i.e., mixtures of bare rock and barnacles) experienced the greatest algal accumulation, which was partly a result of complementary habitat use by the remaining herbivores. The complex way habitat identity and heterogeneity altered grazer-algal interactions in our study suggests species' differences and environmental heterogeneity both separately and interactively contribute to the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. First insight into the genotypic diversity of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Gansu Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n = 409, while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n = 378. The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%, followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%, the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates, the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%. By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis.

  3. Diversity politics in transnational corporations – myth or result of successful diffusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiederig, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of globalization, diversity in the labor markets is on the increase. In a double movement, transnational corporations benefit from global inequality on the one hand; on the other hand they introduce “diversity management” strategies to deal with the growing diversity within the organization proactively. In this paper, diversity is understood as a generic term for the recognition of diversity and diversity management as its operationalization in a management strategy. Various s...

  4. Inspiring science achievement: a mixed methods examination of the practices and characteristics of successful science programs in diverse high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Cavlazoglu, Baki; LeBlanc, Jennifer; Stuessy, Carol L.

    2017-08-01

    While the achievement gap in science exists in the US, research associated with our investigation reveals some high school science programs serving diverse student bodies are successfully closing the gap. Using a mixed methods approach, we identified and investigated ten high schools in a large Southwestern state that fit the definition of "highly successful, highly diverse". By conducting interviews with science liaisons associated with each school and reviewing the literature, we developed a rubric identifying specific characteristics associated with successful science programs. These characteristics and practices included setting high expectations for students, providing extensive teacher support for student learning, and utilizing student-centered pedagogy. We used the rubric to assess the successful high school science programs and compare them to other high school science programs in the state (i.e., less successful and less diverse high school science programs). Highly successful, highly diverse schools were very different in their approach to science education when compared to the other programs. The findings from this study will help schools with diverse students to strengthen hiring practices, enhance teacher support mechanisms, and develop student-focused strategies in the classroom that increase science achievement.

  5. Inbreeding and Genetic Diversity in Three Imported Swine Breeds in China Using Pedigree Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern swine breeds in China. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Chinese Duroc (CD, Landrace (CL and Yorkshire (CY swine to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding, and to identify the main causes of genetic diversity loss. Pedigree files from CD, CL and CY containing, 4529, 16,776 and 22,600 records, respectively, were analyzed. Pedigree completeness indexes of the three breeds, accounting for one generation back, were 83.72, 93.93 and 93.59%, respectively. The estimated average annual inbreeding rates for CD, CL and CY in recent three years were 0.21, 0.19 and 0.13%, respectively. The estimated average percentage of genetic diversity loss within each breed in recent three years was about 8.92, 2.19, and 3.36%, respectively. The average relative proportion of genetic diversity loss due to unequal contributions of founders in CD, CL and CY was 69.09, 57.95 and 60.57%, and due to random genetic drift was 30.91, 42.05 and 39.43%, respectively. The estimated current effective population size for CD, CL and CY was 76, 117 and 202, respectively. Therefore, CD has been found to have lost considerable genetic diversity, demanding priority for optimizing the selection and mating to control future coancestry and inbreeding. Unequal contribution of founders was a major cause of genetic diversity loss in Chinese swine breeds and random genetic drift also showed substantial impact on the loss of diversity.

  6. Free polyamine content during algal bloom succession in the East China Sea in spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Caiyan; Miao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We measured the concentrations and distribution of major polyamines (spermine, putrescine and spermidine) in seawater during successive spring algal blooms in an area of frequent harmful blooms in the East China Sea. Spermine, putrescine, and spermidine concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and ranged from 1-64, 7-81, and 0-19 nmol/L. Spermine was present at the highest concentrations, followed by putrescine and spermidine. In late April, when a diatom bloom dominated by Skeletonema costatum dispersed, polyamine concentrations increased, presumably as a result of diatom decomposition. In early May, when a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred, the polyamine concentration decreased from the level seen in late April. The abundant polyamines that decomposed and were released during the diatom bloom in late April may have promoted the growth of P. donghaiense, resulting in its dominance.

  7. Fish community diversity in the middle continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Zhou, Zhipeng; Dai, Fangqun

    2011-11-01

    The status of fishery stocks in the coastal waters of China is far from ideal, mainly due to climate change and the impacts of human activities (e.g., pollution and overfishing). Thus, the restoration and protection of fishery resources have become critical and complex. The stability and balanced structure of the fish community is a basic foundation for the protection of fishery resources. Based on data collected from bottom trawls by the R/V Beidou in continental shelf of the East China Sea in November 2006 and February 2007, changes in the composition and diversity of fish species and functional groups were analyzed. The research area was divided into offshore waters and inshore waters by the two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA). The results showed that the dominant species were different between offshore waters and inshore waters and also varied with the survey time. The most abundant family was Sciaenidae and Teraponidae in November 2006, Sciaenidae, Engraulidae and Triglidae were most abundant in February 2007. The species belonged mainly to mobile piscivores (G6), benthivores/piscivores (G4), benthivores (G3) and planktivores (G1), and the dominant species in November 2006 were commercial species (e.g. Larimichthys polyactis and Trichiurus japonicus), but small-sized species were dominant in February 2007 (e.g., Harpadon nehereus, Benthosema pterotum, Champsodon capensis, and Acropoma japonicum). The species diversity showed a similar trend as the functional group diversity. Stations with higher diversity were mainly distributed in inshore waters in February 2007, whereas higher diversity was found in offshore waters in November 2006. The highest biomass and species number were found in G6 group, followed by the G4, G5 and G1 groups. The distribution of the number of individuals of each functional group showed the opposite trend as that of the biomass distribution. In addition, the size spectra were mainly concentrated around 3-29 cm, and the individual

  8. Noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an Amur tiger population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Tianxiao; Nie, Yonggang; Xie, Yan; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. Due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. However, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in China. In this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 hair sample to investigate the population size and genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province, China. From the samples, we determined that 23 fecal samples and 1 hair sample were from 7 Amur tigers: 2 males, 4 females and 1 individual of unknown sex. Interestingly, 2 fecal samples that were presumed to be from tigers were from Amur leopards, highlighting the significant advantages of noninvasive genetics over traditional methods in studying rare and elusive animals. Analyses from this sample suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers is much lower than that of Bengal tigers, consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of this Hunchun population in China was lower than that of the adjoining subpopulation in southwest Primorye Russia, likely due to sampling bias. Considering the small population size and relatively low genetic diversity, it is urgent to protect this endangered local subpopulation in China. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalapa, Juan E; Brunet, Johanne; Guries, Raymond P

    2008-07-01

    Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly Ulmus pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the extent of genetic diversity among 53 U. pumila accessions collected throughout the People's Republic of China. Using 23 microsatellite loci recently developed in the genus Ulmus, a total of 94 alleles were identified in 15 polymorphic and 4 monomorphic loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.9, with a range of 1-11 alleles. Gene diversity estimates per locus ranged from 0.08 to 0.87, and the non-exclusion probability for the 15 polymorphic loci combined was 0.7 x 10(-9). Nineteen region-specific alleles were identified, and regional gene diversity estimates were moderately high (0.48-0.57). The genetic relationships among accessions and regions were estimated by UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis. Both techniques discriminated all accessions and regions. Two microsatellite markers (UR175 + UR123 or Ulm-3) were sufficient to discriminate up to 99.7% of the accessions studied. This research provides useful information for DNA-based fingerprinting, breeding, ecological studies, and diversity assessment of elm germplasm.

  10. The genetic diversity of the mangrove kandelia obovata in China revealed by ISSR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shao-Bo; Ding, When-Young; Qiu, Jia-Biao; Wang, Guang-Yin; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Chen- Jiao-Fei; Ai, Wewi-ming; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Xie, Qi-Lang

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 7 populations of Kandelia obovata in China was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique. A total of 50 primers were screened, of which 9 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. ISSR amplification was conducted on 140 individuals from 7 populations, and 88 polymorphic loci were detected from 106 total loci. The total percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) was 83.02%. The percentage of PPL at the population level ranged from 32.08% to 47.17%, with an average of 39.89%. Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's information index (I) of K. obovata at the species level were 0.3631 and 0.5203, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) among populations was 0.5548. Among populations component accounted for 55.48% of the total variation, whereas the within populations component accounted for 44.52%, suggesting that genetic differentiation among K. obovata populations was relatively high. The gene flow among populations was 0.4012, indicating that gene flow was low among geographically diverse populations of K. obovata. The results of the genetic diversity and cluster analysis suggest that geographical isolation of K. obovata populations mainly results in low gene flow and random genetic drift, leading to genetic differentiation. (author)

  11. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pengpeng; Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian

    2011-01-01

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: → EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. → CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. → Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  12. Socio-economic factors affecting the success of tuberculosis treatment in six counties of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Gai, R; Wang, X; Liu, Z; Cheng, J; Zhou, C; Liu, J; Zhang, H; Li, H; Tang, W

    2010-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in rural China is of high priority in health policy making. To investigate treatment success among rural TB patients and the determinants of patient and case management and to explore the current status of DOTS implementation in rural China. A patient-based study was conducted in six counties of Shandong Province, China. Study sites were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Subjects were rural smear-positive pulmonary TB patients registered with the county TB dispensaries at study sites who completed treatment during the period October 2006 to September 2007. This study observed a success rate of 74.5% among 501 participants. The cure rate, of 50.5%, was much lower than the national level. There was a difference in treatment success rates across counties. Factors independently affecting treatment success were patient income, study site, and home visits and supervision by town and village health workers. Enhancing financial resources for TB control and effective involvement of human resources are crucial to achieving success with the DOTS strategy in rural China.

  13. [Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains identified in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Li; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2014-05-01

    To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years. Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B, sensitivity to group IV phage, Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted. Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical El Tor phenotypes while the other 251 isolates displayed atypical El Tor phenotypes. Combined with ctxB, rstR genotypes and phenotypic characteristics, 64 isolates were identified as typical El Tor biotype, 21 were El Tor variants that showing the typical El Tor biotype-specific phenotype but with ctxB(class). 280 isolates were defined as the hybrid groups with traits of both classical and El Tor biotypes that could be further classified into 45 groups, based on the combination of genotypes of ctxB, rstR and phenotypic characteristics. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains that isolated from different provinces in China displayed high phenotypic diversity. The traditional biotype traits could not be used to correctly distinguish the two different biotypes.

  14. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar) proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and “Micromonospora–Streptomyces” was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera) of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes. PMID:22754340

  15. Genetic diversity, temporal dynamics, and host specificity in blood parasites of passerines in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-12-01

    Avian blood parasites have been preliminarily studied in East Asia, but no data are available from long-term monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic diversity, and temporal dynamics of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in two passerine communities (one forest and one urban) in north China from 2008 to 2013, as well as the association between infected lineages and host specificities. Out of 633 birds from 40 species, 157 individuals (24.8 %) were infected; overall prevalence was 26.7 % and 16.8 % in two sites, respectively. The dominant avian blood parasite genus in the forest park changed yearly between Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, while the Leucocytozoon maintained a low infection level. Forty-four haplotypes were identified by sequencing a 432-bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene; more than 70 % were novel (six Plasmodium lineages, 16 Haemoproteus lineages, and nine Leucocytozoon lineages). Based on our data gathered over consecutive years, we found that the highly observed lineages of Haemoproteus showed higher host diversities than those of Plasmodium, and the most infected lineage EMEL01 (100 % identity with SGS1) take on the highest host diversity but low temporal diversity of the two genera, implying that this lineage infected a great diversity of species in certain years, but maintained a lower infection level or even disappeared in other years. The results suggest that genetic diversity of avian blood parasites in East Asia is high and provides scope for further research. In addition, compared with overall analysis, yearly prevalence monitoring is important in uncovering the temporal dynamic and host specificity variations over time.

  16. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hailong; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Limin; Mou, Pu; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males) using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km) of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  17. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Dou

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  18. Evaluating Methods for Isolating Total RNA and Predicting the Success of Sequencing Phylogenetically Diverse Plant Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskiewich, Richard; Burris, Jason N.; Carrigan, Charlotte T.; Chase, Mark W.; Clarke, Neil D.; Covshoff, Sarah; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Edger, Patrick P.; Goh, Falicia; Graham, Sean; Greiner, Stephan; Hibberd, Julian M.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid; Kutchan, Toni M.; Leebens-Mack, James; Melkonian, Michael; Miles, Nicholas; Myburg, Henrietta; Patterson, Jordan; Pires, J. Chris; Ralph, Paula; Rolf, Megan; Sage, Rowan F.; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevenson, Dennis; Stewart, C. Neal; Surek, Barbara; Thomsen, Christina J. M.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ≥1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers. PMID:23185583

  19. Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Xu, Hualin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Fei; Huai, Huyin

    2014-10-15

    value to species (Relative Frequency of Citation RFC; Cultural Importance CI; Cultural Value Index CV) all gave similar results. A diverse range of wetland plants, in terms of both taxonomic affiliation and type of use, have been used traditionally in China. Medicine, forage and food are the three most important categories of use, the plants providing basic resources used by local people in their everyday lives. Local availability is the main factor influencing which species are used. Quantitative indexes, especially Cultural Value Index, proved very useful for evaluating the usefulness of plants as recorded in the literature.

  20. Effects of comprehensive educational reforms on academic success in a diverse student body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Steven A; Ainsworth, Michael A; Asimakis, Gregory K; Thomas, Lauree; Cain, Lisa D; Mancuso, Melodee G; Rabek, Jeffrey P; Zhang, Ni; Frye, Ann W

    2010-12-01

    Calls for medical curriculum reform and increased student diversity in the USA have seen mixed success: performance outcomes following curriculum revisions have been inconsistent and national matriculation of under-represented minority (URM) students has not met aspirations. Published innovations in curricula, academic support and pipeline programmes usually describe isolated interventions that fail to affect curriculum-level outcomes. United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 performance and graduation rates were analysed for three classes of medical students before (matriculated 1995-1997, n=517) and after (matriculated 2003-2005, n=597) implementing broad-based reforms in our education system. The changes in pipeline recruitment and preparation programmes, instructional methods, assessment systems, academic support and board preparation were based on sound educational principles and best practices. Post-reform classes were diverse with respect to ethnicity (25.8% URM students), gender (51.8% female), and Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) score (range 20-40; 24.1% scored ≤ 25). Mean±standard deviation MCAT scores were minimally changed (from 27.2±4.7 to 27.8±3.6). The Step 1 failure rate decreased by 69.3% and mean score increased by 14.0 points (effect size: d=0.67) overall. Improvements were greater among women (failure rate decreased by 78.9%, mean score increased by 15.6 points; d=0.76) and URM students (failure rate decreased by 76.5%, mean score increased by 14.6 points; d=0.74), especially African-American students (failure rate decreased by 93.6%, mean score increased by 20.8 points; d=1.12). Step 1 scores increased across the entire MCAT range. Four- and 5-year graduation rates increased by 7.1% and 5.8%, respectively. The effect sizes in these performance improvements surpassed those previously reported for isolated interventions in curriculum and student support. This success is likely to have resulted from the broad

  1. Learning natural resource asssessment protocols: Elements for success and lessons from an international workshop in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning to complete natural resource assessments requires hands-on training. This paper illustrates eight elements of successful international workshops illustrated by data and experiences from a workshop in Inner Mongolia, China: translation, integration of a site potential-based land classificati...

  2. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  3. Diversity of microbial plankton across the Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD of the Yangtze River, China, is one of the largest irrigation and hydroelectric engineering projects in the world. The effects of huge man-made projects like TGD on fauna and macrophyte are obvious, mainly through changes of water dynamics and flow pattern; however, it is less clear how microorganisms respond to such changes. This research was aimed to examine differences in microbial diversity at different seasons and locations (in front of and behind the TGD. In addition, differences between particle-attached and free-living communities were also examined. The community structures of total and potentially active microorganisms in the water columns behind and in front of the TGD were analyzed with the DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic approaches over three different seasons. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were prepared after amplification from extracted DNA and, for some samples, after preparing cDNA from extracted rRNA. Differences were observed between sites at different seasons and between free-living and particle-attached communities. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were more diverse in summer than in winter, due to higher nutrient levels and warmer temperature in summer than in winter. Particle-attached microorganisms were more diverse than free-living communities, possibly because of higher nutrient levels and heterogeneous geochemical micro-environments in particles. Spatial variations in bacterial community structure were observed, i.e., the water reservoir behind the TGD (upstream hosted more diverse bacterial populations than in front of the dam (downstream, because of diverse sources of sediments and waters from upstream to the reservoir. These results have important implications for our understanding of responses of microbial communities to environmental changes in river ecosystems affected by dam construction.

  4. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  5. Explaining plant-soil diversity in Alpine ecosystems: more than just time since ecosystem succession started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart; Baetz, Nico; Borgeaud, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Vittoz, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    characteristics; (2) perturbations supply ecosystem resources, such as organic matter or fine sediment, that can substantially and locally accelerate ecosystem succession; and (3) both of these feed back into the development of the plant-soil community. The result is clear evidence of the co-evolution of floristic communities with geomorphic processes that, at the ensemble of the landform, controls the floristic diversity that is found.

  6. Genetic diversity and population demography of the Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayuan Huang

    Full Text Available The Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is a critically endangered species, listed in Appendix II of CITES. Its populations and habitat in China have undergone significant changes in recent years. Understanding the genetic variability and phylogeography of this species is very important for successful conservation. In this study, samples were taken from 11 wild ponds and two captive populations in China. We sequenced mitochondrial CYTB, partial ND6, and partial tRNA-Glu and genotyped 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of these data showed low genetic variability, no strong isolation caused by distance, and a lack of a phylogeographic structure in this species. Based on our results, the basal divergence between two clades of S. crocodilurus in China may have been caused by the formation of the Pearl River system. We found a population expansion in one of these clades. Microsatellite analysis indicated the presence of three clusters, separated by significant genetic differences. We found that most individuals in the two captive populations were from the Luokeng (Guangdong and Guangxi wild source populations, respectively.

  7. Patrilineal populations show more male transmission of reproductive success than cognatic populations in Central Asia, which reduces their genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Evelyne; Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Leonardi, Michela; Toupance, Bruno; Balaresque, Patricia; Hegay, Tanya; Aldashev, Almaz; Austerlitz, Frederic

    2015-08-01

    The extent to which social organization of human societies impacts the patterns of genetic diversity remains an open question. Here, we investigate the transmission of reproductive success in patrilineal and cognatic populations from Central Asia using a coalescent approach. We performed a study on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome polymorphism of patrilineal and cognatic populations from Central Asia. We reconstructed the gene genealogies in each population for both kind of markers and inferred the imbalance level of these genealogies, a parameter directly related to the level of transmission of reproductive success. This imbalance level appeared much stronger for the Y chromosome in patrilineal populations than in cognatic populations, while no difference was found for mtDNA. Furthermore, we showed that this imbalance level correlates negatively with Y-chromosomal, mtDNA, and autosomal genetic diversity. This shows that patrilineality might be one of the factors explaining the male transmission of reproductive success, which, in turn, lead to a reduction of genetic diversity. Thus, notwithstanding the fact that our population genetic approach clearly shows that there is a strong male-biased transmission of reproductive success in patrilineal societies, it also highlights the fact that a social process such as cultural transmission of reproductive success could play an important role in shaping human genetic diversity, although we cannot formally exclude that this transmission has also a genetic component. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Hibiscus tiliaceus (Malvaceae) in China Assessed using AFLP Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANG, TIAN; ZHONG, YANG; JIAN, SHUGUANG; SHI, SUHUA

    2003-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to investigate the genetic variations within and among nine natural populations of Hibiscus tiliaceus in China. DNA from 145 individuals was amplified with eight primer pairs. No polymorphisms were found among the 20 samples of a marginal population of recent origin probably due to a founder effect. Across the other 125 individuals, 501 of 566 bands (88·5 %) were polymorphic, and 125 unique AFLP phenotypes were observed. Estimates of genetic diversity agreed with life history traits of H. tiliaceus and geographical distribution. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic diversity resided within populations (84·8 %), which corresponded to results reported for outcrossing plants. The indirect estimate of gene flow based on ϕST was moderate (Nm = 1·395). Long-distance dispersal of floating seeds and local environments may play an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of the population and the genetic structure of this species. PMID:12930729

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  10. Genetic diversity of Begonia versicolor (Begoniaceae, a narrow endemic species in southeast Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Begonia versicolor Irmscher, a narrow endemic Begonia species in southeast Yunnan of China, is a wonderful ornamental plant with huge diversity in colored foliage. To investigate its variations, the genetic diversity and population structure were studied based on 56 individuals sampled from four localities using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci transferred from other species of Begonia. The results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity in B. versicolor comparing with other species of Begonia using microsatellite. Positive inbreeding coefficient (FIS values were found in three populations (SWC, XPZ and DSD. AMOVA analysis indicated that genetic variations occurred mainly within populations (55.9% rather than among populations (9.7% and among groups (34.4%. Four populations were grouped into two clusters based on STRUCTURE. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis showed a high level and significant genetic differentiation in the populations of B. versicolor. Based on its genetic status and rarity in the wild, the sustainable in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies should be urgently carried out to protect this species with high horticultural and scientific values.

  11. Microbial diversity in cold seep sediments from the northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South China Sea (SCS is the largest Western Pacific marginal sea. However, microbial studies have never been performed in the cold seep sediments in the SCS. In 2004, “SONNE” 177 cruise found two cold seep areas with different water depth in the northern SCS. Haiyang 4 area, where the water depth is around 3000 m, has already been confirmed for active seeping on the seafloor, such as microbial mats, authigenic carbonate crusts and bivalves. We investigated microbial abundance and diversity in a 5.55-m sediment core collected from this cold seep area. An integrated approach was employed including geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses. Here, we show that microbial abundance and diversity along with geochemistry profiles of the sediment core revealed a coupled reaction between sulphate reduction and methane oxidation. Acridine orange direct count results showed that microbial abundance ranges from 105 to 106 cells/g sediment (wet weight. The depth-related variation of the abundance showed the same trend as the methane concentration profile. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria and anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea. The diversity was much higher at the surface, but decreased sharply with depth in response to changes in the geochemical conditions of the sediments, such as methane, sulphate concentration and total organic carbon. Marine Benthic Group B, Chloroflexi and JS1 were predominant phylotypes of the archaeal and bacterial libraries, respectively.

  12. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Diversity of cultivable protease-producing bacteria in sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Ying eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although protease-producing bacteria are key players in the degradation of organic nitrogen and essential for the nitrogen recycling in marine sediments, diversity of both these bacteria and their extracellular proteases is still largely unknown. This study investigated the diversity of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in the sediments of the eutrophied Jiaozhou Bay, China through phylogenetic analysis and protease inhibitor tests. The abundance of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria was up to 104 cells/g in all six sediment samples. The cultivated protease-producing bacteria mostly belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes with the predominant genera being Photobacterium (39.4%, Bacillus (25.8% and Vibrio (19.7%. Protease inhibitor tests revealed that extracellular proteases secreted by the bacteria were mainly serine proteases and/or metalloproteases with relatively low proportions of cysteine proteases. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis on the diversity of protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in sediments of a eutrophic bay.

  14. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley

  15. Principal determinants of species and functional diversity of carabid beetle assemblages during succession at post-industrial sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, J; Hodecek, J; Kuras, T; Dolny, A

    2017-08-01

    Although ecological succession is one of the principal focuses of recent restoration ecology research, it is still unclear which factors drive this process and positively influence species richness and functional diversity. In this study we sought to elucidate how species traits and functional diversity change during forest succession, and to identify important factors that determine the species in the observed assemblages. We analyzed species richness and functional diversity of ground beetle assemblages in relation to succession on post-industrial localities after habitat deterioration caused by spoil deposition. We selected ground beetles as they are known to be sensitive to landscape changes (with a large range of responses), and their taxonomy and ecology are generally well-known. Ground beetles were sampled on the spoil heaps during the last 30 years when spontaneous succession occurred. To calculate functional diversity, we used traits related to habitat and trophic niche, i.e. food specialization, wing morphology, trophic level, and bio-indication value. Ground beetle species were found to be distributed non-randomly in the assemblages in the late phase of succession. Ordination analyses revealed that the ground beetle assemblage was significantly associated with the proportion of forested area. Environmental heterogeneity generated assemblages that contained over-dispersed species traits. Our findings indicated that environmental conditions at late successional stages supported less mobile carnivorous species. Overall, we conclude that the decline in species richness and functional diversity in the middle of the studied succession gradient indicated that the assemblages of open habitats had been replaced by species typical of forest ecosystems.

  16. An overview of the management consulting firms of the Spanish company in China: company profile and success and failure factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Niñerola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the vision of Management Consulting Firms (MCF specialized in internationalization processes of Spanish companies in China. The main objective is to shed light on a process full of uncertainty as is international expansion into emerging markets on the point of view of the advisors of that process. First, it is analyzed whether there is a Spanish company profile that is internationalized toward China in terms of sector of activity, size and experience in international business. And second, with their client’s experiences, success and failure factors in the internationalization process are studied. To achieve those objectives in depth interviews were held with partners and managers of six Management Consulting Firms with Spanish clients in their portfolio. As a result it is concluded that the sectors where the Spanish company has invested are several, the size of the company is important to undertake an implementation process in China and its international experience as well. Eight key factors were found relevant to invest in China successfully.  Five factors are related with their resources (humans and financials and the other three are related with their strategy. The main reasons of failure are also discussed. The article provides an outside perspective on the reasons why an internationalization process is successful and other fails.

  17. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened.

  18. Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary in China was evaluated in this study by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE during the wet and dry seasons. Nucleotide sequences obtained from DGGE bands were classified into five cyanobacterial clusters, including Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Chroococcus, Prochlorales and Tolypothrix. Synechococcus was identified as the dominant cyanobacterial group in the sediment samples; its distribution varied from the inner estuary to the outer estuary, with a wide range of salinity adaptation. Observed patterns of cyanobacterial communities changed markedly between sampling sites and seasons, suggesting that most cyanobacteria were not delivered via fresh water. Canonical correspondence analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between environmental variables and bacterial community structures during the dry season. The results suggested that the cyanobacterial community was significantly influenced by pH, salinity, PO4-P and NO3-N in sediments.

  19. Isolation of diverse members of the Aquificales from geothermal springs in Tengchong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The order Aquificales (phylum Aquificae consists of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria that are prominent in many geothermal systems, including those in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China. However, Aquificales have not previously been isolated from Tengchong. We isolated five strains of Aquificales from diverse springs (temperature 60.0-82.9°C and pH 2.6-8.9 in the Rehai Geothermal Field from sites in which Aquificales were abundant. Phylogenetic analysis showed that four of the strains belong to the genera Hydrogenobacter, Hydrogenobaculum, and Sulfurihydrogenibium, including strains distant enough to likely justify new species of Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenobaculum. The additional strain may represent a new genus in the Hydrogenothermaceae. All strains were capable of aerobic respiration under microaerophilic conditions; however, they had variable capacity for chemolithotrophic oxidation of hydrogen and sulfur compounds and nitrate reduction.

  20. Isolation of diverse members of the Aquificales from geothermal springs in Tengchong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Huang, Liuquin; Ong, John C; Liu, Zizhang; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ahmed, Reham; Williams, Amanda J; Briggs, Brandon R; Liu, Yitai; Hou, Weiguo; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    The order Aquificales (phylum Aquificae) consists of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria that are prominent in many geothermal systems, including those in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China. However, Aquificales have not previously been isolated from Tengchong. We isolated five strains of Aquificales from diverse springs (temperature 45.2-83.3°C and pH 2.6-9.1) in the Rehai Geothermal Field from sites in which Aquificales were abundant. Phylogenetic analysis showed that four of the strains belong to the genera Hydrogenobacter, Hydrogenobaculum, and Sulfurihydrogenibium, including strains distant enough to likely justify new species of Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenobaculum. The additional strain may represent a new genus in the Hydrogenothermaceae. All strains were capable of aerobic respiration under microaerophilic conditions; however, they had variable capacity for chemolithotrophic oxidation of hydrogen and sulfur compounds and nitrate reduction.

  1. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  2. [Diversity and classification system of weed community in Harbin City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Shuang; Liang, Hong; Song, Kun; Da, Liang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the causes of weed community diversity and their strategies of adaption to the high heterogeneity of urban habitats, weed communities in the central urban area of Harbin, China were studied, and a classification system was established for the weed communities. There were 175 weed species, belonging to 128 genera and 38 families. The heterogeneous urban habitats and species' temporal niche differentiation resulted in the highly diversified weed communities. The high proportions of mono-species dominance and annual species dominance communities were their response to the unstable urban habitats under human disturbances with high intensities and frequencies. A four-level classification system was established in terms of plant species and habitat conditions. Within this system, the identified 1763 weed communities could be categorized into two types of life form, 5 types of dormancy form, 22 community groups, and 119 dominance communities.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  4. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

  5. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  6. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Miao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients’ homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  7. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Li

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS. Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  9. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  12. Genetic diversity and drivers of genetic differentiation of Reaumuria soongorica of the Inner Mongolia plateau in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiuyan Yang; Samuel A. Cushman; Xuemei Song; Jie Yang; Pujin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    We quantified genetic diversity and gene flow among eight populations of Reaumuria soongorica in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results showed that genetic differentiation of R. soongorica across the Inner Mongolian plateau is primarily clinal in nature and is driven primarily by differential landscape resistance across areas with changing patterns of seasonal...

  13. Tribenuron-methyl resistance and mutation diversity of Pro197 in flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) accessions from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Liu, Ming Jie; Yang, Qian; Mei, Yu; Li, Xue Feng; Zheng, Ming Qi

    2015-01-01

    Flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) is a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, which causes great loss of wheat yield. A total of 46 flixweed accessions from winter wheat-planting areas were collected and used for the survey of resistance to tribenuron-methyl and Pro197 mutation diversity. According to the "R" resistance rating system, 16 flixweed accessions have evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, 13 accessions have high risk of developing resistance to this herbicide and 17 accessions are susceptible. The mutation of Pro197 codon (CCT) changed proline (Pro) into leucine (Leu) (homozygous, RR), serine (Ser, RR), histidine (His, RR), threonine (Thr, RR), Pro/Leu (heterozygous, RS), Pro/Ser (RS), Pro/His, Pro/Thr (RS) and Pro/Tyr (RS). Among these amino acid changes, a Pro197-Pro/Tyr (heterozygous, RS) substitution caused by the mutation of two successive nucleotides was identified for the first time in resistant weed species. In addition, the Pro197-His and Pro197-Pro/His mutations have not been reported previously in flixweed. Finally, a CPAS marker was developed to identify flixweed plants with or without Pro197 mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A six-year grazing exclusion changed plant species diversity of aStipa brevifloradesert steppe community, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Xinguo; Wang, Lei; Chen, Lin; Song, Naiping; Gu, Junlong; Xue, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Excluding grazers is one of most efficient ways to restore degraded grasslands in desert-steppe communities, but may negatively affect the recovery of plant species diversity. However, diversity differences between grazed and fenced grasslands in desert-steppe are poorly known. In a Stipa breviflora desert steppe community in Northern China, we established six plots to examine spatial patterns of plant species diversity under grazed and fenced conditions, respectively. We addressed three aspects of species diversity: (1) The logistic, exponential and power models were used to describe the species-area curve (SAR). Species richness, abundance and Shannon diversity values change differently with increasing sampling areas inside and outside of the fence. The best fitted model for SAR was the logistic model. Excluding grazers had a significant impact on the shape of SAR. (2) Variograms was applied to examine the spatial characteristics of plant species diversity. We found strong spatial autocorrelations in the diversity variables both inside and outside the fence. After grazing exclusion, the spatial heterogeneity decreased in species richness, increased in abundance and did not change in Shannon diversity. (3) We used variance partitioning to determine the relative contributions of spatial and environmental factors to plant species diversity patterns. Environmental factors explained the largest proportion of variation in species diversity, while spatial factors contributed little. Our results suggest that grazing enclosures decreased species diversity patterns and the spatial pattern of the S. breviflora desert steppe community was predictable.

  15. Bacterial Composition and Diversity in Breast Milk Samples from Mothers Living in Taiwan and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao-Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Lactation stage (months postpartum when the milk sample was collected and maternal body mass index did not influence the breast milk microbiota. Bacterial composition at the family level differed significantly among samples from the seven geographical regions. The five most predominant bacterial families were Streptococcaceae (mean relative abundance: 24.4%, Pseudomonadaceae (14.0%, Staphylococcaceae (12.2%, Lactobacillaceae (6.2%, and Oxalobacteraceae (4.8%. The microbial profiles were classified into three clusters, driven by Staphylococcaceae (abundance in Cluster 1: 42.1%, Streptococcaceae (Cluster 2: 48.5%, or Pseudomonadaceae (Cluster 3: 26.5%. Microbial network analysis at the genus level revealed that the abundances of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia were negatively correlated with those of the Gram-negative Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Pseudomonas. Milk from mothers who had undergone Caesarian section (C-section group had a significantly higher abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05 and a higher number of unique unclassified operational taxonomic units (OTUs (P < 0.001 than that from mothers who had undergone vaginal delivery (vaginal group. These findings revealed that (i geographic differences in the microbial profiles were found in breast milk from mothers living in Taiwan and mainland China, (ii the

  16. Interactive Effects of Diversity and Biomass on Productivity: Insights from Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2008-01-01

    Do commonly observed spatial relationships also exist over time? As an example of attempting to answer this question, this article examines whether the frequently observed diversity-biomass-productivity-relationships over space can also be seen over time. Syntheses of long-term data and literature show that when the full successional cycles are examined, diversity and...

  17. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  18. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  19. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Quercus variabilis Population in China as Revealed by Microsatellites Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus variabilis is a tree species of ecological and economic value that is widely distributed in China. To effectively evaluate, use, and conserve resources, we applied 25 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers to study its genetic diversity and genetic structure in 19 natural forest or natural secondary forest populations of Q. variabilis (a total of 879 samples. A total of 277 alleles were detected. Overall, the average expected heterozygosity (He was 0.707 and average allelic richness (AR was 7.79. Q. variabilis manifested a loss of heterozygosity, and the mean of inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.044. Less differentiation among populations was observed, and the genetic differentiation coefficient (FST was 0.063. Bayesian clustering analysis indicated that the 19 studied populations could be divided into three groups based on their genetic makeup, namely, the Southwest group, Central group, and Northeastern group. The Central group, compared to the populations of the Southwest and Northeast group, showed higher genetic diversities and lower genetic differentiations. As a widely distributed species, the historical migration of Q. variabilis contributed to its genetic differentiation.

  20. Phenotype diversity analysis of red-grained rice landraces from Yuanyang Hani's terraced fields, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianjie; Cheng, Long

    2017-10-01

    There are many areas in the world have terraced fields, Yuanyang Rani's terraced fields are examples in the world, and their unique ecological diversity is beyond other terraced fields, rice landraces are very rich. In order to provide useful information for protection and utilization of red-grained rice landraces from Rani's terraced fields, 61 red-grained rice landraces were assessed based 20 quantitative traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that 20 quantitative characters could be simplified to seven principal components, and their accumulative contribution ration amounted to 78.699%. The first principal component (PC1) explained 18.375% of the total variance, which was contributed by filled grain number, 1000-grain weight, spikelets per panicle, secondary branch number, grain length, and grain thickness. PC2 accounted for 16.548% of the variance and featured flag leaf width, flag leaf area, panicle neck length and primary branch number. These traits were the most effective parameters to discriminate individuals. At the request of the proceedings editor and with the approval of all authors, article 040111 titled, "Phenotype diversity analysis of red-grained rice landraces from Yuanyang Hani's terraced fields, China," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 040110 published in the same volume.

  1. Influence of ethnic traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaodong; Caiji, Zhuoma; Yang, Jingbiao; Cui, Di; Cao, Guilan; Ma, Xiaoding; Han, Bing; Xue, Dayuan; Han, Longzhi

    2016-10-27

    Crop genetic resources are important components of biodiversity. However, with the large-scale promotion of mono-cropping, genetic diversity has largely been lost. Ex-situ conservation approaches were widely used to protect traditional crop varieties worldwide. However, this method fails to maintain the dynamic evolutionary processes of crop genetic resources in their original habitats, leading to genetic diversity reduction and even loss of the capacity of resistance to new diseases and pests. Therefore, on-farm conservation has been considered a crucial complement to ex-situ conservation. This study aimed at clarifying the genetic diversity differences between ex-situ conservation and on-farm conservation and to exploring the influence of traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation. The conservation status of rice landrace varieties, including Indica and Japonica, non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Matsum), was obtained through ethno-biology investigation method in 12 villages of ethnic groups from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China. The genetic diversity between 24 pairs of the same rice landraces from different times were compared using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers technology. The landrace paris studied were collected in 1980 and maintained ex-situ, while 2014 samples were collected on-farm in southwest of China. The results showed that many varieties of rice landraces have been preserved on-farm by local farmers for hundreds or thousands of years. The number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) of rice landraces were significantly higher by 12.3-30.4 % under on-farm conservation than under ex-situ conservation. Compared with the ex-situ conservation approach, rice landraces under on-farm conservation programs had more alleles and higher genetic diversity. In

  2. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  3. Diversity and Ecological Functions of Crenarchaeota in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Song, Z.; Chen, J.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, E.; Wang, F.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The diversity and potential ecological functions of Crenarchaeota were investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH: 2.8-7.7; temperature: 43.6-96 C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were analyzed and a total of 47 Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59 to 77 C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderate-temperature hot springs are more inclusive for Crenarchaeota. To understand what ecological functions these Crenarchaeota may play in Tengchong hot springs, we isolated the environmental RNA and constructed four cDNA clone libraries of the archaeal accA gene that encodes Acetyl CoA carboxylase. The accA gene represents one of the key enzymes responsible for the CO2 fixation in the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed all the transcribed accA gene sequences can be classified into three large clusters, with the first one being affiliated with marine crenarchaeota, the second one with cultured crenarchaeota, and the third one with Chlorobi (Green sulfur bacteria), which have been proved to employ the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The long-branch distances of the phylogenetic tree suggest that these sequences represent novel accA-like gene. Our results also showed that sequences of the accA-like gene from the same hot spring belonged to one cluster, which suggests that a single crenarchaeotal group may fix CO2 via 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in the investigated hot springs.

  4. Population genetic structure and genetic diversity of Chinese pomfret at the coast of the East China Sea and the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Yin, Fei

    2018-05-01

    The Chinese pomfret Pampus chinensis is one of the most economic and ecological important marine fish species in China. In the present study, the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of P. chinensis were evaluated from a total sample size of 180 individuals representing six populations from the East China Sea and the South China Sea using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 24 variable sites (including 3 singleton sites and 21 parsimony information sites) were observed, and 18 haplotypes were defined. The haplotype diversity (Hd) of the populations ranged from 0.559 to 0.775, and the nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.330 to 1.090%. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals that the main variation (66.02%) was among individuals within populations. The average pairwise differences and ϕ ST values indicated significant genetic differentiation between Dongxing population and the other populations. The results of the present study are helpful for the sustainable management and utilization of this species.

  5. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  6. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E 4 /E 6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From diversity to unity. The classification of mental disorders in 21st-century China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    2001-09-01

    level of description. The particular additions (e.g., travelling psychosis, culture-related mental disorders), deletions (e.g., depressive neurosis, pathologic gambling, avoidant and borderline personality disorders), retentions (e.g., unipolar mania, neurosis, hysteria, homosexuality), and epistemologic variations (e.g., somatoform disorder, neurasthenia) of diagnostic categories reflect exactly this simultaneous need to globalize and to take account of the changing reality of illness in contemporary China. Stengel advised that "no psychiatric classification can help being partly etiological and partly symptomatological, because these are the criteria by which psychiatrists distinguish mental disorders from each other." To an extent, the CCMD-3 is a critique of certain nosologic assumptions of Western psychiatry, such as the feasibility of a neo-Kraepelinian taxonomy grounded exclusively in symptomatology across all diagnostic categories, and the validity of syndromic architectures based on a firm adherence to the mind-body dichotomy. From this angle of vision, local systems of classification such as the CCMD-3 may offer an opportunity for needed reflections by North American psychiatrists who have simply taken the DSM-IV schema for granted. Sartorius reckoned that a classification is a way of seeing the world at a point in time. A deep study of the CCMD-3 is thus an avenue for achieving an understanding of the contemporary Chinese mind and the social realities in China. The remarkable diversity of China at present, namely, a Communist Party dominated state socialist political structure but the most rapidly growing capitalist economy in the world, guarantees that Chinese people's social and moral experience of illness will continue to change. The study of such culture-specific categories as travelling psychosis, neurasthenia, qigong-induced mental disorder, and dysfunctional homosexuality sheds light on the larger sociomoral processes and destabilizing changes in

  8. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  9. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in upper reaches of Heihe River, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.

    2013-03-01

    Vegetation plays a key role to water conservation in southern Qilian Mountains (Northwestern China), the upper reaches of Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for vegetation protection because they can supply plants with nitrogen source. Nevertheless, little is known about nitrogen-fixing bacteria in this region. In present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established for detecting the difference of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities between Potentilla parvifolia shrub and Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the Azospirillum sp. was only detected in shrub soil while Thiocapsa sp., Derxiasp., Ectothiorhodospira sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Klebsiella sp., Ensifer sp., Methylocella sp. and Peseudomonas sp. were just detected in meadow soil. Shannon-Wiener index of nifH gene ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in meadow soil than shrub soil. Contrarily, the nifH gene copies and CFUs of cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Furthermore, both of them were lower in meadow soil than shrub soil. Statistical analysis revealed that diversity and copies of nifH gene mostly correlated with aboveground biomass in shrub soil. In meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was principally affected by altitude while copies did by soil available K.

  10. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Liu, Xuehua; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon.

  11. Ensuring Student Success: Establishing a Community of Practice for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Radha; Reese, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the primacy of communities of practice within learning contexts at university and during practicum for culturally and linguistically diverse preservice teachers. The study illustrates that learning occurs when there are adequate opportunities for participation and practice. Data from interviews with 28 culturally and…

  12. Spatial abundance and diversity of bacterioplankton in a typical stream-forming ecosystem, Huangqian Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangshan; Li, Jing; Wang, Ningxin; Gao, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    The specific freshwater environment of reservoirs formed by streams has not been well studied. In this paper, the bacterioplankton community in such a reservoir, the Huangqian Reservoir in eastern China, was described using culture-independent molecular methods. We found that the most dominant bacterioplankton were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased along the direction of water flow, and the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the water outlet was nearly an order of magnitude higher than that in the water inlet. Pearson correlation analyses indicated that nitrate had a significantly negative correlation with the bacterial abundance (p bacterioplankton. According to redundancy analysis, nitrate and dissolved oxygen were the major factors influencing the bacterial communities. In addition, we attempted to determine the reasons why such a reservoir could maintain good ecological balance for a period of decades, and we found that the environmental factors and bacterial communities both played critical roles. This research will benefit our understanding of bacterial communities and their surrounding environments in freshwater ecosystems.

  13. Experimental taphonomy and the anatomy and diversity of the earliest fossil vertebrates (Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah; Murdock, Duncan; Cong, Peiyun

    2016-04-01

    The oldest fossil vertebrates are from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, which contains four genera of fish-like, primitive vertebrates: Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Zhongjianichthys and Zhongxiniscus. These fossils play key roles in calibrating molecular clocks and informing our view of the anatomy of animals close to the origin of vertebrates, potentially including transitional forms between vertebrates and their nearest relatives. Despite the evident importance of these fossils, the degree to which taphonomic processes have affected their anatomical completeness has not been investigated. For example, some or all might have been affected by stemward slippage - the pattern observed in experimental decay of non-biomineralised chordates in which preferential decay of synapomorphies and retention of plesiomorphic characters would cause fossil taxa to erroneously occupy more basal positions than they should. This hypothesis is based on experimental data derived from decay of non-biomineralised chordates under laboratory conditions. We have expanded this analysis to include a broader range of potentially significant environmental variables; we have also compared and combined the results of experiments from several taxa to identify general patterns of chordate decay. Examination of the Chengjiang vertebrates in the light of these results demonstrates that, contrary to some assertions, experimentally derived models of phylogenetic bias are applicable to fossils. Anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations of early vertebrates that do not take taphonomic biases into account risk overestimating diversity and the evolutionary significance of differences between fossil specimens.

  14. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  15. Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu Yonglong; Zhang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy utilization, especially onshore grid-connected wind power generation, has a history of 30 years in China. With the increasing attention to renewable energy development in recent years, wind energy has become the focus of academic research and policy-making. While the potential and advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, many questions regarding the effectiveness of policies and performances of current practices remain unanswered. This paper takes Inner Mongolia, the province that has the most abundant wind energy resources in China, as a case to assess the performance of Chinese onshore wind power projects, focusing on the institutional setting, economic and technological performance, as well as environmental and social impacts. Results show that China is experiencing a rapid growth in wind power generation, which brings China great environmental, energy security and social benefits. However, for a full development of wind energy in China a number of barriers need to be removed: high generation cost, low on-grid price, and stagnating development of domestic manufacture. These findings lead to three policy recommendations.

  16. Effects of experimental nitrogen additions on plant diversity in tropical forests of contrasting disturbance regimes in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiankai; Mo Jiangming; Gilliam, Frank S.; Yu Guirui; Zhang Wei; Fang Yunting; Huang Juan

    2011-01-01

    Responses of understory plant diversity to nitrogen (N) additions were investigated in reforested forests of contrasting disturbance regimes in southern China from 2003 to 2008: disturbed forest (with harvesting of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated forest (without harvesting). Experimental additions of N were administered as the following treatments: Control, 50 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , and 100 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Nitrogen additions did not significantly affect understory plant richness, density, and cover in the disturbed forest. Similarly, no significant response was found for canopy closure in this forest. In the rehabilitated forest, species richness and density showed no significant response to N additions; however, understory cover decreased significantly in the N-treated plots, largely a function of a significant increase in canopy closure. Our results suggest that responses of plant diversity to N deposition may vary with different land-use history, and rehabilitated forests may be more sensitive to N deposition. - Highlights: → Nitrogen addition had no significant effect on understory plant diversity in the disturbed forest. → Nitrogen addition significantly decreased understory plant cover. → Nitrogen addition had no effect on richness and density in the rehabilitated forest. → The decrease is largely a function of a significant increase in canopy closure. → Land-use practices may dominate the responses of plant diversity to N addition. - Research in disturbed forests of southeastern China demonstrates that land-use history can substantially alter effects of excess nitrogen deposition on plant diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in China Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894

  18. Genetic diversity and breeding history of Winter Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) in China uncovered by genomic SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Bin; Feng, Bang; Li, Jing; Yan, Chen; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-10-10

    Flammulina velutipes is one of the most widely cultivated mushroom species in China. However, its genetic background remains poorly understood due to the limited sampling and poor molecular markers used. In this study, 124 F. velutipes strains were employed, including 110 cultivars and 14 wild strains, and 25 new SSR markers were developed based on the genome of F. velutipes. A total of 153 alleles were detected in 124 strains to investigate the improper cultivar naming, genetic diversity and breeding history of F. velutipes in China. Our fingerprinting analyses indicated that 65 strains can be differentiated from the total of 124 strains, and over 53% of the strains are labeled with improper commercial names. The genetic diversities of wild strains are higher than those of the cultivars, suggesting that wild strains may harbor a large "arsenal" gene pool in nature available for strain breeding. The white cultivars in China were originally introduced from Japan, while the yellow cultivars were directly domesticated from wild strains isolated from southeastern China or hybridized between the white cultivars and yellow strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Historical isolation and contemporary gene flow drive population diversity of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii along the coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jing; Hu, Zi-Min; Sun, Zhong-Min; Yao, Jian-Ting; Liu, Fu-Li; Fresia, Pablo; Duan, De-Lin

    2017-12-07

    Long-term survival in isolated marginal seas of the China coast during the late Pleistocene ice ages is widely believed to be an important historical factor contributing to population genetic structure in coastal marine species. Whether or not contemporary factors (e.g. long-distance dispersal via coastal currents) continue to shape diversity gradients in marine organisms with high dispersal capability remains poorly understood. Our aim was to explore how historical and contemporary factors influenced the genetic diversity and distribution of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii, which can drift on surface water, leading to long-distance dispersal. We used 11 microsatellites and the plastid RuBisCo spacer to evaluate the genetic diversity of 22 Sargassum thunbergii populations sampled along the China coast. Population structure and differentiation was inferred based on genotype clustering and pairwise F ST and allele-frequency analyses. Integrated genetic analyses revealed two genetic clusters in S. thunbergii that dominated in the Yellow-Bohai Sea (YBS) and East China Sea (ECS) respectively. Higher levels of genetic diversity and variation were detected among populations in the YBS than in the ECS. Bayesian coalescent theory was used to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow. High levels of contemporary gene flow were detected from the YBS (north) to the ECS (south), whereas low levels of historical gene flow occurred between the two regions. Our results suggest that the deep genetic divergence in S. thunbergii along the China coast may result from long-term geographic isolation during glacial periods. The dispersal of S. thunbergii driven by coastal currents may facilitate the admixture between southern and northern regimes. Our findings exemplify how both historical and contemporary forces are needed to understand phylogeographical patterns in coastal marine species with long-distance dispersal.

  20. Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key objective for managers of both natural forests and plantations, and biodiversity assessments are important tools to improve conservation of endangered species. Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis is a native Chinese tree species used in plantations. This study evaluated differences in understory diversity among Szemao pine plantations (SP and other local current vegetation types: secondary evergreen forests (SE and abandoned farmlands (AF in Yunnan Province. Sampling was performed at three elevation ranges, where species richness, species cover, and environmental variables in the herb and shrub layers were measured. We found that indexes for average richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity were higher in SE than in SP, which were in turn higher than in AF, while the index for evenness was higher in SP. These indexes increased with elevation in SP and AF, but were higher at low and medium elevations in SE. Inclusion of environmental factors highlighted elevation differences, with water content (at herb layer and soil type (at shrub layer being the most significant variables. In conclusion, plantations of Szemao pine negatively affect understory diversity in Yunnan, and furthermore, only a few rare or threatened species could be found in the plantations. Nature reserves and transplanting could protect threatened species if established before plantations.La sostenibilidad es un objetivo clave para la gestión tanto de bosques naturales como de plantaciones, mientras que los estudios sobre biodiversidad constituyen herramientas muy útiles para mejorar la conservación de especies amenazadas. El pino Szemao (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis es un árbol nativo de China que se usa en plantaciones. Este estudio evalúa la diversidad del sotobosque en plantaciones de pino Szemao (SP y otros tipos de vegetación local, como bosques secundarios perennifolios (SE y tierras de cultivo abandonadas (AF, en la provincia de

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eleutheronema rhadinum in the East and South China Seas revealed in mitochondrial COI sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxu; Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Tao; Xin, Jian; Guo, Yaoshi; Ma, Shilei

    2013-11-01

    Eleutheronema rhadinum is a potential commercial fisheries species and is subject to intense exploitation in China. Knowledge on the population structure of E. rhadinum in Chinese coastal waters, which is important for sustainable exploitation and proper resource management, is lacking. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of E. rhadinum were evaluated using a 564-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 76 specimens were collected from three localities around the East (Qidong and Zhoushan) and South China Seas (Zhuhai). Among these individuals, nine polymorphic sites were detected and 11 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity ( h =0.759±0.035) and low levels of nucleotide diversity ( π= 0.001 98±0.003 26) were observed in these populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 96.72% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, whereas 3.28% occurred among populations. No significant genealogical branches or clusters were recognized on the neighbor-joining tree. Intra-group variation among populations was significant ( φ st=0.032 85, P<0.01). These results suggest that E. rhadinum populations in the East and South China Seas have developed divergent genetic structures. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that E. rhadinum may have experienced a population expansion. The present study provides basic information for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species.

  2. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Wang, Kelin, E-mail: kelin@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Pan, Fujing [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Shan [Changsha university, Changsha 410003 (China); Shu, Shiyan [Changjiang Project Supervision & Consultancy Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430010 (China); Changjiang Ecology (Hubei) Technology Development LLC, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg{sup −1} in grassland to 73.92 g·kg{sup −1} in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession.

  4. Population dynamics and genetic diversity of C4 strains of human enterovirus 71 in Mainland China, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1997, several countries within the Asian Pacific region have been affected by one or more massive outbreaks of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD. Virus typing experiments revealed that these outbreaks were caused by strains of human enterovirus 71 (EV71 belonging to several different, recently emerged subgenogroups. In mainland China, a different situation was observed. The first outbreak, localized in Shangdong Province, was reported in 2007, and was followed by a wide-spread outbreak in mainland China in 2008. Since then, numbers of reported HFMD cases have been persistently high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insight in the epidemiological behavior of EV71 in China, we studied genetic diversity and EV71 population dynamics to address whether the increase in number of reported EV71 infections reflects a real increase in viral spread or is just the result of increased awareness and surveillance. We used systematically collected VP1 gene sequences of 257 EV71 strains collected in Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010 as part of HFMD surveillance activities, and supplemented them with 305 GenBank EV71 reference stains collected in China from 1998 to 2010. All isolates from Guangdong Province belonged to subgenogroup C4. Viral population dynamics indicated that the increased reporting of HFMD in China since 2007 reflects a real increase in viral spread and continued replacement of viral lineages through time. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed substitution of amino acid in residues 22, 145 and 289 through time regularly with the VP1 gene of EV71 strains isolated in mainland China from 1998 to 2010. CONCLUSIONS: EV71 strains isolated in mainland China mainly belonged to subgenogroup C4. There was exponential growth of the EV71 virus population in 2007 and 2008. There was amino acid substitution through time regularly with the VP1 gene which possibly increased viral spread and/or ability of the virus to circulate

  5. Characterizing the population structure and genetic diversity of maize breeding germplasm in Southwest China using genome-wide SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Hua; Li, Lujiang; Lan, Hai; Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Wu, Ling; Liu, Hailan; Jaqueth, Jennifer; Li, Bailin; Pan, Guangtang; Gao, Shibin

    2016-08-31

    Maize breeding germplasm used in Southwest China has high complexity because of the diverse ecological features of this area. In this study, the population structure, genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium decay distance of 362 important inbred lines collected from the breeding program of Southwest China were characterized using the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). With respect to population structure, two (Tropical and Temperate), three (Tropical, Stiff Stalk and non-Stiff Stalk), four [Tropical, group A germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PA), group B germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PB) and Reid] and six (Tropical, PB, Reid, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, PA and North) subgroups were identified. With increasing K value, the Temperate group showed pronounced hierarchical structure with division into further subgroups. The Genetic Diversity of each group was also estimated, and the Tropical group was more diverse than the Temperate group. Seven low-genetic-diversity and one high-genetic-diversity regions were collectively identified in the Temperate, Tropical groups, and the entire panel. SNPs with significant variation in allele frequency between the Tropical and Temperate groups were also evaluated. Among them, a region located at 130 Mb on Chromosome 2 showed the highest genetic diversity, including both number of SNPs with significant variation and the ratio of significant SNPs to total SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decay distance in the Temperate group was greater (2.5-3 Mb) than that in the entire panel (0.5-0.75 Mb) and the Tropical group (0.25-0.5 Mb). A large region at 30-120 Mb of Chromosome 7 was concluded to be a region conserved during the breeding process by comparison between S37, which was considered a representative tropical line in Southwest China, and its 30 most similar derived lines. For the panel covered most of widely used inbred lines in Southwest China, this work

  6. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-06-01

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases. IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading country in

  7. Genetic diversity among major endemic strains of Leptospira interrogans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a world-widely distributed zoonosis. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from contaminated water or soil. The availability of genomic sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni opened up opportunities to identify genetic diversity among different pathogenic strains of L. interrogans representing various kinds of serotypes (serogroups and serovars. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis was used to compare the gene content of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai with that of other 10 L. interrogans strains prevailed in China and one identified from Brazil using a microarray spotted with 3,528 protein coding sequences (CDSs of strain Lai. The cutoff ratio of sample/reference (S/R hybridization for detecting the absence of genes from one tested strain was set by comparing the ratio of S/R hybridization and the in silico sequence similarities of strain Lai and serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. Among the 11 strains tested, 275 CDSs were found absent from at least one strain. The common backbone of the L. interrogans genome was estimated to contain about 2,917 CDSs. The genes encoding fundamental cellular functions such as translation, energy production and conversion were conserved. While strain-specific genes include those that encode proteins related to either cell surface structures or carbohydrate transport and metabolism. We also found two genomic islands (GIs in strain Lai containing genes divergently absent in other strains. Because genes encoding proteins with potential pathogenic functions are located within GIs, these elements might contribute to the variations in disease manifestation. Differences in genes involved in O-antigen biosynthesis were also identified for strains belonging to different serogroups, which offers an opportunity for future development of genomic typing tools for serological classification

  8. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  9. Technical innovation success in China: The use of innovation mechanisms in Chinese SOEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers-Ren, Liqin; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.

    2004-01-01

    Climate for technical innovation has been improving in the past few years in China. This Paper describes a case research related to technical innovation in three Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the manufacturing industry, by applying a Western technical audit tool. The data and findings

  10. Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy utilization, especially onshore grid-connected wind power generation, has a history of 30 years in China. With the increasing attention to renewable energy development in recent years, wind energy has become the focus of academic research and policy-making. While the potential and

  11. Using Play and Art Therapy to Help Culturally Diverse Students Overcome Barriers to School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jeff L.

    1996-01-01

    Counseling approaches for elementary school students using play and art therapy techniques can help overcome cultural barriers. Discusses benefits of play and art therapy for helping culturally different students overcome barriers to school success, and reviews two programs that use art and play therapy as primary tools. (JPS)

  12. Do rewardless orchids show a positive relationship between phenotypic diversity and reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Ann; Juillet, Nicolas; Macnair, Mark R; Gigord, Luc D B

    2007-02-01

    Among rewardless orchids, pollinator sampling behavior has been suggested to drive a positive relationship between population phenotypic variability and absolute reproductive success, and hence population fitness. We tested this hypothesis by constructing experimental arrays using the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, which is dimorphic for corolla color. We found no evidence that polymorphic arrays had higher mean reproductive success than monomorphic arrays for pollinia removal, pollen deposition, or fruit set. For pollinia removal, monomorphic yellow arrays had significantly greater reproductive success, and monomorphic red the least. A tendency for yellow arrays to have higher pollen deposition was also found. We argue that differential population fitness was most likely to reflect differential numbers of pollinators attracted to arrays, through preferential long-distance attraction to arrays with yellow inflorescences. Correlative studies of absolute reproductive success in 52 populations of D. sambucina supported our experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first study to suggest that attraction of a greater number of pollinators to rewardless orchids may be of greater functional importance to population fitness, and thus ecology and conservation, than are the behavioral sequences of individual pollinators.

  13. Diversity in mixed species groups improves success in a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M.; Eppert, Shannon K.; Sieving, Kathryn E.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed-species groups are common and are thought to provide benefits to group members via enhanced food finding and antipredator abilities. These benefits could accrue due to larger group sizes in general but also to the diverse species composition in the groups. We tested these possibilities using a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community containing three species that varied in their dominant-subordinate status and in their nuclear-satellite roles: Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor), and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis). We found that chickadees and titmice were more likely to obtain seed from the novel feeder with greater diversity of species composition in their mixed-species flocks. For successful chickadee flocks, furthermore, the latency to obtain seed from the novel feeder was shorter the more diverse their flocks were. These results in a natural setting indicate that diversity, per se, can benefit individuals in mixed-species groups in biologically meaningful contexts such as finding food in novel places. PMID:28230159

  14. External and Internal Barriers to Studying Can Affect Student Success and Retention in a Diverse Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Clement

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a majority of under-represented minority (URM students begin their postsecondary education at community colleges, little is known about barriers to success and retention for transfer-bound science students. This study focuses on some of the barriers that affect these students’ ability to study adequately for a community college “gateway” course. It tests whether instructors’ expectations of study time were realistic for community college students and whether students reported facing external barriers, such as job and family responsibilities, or internal barriers to studying, such as lack of motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive abilities, all of which have been shown to impact academic success and retention. It also tests whether students who faced such barriers were less likely to succeed in and complete the course, as well as whether time spent studying was related to course success. The findings reported here show that community college students do not have enough available time to study and that external and internal barriers are both prevalent among these students. In addition, students who faced such barriers are more likely to fail or drop the class. Results also show that study time is positively correlated with retention, but not performance, as well as with some motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive dimensions of self-regulated learning. These findings lead to new questions, including whether student success in a community college class is associated with the use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies for students with no prior degrees, and whether increased course structure may improve success for college students with lower self-regulated abilities.

  15. Successful Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Culturally and/or Linguistically Diverse in Inclusive Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayantoye, Catherine Adekemi; Luckner, John L

    2016-01-01

    The population of students who are deaf or hard of hearing is becoming more culturally and/or linguistically diverse. However, there is a paucity of practitioner literature and research available to professionals and families to guide decision making about daily practices with these students and their families. The study identified factors that contribute to the success of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds who receive the majority of their education in inclusive settings. Students were recruited from two schools in two school districts in a western state. Students, educators, interpreters, and parents participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Observations of the students were also done. Analysis of the data included coding the transcribed interviews and the field notes to identify common themes. Seven themes emerged and are reported. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  16. Universal design sucessful as a method of dealing diversity in education. A review of success cases on university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sánchez Fuentes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to describe a variety of successful cases related to the implementation of universal design as a mean to address diversity in postsecondary educational settings. First, main approaches to implementation of universal design in educational settings are presented; and second, a brief review of the main studies that support the application of universal design to learning environments is done, organizing the review around three broad categories: (a studies on teacher training about universal design for learning; (b studies on introduction of curricula based on universal design; and (c studies examining student’s perceptions after universal design implementation. It is concluded that, based on the results of the studies reviewed, universal design is a valid methodology to address diversity of university students.

  17. New Careers in Nursing: Optimizing Diversity and Student Success for the Future of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitty, Vernell P; Huerta, Carolina G; Downing, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation collaborated with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing to create the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) scholarship program. Two goals of the program were to alleviate the nursing shortage and to increase diversity of the workforce. During this 7-year program (i.e., seven funding cycles), 130 schools of nursing in 41 states and the District of Columbia were selected as grantees, and they awarded 3,517 scholarships to second-degree accelerated nursing students who were members of groups underrepresented in nursing or who were economically disadvantaged. This article describes the demographic characteristics of the NCIN students, degree of satisfaction with their learning environment, perceptions of their mentoring experiences, and self-identified facilitators and barriers to program completion. Data sources for this article resulted from three surveys completed by scholars during their academic programs: the beginning, the midpoint, and within 6 months postgraduate. Results of analysis indicated that NCIN scholars are significantly more diverse compared with the national nurse population, and they reported high levels of satisfaction with their learning environments. Student relationships with peers and faculty improved during the period of program enrollment. Faculty support was the greatest facilitator for program completion, and competing priorities of finances and family responsibilities were the greatest challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linning Qu

    Full Text Available Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, a member of the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae, infects different Prunus species and has a worldwide distribution. Yet the population structure and genetic diversity of the virus is still unclear. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene and coat protein (CP gene of PBNSPaV isolates from seven Prunus species grown in China revealed a highly divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population, sharing nucleotide similarities of 73.1-100% with HSP70h gene, and 83.9-98.6% with CP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h and CP sequences revealed segregation of global PBNSPaV isolates into four phylo-groups (I-IV, of which two newly identified groups, II and IV, solely comprised Chinese isolates. Complete genome sequences of three PBNSPaV isolates, Pch-WH-1 and Pch-GS-3 from peaches, and Plm-WH-3 from a plum tree, were determined. The three isolates showed overall nucleotide identities of 90.0% (Pch-GS-3 and 96.4% (Pch-WH-1 with the type isolate PL186, and the lowest identity of 70.2-71.2% with isolate Nanjing. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report evidence of significant recombination in the HSP70h gene of PBNSPaV variant Pch2 by using five programs implemented in RDP3; in addition, five codon positions in its CP gene (3, 8, 44, 57, and 88 were identified that appeared to be under positive selection. Collectively, these results indicate a divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population. In addition, our findings provide a foundation for elucidating the epidemiological characteristics of virus population.

  19. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi from fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Ke; Shen, Xiao-Ye; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2017-06-01

    An important and useful bamboo species, fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver), is broadly distributed in Southeast China and has multiple purposes, including uses in cuisine, weaving, Chinese medicine and ecological protection. However, no previous studies have focused on the endophytes of this plant. In our article, a total of 127 fungal strains were first isolated from the healthy branches and leaves of common P. heteroclada. These endophytic fungi could be directly categorized into 50 morphotypes according to their culture characteristics, and their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed for molecular identification. Using the BLAST search tool of the NCBI database and phylogenetic tree analysis, these isolates were divided into two phyla, Ascomycota (95.28%) and Basidiomycota (4.72%), including at least six orders (Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Chaetothyriales and Polyporales) and fourteen genera (Arthrinium, Pestalotiopsis, Epicoccum, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Setophoma, Didymella, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Nemania, Creosphaeria, Ophiobolus, Phialophora and Perenniporia). It is fascinating that four genera, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Creosphaeria and Phialophora were isolated from bamboos for the first time. The inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens were also preliminarily screened, and four isolates FB43 (Calcarisporium arbuscula), FB06 (Preussia minima), FB16 (Setophoma sp.) and FB21 (Perenniporia medulla-pains) among the candidate strains displayed broad-spectrum activities according to the agar diffusion method and the disk diffusion assay. Strain FB16 (Setophoma sp.) especially indicated high bioactivity against both clinical bacteria and yeast. This study is the first report on the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi associated with P. heteroclada, which could be regarded as a potential source of drug precursors and could be used in biocontrol development.

  20. Diversity and frequency of kdr mutations within Anopheles sinensis populations from Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Feng, Xiangyang; Huang, Zushi; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2016-08-15

    Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China and its control is under great threat as the development of insecticide resistance. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) is the target of several classes of insecticides. Genetic mutations of VGSC have been documented to confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids in mosquitoes. To control this vector efficiently, it is important to know the resistance-associated genetic mutations, their distribution frequencies and genealogical relations. Three hundreds and thirteen (313) adults of An. sinensis collected from nine locations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were used. The partial sequence of the An. sinensis voltage gated sodium channel gene (AS-VGSC) containing codon 1014 was sequenced. PHASE2.1 was used to construct the haplotypes of each individual, and the accuracy of haplotypes was further confirmed by clone sequencing. The genealogical relations of kdr mutations in AS-VGSC was analysed using TCS 2.1 and Network 5.0. Sixteen AS-VGSC haplotypes including seven haplotypes carrying non-synonymous mutations at codon 1014, and fifty-five AS-VGSC genotypes were identified from 313 mosquitoes collected from nine geographical locations across Guangxi. The number of haplotypes in each of the nine populations ranged from 5 to 13. The frequency of haplotypes carrying kdr mutations ranged from 2.7 to 80.0 % within the nine populations, of which 1014C was unexpectedly high in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggested multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis. Diverse haplotypes of AS-VGSC are distributed in Guangxi. The presence of haplotypes carrying mutations at codon 1014 indicates a risk of pyrethroid and DDT resistance. The kdr mutations show differential distribution geographically, with high frequencies occurred in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggests multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis populations

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA. Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N, phosphorus (P2O5, and potassium (K2O usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems.

  2. Microsatellite-based analysis of the genetic structure and diversity of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from tea plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Tao, Huan-Huan; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-04-10

    Although Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a well known insect pest of tea plants, little information is available about its genetic structure and diversity. The present study used microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this species on tea plants in China. For this purpose, 193 individuals from ten natural populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite markers. Our results indicated that the average number of alleles (A) across populations was 35.6, and all observed heterozygosities (HO) were greater than 0.7, indicating an excess of heterozygosity and a relatively high level of genetic diversity among populations, and the number of private alleles per population ranged from 3 to 26. Pairwise FST analysis suggested that the number of genetic differentiation events was moderate (0.05Bottleneck test indicated that most populations had experienced a population bottleneck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Quest for Success in Urban China; a study of "young urban professionals" in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Dag Inge

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I examine how young urban professionals in Beijing relate to their experience of participating in the modern Chinese capitalist economy. Their experiences are seen along economic and social lines: from considering economic and social historical context to discussing the on-going process of individualisation in China as presented by young urban professionals through how they talk about economic life and social life. Relating to economic life, the ideal workplace and the various ...

  4. Understanding Stakeholders’ Influence on Project Success with a New SNA Method: A Case Study of the Green Retrofit in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders strongly influence project success, particularly for complex projects with heterogeneous stakeholders, and hence, understanding their influence is essential for project management and implementation. This paper proposes an original model based on social network analysis (SNA, which first introduces critical success factors (CSFs as intermediate variables between stakeholders and project success. The model can demonstrate the interrelation between stakeholders and CSFs, and the results can reveal how stakeholders influence project success. Green retrofit is a typical type of complex project. The stakeholder relationship in green retrofit projects is more complex than in new projects, since more stakeholders (e.g., tenants and facility managers who have particular interrelations (e.g., lease contract and split incentives between owners and tenants are involved. Therefore, a case study of green retrofit in China was conducted to illustrate how the proposed model works. The results indicated the priorities and similarities of stakeholders in green retrofit. Stakeholders are categorized into five clusters according to their relationship. Based on the results, the important role of stakeholders in green retrofit projects was discussed. The main contribution of this study is providing a novel method to reveal how stakeholders influence the success of complex projects.

  5. The impact of self-concept and college involvement on the first-year success of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-03-01

    Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.

  6. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention.

  7. Geological characteristics and tectonic significance of unconformities in Mesoproterozoic successions in the northern margin of the North China Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several stratigraphic breaks and unconformities exist in the Mesoproterozoic successions in the northern margin of the North China Block. Geologic characters and spatial distributions of five of these unconformities, which have resulted from different geological processes, have been studied. The unconformity beneath the Dahongyu Formation is interpreted as a breakup unconformity, representing the time of transition from continental rift to passive continental margin. The unconformities beneath the Gaoyuzhuang and the Yangzhuang formations are considered to be the consequence of regional eustatic fluctuations, leading to the exposure of highlands in passive margins during low sea-level stands and transgressive deposition on coastal regions during high sea-level stands. The unconformity atop the Tieling Formation might be caused by uplift due to contractional deformation in a back-arc setting, whereas the uplift after the deposition of the Xiamaling Formation might be attributed to a continental collision event. It is assumed that the occurrences of these unconformities in the Mesoproterozoic successions in the northern margin of the North China Block had a close bearing on the assemblage and breakup of the Columbia and Rodinia supercontinents.

  8. Genetic diversity in two Japanese flounder populations from China seas inferred using microsatellite markers and COI sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongdong; Li, Sanlei; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Yurong; Zhan, Wei; Shi, Huilai

    2012-07-01

    Japanese flounder is one of the most important commercial species in China; however, information on the genetic background of natural populations in China seas is scarce. The lack of genetic data has hampered fishery management and aquaculture development programs for this species. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic diversity in natural populations of Japanese flounder sampled from the Yellow Sea (Qingdao population, QD) and East China Sea (Zhoushan population, ZS) using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing data. A total of 68 different alleles were observed over 10 microsatellite loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the number of genotypes per locus ranged from 3 to 45. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity in QD were 0.733 and 0.779, respectively, and in ZS the heterozygosity values were 0.708 and 0.783, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in 7 of the 10 microsatellite loci in each of the two populations. The COI sequencing analysis revealed 25 polymorphic sites and 15 haplotypes in the two populations. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in the QD population were 0.746±0.072 8 and 0.003 34±0.001 03 respectively, and in ZS population the genetic diversity values were 0.712±0.047 0 and 0.003 18±0.000 49, respectively. The microsatellite data ( F st =0.048 7, P <0.001) and mitochondrial DNA data ( F st =0.128, P <0.001) both revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations. The information on the genetic variation and differentiation in Japanese flounder obtained in this study could be used to set up suitable guidelines for the management and conservation of this species, as well as for managing artificial selection programs. In future studies, more geographically diverse stocks should be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the population structure of Japanese

  9. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of importance for clonal success and diversity in Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline

    resistance is mostly caused by point mutations and can develop in Salmonella during infection. As described in Manuscript III, the spontaneous mutations rates and virulence potential of ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistant Salmonella in presence and absence of CIP were assessed using cell cultures. The rate......; fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics). The ability to survive and grow after physical stress experienced in the food chain is likely to contribute to a successful spread of Salmonella. Thus, the response of Salmonella isolates in exponential and stationary growth state to freezing in minced meat...... and to drying at two combinations of temperature and humidity was investigated. The results of this study are presented in Manuscript I. Stationary phase cells survived freezing for up to one year without major decline and initiated growth with a short lag time of 1.7 hours on average. Exponential phase cells...

  10. [Effect of stock abundance and environmental factors on the recruitment success of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jia-hua

    2015-02-01

    Multiple hypotheses are available to explain recruitment rate. Model selection methods can be used to identify the best model that supports a particular hypothesis. However, using a single model for estimating recruitment success is often inadequate for overexploited population because of high model uncertainty. In this study, stock-recruitment data of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea collected from fishery dependent and independent surveys between 1992 and 2012 were used to examine density-dependent effects on recruitment success. Model selection methods based on frequentist (AIC, maximum adjusted R2 and P-values) and Bayesian (Bayesian model averaging, BMA) methods were applied to identify the relationship between recruitment and environment conditions. Interannual variability of the East China Sea environment was indicated by sea surface temperature ( SST) , meridional wind stress (MWS), zonal wind stress (ZWS), sea surface pressure (SPP) and runoff of Changjiang River ( RCR). Mean absolute error, mean squared predictive error and continuous ranked probability score were calculated to evaluate the predictive performance of recruitment success. The results showed that models structures were not consistent based on three kinds of model selection methods, predictive variables of models were spawning abundance and MWS by AIC, spawning abundance by P-values, spawning abundance, MWS and RCR by maximum adjusted R2. The recruitment success decreased linearly with stock abundance (P success might be due to cannibalism or food competition. Meridional wind intensity showed marginally significant and positive effects on the recruitment success (P = 0.06), while runoff of Changjiang River showed a marginally negative effect (P = 0.07). Based on mean absolute error and continuous ranked probability score, predictive error associated with models obtained from BMA was the smallest amongst different approaches, while that from models selected based on the P-value of

  11. Success stories showing the diversity of kidney foundations: Turkish Kidney Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Timur

    Founded in 1985, the Turkish Kidney Foundation serves the society with 3 dialysis centers and a 113-bed general hospital. Interacting with public authorities and advocating end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients' rights are essential services of this non-governmental organization (NGO). Over the last 30 years, keeping with the trend of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the country, the foundation raised awareness in the population for this condition and prepared an activity road map by using statistical facts and data. Goals were set keeping in mind the local culture and traditions, debating on them with colleagues, PR agencies, and other experts in this field. The best strategy embrace the society, and all activities are made as cost-effective as possible in keeping with a tight budget. Various communication channels, especially social media, are used to communicate the message to the public, always keeping in mind that such messages are to be succinct and precise. Every effort is taken to make our foundation reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of the public at large. Reliability, credibility, and trust are the key success corner stones of our NGO. Every opportunity is taken to capitalize on participation of celebrities and real stories of people. Testimonies of real ESRD patients are always interesting and can touch the hearts of the rest of the population.

  12. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  13. Diversity of fish sound types in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Repetitive species-specific sound enables the identification of the presence and behavior of soniferous species by acoustic means. Passive acoustic monitoring has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal occurrence and behavior of calling species. Methods Underwater biological sounds in the Pearl River Estuary, China, were collected using passive acoustic monitoring, with special attention paid to fish sounds. A total of 1,408 suspected fish calls comprising 18,942 pulses were qualitatively analyzed using a customized acoustic analysis routine. Results We identified a diversity of 66 types of fish sounds. In addition to single pulse, the sounds tended to have a pulse train structure. The pulses were characterized by an approximate 8 ms duration, with a peak frequency from 500 to 2,600 Hz and a majority of the energy below 4,000 Hz. The median inter-pulsepeak interval (IPPI of most call types was 9 or 10 ms. Most call types with median IPPIs of 9 ms and 10 ms were observed at times that were exclusive from each other, suggesting that they might be produced by different species. According to the literature, the two section signal types of 1 + 1 and 1 + N10 might belong to big-snout croaker (Johnius macrorhynus, and 1 + N19 might be produced by Belanger’s croaker (J. belangerii. Discussion Categorization of the baseline ambient biological sound is an important first step in mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of soniferous fishes. The next step is the identification of the species producing each sound. The distribution pattern of soniferous fishes will be helpful for the protection and management of local fishery resources and in marine environmental impact assessment. Since the local vulnerable Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis mainly preys on soniferous fishes, the fine-scale distribution pattern of soniferous fishes can aid in the conservation of this species. Additionally, prey and predator

  14. Need-Based Financial Aid and Student Success in XX College in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1990s, China’s central government introduced several kinds of student financial aid with the aim of guaranteeing that students could afford higher education regardless of economic background. The purpose of this study is to examine whether financial aid does impact student achievement by assessing grade point average (GPA). It also explores the impacts of socio-economic background on student success to identify the underlying factors that contribute to academic success. This s...

  15. Global Diversity and Academic Success of Foreign-Trained Academic Neurosurgeons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Akshitkumar M; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Reynolds, Rebecca A; Hale, Andrew T; Wellons, John C; Naftel, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the proportion of academic neurosurgeons practicing in the United States who acquired residency training outside of the United States and compare their training backgrounds and academic success with those who received their residency training in the United States. We identified 1338 clinically active academic neurosurgeons from 104 programs that participated in the neurosurgery residency match in the United States in January-February 2015. Their training backgrounds, current academic positions, and history of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant awards between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from publicly accessible sources. Eighty-four U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) received their residency training in 20 different countries outside of the United States/Puerto Rico, representing all major regions of the world. The majority trained in Canada (n = 48). We found no major differences between the foreign-trained and U.S.-trained neurosurgeons in male:female ratio, year of starting residency, proportion with positions in medical schools ranked in the top 15 by the U.S. News and World Report, general distribution of academic positions, and proportion with an NIH grant. Compared with U.S.-trained academic neurosurgeons, foreign-trained academic neurosurgeons had a significantly higher proportion of Ph.D. degrees (32.1% vs. 12.3%; P United States. A small group of U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) have acquired residency training outside of the United States, representing all major regions of the world. Their general demographic data and academic accomplishments are comparable to those of U.S.-trained neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  17. Novel acsF Gene Primers Revealed a Diverse Phototrophic Bacterial Population, Including Gemmatimonadetes, in Lake Taihu (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    phylum, Gemmatimonadetes, was isolated from a freshwater lake in the Gobi Desert. To obtain more information about the environmental distribution of phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes, we collected microbial samples from the water column, upper sediment, and deeper anoxic sediment of Lake Taihu, China. Mi...... fundamental biological processes on Earth. Recently, the presence of photosynthetic reaction centers has been reported from a rarely studied bacterial phylum, Gemmatimonadetes, but almost nothing is known about the diversity and environmental distribution of these organisms. The newly designed acsF primers...

  18. Virulence gene profiles: alpha-hemolysin and clonal diversity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine clinical mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limei; Gao, Jian; Barkema, Herman W; Ali, Tariq; Liu, Gang; Deng, Youtian; Naushad, Sohail; Kastelic, John P; Han, Bo

    2018-03-02

    Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of bovine mastitis, is known for its ability to acquire to antimicrobial resistance and to secrete numerous virulence factors that can exacerbate inflammation. In addition, alpha-hemolysin has an important role in S. aureus infections, diversity of the hla gene (that produces alpha-hmolysin) in S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis has not been well characterized. The objective was, therefore, to determine diversity of virulence genes, hla gene sequences, and clonal profiles of S. aureus from bovine mastitis in Chinese dairy herds, and to evaluate inter-relationships. The antimicrobials resistance varies from as low as 1.9% (2/103) for CTX to as high as 76.7% (79/103) for penicilin in the 103 isolates and 46 (44.7%) S. aureus were determined as multi-resistant isolates with diverse resistance patterns. Thirty-eight virulence gene patterns (with variable frequencies) were identified in the 103 isolates and correlated with MLST types, indicating a great diversity. Although the hla gene also had great diversity (14 genotypes), Hla peptides were relatively more conserved. With 7 clonal complexes identified from 24 spa types and 7 MLST types. Regarding the letter, ST 97 was the dominant type in S. aureus from bovine mastitis in China. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, there was a distinct evolutionary relationship between the hla gene and MLST. Multi-resistant S. aureus occurred in bovine mastitis with diverse resistance patterns. The diversity of virulence gene profiles, especially the hla gene and, their relationship with molecular types were reported for the first time in S. aureus from bovine mastitis, which will be useful for future studies on immunogenicity and vaccine development. In addition, based on the distinct evolutionary relationship between the hla gene and MLST types, we inferred that the hla gene has potential role for molecular typing of S. aureus.

  19. Ancient DNA from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca of South-Western China Reveals Genetic Diversity Loss during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Lian Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations. However, due to a lack of DNA data from fossil specimens, it is unknown whether genetic diversity was even higher prior to the most recent population decline. We amplified complete cytb and 12s rRNA, partial 16s rRNA and ND1, and control region sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of two Holocene panda specimens. We estimated genetic diversity and population demography by analyzing the ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences alongside those from modern giant pandas, as well as from other members of the bear family (Ursidae. Phylogenetic analyses show that one of the ancient haplotypes is sister to all sampled modern pandas and the second ancient individual is nested among the modern haplotypes, suggesting that genetic diversity may indeed have been higher earlier during the Holocene. Bayesian skyline plot analysis supports this view and indicates a slight decline in female effective population size starting around 6000 years B.P., followed by a recovery around 2000 years ago. Therefore, while the genetic diversity of the giant panda has been affected by recent habitat contraction, it still harbors substantial genetic diversity. Moreover, while its still low population numbers require continued conservation efforts, there seem to be no immediate threats from the perspective of genetic evolutionary potential.

  20. Diversity and Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Soil Macrofauna Communities Along Elevation in the Changbai Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuqin; Qiu, Lili; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Yeqiao

    2017-06-01

    The understanding of patterns of vertical variation and diversity of flora and fauna along elevational change has been well established over the past century. However, it is unclear whether there is an elevational distribution pattern for soil fauna. This study revealed the diversity and spatial-temporal distribution of soil macrofauna communities in different vegetation zones from forest to alpine tundra along elevation of the Changbai Mountain, China. The abundance, richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of soil macrofauna communities were compared in four distinguished vegetation zones including the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest zone, the coniferous forest zone, the subalpine dwarf birch (Betula ermanii) forest zone, and the alpine tundra zone. Soil macrofauna were extracted in May, July, and September of 2009. In each season, the abundance and richness of the soil macrofauna decreased with the ascending elevation. The Shannon-Wiener diversity indices of the soil macrofauna were higher in the vegetation zones of lower elevation than of higher elevation. Significant differences were observed in the abundance, richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for the studied vegetation zones. Soil macrofauna congregated mainly to the litter layer in the low-elevation areas and in the 0-5 cm soil layer of the higher elevation areas. The results emphasized that the diversity of soil macrofauna communities decreased as the elevation increased and possess the distinct characteristics of zonation in the mountain ecosystem. The diversity and distribution of soil macrofauna communities were influenced by mean annual precipitation, altitude, annual radiation quantity, and mean annual temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ancient DNA from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) of South-Western China Reveals Genetic Diversity Loss during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Barlow, Axel; Cooper, Alan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Ji, Xue-Ping; Jablonski, Nina G; Zhong, Bo-Jian; Liu, Hong; Flynn, Lawrence J; Yuan, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Rui; Basler, Nikolas; Westbury, Michael V; Hofreiter, Michael; Lai, Xu-Long

    2018-04-06

    The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations. However, due to a lack of DNA data from fossil specimens, it is unknown whether genetic diversity was even higher prior to the most recent population decline. We amplified complete cyt b and 12s rRNA, partial 16s rRNA and ND1 , and control region sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of two Holocene panda specimens. We estimated genetic diversity and population demography by analyzing the ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences alongside those from modern giant pandas, as well as from other members of the bear family (Ursidae). Phylogenetic analyses show that one of the ancient haplotypes is sister to all sampled modern pandas and the second ancient individual is nested among the modern haplotypes, suggesting that genetic diversity may indeed have been higher earlier during the Holocene. Bayesian skyline plot analysis supports this view and indicates a slight decline in female effective population size starting around 6000 years B.P., followed by a recovery around 2000 years ago. Therefore, while the genetic diversity of the giant panda has been affected by recent habitat contraction, it still harbors substantial genetic diversity. Moreover, while its still low population numbers require continued conservation efforts, there seem to be no immediate threats from the perspective of genetic evolutionary potential.

  2. Complete genomic characterization and genetic diversity of four European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Qi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Ma, Ying; Gu, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2015-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an emerging disease that has caused serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In 2011, a nation-wide surveillance program investigated the prevalence of PRRS viruses (PRRSV) in Chinese breeding swine farms, and four European genotype PRRSV (PRRSV-Type 1) were successfully isolated. To explore the genetic diversity of PRRSV-Type 1 in China, these 4 viral strains were subjected to genome sequencing and analysis. The four isolates shared 87.4-90.7 % nucleotide homology with the Lelystad strain (PRRSV-Type 1 stereotype strain). NSP2, ORF3, and ORF4 were the most variable regions and contained discontinuous deletions or insertions when compared to other PRRSV-Type 1 strains. All isolates fell into separate branches of the subtype 1 of PRRSV-Type 1 phylogenetic tree. This analysis of emerging PRRSV-Type 1 strains revealed previously unrecorded genetic diversity. Close attention should be paid to the prevention and control of this evolving virus.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis in Perilla frutescens from Northern areas of China based on simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S J; Sa, K J; Hong, T K; Lee, J K

    2017-09-21

    In this study, 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure among 77 Perilla accessions from high-latitude and middle-latitude areas of China. Ninety-five alleles were identified with an average of 4.52 alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and genetic diversity values were 0.346 and 0.372, respectively. The level of genetic diversity and PIC value for cultivated accessions of Perilla frutescens var. frutescens from middle-latitude areas were higher than accessions from high-latitude areas. Based on the dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), all accessions were classified into four major groups with a genetic similarity of 46%. All accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens were discriminated from the cultivated P. frutescens var. crispa. Furthermore, most accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens collected in high-latitude and middle-latitude areas were distinguished depending on their geographical location. However, the geographical locations of several accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens have no relation with their positions in the UPGMA dendrogram and population structure. This result implies that the diffusion of accessions of the cultivated Perilla crop in the northern areas of China might be through multiple routes. On the population structure analysis, 77 Perilla accessions were divided into Group I, Group II, and an admixed group based on a membership probability threshold of 0.8. Finally, the findings in this study can provide useful theoretical knowledge for further study on the population structure and genetic diversity of Perilla and benefit for Perilla crop breeding and germplasm conservation.

  4. Biodiversity evaluation in tropical agricultural systems - How will rubber cultivation and land use change effect species diversity in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, M.; Grenz, J.; Sauerborn, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion is a known hotspot of biodiversity, which faces drastic changes due to human impact particularly with regard to infrastructure and economy. Within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Living Landscapes China" (LILAC), we have developed a biodiversity evaluation tool based on the combination of approaches from landscape ecology with detailed empirical data on species diversity and habitat characteristics of tropical plant and arthropod communities in a Geographical Information System. We use field ecological data to assess different spatial and qualitative aspects of the diversity and spatial distribution of species throughout the research area, a watershed in south-western Yunnan province, PR China. In addition, scenarios on the impact of land use change have been analyzed and compared in order to highlight the implications these possible future scenarios would have on species diversity within the research area. The aim of the presented tool is to provide scientists and policy makers who have to evaluate the consequences of scenarios of future land use with information on the current and likely future state of biodiversity in their research area or administrative region. This will enable them to assess the likely impacts of land use changes on structural and ecological diversity and allow for informed land use planning. The methodology developed for this tool can also be applied outside of the Greater Mekong Subregion, as the model structure allows for an easy adaption to other research areas and challenges, be it oil palm production in Southeast Asia or small scale farming in central Africa or the Amazon basin.

  5. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi isolated from six species of the South China Sea gorgonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Bao, Jie; Wang, Guang-Hua; He, Fei; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-10-01

    Fungi in gorgonians are now known to cause gorgonian diseases, but little attention has been paid to the nature of fungal communities associated with gorgonians. The diversity of culturable fungi associated with six species of healthy South China Sea gorgonians were investigated using a culture-dependent method followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences. A total of 121 fungal isolates were recovered and identified using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search program. These belonged to 41 fungal species from 20 genera. Of these, 30 species and 12 genera are new reports for gorgonians, and the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most diverse and common in the six gorgonian species. Comparison of the fungal communities in the six gorgonian species, together with results from previous relevant studies, indicated that different gorgonian species and the same gorgonian species living in different geographic locations had different fungal communities. The gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea harbored the most fungal species and isolates, while Echinogorgia aurantiaca had the least fungal diversity. Among the six media used for fungal isolation, potato glucose agar yielded the highest isolates (27 isolates), while glucose peptone starch agar had the best recoverability of fungal species (15 species). The antimicrobial activity of the 121 fungal isolates was tested against three marine bacteria and two marine gorgonian pathogenic fungi. A relatively high proportion (38 %) of fungal isolates displayed distinct antibacterial and antifungal activity, suggesting that the gorgonian-associated fungi may aid their hosts in protection against pathogens. This is the first report comparing the diversity of fungal communities among the South China Sea gorgonians. It contributes to our knowledge of gorgonian-associated fungi and further increases the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  6. Addressing medical school diversity through an undergraduate partnership at Texas A&M Health Science Center: a blueprint for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Alan R; Daniels, Dennis E; Hester, R Kelly; Colenda, Christopher C

    2008-05-01

    Imperative to increasing diversity in the physician workforce is increasing the pool of qualified underrepresented minority applicants to medical schools. With this goal in mind, the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (A&M College of Medicine) has partnered with Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), a historically black college and university that is a component of the Texas A&M university system, to develop the undergraduate medical academy (UMA). The UMA was established by legislative mandate in 2003 and is a state-funded program. The authors describe the development of partnership between the A&M College of Medicine and PVAMU, focusing on the key attributes that have been identified for success. The administrative structure of the UMA ensures that the presidents of the two institutions collaborate to address issues of program oversight and facilitates a direct relationship between the dean and associate dean for academic affairs of A&M College of Medicine and the director of the UMA to define the program objectives and structure. The authors delineate the admission process to the UMA, as well as the academic requirements of the program. Students attend lecture series during the academic year and participate in summer programs on the A&M College of Medicine campus in addition to receiving intensive academic counseling and opportunities for tutoring in several subjects. The authors also describe the initial success in medical school admissions for UMA students. This partnership provides a model blueprint that can be adopted and adapted by other medical schools focused on increasing diversity in medicine.

  7. Person-city personality fit and entrepreneurial success: An explorative study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingjie; Zhou, Yixin; Zhang, Jianxin; Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2017-08-13

    While the study of personality differences is a traditional psychological approach in entrepreneurship research, economic research directs attention towards the entrepreneurial ecosystems in which entrepreneurial activity are embedded. We combine both approaches and quantify the interplay between the individual personality make-up of entrepreneurs and the local personality composition of ecosystems, with a special focus on person-city personality fit. Specifically, we analyse personality data from N = 26,405 Chinese residents across 42 major Chinese cities, including N = 1091 Chinese entrepreneurs. Multi-level polynomial regression and response surface plots revealed that: (a) individual-level conscientiousness had a positive effect and individual-level agreeableness and neuroticism had a negative effect on entrepreneurial success, (b) city-level conscientiousness had a positive, and city-level neuroticism had a negative effect on entrepreneurial success, and (c) additional person-city personality fit effects existed for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. For example, entrepreneurs who are high in agreeableness and conduct their business in a city with a low agreeableness level show the lowest entrepreneurial success. In contrast, entrepreneurs who are low in agreeableness and conduct their business in a city with a high agreeableness level show relatively high entrepreneurial success. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition.

  9. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children’s stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander–Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students’ comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity. PMID:26338318

  10. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P functional diversity of the aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  11. Alfa analysis of genetic diversity in populus cathayana rehd originating from south eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Peng, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The wide geographical and climatic distribution of Populus cathayana Rehd indicates that there is a large amount of genetic diversity available, which can be exploited for conservation, breeding programs and afforestation schemes. In our study, genetic diversity was evaluated in the natural populations of P. cathayana originating from southern and eastern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China by means of AFLP markers. For four primer combinations, a total of 175 bands were obtained of which 173 (98.9%) were polymorphic. Six natural populations of P. cathayana possessed different levels of genetic diversity, high level of genetic differentiation existed among the populations (G/sub st) =0.489) of P. cathayana. Individuals cluster and PCO analysis based on Jaccards's similarity coefficient also showed evident population genetic structure with high level of population genetic differentiation. The long evolutionary process coupled with genetic drift within populations, rather than contemporary gene flow, are the major forces shaping genetic structure of P. cathayana populations. Moreover, there was no correspondence between geographical and genetic distances in the populations of P. cathayana, seldom gene exchange among the populations and different selection pressures may be the causes. Our findings of different levels of genetic diversity within populations and high level of genetic differentiation among the populations provided promising condition for further breeding and conservation programs. (author)

  12. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Huang

    Full Text Available Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m saline (1.4% lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E. Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change.

  13. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of seven Amorphophallus species in southwestern China revealed by chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Yin, Si; Yang, Huixiao; Wu, Lifang; Yan, Yuehui

    2017-07-15

    Plants species in the genus Amorphophallus are of great economic importance, as they are the only plants known to produce glucomannan. Although southwestern China has been recognized as one of the origin centres of Amorphophallus, only a few studies assessing its genetic diversity have been reported. To aid in the utilization and conservation of Amorphophallus species, we evaluated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among seven edible Amorphophallus species using three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL, trnL and trnK-matK). The results showed that the genetic diversity at the population level was relatively low, with over half of the populations harbouring only one haplotype. The widely scattered species, A. konjac, had the largest genetic diversity, while the narrow endemic species, A. yuloensis, possessed only one haplotype. Phylogeny analysis identified three well-supported major lineages. Our study suggested that habitat fragmentation might be a driver of the genetic variation patterns within and between populations of Amorphophallus. A conservation strategy consisting of in situ conservation and germplasm collection is recommended.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Two Successive V3 and V4 IMERG Final Run Precipitation Products over Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Final Run (IMERGF product has now been upgraded to Version 4 (V4, which has been available since March 2017. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate the characteristic differences between the V4 and the previous V3 products. A comprehensive performance evaluation of the errors of the successive V3 and V4 IMERGF products is performed with a comparison of the China daily Precipitation Analysis Products (CPAP from March 2014 to February 2015. The version 6 Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP research product (which is another Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM based precipitation product is also used as a comparison in this study. Overall, the IMERGF-V4 product does not exhibit the anticipated improvement for China compared to the IMERGF-V3 product. An analysis of the metrics of annual daily average precipitation over China for the IMERGF-V3 and IMERGF-V4 products indicates a decrease of the relative bias (RB from 3.70% to −7.18%, a decrease of the correlation coefficient (CC from 0.91 to 0.89, an increase of the fractional standard error (FSE from 0.49 to 0.56, and an increase of the root-mean-square error (RMSE from 0.63 mm to 0.72 mm. Compared to the IMERGF-V3 product, the IMERGF-V4 product exhibits a significant underestimation of precipitation in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau with a much lower RB of −60.91% (−58.19%, −65.30%, and −63.74% based on the annual (summer, autumn, and winter daily average precipitation and an even worse performance during winter (−72.33% of RB. In comparison, the GSMaP product outperforms the IMERGF-V3 and IMERGF-V4 products and has the smallest RMSE (0.47 mm/day, highest CC (0.95, lowest FSE (0.37, and best performance of the RB (−2.39% in terms of annual daily precipitation over China. However, the GSMaP product underestimates the precipitation more than the IMERGF-V3 product for the arid XJ region.

  16. Diversity and distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and risk to human health in Jiuhua mountain area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xing Qiang; Li, Shi Guang; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Hua, Ri Mao

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Species diversity and drivers of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a semi-arid mountain in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF play an essential role in complex ecosystems. However, the species diversity and composition of AMF communities remain unclear in semi-arid mountains. Further, it is not well understood if the characteristics of AMF community assemblies differ for different habitat types, e.g., agricultural arable land, artificial forest land, natural grassland, and bush/wood land. Here, using the high-throughput technology by Illumina sequencing on the MiSeq platform, we explored the species diversity and composition of soil AMF communities among different habitat types in a semi-arid mountain (Taihang Mountain, Mid-western region of China. Then, we analyzed the effect of nutrient composition and soil texture on AMF community assembly. Our results showed that members of the Glomus genera were predominated in all soil types. The distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the content of water, available phosphorus, and available potassium were the most crucial geochemical factors that significantly affected AMF communities (p < 0.05. The analysis of the soil texture confirmed that AMF diversity was negatively correlated with soil clay content. The comparison of AMF diversity among the various habitat types revealed that the artificial forest land had the lowest AMF diversity in comparison with other land types. Our findings suggest that there were differences in species diversity and composition of soil AMF communities among different habitat types. These findings shed new light on the characteristics of community structure and drivers of community assembly in AMF in semi-arid mountains, and point to the potential importance of different habitat types on AMF communities.

  18. Success rate and complications of ERCP performed during hands-on training courses: a multicenter study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhuan; Li, Zhao-Shen; Leung, Joseph W; Zou, Xiao-Ping; He, Li-Ping; Jia, Guo-Fa; Huang, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Huang, Liu-Ye; Chao, William S C

    2009-02-01

    Hands-on endoscopy workshops are popular and valuable sources for the continuing medical education of endoscopists. Concerns, however, exist regarding clinical outcomes of procedures performed during hands-on training of ERCP. We compared the success rates and complications between patients in the hands-on training courses and matched control patients. A retrospective, multicenter study. Seven endoscopy centers in mainland China. All patients who underwent ERCP during hands-on training courses at GI endoscopy conferences in China between January 2002 and December 2006 were included. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics, including age, sex, indication, therapeutic intervention, success rate, and complication, were collected. Differences in ERCP outcomes between domestic and foreign mentors were also compared. Conference, patient, and endoscopist-related variables were analyzed for potential risk factors associated with post-ERCP complications. Nine conferences with hands-on ERCP training, including 124 patients, were held at 7 endoscopy centers. There were no significant differences in the sex ratio, age, indication, and therapeutic intervention between patients for hands-on training (n = 124) and controls (n = 124). The success rates and overall complication rates were similar between the 2 groups (91.9% vs 92.7%, respectively, P = .811; 12.9% vs 9.7%, respectively, P = .422). Domestic mentors encountered more post-ERCP complications than foreign mentors (18.0% vs 0%, respectively, P = .001). Univariate analyses showed that a large-scale conference (P = .004), first-time mentorship (P = .015), and small case volume for the mentor (P = .015) were significantly associated with post-ERCP complications. Nominal significance in univariate testing was removed when analyzed in a comprehensive multivariate setting. A nonrandomized retrospective trial with only 7 centers (9 conferences). The success rate and overall complication rate were similar between patients in the

  19. Field margins as rapidly evolving local diversity hotspots for ground beetles (Coleoptera : Carabidae) in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Z. R.; Liu, Y. H.; Axmacher, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The diversity of carabid assemblages at newly established field margins was compared to the diversity in surrounding fields and woodland habitats at Dongbeiwang village, Beijing. Carabids were sampled using 6 pitfalls per plot at a total of 12 plots in the year 2000. Although sampled only a year after their establishment, field margins harbored the most abundant and diverse carabids assemblages of all sites. More than a quarter of carabid species encountered were furthermore restricted to cat...

  20. Use the predictive models to explore the key factors affecting phytoplankton succession in Lake Erhai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Wang, Huan; Chen, Jun; Shen, Hong; Deng, Xuwei

    2018-01-01

    Increasing algae in Lake Erhai has resulted in frequent blooms that have not only led to water ecosystem degeneration but also seriously influenced the quality of the water supply and caused extensive damage to the local people, as the lake is a water resource for Dali City. Exploring the key factors affecting phytoplankton succession and developing predictive models with easily detectable parameters for phytoplankton have been proven to be practical ways to improve water quality. To this end, a systematic survey focused on phytoplankton succession was conducted over 2 years in Lake Erhai. The data from the first study year were used to develop predictive models, and the data from the second year were used for model verification. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton in Lake Erhai was obvious. The dominant groups were Cyanobacteria in the summer, Chlorophyta in the autumn and Bacillariophyta in the winter. The developments and verification of predictive models indicated that compared to phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton density is more effective for estimating phytoplankton variation in Lake Erhai. CCA (canonical correlation analysis) indicated that TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), DO (dissolved oxygen), SD (Secchi depth), Cond (conductivity), T (water temperature), and ORP (oxidation reduction potential) had significant influences (p < 0.05) on the phytoplankton community. The CCA of the dominant species found that Microcystis was significantly influenced by T. The dominant Chlorophyta, Psephonema aenigmaticum and Mougeotia, were significantly influenced by TN. All results indicated that TN and T were the two key factors driving phytoplankton succession in Lake Erhai.

  1. Global mobility orientation and the success of self-initiated expatriates in greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    to proficiency, performance and satisfaction. We also explored the associations between global mobility orientation and these four work outcomes and examined to what extent the demographic characteristics differentiated the relationships. Results support most hypothesized differences. We found that a global...... mobility orientation was associated with all the work outcomes, except satisfaction. For inherent demographic characteristics, we found support for our hypotheses that for individuals with less successful demographics (younger, male), there was a stronger relationship between global mobility orientation...

  2. Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: a hot area of viral recombination in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence of an HIV-1 epidemic in China was first recognized in Dehong, western Yunnan. Due to its geographic location, Dehong contributed greatly in bridging HIV-1 epidemics in Southeast Asia and China through drug trafficking and injection drug use; and also extensively to the HIV genetic diversity in Yunnan and China. We attempt to monitor HIV-1 in this area by studying the HIV-1 genetic distribution and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in various at-risk populations. Methods Blood samples from a total of 320 newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals, who were antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, were collected from January 2009 to December 2010 in 2 counties in Dehong. HIV-1 subtypes and pol gene drug resistance (DR) mutations were genotyped. Results Among 299 pol sequences successfully genotyped (93.4%), subtype C accounted for 43.1% (n=129), unique recombinant forms (URFs) for 18.4% (n=55), CRF01_AE for 17.7% (n=54), B for 10.7% (n=32), CRF08_BC for 8.4% (n=25) and CRF07_BC for 1.7% (n=5). Subtype distribution in patients infected by different transmission routes varied. In contract to the previous finding of CRF01_AE predominance in 2002-2006, subtype C predominated in both injecting drug users (IDUs) and heterosexually transmitted populations in this study. Furthermore, we found a high level of BC, CRF01_AE/C and CRF01_AE/B/C recombinants suggesting the presence of active viral recombination in the area. TDR associated mutations were identified in 4.3% (n=13) individuals. A total of 1.3% of DR were related to protease inhibitors (PIs), including I85IV, M46I and L90M; 0.3% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), including M184I; and 2.7% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), including K103N/S, Y181C, K101E and G190A. Conclusion Our work revealed diverse HIV-1 subtype distributions and intersubtype recombinations. We also identified a low but significant TDR mutation rate among ART-naive patients. These findings

  3. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  4. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  6. Comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Zhou, Xingyu; Xu, Qing; Tan, Ning; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Mount Long-hu and Gui-yang in China. Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in China. To evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba species in wild Tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in Mount E-mei of Si-chuan Province in China. PCR analysis detected E. nuttalli, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba polecki ST2 in 17%, 42%, and 66% of the samples, respectively, whereas Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were undetected. This study is the first to report on the detection of E. nuttalli from Tibetan macaques. Six E. nuttalli isolates were obtained, 18S rRNA gene and six tRNA-linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the isolates were sequenced. The Mantel test results gave an r value of 0.97 of relationships between geographical distance and genetic diversity of Chinese E. nuttalli populations, indicating a significant isolation-by-distance effect in Chinese E. nuttalli according to the tRNA-STR loci sequences. Structural analysis of E. nuttalli isolates based on tRNA-linked STR loci demonstrated three Chinese E. nuttalli populations with their respective features, but the Gui-yang population was located in the middle. In the distance-based NJ tree, E. nuttalli isolates were divided into five different branches, and E-mei isolates were attributed to an independent branch to distinguish them from Gui-yang and Long-hu isolates. Genetic analysis in this study provided clues of the genetic differences between E. nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of five cattle breeds native to China using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Animal Diversity Information System (http://www.fao.org/ dad-is). Microsatellite analysis. Ten microsatellite markers for the genetic diversity study in cattle were used for the analysis of five native Chinese cattle breeds. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was accomplished in a total volume of 25 µl containing 50 ng.

  8. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity, abundance and niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of the eastern China marginal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolan eYu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The eastern China marginal seas are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS and the East China Sea (ECS by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia and silicate (SiO32-, was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ15NTN and SiO32-, and nitrate and δ13C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO32-. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits.

  10. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  11. Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility and Diversity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates in Seafood from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of foodborne infections in China and a threat to human health worldwide. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristic of V. parahaemolyticus isolates in fish, oyster and shrimp samples from the South China domestic consumer market. To accomplish this, we examined 504 seafood samples from 11 provinces of China. The prevalence rates were 9.38, 30.36, and 25.60%, respectively. In summer (33.33%, the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was more common than that detected in the winter (14.01%. In addition, we identified 98 V. parahaemolyticus strains. The antimicrobial resistance trends of our seafood isolates to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed that major isolates were resistant to ampicillin (79.59%. Furthermore, 68.38% of the isolates were identified as being multidrug resistance. The prevalence of tdh or trh genes among the isolates was 8.16 and 12.24%, respectively. ERIC-PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST results enabled classification of the isolates (n = 98 into different clusters, revealing genetic variation and relatedness among the isolates. Thus, our findings demonstrate the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in a variety of common seafood consumed domestically in China and provides insights into the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains, which should improve our microbiological risk assessment knowledge associated with V. parahaemolyticus in seafoods.

  12. Chloroplast phylogeography of Helianthemum songaricum (Cistaceae) from northwestern China: implications for preservation of genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihao Su; Mingli Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Two chloroplast intergenic spacers (trnD-trnT and rps16-trnK) were used to study the phylogeographical structure of Helianthemum songaricum in northwestern China, with 12 haplotypes detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. songaricum comprised two lineages, one distributed in the Yili Valley and the other in the western Ordos Plateau. Nested clade phylogeographic...

  13. HIV-1 diversity and drug-resistant mutations in infected individuals in Changchun, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection has been detected in all provinces of China. Although epidemiological and phylogenetic studies have been conducted in many regions, such analyses are lacking from Jilin province in northeastern China. METHOD: Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, as well as detection of drug-resistant mutations, were conducted on 57 HIV-1 infected patients from Changchun city identified and confirmed through annual surveillance by local Centers for Disease Control in Jilin province of northeastern China in 2012. RESULTS: Sexual contact was determined to be the major pathway for HIV-1 transmission in Jilin, where hetero- and homosexual activities contributed almost equally. Phylogenetic analyses detected multiple subtypes of HIV-1 including subtype G circulating in Jilin, with multiple origins for each of them. Both subtype B and CRF01_AE were dominant, and evidence of subtype B transmitting between different high-risk groups was observed. Mutations in the viral protease at position 71 indicated the presence of a selective pressure. Several drug-resistant mutations were detected, although they were predicted with low-level resistance to antiviral treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Information from this study fills the gap in knowledge of HIV-1 transmission in Changchun city, Jilin province, China. By revealing the origin and evolutionary status of local HIV-1 strains, this work contributes to ongoing efforts in the control and prevention of AIDS.

  14. A effective DNA vaccine against diverse genotype J infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus strains prevalent in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Liu, Miao; Kurath, Gael; Ren, Guangming; LaPatra, Scott E.; Yin, Jiasheng; Liu, Hongbai; Feng, Jian; Lu, Tongyan

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is the most important pathogen threatening the aquaculture of salmonid fish in China. In this study, a DNA vaccine, designated pIHNch-G, was constructed with the glycoprotein (G) gene of a Chinese IHNV isolate SD-12 (also called Sn1203) of genotype J. The minimal dose of vaccine required, the expression of the Mx-1 gene in the muscle (vaccine delivery site) and anterior kidney, and the titers of the neutralizing antibodies produced were used to evaluate the vaccine efficacy. To assess the potential utility of the vaccine in controlling IHNV throughout China, the cross protective efficacy of the vaccine was determined by challenging fish with a broad range of IHNV strains from different geographic locations in China. A single 100 ng dose of the vaccine conferred almost full protection to rainbow trout fry (3 g) against waterborne or intraperitoneal injection challenge with IHNV strain SD-12 as early as 4 days post-vaccination (d.p.v.), and significant protection was still observed at 180 d.p.v. Intragenogroup challenges showed that the DNA vaccine provided similar protection to the fish against all the Chinese IHNV isolates tested, suggesting that the vaccine can be widely used in China. Mx-1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in the muscle tissue (vaccine delivery site) and anterior kidney in the vaccinated rainbow trout at both 4 and 7 d.p.v. Similar levels of neutralizing antibodies were determined with each of the Chinese IHNV strains at 60 and 180 d.p.v. This DNA vaccine should play an important role in the control of IHN in China.

  15. Drivers of coastal bacterioplankton community diversity and structure along a nutrient gradient in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaying; Wang, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Guo, Annan; Zhang, Demin; Fei, Yuejun; Ye, Xiansen

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient discharge poses widespread threats to coastal ecosystems and has increased environmental gradients from coast to sea. Bacterioplankton play crucial roles in coastal biogeochemical cycling, and a variety of factors affect bacterial community diversity and structure. We used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to investigate the spatial variation in bacterial community composition (BCC) across five sites on a coast-offshore gradient in the East China Sea. Overall, bacterial alpha-diversity did not differ across sites, except that richness and phylogenetic diversity were lower in the offshore sites, and the highest alpha-diversity was found in the most landward site, with Chl-a being the main factor. BCCs generally clustered into coastal and offshore groups. Chl-a explained 12.3% of the variation in BCCs, more than that explained by either the physicochemical (5.7%) or spatial (8.5%) variables. Nutrients (particularly nitrate and phosphate), along with phytoplankton abundance, were more important than other physicochemical factors, co-explaining 20.0% of the variation in BCCs. Additionally, a series of discriminant families (primarily affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria), whose relative abundances correlated with Chl-a, DIN, and phosphate concentrations, were identified, implying their potential to indicate phytoplankton blooms and nutrient enrichment in this marine ecosystem. This study provides insight into bacterioplankton response patterns along a coast-offshore gradient, with phytoplankton abundance increasing in the offshore sites. Time-series sampling across multiple transects should be performed to determine the seasonal and spatial patterns in bacterial diversity and community structure along this gradient.

  16. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children's stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students' comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity. © 2015 J. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Conceptual Pathways to Ethnic Transcendence in Diverse Churches: Theoretical Reflections on the Achievement of Successfully Integrated Congregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Marti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ethnic transcendence—defined as the process of co-formulating a shared religious identity among diverse members that supersedes their racial and ethnic differences through congregational involvement—captures a critical aspect of successfully integrating different racial and ethnic groups into a single, commonly shared, multi-ethnic congregation. Drawing on classic theoretical resources from Max Weber and Emile Durkheim, this paper expands on previous scholarship by conceptually articulating two different paths for the achievement of ethnic transcendence in multiracial congregations. In the first path, ethnic transcendence supports and encourages congregational diversification by inspiring members and mobilizing them to contribute their efforts to accomplish a common religious mission. In the second path, the achievement of ethnic transcendence involves the sublimation of congregational members’ religious selves to an overarching moral collective. Both paths involve privileging religious identities in favor of a particularistic ethnic or racial identity. Moreover, through both paths, the development of congregationally specific religious identities results in joining with co-members of different ethno-racial ancestries as a type of spiritually-derived kinship. Due to the fact that ethnic transcendence is an interactive process, congregational diversity is a bi-directional phenomenon representing the extent to which members allow for the integration of separate ethnicities/races into a common congregation through idealized and richly-symbolic notions of connection and belonging to a congregation. Overall, this paper suggests a heuristic framework that productively expands the concept of ethnic transcendence, allows an approach for observing cross-ethnic/inter-racial organizational processes, and ultimately contributes toward understanding how congregations (whether church, temple, or mosque pursue alternative identity

  18. Nearly a decade-long repeatable seasonal diversity patterns of bacterioplankton communities in the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingyun; Stegen, James C; Yu, Yuhe; Deng, Ye; Li, Xinghao; Wu, Shu; Dai, Lili; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Chun; Ni, Jiajia; Li, Xuemei; Hu, Hongjuan; Xiao, Fanshu; Feng, Weisong; Ning, Daliang; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2017-07-01

    Uncovering which environmental factors govern community diversity patterns and how ecological processes drive community turnover are key questions related to understand the community assembly. However, the ecological mechanisms regulating long-term variations of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with MiSeq platform. We found strong repeatable seasonal diversity patterns in terms of both common (detected in more than 50% samples) and dominant (relative abundance >1%) bacterial taxa turnover. Moreover, community composition tracked the seasonal temperature gradient, indicating that temperature is a key environmental factor controlling observed diversity patterns. Total phosphorus also contributed significantly to the seasonal shifts in bacterioplankton composition. However, any spatial pattern of bacterioplankton communities across the main lake areas within season was overwhelmed by their temporal variabilities. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated that 75%-82% of community turnover was governed by homogeneous selection due to consistent environmental conditions within seasons, suggesting that the microbial communities in Lake Donghu are mainly controlled by niche-based processes. Therefore, dominant niches available within seasons might be occupied by similar combinations of bacterial taxa with modest dispersal rates throughout different lake areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nearly a decade-long repeatable seasonal diversity patterns of bacterioplankton communities in the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qingyun [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Stegen, James C. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yu, Yuhe [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Deng, Ye [CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Li, Xinghao [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wu, Shu [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Dai, Lili [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Zhang, Xiang [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Jinjin [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wang, Chun [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ni, Jiajia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Hu, Hongjuan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Xiao, Fanshu [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Feng, Weisong [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ning, Daliang [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; He, Zhili [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Van Nostrand, Joy D. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Wu, Liyou [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Zhou, Jizhong [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA

    2017-05-21

    Uncovering which environmental factors have the greatest influence on community diversity patterns and how ecological processes govern community turnover are key questions related to understanding community assembly mechanisms. Although we have good understanding of plant and animal community assembly, the mechanisms regulating diversity patterns of aquatic bacterial communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long time-series study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found strong repeatable seasonal patterns for the overall community, common (detected in more than 50% samples) and dominant bacterial taxa (relative abundance > 1%). Moreover, community composition tracked the seasonal temperature gradient, indicating that temperature is an important environmental factor controlling observed diversity patterns. Total phosphorus also contributed significantly to the seasonal shifts in bacterioplankton composition. However, any spatial pattern across the main lake areas was overwhelmed by temporal variability in this eutrophic lake system. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated that 75%-82% of community turnover was governed by homogeneous selection, suggesting that the bacterioplankton communities are mainly controlled by niche-based processes. However, dominant niches available within seasons might be occupied by similar combinations of bacterial taxa with modest dispersal rates throughout this lake system. This study gives us important insights into community assembly and seasonal turnover of lake bacterioplankton, it may be also useful to predict temporal patterns of other planktonic communities.

  20. Diversity and community structure of fungi through a permafrost core profile from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    While a vast number of studies have addressed the prokaryotic diversity in permafrost, characterized by subzero temperatures, low water activity, and extremely low rates of nutrient and metabolite transfer, fungal patterns have received surprisingly limited attention. Here, the fungal diversity and community structure were investigated by culture-dependent technique combined with cloning-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of sediments in a 10-m-long permafrost core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. A total of 62 fungal phylotypes related to 10 distinct classes representing three phyla were recovered from 5031 clones generated in 13 environmental gene libraries. A large proportion of the phylotypes (25/62) that were distantly related to described fungal species appeared to be novel diversity. Ascomycota was the predominant group of fungi, with respect to both clone and phylotype number. Our results suggested there was the existence of cosmopolitan psychrophilic or psychrotolerant fungi in permafrost sediments, the community composition of fungi varied with increasing depth, while these communities largely distributed according to core layers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Paleomagnetism of a well-dated marine succession in South China: A possible Late Cambrian true polar wander (TPW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-Jun; Li, Yong-Xiang; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) hypothesis remains controversial largely because of the uncertainties in the quality and/or fidelity of the paleomagnetic data as well as their chronological control. Testing the TPW hypothesis requires high-quality paleomagnetic data of sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we present paleomagnetic results of a continuous Cambrian shallow marine succession from South China where available detailed biostratigraphy provides exceptional chronological constraints. Forty-three sites of paleomagnetic samples were collected from this limestone-dominated succession. Stepwise thermal demagnetization generally reveals three-component magnetizations. Low- and intermediate-temperature components can be cleaned by ∼330 °C, and the high-temperature component (HTC) was isolated typically from ∼350 to ∼450 °C. A positive fold test and the presence of reversed polarity in the strata, together with rock magnetic data as well as the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results, collectively suggest that the HTCs are likely primary. A directional shift of the HTCs occurs between the lower-middle Cambrian and the upper Cambrian strata in the succession and is tentatively interpreted to indicate a ∼57° polar wander from ∼500.5 to 494 Ma. Because the rate of polar wander is too fast to be a tectonic origin, this polar wander is interpreted to represent a Late Cambrian TPW. This TPW appears coeval with the Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion (SPICE) and the major trilobite mass extinctions, suggesting a potential link between the TPW and the Late Cambrian biotic and climatic changes. Because the proposed TPW event is exceptionally well-dated, it should be testable through examination of other worldwide sections.

  2. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in sediments from the coastal Pearl River estuary to the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the diversity and abundance of nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and betaproteobacteria (beta-AOB) were investigated, along with the physicochemical parameters potentially affecting them, in a transect of surface sediments from the coastal margin adjacent to the Pearl River estuary to the slope in the deep South China Sea. Nitrifying microbial diversity was determined by detecting the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) gene. An obvious comm...

  3. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  4. Fish diversity and abundance in Bidong Island, South China Sea, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Piah Rumeaida; Shariff M. M. Daud; Faez M. I. Badri

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and abundance of fish species in any ecosystems is an indicator of ecosystem wellbeing and should be characterized for conservation and management purpose. This study aims to identify the number of species and their diversity in Bidong Island in relation to different types and intensity of human activities carried out in the island. Three approaches of fish survey and sampling were conducted; SCUBA diving observations and fish collection by baited portable traps depl...

  5. Occurrence of Camallanus cotti in greatly diverse fish species from Danjiangkou Reservoir in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Gao, Dian; Xi, Bingwen; Yao, Weijian; Liu, Minliang

    2007-07-01

    Two thousand four hundred fifty-eight fish comprised of 53 species were captured in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, in the northwestern part of Hubei Province, central China during 2004, to examine Camallanus cotti infections. We found that 19 cypriniform, 3 siluriforme, and 4 perciforme fishes were infected by the nematode. Our study revealed the species, Hemiculter bleekeri bleekeri, Culter oxycephaloide, Pseudolaubuca sinensis, Acanthobrama simony, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Gnathopogon imberbis, G. argentatus, Saurogobio dabryi, S. dumerili, Gobiobotia ichangensis, Liobagrus marginatoides, and Ctenogobius shennongensis as new hosts of the worm. The number and range of fish host species found in this survey were much greater than any of the previous investigations. The mean prevalence, prevalence, mean abundance, and intensity of infection varied in different fish species, indicating a possible host preference. Moreover, we suggest that this nematode is a native parasite of cypriniform fishes in China, perhaps initially in the reaches of the Yangtze River.

  6. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    , and the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps reflecting their special geological features and history. Nevertheless, partial regression indicated that historical effects were less important relative to contemporary environment. In conclusion, contemporary environment (notably climate) determines the general trend in woody...... regions combined. This suggests different richness-environment relationships among regions. These results indicate important historical signals in the species richness patterns of woody plants across China. The signals are especially pronounced in the eastern Himalayas, the Mongolian Plateau...

  7. Genetic diversity assessment of sesame core collection in China by phenotype and molecular markers and extraction of a mini-core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanxin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the four major oil crops in China. A sesame core collection (CC was established in China in 2000, but no complete study on its genetic diversity has been carried out at either the phenotypic or molecular level. To provide technical guidance, a theoretical basis for further collection, effective protection, reasonable application, and a complete analysis of sesame genetic resources, a genetic diversity assessment of the sesame CC in China was conducted using phenotypic and molecular data and by extracting a sesame mini-core collection (MC. Results Results from a genetic diversity assessment of sesame CC in China were significantly inconsistent at the phenotypic and molecular levels. A Mantel test revealed the insignificant correlation between phenotype and molecular marker information (r = 0.0043, t = 0.1320, P = 0.5525. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (I and Nei genetic diversity index (h were higher (I = 0.9537, h = 0.5490 when calculated using phenotypic data from the CC than when using molecular data (I = 0.3467, h = 0.2218. A mini-core collection (MC containing 184 accessions was extracted based on both phenotypic and molecular data, with a low mean difference percentage (MD, 1.64%, low variance difference percentage (VD, 22.58%, large variable rate of coefficient of variance (VR, 114.86%, and large coincidence rate of range (CR, 95.76%. For molecular data, the diversity indices and the polymorphism information content (PIC for the MC were significantly higher than for the CC. Compared to an alternative random sampling strategy, the advantages of capturing genetic diversity and validation by extracting a MC using an advanced maximization strategy were proven. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the phenotypic and molecular genetic diversities of the sesame CC in China. A MC was extracted using both phenotypic and molecular data. Low MD% and VD%, and

  8. Genetic diversity assessment of sesame core collection in China by phenotype and molecular markers and extraction of a mini-core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the four major oil crops in China. A sesame core collection (CC) was established in China in 2000, but no complete study on its genetic diversity has been carried out at either the phenotypic or molecular level. To provide technical guidance, a theoretical basis for further collection, effective protection, reasonable application, and a complete analysis of sesame genetic resources, a genetic diversity assessment of the sesame CC in China was conducted using phenotypic and molecular data and by extracting a sesame mini-core collection (MC). Results Results from a genetic diversity assessment of sesame CC in China were significantly inconsistent at the phenotypic and molecular levels. A Mantel test revealed the insignificant correlation between phenotype and molecular marker information (r = 0.0043, t = 0.1320, P = 0.5525). The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (I) and Nei genetic diversity index (h) were higher (I = 0.9537, h = 0.5490) when calculated using phenotypic data from the CC than when using molecular data (I = 0.3467, h = 0.2218). A mini-core collection (MC) containing 184 accessions was extracted based on both phenotypic and molecular data, with a low mean difference percentage (MD, 1.64%), low variance difference percentage (VD, 22.58%), large variable rate of coefficient of variance (VR, 114.86%), and large coincidence rate of range (CR, 95.76%). For molecular data, the diversity indices and the polymorphism information content (PIC) for the MC were significantly higher than for the CC. Compared to an alternative random sampling strategy, the advantages of capturing genetic diversity and validation by extracting a MC using an advanced maximization strategy were proven. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the phenotypic and molecular genetic diversities of the sesame CC in China. A MC was extracted using both phenotypic and molecular data. Low MD% and VD%, and large VR% and CR

  9. Low Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in an Ancient Population from China: Insight into Social Organization at the Fujia Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Li, Chunxiang; Luan, Fengshi; Li, Zhenguang; Li, Hongjie; Cui, Yinqiu; Zhou, Hui; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the social organization of a population associated with the Dawenkou period, we performed ancient DNA analysis of 18 individuals from human remains from the Fujia site in Shandong Province, China. Directly radiocarbon dated to 4800-4500 cal BP, the Fujia site is assumed to be associated with a transitional phase from matrilineal clans to patrilineal monogamous families. Our results reveal a low mitochondrial DNA diversity from the site and population. Combined with Y chromosome data, the pattern observed at the Fujia site is most consistent with a matrilineal community. The patterns also suggest that the bond of marriage was de-emphasized compared with the bonds of descent at Fujia.

  10. Geographic variation and diversity of the cytochrome b gene in wild populations of medaka (Oryzias latipes) from Korea and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Satoko; Matsuda, Masaru; Jeon, Sang-Rin; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2004-04-01

    We analyzed the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in wild populations of medaka from Korea and China. We surveyed 258 wild specimens from 75 different sites, and identified 17 mitotypes. Sequencing analysis of the complete cyt b gene (1141-bp) was subsequently carried out to infer the phylogenetic relationships among these mitotypes. Phylogenetic trees indicated two major clades, D and E, which were different from the Japanese clades (A, B and C). These two clades were completely identical to two clusters previously identified by RFLP analysis of entire mitochondrial DNAs. The geographic distribution of the mitotypes in clades D and E was consistent with the China-West Korean Population and the East Korean Population as defined by allozymic and karyological analyses. This agreement among different analyses suggests long-term isolation between the two groups. In the region where the distributions of two major clades overlapped, a limited extent of gene flow was observed. These results suggested the existence of some reproductive isolation mechanisms between the two clades, or the introgression between them followed by a random drift in each local population. Furthermore, clade D was subdivided into three subclades (D-I to D-III). The phylogenetic relationship and distribution pattern of subclade D-II suggested a dispersal event of medaka from China to southwest Korea. Our results also showed that the East Korean Population has recently expanded its distribution area because little diversity was observed in clade E.

  11. Diversity of bacteriome associated with Phlebotomus chinensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies in two wild populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaili; Chen, Huiying; Jiang, Jinjin; Li, Xiangyu; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-11-07

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in China. The sand flies have adapted to various ecological niches in distinct ecosystems. Characterization of the microbial structure and function will greatly facilitate the understanding of the sand fly ecology, which would provide critical information for developing intervention strategy for sand fly control. In this study we compared the bacterial composition between two populations of Ph. chinensis from Henan and Sichuan, China. The phylotypes were taxonomically assigned to 29 genera of 19 families in 9 classes of 5 phyla. The core bacteria include Pseudomonas and enterobacteria, both are shared in the sand flies in the two regions. Interestingly, the endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia were detected only in Henan, while the Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia only in Sichuan. The intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia were reported for the first time in sand flies. The influence of sex and feeding status on the microbial structure was also detected in the two populations. The findings suggest that the ecological diversity of sand fly in Sichuan and Henan may contribute to shaping the structure of associated microbiota. The structural classification paves the way to function characterization of the sand fly associated microbiome.

  12. Characterizing diversity based on nutritional and bioactive compositions of yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp. commonly cultivated in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and medicinal compositions. All studied landraces exhibited high contents of starch from 60.7% to 80.6% dry weight (DW, protein (6.3–12.2% DW, minerals (especially Mg 326.8–544.7 mg/kg DW, and essential amino acids. Allantoin and dioscin varied considerably, with values of 0.62–1.49% DW and 0.032–0.092% DW, respectively. The quality variability of 25 yam landraces was clearly separated in light of UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. Using an eigenvalue ≥1 as the cutoff, the first three principal components accounted for most of the total variability (62.33%. Classification was achieved based on the results of the measured parameters and principal component analysis scores. The results are of great help in determining appropriate application strategies for yam germplasm in China.

  13. The Llandovery (Silurian conodont species diversity on the Upper Yangtze Platform, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyang Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts are one of the stratigraphically most important fossil groups in the Silurian Period. We examine the regional diversity dynamics of the Llandovery condonts on the Upper Yangtze Platform. The data set of 41 species from seven sections is compiled from the Geobiodiversity Database. Four measures of taxonomic richness based on zonal counting are used to demonstrate the conodont diversity change. The CONOP (Constrained optimization program is used to build up a more precise composite sequence, which provides the data for comparative analysis of diversity change. Conodont richness keeps growing from the Ozarkodina aff. hassi Zone through the Ozarkodina obesa Zone to the Ozarkodina guizhouensis Zone and reaches a peak at the fourth zone, the Pterospathodus eopennatus Zone. This significant growth was followed by a rapid decrease, which probably represents an extinction in the mid-Telychian. This extinction event can also be observed in other fossil groups such as graptolites and chitinozoans based on recent studies.

  14. How do you manage the pressure? : How time, type, complexity and cultural diversity affects the relationship between leadership styles and project success

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Cherro, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between project leadership styles and success when affected by pressures such as time, project type, complexity and cultural diversity. The research examines the two well-known leadership approaches of transformational- and transactional leadership, and argues that transactional leadership, which has less focus on the leader-follower relationship, is more suitable and successful in projects with limited time. The transformational leadership style, which has...

  15. Factors influencing the success of rural cataract surgery programs in China: the study of hospital administration and relative productivity (SHARP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Ong, Ee Lin; Yan, Xixi; Guo, Xinxing; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David; Congdon, Nathan

    2013-01-09

    To explore factors potentially influencing the success or failure of rural Chinese hospitals in increasing cataract surgical output and quality. Focus groups (FGs, n = 10) were conducted with hospital administrators, doctors, and nurses at 28 county hospitals in Guangdong Province. Discussions explored respondents' views on increasing surgical volume and quality and improving patient satisfaction. Respondents numerically ranked possible strategies to increase surgical volume and quality and patient satisfaction. FG transcripts were independently coded by two reviewers utilizing the constant comparative method following the grounded theory approach, and numerical responses were scored and ranked. Ten FGs and 77 ranking questionnaires were completed by 33 administrators, 23 doctors, and 21 nurses. Kappa values for the two coders were greater than 0.7 for all three groups. All groups identified a critical need for enhanced management training for hospital directors. Doctors and nurses suggested reducing surgical fees to enhance uptake, although administrators were resistant to this. Although doctors saw the need to improve equipment, administrators felt current material conditions were adequate. Respondents agreed that patient satisfaction was generally high, and did not view increasing patient satisfaction as a priority. Our findings highlight agreements and disagreements among the three stakeholder groups about improving surgical output and quality, which can inform strategies to improve cataract programs in rural China. Respondents' beliefs about high patient satisfaction are not in accord with other studies in the area, highlighting a potential area for intervention.

  16. The Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny of Huaiyangshan Virus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Tian, Jun-Hua; Xiong, Yanwen; Wang, Jian-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Dong-Ya; He, Yong-Wen; Jin, Dong; Sun, Qiangzheng; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Yu, Bin; Li, Juan; Dai, Yong-An; Li, Wei; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhang, Guo-Bin; Zhang, Shaomin; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ming-Hui; Lu, Xin; Ye, Changyun; de Jong, Menno D.; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were carried out to better understand the tick vector ecology and genetic diversity of Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) in both regions of endemicity and regions of nonendemicity. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were dominant in regions of endemicity, while Rhipicephalus microplus is more abundant

  17. Genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China based on microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean heterozygosity (H) of the populations ranged from 0.7936 to 0.8202. The mean number of effective allele (Ne) of the populations ranged from 5.3373 to 5.8812 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between breeds was 0.0620. It was suggested that the five goat populations have abundant genetic diversity ...

  18. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Shaofei; Ji Yaqin; Liu Lingling; Chen Li; Zhao Xueyan; Wang Jiajun; Bai Zhipeng; Sun Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 μg g −1 , with the median value as 0.32 μg g −1 . Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization. - Highlights: ► PAEs levels in four types of soils in suburban area of Tianjin were studied. ► Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations. ► PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention. - (1) Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations; (2) PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention.

  19. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.

  20. Diversity and distribution patterns of root-associated fungi on herbaceous plants in alpine meadows of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of root-associated fungi associated with four ectomycorrhizal herbaceous species, Kobresia capillifolia, Carex parva, Polygonum macrophyllum and Potentilla fallens, collected in three sites of alpine meadows in southwestern China, was estimated based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis of root tips. Three hundred seventy-seven fungal sequences sorted to 154 operational taxonomical units (sequence similarity of ≥ 97% across the ITS) were obtained from the four plant species across all three sites. Similar taxa (in GenBank with ≥ 97% similarity) were not found in GenBank and/or UNITE for most of the OTUs. Ectomycorrhiz a made up 64% of the fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs), endophytes constituted 4% and the other 33% were unidentified root-associated fungi. Fungal OTUs were represented by 57% basidiomycetes and 43% ascomycetes. Inocybe, Tomentella/Thelophora, Sebacina, Hebeloma, Pezizomycotina, Cenococcum geophilum complex, Cortinarius, Lactarius and Helotiales were OTU-rich fungal lineages. Across the sites and host species the root-associated fungal communities generally exhibited low host and site specificity but high host and sampling site preference. Collectively our study revealed noteworthy diversity and endemism of root-associated fungi of alpine plants in this global biodiversity hotspot. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Microbial diversity in raw milk and traditional fermented dairy products (Hurood cheese and Jueke) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M L; Hou, H M; Teng, X X; Zhu, Y L; Hao, H S; Zhang, G L

    2017-03-08

    Hurood cheese (HC) and Jueke (Jk) are 2 traditional fermented dairy products produced from raw milk (RM) in the Inner Mongolia region of China. They have a long history of production and consumption. The microbial compositions of RM, HC, and Jk vary greatly, and are influenced by their geographical origins and unique processing methods. In this study, 2 batches of RM, HC, and Jk samples were collected (April and August 2015) from the Zhenglan Banner, a region located in the southern part of Inner Mongolian belonging to the Xilingol league prefecture. The bacterial and fungal diversities of the samples were determined by 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. A total of 112 bacterial and 30 fungal sequences were identified, with Firmicutes and Ascomycota being the predominant phyla for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Lactococcus and Lactobacillus were identified as the main bacterial genera, whereas Kluyveromyces was the predominant fungus identified in the 3 dairy products. Different bacterial and fungal compositions were observed in RM, HC, and Jk samples collected at different times. These results suggested that time of production may be an important factor influencing the microbial diversity present in RM, HC, and Jk.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and antibacterial activity of culturable fungi derived from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Kai-Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Chang-Yun; Shao, Chang-Lun

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on diversity of culturable fungi mainly focused on sponges and corals, yet little attention had been paid to the fungal communities associated with zoanthid corals. In this study, a total of 193 culturable fungal strains were isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea, of which 49 independent isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Thirty-five strains were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on fungal ITS sequences. The results indicated that 18 genera within eight taxonomic orders of two phyla (seven orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) together with one unidentified fungal strain have been achieved, and Cladosporium sp. represented the dominant culturable genus. Particularly, 14 genera were isolated from a zoanthid for the first time. The antibacterial activities of organic extracts of mycelia and fermentation broth of 49 identified fungi were evaluated, and 29 (59.2 %) of the isolates displayed broad-spectrum or selective antibacterial activity. More interestingly, more than 60 % of the active fungal strains showed strong activity against two aquatic pathogenic bacteria Nocardia brasiliensis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, compared with other pathogenic bacteria, indicating that zoanthid-derived fungi may protect its host against pathogens. This is the first report of systematically phylogenetic diversity and extensively antibacterial activity of zoanthid-derived fungi.

  3. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the only population of Aoluguya Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Huamiao; Rong, Min; Zhang, Ranran; Dong, Yimeng; Zhou, Yongna; Xing, Xiumei

    2018-04-16

    Aoluguya Reindeer is the only reindeer species in China and currently approximately 1000 Aoluguya Reindeer remain semi-domesticated. A relative low diversity estimate was found by investigating genetic variability and demographic history of its population. Mismatch distribution curve of its nucleotide sequences and neutral test indicate its population has not experienced expansion. Genetic diversity and population structure were also analysed by using its mtDNA and microsatellites technology. Statistical results of these analyses showed there were varying degrees of population inbreeding and suggested that gene flow existed among its populations at one time. Three mutation models were also used to detect the bottleneck effect of reindeer population. The genetic variation of eight populations is relatively small. In addition, the clustering program STRUCTURE was used to analyse Aoluguya Reindeer population structure, to determine its optimal K and first time to analyse the phylogenetic status of Aoluguya Reindeer among other reindeer subspecies. It is recommended that the government establish a natural conservation area in Aoluguya Reindeer growing geography, forbade the trade and hunting of Aoluguya Reindeer, and strengthen the protection of this endangered species.

  4. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  5. Bacterial and archaeal diversity in two hot spring microbial mats from the geothermal region of Tengchong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Grant, William D; Cowan, Don A; Jones, Brian E; Ma, Yanhe; Ventosa, Antonio; Heaphy, Shaun

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the bacterial and archaeal diversity in two hot spring microbial mats from the geothermal region of Tengchong in the Yunnan Province, China, using direct molecular analyses. The Langpu (LP) laminated mat was found by the side of a boiling pool with temperature of 60-65 °C and a pH of 8.5, while the Tengchong (TC) streamer mat consisted of white streamers in a slightly acidic (pH 6.5) hot pool outflow with a temperature of 72 °C. Four 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and restriction enzyme analysis of the inserts was used to identify unique sequences and clone frequencies. From almost 200 clones screened, 55 unique sequences were retrieved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LP mat consisted of a diverse bacterial population [Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Chlorobia, Nitrospirae, 'Deinococcus-Thermus', Proteobacteria (alpha, beta and delta subdivisions), Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria], while the archaeal population was dominated by methanogenic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. In contrast, the TC streamer mat consisted of a bacterial population dominated by Aquificae, while the archaeal population also contained Korarchaeota as well as Crenarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota. These mats harboured clone sequences affiliated to unidentified lineages, suggesting that they are a potential source for discovering novel bacteria and archaea.

  6. Effects of tourism and topography on vegetation diversity in the subalpine meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, ChunLing; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m(2) along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  7. Diversity of Soil Nematodes in Areas Polluted with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content ( p plant parasites ( p plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), ΣMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, ΣMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes.

  8. Succession of Ephemeral Secondary Forests and Their Limited Role for the Conservation of Floristic Diversity in a Human-Modified Tropical Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly ...

  9. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle

  10. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhen

    Full Text Available The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK, N fertilizer (N, N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB, manure compost (M, manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB, and bacterial fertilizer (B] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01, whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01. However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure

  11. Effects of grazing intensity and environmental factors on species composition and diversity in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Schönbach, Philipp; Wan, Hongwei; Gierus, Martin; Taube, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we aim to analyze the effect of grazing, precipitation and temperature on plant species dynamics in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. By uncoupling biotic and abiotic factors, we provide essential information on the main drivers determining species composition and species diversity. Effects of grazing by sheep were studied in a controlled experiment along a gradient of seven grazing intensities (from ungrazed to very heavily grazed) during six consecutive years (2005-2010). The results show that plant species composition and diversity varied among years but were little affected by grazing intensity, since the experimental years were much dryer than the long term average, the abiotic constraints may have overridden any grazing effect. Among-year differences were predominantly determined by the abiotic factors of precipitation and temperature. Most of the variation in species dynamics and coexistence between C3 and C4 species was explained by seasonal weather conditions, i.e. precipitation and temperature regime during the early-season (March-June) were most important in determining vegetation dynamics. The dominant C3 species Stipa grandis was highly competitive in March-June, when the temperature levels were low and rainfall level was high. In contrast, the most common C4 species Cleistogenes squarrosa benefited from high early-season temperature levels and low early-season rainfall. However, biomass of Stipa grandis was positively correlated with temperature in March, when effective mean temperature ranges from 0 to 5°C and thus promotes vernalization and vegetative sprouting. Our results suggest that, over a six-year term, it is temporal variability in precipitation and temperature rather than grazing that determines vegetation dynamics and species co-existence of grazed steppe ecosystems. Furthermore, our data support that the variability in the biomass of dominant species, rather than diversity, determine ecosystem

  12. Succession of Ephemeral Secondary Forests and Their Limited Role for the Conservation of Floristic Diversity in a Human-Modified Tropical Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan; Bailon, Mario; Hernandez, Andres; Abbene, Michele; van Breugel, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly selected sites across a mixed-use tropical landscape in central Panama to study forest succession simultaneously on local and landscape scales and across both life stages (seedling, sapling, juvenile and adult trees) and life forms (shrubs, trees, lianas, and palms). To understand the potential of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found a deterministic shift in the diversity and composition of the local plant communities as well as the metacommunity, driven by variation in the rate at which species recruited into and disappeared from the secondary forests across the landscape. Our results indicate that dispersal limitation and the successional niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees and fragments of older forests are maintained in the agricultural matrix and land is abandoned or set aside for a long period of time. On the other hand, during the first 32 years the number of species with mature-sized individuals was a relatively small and strongly biased sub-sample of the total species pool. This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes. PMID:24349283

  13. Propagule pressure and colony social organization are associated with the successful invasion and rapid range expansion of fire ants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Cheng; Ascunce, Marina S; Luo, Li-Zhi; Shao, Jing-Guo; Shih, Cheng-Jen; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2012-02-01

    We characterized patterns of genetic variation in populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in China using mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci to test predictions as to how propagule pressure and subsequent dispersal following establishment jointly shape the invasion success of this ant in this recently invaded area. Fire ants in Wuchuan (Guangdong Province) are genetically differentiated from those found in other large infested areas of China. The immediate source of ants in Wuchuan appears to be somewhere near Texas, which ranks first among the southern USA infested states in the exportation of goods to China. Most colonies from spatially distant, outlying areas in China are genetically similar to one another and appear to share a common source (Wuchuan, Guangdong Province), suggesting that long-distance jump dispersal has been a prevalent means of recent spread of fire ants in China. Furthermore, most colonies at outlier sites are of the polygyne social form (featuring multiple egg-laying queens per nest), reinforcing the important role of this social form in the successful invasion of new areas and subsequent range expansion following invasion. Several analyses consistently revealed characteristic signatures of genetic bottlenecks for S. invicta populations in China. The results of this study highlight the invasive potential of this pest ant, suggest that the magnitude of international trade may serve as a predictor of propagule pressure and indicate that rates and patterns of subsequent range expansion are partly determined by the interplay between species traits and the trade and transportation networks. © Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  15. Economic development and conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Mosesso, J.P.; Zhang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Chinese and American scientists are co-operating to develop concepts, strategies, agreements, and proposals in support of an economic development and sustainable ecosystems project in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Yunnan's Provincial Government has initiated a major programme to develop and further utilise its biological resources to help improve economic conditions for its citizens. They are co-operating with the US Geological Survey (USGS) on evaluation and management of biological resources so economic development will be compatible with sustainable ecological systems. Scientists from the USGS and co-operating universities will provide expertise on synthesising biological data, conducting a Gap Analysis for the Province, evaluating innovative economic opportunities, and designing an effective education, training, and outreach programme.

  16. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun; Shen, Xue-Hui; Xu, Yong-Liang; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2012-03-20

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm), could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm). A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1)/0.16 m2. During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  17. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang You-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Methods Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. Results The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm, could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm. A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1/0.16 m2. Conclusions During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Intimin Gene of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Human, Animals and Raw Meats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmei; Bai, Xiangning; Zhao, Ailan; Zhang, Wang; Ba, Pengbin; Liu, Kai; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2016-01-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is considered to be an emerging enteropathogen that is more prevalent than typical EPEC in developing and developed countries. The major adherence factor, intimin, an outer membrane protein encoded by eae, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of aEPEC. This study investigated the distribution and polymorphisms of intimin subtypes of 143 aEPEC strains from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats in China. These aEPEC strains belonged to more than 71 different serotypes, which comprised 52 O serogroups and 24 H types. Sixty-eight different eae genotypes and 19 intimin subtypes were detected. Eighteen, eight, seven, and five intimin subtypes were identified from 86 diarrheal patients, 14 healthy carriers, 19 animals, and 24 raw meats strains, respectively. Intimin β1 was the most prevalent subtype in strains from diarrheal patients (34.88%) and animals (47.37%). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of eae-β1 between diarrheal patients and healthy carriers (P = 0.004). Intimin-θ was more predominant among raw meat strains (50%) than among diarrheal patients strains (12.79%, P = 0.0003), healthy carrier strains (7.14%, P = 0.007), or animal strains (15.79%, P = 0.020). The two predominant subtypes (eae-β1 and eae-θ) had considerable polymorphisms with no significant differences among the four sources. PFGE analysis revealed 119 distinct patterns and the strains were clustered into 11 groups with similarity indices ranging from 63% to 100%. These results suggest that in China, aEPEC strains from different sources are highly heterogeneous. Animals and raw meats are important sources of genetically diverse intimin-harboring aEPEC, which might serve as important transmission vehicles of these bacteria.

  19. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Isolated From Pasteurized Milk in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a common and important food-borne pathogen that can be found in various food products. Due to low-temperature sterilization for a short period of time, pasteurization is not sufficient for complete elimination of B. cereus in milk, thereby cause severe economic loss and food safety problems. It is therefore of paramount importance to perform risk assessment of B. cereus in pasteurized milk. In this study, we isolated B. cereus from pasteurized milk samples in different regions of China, and evaluated the contamination situation, existence of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance profile and genetic polymorphism of B. cereus isolates. Intriguingly, 70 samples (27% were found to be contaminated by B. cereus and the average contamination level was 111 MPN/g. The distribution of virulence genes was assessed toward 10 enterotoxigenic genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, entFM, bceT, and hlyII and one emetic gene (cesB. Forty five percent strains harbored enterotoxigenic genes hblACD and 93% isolates contained nheABC gene cluster. The positive rate of cytK, entFM, bceT, hlyII, and cesB genes were 73, 96, 75, 54, and 5%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility assessment showed that most of the isolates were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and rifampicin, but susceptible to other antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Total multidrug-resistant population was about 34%. In addition, B. cereus isolates in pasteurized milk showed a high genetic diversity. In conclusion, our findings provide the first reference on the prevalence, contamination level and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from pasteurized milk in China, suggesting a potential high risk of B. cereus to public health and dairy industry.

  20. Distribution and diversity of bacterioplankton communities in subtropical seawater around Xiamen Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Dapeng; Wei, Guangshan; Li, Mingcong; Wang, Wanpeng; Li, Xu; Gao, Zheng; Shao, Zongze

    2015-06-01

    Marine bacterioplankton communities have profound impact on global biogeochemical cycles and ecological balances. However, relatively little is known about the bacterioplankton communities and the factors shaping their spatial distribution in subtropical island. Here, the bacterioplankton communities around a typical subtropical island, Xiamen Island, were revealed by analyzing bacterial 16S rRNA gene through quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing methods. The qPCR results indicated that the abundance of 16S rRNA gene ranged from 2.07 × 10(7) to 2.13 × 10(8)copies mL(-1) in surface seawater among eight sampling sites (S1-S8) around Xiamen Island, and the nitrogen and phosphorus-rich sites (S5 and S8) were detected with higher 16S rRNA gene abundance. Pyrosequencing evidenced that a total of 267 genera of 47 classes in 26 different phyla (or candidate phyla) and some unclassified bacteria were obtained from seawater around Xiamen Island. The most dominant phylum was Proteobacteria (49.62-76.84% among sites), followed by Bacteroidetes (6.64-20.88%), Actinobacteria (2.58-9.20%), Firmicutes (0.03-13.30%), Verrucomicrobia (0.23-2.67%) and Planctomycetes (0.14-2.20%). Among eight sites, the nitrogen and phosphorus-rich sites (S5 and S8) exhibited higher proportions of Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes and lower proportions of Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes than other sites. S5 and S8 also had more similar β-diversity, and sampling site near the estuary (S8) showed the highest bacterial diversity. Redundancy analysis (RDA) confirmed that total nitrogen and total phosphorus significantly (Pbacterioplankton communities around Xiamen Island. These results will provide insights into bacterial abundance, diversity and distribution patterns, as well as their controlling factors, in subtropical marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity ofStaphylococcus aureusfrom Retail Aquatic Products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Dongli; Wu, Qingping; Xu, Mingfang; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320) were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin ( hlα , 84.9%), fibronectin-binding protein A ( fnbA , 79.0%), S. aureus enterotoxin E ( see , 53.8%), and Panton-Valentine leucocidin ( pvl , 50.4%) were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl - hlα - fnbA (28.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs) were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%), ST15 (18.5%), and ST188 (13.4%) were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing, all of which were SCC mec III or SCC mec IV types. Isolates of SCCmec III showed a high prevalence

  2. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from Retail Aquatic Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320 were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin (hlα, 84.9%, fibronectin-binding protein A (fnbA, 79.0%, S. aureus enterotoxin E (see, 53.8%, and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl, 50.4% were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl-hlα-fnbA (28.6%. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%, ST15 (18.5%, and ST188 (13.4% were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, all of which were SCCmecIII or SCCmecIV types. Isolates of SCCmecIII showed a high prevalence and were

  3. Linking Populus euphratica hydraulic redistribution to diversity assembly in the arid desert zone of Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Yang

    Full Text Available The hydraulic redistribution (HR of deep-rooted plants significantly improves the survival of shallow-rooted shrubs and herbs in arid deserts, which subsequently maintain species diversity. This study was conducted in the Ebinur desert located in the western margin of the Gurbantonggut Desert. Isotope tracing, community investigation and comparison analysis were employed to validate the HR of Populus euphratica and to explore its effects on species richness and abundance. The results showed that, P. euphratica has HR. Shrubs and herbs that grew under the P. euphratica canopy (under community: UC showed better growth than the ones growing outside (Outside community: OC, exhibiting significantly higher species richness and abundance in UC than OC (p<0.05 along the plant growing season. Species richness and abundance were significantly logarithmically correlated with the P. euphratica crown area in UC (R² = 0.51 and 0.84, p<0.001. In conclusion, P. euphratica HR significantly ameliorates the water conditions of the shallow soil, which then influences the diversity assembly in arid desert communities.

  4. A pilot project using evidence-based clinical pathways and payment reform in China's rural hospitals shows early success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Reforming China's public hospitals to curb widespread overtreatment and improve the quality and affordability of care has been the most challenging aspect of that nation's ambitious health reform, which began in 2009. This article describes a pilot project under way in several of China's provinces that combines payment reform with the implementation of evidence-based clinical pathways at a few hospitals serving rural areas. Results to date include reduced length-of-stay and prescription drug use and higher patient and provider satisfaction. These early results suggest that the pilot may be achieving its goals, which may have far-reaching and positive implications for China's ongoing reform.

  5. Diversity study of 12 X-chromosomal STR loci in Hui ethnic from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Han, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-Ju; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Jing-Feng; Du, Wei-An; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Zhou, Ru-Hua; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Wei, Xing

    2014-07-01

    X-chromosomal STRs (X-STRs) have been used as complements of autosomal STR application in recent years. In this work, we present population genetic data of 12 X-STRs including DXS101, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS981, GATA165B12, and GATA31E08 loci in a sample of 231 unrelated healthy individuals from the Hui ethnic group in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Allelic frequencies of the 12 X-STR loci and haplotypic frequencies of the reported linkage groups (DXS7424-DXS101 and DXS10159-DXS10164-DXS10162) were investigated in the group, respectively. No STR loci showed significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums and no linkage disequilibriums of pairwise loci were found after Bonferroni correction, respectively. A combined power of discrimination in female individuals was 0.999999999985 and that in male individuals was 0.99999967, respectively. The combined mean exclusion chance in deficiency cases, normal trios and duo cases were 0.999934, 0.995754, and 0.999796, respectively. Significant differences were observed from 0 to 8 loci, when making comparisons between the data of Hui ethnic group and previously reported data from other 16 populations. The results indicated the new panel of 12 X-STR loci might be useful for forensic science application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Tibetans in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuqin; Sang, Ba; Lv, Bing; Liu, Zhiguang; Wan, Kanglin

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Tibet where Tibetans are the major ethnic group. Although genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates is a valuable tool for TB control, our knowledge of population structure of M. tuberculosis circulating in Tibet is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, a total of 576 M. tuberculosis isolates from Tibetans in Tibet, China, were analyzed via spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU-VNTR. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent family (90.63%, n = 522). Shared-type (ST) 1 was the most dominant genotype (88.89%, n = 512). We found that there was no association between the Beijing genotype and sex, age and treatment status. In this sample collection, 7 of the 24 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. An informative set of 12 loci had similar discriminatory power with 24 loci set. Conclusions/Significance The population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates in Tibetans is homogeneous and dominated by Beijing genotype. The analysis of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR data might be useful to select appropriate VNTR loci for the genotyping of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22479472

  7. Diversity and bioprospecting of culturable actinomycetes from marine sediment of the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Qiao-Xia; Pan, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Na; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Marine actinomycetes are a potential source of a wide variety of bioactive natural products. In this work, seven pretreatments, three selective isolation media, and five artificial seawater concentrations were used to isolate actinomycetes from the sediments collected from Yellow Sea, China. Statistical analysis showed that only the isolation medium strongly affected the total and bioactive numbers of actinomycete isolates. A total of 613 actinobacterial strains were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activities; 154 isolates showed activity against at least one of nine test drug-resistant microorganisms. Eighty-nine representatives with strong antimicrobial activity were identified phylogenetically based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which were assigned to five different actinomycete genera Streptomyces, Kocuria, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, and Nocardiopsis. Using PCR-based screening for six biosynthetic genes of secondary metabolites, all 45 isolates with acute activity have at least one biosynthetic gene, 28.8 % of which possess more than three biosynthetic genes. As a case, strain SMA-1 was selected for antimicrobial natural product discovery. Three diketopiperazine dimers including a new compound iso-naseseazine B (1) and two known compounds naseseazine B (2) and aspergilazine A (3) were isolated by bioassay-guided separation. These results suggested that actinomycetes from marine sediments are a potential resource of novel secondary metabolites and drugs.

  8. Abundances of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Community Diversity in the Weihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread of antibiotic resistance genes in river systems is an emerging environmental issue due to their potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and public health. In this study, we used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR to evaluate pollution with clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs at 13 monitoring sites along the main stream of the Weihe River in China. Six clinically relevant ARGs and a class I integron-integrase (intI1 gene were analyzed using ddPCR, and the bacterial community was evaluated based on the bacterial 16S rRNA V3–V4 regions using MiSeq sequencing. The results indicated Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes as the dominant phyla in the water samples from the Weihe River. Higher abundances of blaTEM, strB, aadA, and intI1 genes (103 to 105 copies/mL were detected in the surface water samples compared with the relatively low abundances of strA, mecA, and vanA genes (0–1.94 copies/mL. Eight bacterial genera were identified as possible hosts of the intI1 gene and three ARGs (strA, strB, and aadA based on network analysis. The results suggested that the bacterial community structure and horizontal gene transfer were associated with the variations in ARGs.

  9. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Lai, Zheng; Li, Xi-Xi; Yan, Ri-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Du

    2016-02-01

    Huperzia serrata has many important medicinal properties with proven pharmacological potential. Some of these properties may be mediated by its endophytic fungi. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we provided a first insights into evaluating the species composition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi of H. serrata from the regional at Jinggang Mountain in southeastern China. A total number of 885 fungal isolates distributed across 44 genera and 118 putative species were obtained from 1422 fragments of fine H. serrata roots, stems and leaves base on ITS-rDNA sequences BLAST analysis. The endophytic fungi were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich, with high rate of colonization and isolation. The assemble of endophytic fungi consisted mainly of Ascomycota (97.15%), followed by Basidiomycota (1.92%) and unknown fungal species (0.90%). Colletotrichum (64.29%), Phyllosticta (3.39%), Hypoxylon (2.81%), Xylaria (2.25%) and Nigrospora (2.04%) were the most abundant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Although, roots yielded low abundance strains, the diverse and species-rich were both higher than that of stems and leaves. In addition, out of the 247 endophytic fungi strains determinated, 221 fungal extracts showed AChE inhibition activities in vitro. Among them, 22 endophytic fungi strains achieved high inhibitory activity (≥50%) on AChE which belongs to 13 genera and five incertae sedis strains. Four endophytic fungi designated as JS4 (Colletotrichum spp.), FL14 (Ascomycota spp.), FL9 (Sarcosomataceae spp.) and FL7 (Dothideomycetes spp.) were displayed highly active (≥80%) against AChE, which the inhibition effects were even more intense than the positive control. Our findings highlight that H. serrata grown in Jinggang Mountain harbors a rich and fascinating endophytic fungus community with potential AChE inhibitory activity, which could further broaden the natural

  10. Thinning increases understory diversity and biomass, and improves soil properties without decreasing growth of Chinese fir in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Cai, Liping; He, Zongming; Wang, Rongwei; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable forestry requires adopting more ecosystem-informed perspectives. Tree thinning improves forest productivity by encouraging the development of the understory, which in turn improves species diversity and nutrient cycling, thereby altering the ecophysiological environment of the stand. This study aimed to quantify tree growth, understory vegetation, and soil quality of 9- and 16-year-old Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations in South China, 1-7 years after pre-commercial thinning. The quadratic mean diameter (QMD) and individual tree volume were greatly increased and compensated for the reduced stand yield in thinned stands. In 2011, the stand volume in unthinned and thinned stands were 276.33 and 226.46 and 251.30 and 243.64 m 3  ha -1 , respectively, for young and middle stage. Therefore, we predicted that over time, the stand volume in thinned stands should exceed that in unthinned stands. The composition, diversity, and biomass of understory vegetation of the plantation monocultures significantly increased after thinning. The effects of thinning management on understory development were dynamic and apparent within 1-2 years post-thinning. Some light-demanding plant species such as Styrax faberi, Callicarpa formosana, Lophatherum gracile, and Gahnia tristis emerged in the shrub and herb layer and became dominant with the larger gaps in the canopy in thinned stands. The trigger effects of thinning management on understory and tree growth were more pronounced in the young stage. The beneficial effects on soil physical and chemical properties were measurable at later stages (7 years after thinning). The strong positive relationship between understory biomass and volume increment (at the tree and stand levels) indicated that understory improvement after thinning did not restrict productivity within Chinese fir stands but rather, benefited soil water content and nutrient status and promoted tree growth.

  11. Altitudinal patterns of plant diversity on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Wang; Zeng, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Understanding altitudinal patterns of biological diversity and their underlying mechanisms is critically important for biodiversity conservation in mountainous regions. The contribution of area to plant diversity patterns is widely acknowledged and may mask the effects of other determinant factors. In this context, it is important to examine altitudinal patterns of corrected taxon richness by eliminating the area effect. Here we adopt two methods to correct observed taxon richness: a power-law relationship between richness and area, hereafter "method 1"; and richness counted in equal-area altitudinal bands, hereafter "method 2". We compare these two methods on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, which is the nearest large-scale altitudinal gradient to the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere. We find that seed plant species richness, genus richness, family richness, and species richness of trees, shrubs, herbs and Groups I-III (species with elevational range size 500 m, respectively) display distinct hump-shaped patterns along the equal-elevation altitudinal gradient. The corrected taxon richness based on method 2 (TRcor2) also shows hump-shaped patterns for all plant groups, while the one based on method 1 (TRcor1) does not. As for the abiotic factors influencing the patterns, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and mid-domain effect explain a larger part of the variation in TRcor2 than in TRcor1. In conclusion, for biodiversity patterns on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, method 2 preserves the significant influences of abiotic factors to the greatest degree while eliminating the area effect. Our results thus reveal that although the classical method 1 has earned more attention and approval in previous research, method 2 can perform better under certain circumstances. We not only confirm the essential contribution of method 1 in community ecology, but also highlight the significant role of method 2 in eliminating the area effect, and call for more

  12. Science-Industry-Linkages in China: Motivation, Models and Success Factors for Collaborations of MNCs with Chinese Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Tagscherer, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    [Motivation and background ...] The presented report describes and analyzes the results of a survey among 30 foreign invested enterprises in China in 2014. The survey was conducted once before in 2011/2012 and the update in 2014 was specifically designed to create a better understanding of the recent dynamics in innovation in China, especially in the collaboration between MNCS and Chinese universities and research institutes. The main questions the survey wants to answer are: who are the key ...

  13. Seasonal influenza vaccination in China: Landscape of diverse regional reimbursement policy, and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Atkins, Katherine E; Feng, Luzhao; Pang, Mingfan; Zheng, Yaming; Liu, Xinxin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-11-11

    To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures. Regular reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination are available in 61 mutually exclusive regions, comprising 8 provinces, 45 prefectures, and 8 counties, which were reimbursed by the local Government Financial Department or Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). Finance-reimbursed vaccination was offered mainly for the elderly, and school children for free in Beijing, Dongli district in Tianjin, Karamay, Shenzhen and Xinxiang cities. BSMI-reimbursement policies were limited to specific medical insurance beneficiaries with distinct differences in the reimbursement fractions. The average national vaccination coverage was just 1.5-2.2% between 2004 and 2014. A free national vaccination program for priority populations (n=416million), would cost government US$ 757million (95% CI 726-789) annually (uptake rate=20%). An increasing number of regional governments have begun to pay, partially or fully, for influenza vaccination for selected groups. However, this small-scale policy approach has failed to increase national uptake. A free, nationwide vaccination program would require a substantial annual investment. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to identify the most efficient methods to improve coverage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Different responses of functional traits and diversity of stream macroinvertebrates to environmental and spatial factors in the Xishuangbanna watershed of the upper Mekong River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Yang, Weifang; Zhou, Yunlei; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Kai; Vidal, Nicolas; Jeppesen, Erik; Liu, Zhengwen; Wang, Beixin

    2017-01-01

    Functional traits and diversity indices have provided new insights into community responses to stressors. Most traits of aquatic organisms have frequently been tested for predictability and geographical stability in response to environmental variables, but such tests of functional diversity indices are rare. We sampled macroinvertebrates at 18 reference sites (RS) and 35 disturbed sites (DS) from headwater streams in the upper Mekong River Basin, Xishuangbanna (XSBN), China. We selected 29 qualitative categories of eight traits and then calculated five functional diversity indices, namely functional richness (FRic), functional evenness (FEve), functional dispersion (FDis), functional divergence (FDiv) and Rao's Quadratic Entropy (RaoQ), and two trait diversity indices, namely trait richness (TR) and trait diversity (TD). We used combination of RLQ and fourth-corner to examine the response of traits and functional diversity to the disturbance and environmental variables. We used variance partitioning to explore the relative role of environmental variables and spatial factors in constraining trait composition and functional diversity. We found that the relative frequency of ten trait categories, and the values of TD, TR, FRic and FDis in RS were significantly different (pfunctional diversity and trait diversity. However, spatial variables were mainly significant in shaping ecological traits, FRic and FEve. Our results confirm the dominant role of environmental variables in the determination of community trait composition and functional diversity, and substantiate the contribution of spatial vectors in explaining the variance of functional traits and diversity. We conclude that the traits "Refuge", "External protection", "Respiration" and "Body shape", and diversity indices FDis, TD, and TR are promising indicators of stream conditions at XSBN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li, a well-known medicinal plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H R; Hu, X P; Jiang, C J; Qi, J; Wu, Y C; Li, W; Zeng, Y J; Li, C F; Liu, S X

    2015-11-01

    About 1051 endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, branches, barks and stems of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li from four sites in Hainan, China. The fungi were identified as 21 genera by morphology and ITS sequences. One dominant species was Phomopsis quercella in Hainan Tropical Botanical Garden and Bawangling Nature Reserve, with relative frequency of 42·06 and 34·88% respectively. Another dominant species was Colletotrichum boninense in Wuzhishan and Jianfengling Nature Reserves, with relative frequency of 36·84 and 46·97% respectively. Among the selected 21 endophytic fungi, 17 strains (80·95%) had activity against at least one pathogenic bacteria, and 14 strains (66·67%) exhibited activity against at least one fungal pathogens. Neonectria macroconidialis showed strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone being 20 mm), Bacillus subtilis (14 mm) and Streptococcus agalactiae (28 mm). Xylaria sp. showed strong inhibition against Escherichia coli (20 mm), Rhizoctonia solani (20 mm) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (17 mm). Verticillium bulbillosum showed great activity against Strep. agalactiae (32 mm) and Fusarium oxysporum (22 mm). These endophytic fungi showed potentials in medicine development. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are an important source of novel and viable drugs. Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li is well known for leukaemia treatment and its endophytic fungi were isolated to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity. It was found that Ce. hainanensis Li had rich endophytic fungi, and some fungi showed strong antimicrobial activity against certain pathogens. These fungi can be used in medicine development. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  17. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  18. Shift in bacterioplankton diversity and structure: Influence of anthropogenic disturbances along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Xun; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Hou, Jun; Yuan, Qiusheng

    2017-10-02

    River systems have critical roles in the natural water environment and the transportation of nutrients. Anthropogenic activities, including wastewater discharge and river damming, raise adverse impacts on ecosystem and continuum of rivers. An increasing amount of attention has been paid to riverine bacterioplankton as they make vital contributions to biogeochemical nutrient cycle. A comprehensive study was conducted on the bacterioplankton community along the Yarlung Tsangpo River, which is the longest plateau river in China and is suffering from various anthropogenic impacts. The results indicated that nutrient variations corresponded to anthropogenic activities, and silica, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by the dam. River damming influenced the biomass and diversity of the bacterioplankton, but significant alterations in the community structure were not observed between upstream and downstream of the dam. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the bacterioplankton community changed gradually along the river, and the dominant bacterioplankton in the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the river were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, respectively. Soluble reactive phosphorus, elevation, ammonium nitrogen, velocity and turbidity were the main environmental factors that shape the bacterioplankton community. Our study offers the first insights into the variation of a bacterioplankton community of a large river in plateau region.

  19. [Effects of topography on the diversity and distribution pattern of ground plants in karst montane forests in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tie-Xiang; Zhang, He-Ping; Ou, Zhi-Yang; Tan, Yi-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Covariance analysis, curve-fitting, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the effects of topographic factors on the plant diversity and distribution patterns of ground flora with different growth forms in the karst mountains of Southwest Guangxi, China. A total of 152 ground plants were recorded. Among them, 37 species were ferns, 44 species herbs, 9 species lianas, and 62 species shrubs. Covariance analysis revealed that altitude significantly correlated with the individual number and richness of ground plants, and slope aspect had a significant effect on richness. Statistical analyses showed a highly significant nonlinear correlation between the individual number or richness of ground plants and altitude. Results of CCA revealed that slope aspect had a significant effect on the distribution pattern of ferns, and slope had a significant effect on the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs. Ferns were more sensitive than herbs, lianas and shrubs to changes in heat and soil water caused by aspect. The effect of slope was stronger than that of elevation on soil water and nutrients, and it was the most important topographic factor that affected the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs in this region.

  20. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different

  1. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon–Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g−1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g−1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial

  2. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China), located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon-Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs) of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities beneath Potentilla

  3. An evaluation of the policy on community health organizations in China: will the priority of new healthcare reform in China be a success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hufeng; Gusmano, Michael K; Cao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess historical and recent health reform efforts in China. We provide a brief history of the Chinese healthcare system since 1949 as context for the current healthcare; examine the factors that led to recent efforts to reestablish community-based care in China; and identify the challenges associated with attaining a sustainable and quality community healthcare system. Based on literature review and publicly available data in China, the paper will present a historical case study analysis of health policy change of CHOs in China and provide policy evaluation, and the paper provided policy suggestions. We find that the government's recent efforts to emphasize the significance of community healthcare services in China have started to change patterns of healthcare use, but many problems still inhibit the development of CHOs, including unsustainable governmental roles, issues of human resource inadequacy and laggard GP practice, poorly designed payment schemes, patient's trust crisis and continue to inhibit the development of community-based primary care. Additional policy efforts to help CHOs' development are needed. Recent government investments in public health and primary care alone are not sufficient and could not be sustainable. It will not until long-term self-sustaining mechanisms to relieve an omnipotent government are established, including competent community doctors (GP) system, supportive social insurance reimbursement, appropriate financial incentives to providers, better transparency and accountability, as well as a more regulated referral system, a legitimate, sustainable and quality community health system could be attained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2016-01-25

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding the phylogenetic differentiation and morphological diversity in early avian evolution. The furcula of Chongmingia is rigid (reducing its efficiency), consequently requiring more power for flight. However, the elongated forelimb and the large deltopectoral crest on the humerus might indicate that the power was available. The unique combination of features present in this species demonstrates that numerous evolutionary experimentations took place in the early evolution of powered flight. The occurrence of gastroliths further confirms that herbivory was common among basal birds. The Jehol birds faced competition with pterosaurs, and occupied sympatric habitats with non-avian theropods, some of which consumed birds. Thus, avialan herbivory may have reduced ecological competition from carnivorous close relatives and other volant vertebrates early in their evolutionary history.

  5. Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanov, Eduard A.; Titlyanova, Tamara V.; Xia, Bangmei; Bartsch, Inka

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island in the period 1933-1992 is presented in this paper. There are two extensive sample collection periods of benthic macroalgae: the early collection (EC) covers a period between the early 1930s and the 1980s before considerable urbanization and reef degradation took place and a late collection (LC) was performed in 1990/1992 during a phase of rapid urbanization. Analysis of data also including an earlier published inventory of green algae covering the same collection sites (Titlyanov et al. 2011a) revealed that the marine flora of the island comprises 426 taxa in total, with 59% red algae, 18% brown algae and 23% green algae. In total 59 species of red algae, 11 species of brown algae and 37 species of green algae sampled during the LC are new records for Hainan Island. Considerable floristic changes between EC and LC became evident. In the LC there were significantly more filamentous, tubular or fine blade-like, and often epiphytic, green and red algae with a high surface-to-volume ratio. Additionally a reduction of green, brown and red algal species with larger fleshy or foliose thalli and a low surface-to-volume ratio was observed. It is assumed that the changes reflect the degradation of the coral reef ecosystem around Hainan, which was damaged by human activities especially in the 1950s-1970s.

  6. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding the phylogenetic differentiation and morphological diversity in early avian evolution. The furcula of Chongmingia is rigid (reducing its efficiency), consequently requiring more power for flight. However, the elongated forelimb and the large deltopectoral crest on the humerus might indicate that the power was available. The unique combination of features present in this species demonstrates that numerous evolutionary experimentations took place in the early evolution of powered flight. The occurrence of gastroliths further confirms that herbivory was common among basal birds. The Jehol birds faced competition with pterosaurs, and occupied sympatric habitats with non-avian theropods, some of which consumed birds. Thus, avialan herbivory may have reduced ecological competition from carnivorous close relatives and other volant vertebrates early in their evolutionary history. PMID:26806355

  7. Diversity in early crustal evolution: 4100 Ma zircons in the Cathaysia Block of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guang-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Wan, Yusheng; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Yang; Kitajima, Kouki; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Gopon, Phillip

    2014-06-03

    Zircons are crucial to understanding the first 500 Myr of crustal evolution of Earth. Very few zircons of this age (>4050 Ma) have been found other than from a ~300 km diameter domain of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Here we report SIMS U-Pb and O isotope ratios and trace element analyses for two ~4100 Ma detrital zircons from a Paleozoic quartzite at the Longquan area of the Cathaysia Block. One zircon ((207)Pb/(206)Pb age of 4127 ± 4 Ma) shows normal oscillatory zonation and constant oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O = 5.8 to 6.0‰). The other zircon grain has a ~4100 Ma magmatic core surrounded by a ~4070 Ma metamorphic mantle. The magmatic core has elevated δ(18)O (7.2 ± 0.2‰), high titanium concentration (53 ± 3.4 ppm) and a positive cerium anomaly, yielding anomalously high calculated oxygen fugacity (FMQ + 5) and a high crystallization temperature (910°C). These results are unique among Hadean zircons and suggest a granitoid source generated from dry remelting of partly oxidizing supracrustal sediments altered by surface waters. The ~4100 Ma dry melting and subsequent ~4070 Ma metamorphism provide new evidence for the diversity of the Earth's earliest crust.

  8. Elevational sensitivity in an Asian 'hotspot': moth diversity across elevational gradients in tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, L A; Nakamura, A; Burwell, C J; Tang, Y; Cao, M; Whitaker, T; Sun, Z; Huang, H; Kitching, R L

    2016-05-23

    South-western China is widely acknowledged as a biodiversity 'hotspot': there are high levels of diversity and endemism, and many environments are under significant anthropogenic threats not least climate warming. Here, we explore diversity and compare response patterns of moth assemblages among three elevational gradients established within different climatic bioregions - tropical rain forest, sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forest in Yunnan Province, China. We hypothesised that tropical assemblages would be more elevationally stratified than temperate assemblages, and tropical species would be more elevationally restricted than those in the temperate zone. Contrary to our hypothesis, the moth fauna was more sensitive to elevational differences within the temperate transect, followed by sub-tropical and tropical transects. Moths in the cooler and more seasonal temperate sub-alpine gradient showed stronger elevation-decay beta diversity patterns, and more species were restricted to particular elevational ranges. Our study suggests that moth assemblages are under threat from future climate change and sub-alpine rather than tropical faunas may be the most sensitive to climate change. These results improve our understanding of China's biodiversity and can be used to monitor future changes to herbivore assemblages in a 'hotspot' of biodiversity.

  9. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  10. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hang; Feng, Da; Tang, Shangfeng; He, Zhifei; Xiang, Yuanxi; Wu, Tailai; Wang, Ruoxi; Shao, Tian; Liu, Chunyan; Shao, Piaopiao; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-02-09

    Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR) of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.060-3.912; p successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116-4.291; p < 0.05). This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of dissimilatory ferric iron reducers in paddy soil of Hunan, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xin-Jun [State Key Lab. of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Graduate Univ., Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Yang Jing; Chen Xue-Ping; Sun Guo-Xin [State Key Lab. of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Zhu Yong-Guan [State Key Lab. of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health, Inst. of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria have been described by both culture-dependent and -independent methods in various environments, including freshwater, marine sediments, natural wetlands, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about iron-reducing microbial communities in paddy soils. The goal of this study was to characterize iron-reducing microbial communities in paddy soil. Moreover, the effect of dissolved and solid-phase iron (III) species on the iron-reducing microbial communities was also investigated by enrichment cultures. Methods: Ferric citrate and ferrihydrite were used respectively to set up enrichment cultures of dissimilatory ironreducing microorganisms using 1% inoculum of soil samples, and the iron reduction was measured. Moreover, bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified, and subsequently analyzed by the clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results: Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the enrichment cultures revealed that Bradyrhizobium, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Ralstonia species were the dominant bacteria in the ferric citrate enrichment. However, members of the genera Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Geobacter were the dominant micro-organisms in the ferrihydrite enrichment. Analysis of enrichment cultures by T-RFLP strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that dissimilatory iron-reducing consortia in As-contaminated paddy soil are phylogenetically diverse. Moreover, iron (III) sources as a key factor have a strong effect on the iron (III)-reducing microbial community structure and relative abundance in the enrichments. In addition, Geobacter species are selectively enriched by ferrihydrite enrichment cultures. (orig.)

  12. Functional regeneration and spectral reflectance of trees during succession in a highly diverse tropical dry forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Y; Quesada, Mauricio; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Gamon, John A

    2012-05-01

    The function of most ecosystems has been altered by human activities. To asses the recovery of plant communities, we must evaluate the recovery of plant functional traits. The seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF), a highly threatened ecosystem, is assumed to recover relatively quickly from disturbance, but an integrated evaluation of recovery in floristic, structural, and functional terms has not been performed. In this study we aimed to (a) compare SDTF plant functional, floristic, and structural change along succession; (b) identify tree functional groups; and (c) explore the spectral properties of different successional stages. Across a SDTF successional gradient, we evaluated the change of species composition, vegetation structure, and leaf spectral reflectance and functional traits (related to water use, light acquisition, nutrient conservation, and CO(2) acquisition) of 25 abundant tree species. A complete recovery of SDTF takes longer than the time period inferred from floristic or structural data. Plant functional traits changed along succession from those that maximize photoprotection and heat dissipation in early succession, where temperature is an environmental constraint, to those that enhance light acquisition in late succession, where light may be limiting. A spectral indicator of plant photosynthetic performance (photochemical reflectance index) discriminated between early and late succession. This constitutes a foundation for further exploration of remote sensing technologies for studying tropical succession. A functional approach should be incorporated as a regular descriptor of forest succession because it provides a richer understanding of vegetation dynamics than is offered by either the floristic or structural approach alone.

  13. Vegetation diversity and selected abiotic factors influencing the primary succession process on the foreland of Gåsbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietrzyk Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing Arctic provides excellent opportunities for investigating primary succession on freshly deglaciated areas. Research on the Gåsbreen foreland (S Spitsbergen traced the succession of particular groups of organisms and species, particularly lichens and bryophytes, and determined the effect of selected abiotic factors on this succession. Fieldwork in 2008, employed a continuous linear transect of phytosociological relevés (1 m2 along the foreland. Data analysis allowed to distinguish five different succession stages and three types of colonisers. Canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test showed that distance from the front of the glacier and fine grain material in the substrate mostly influenced the distribution and abundance of vegetation, and the steepness of the moraine hills affected the colonisation process, mainly in the older part of the marginal zone.

  14. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity and Distribution of Culturable Microbial Communities of Semiarid Desert Steppe and Cultivated Land in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yan-lin CHEN Ji-xiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and community distribution of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi in semiarid desert steppe in northwestern part of China were studied by using dilution plate count, clone isolation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis methods. The results showed that the numbers of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi of desert steppe were 1.23×106 cfu·g-1, 0.19×106 cfu·g-1 and 0.18×106 cfu·g-1, respectively, compared with those of the cultivated land, whose numbers were 3.03×106 cfu·g-1, 0.53×106 cfu·g-1 and 0.05×106 cfu·g-1 respectively. The numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the desert steppe soil were lower than those of the cultivated land, while the fungal number in desert steppe soil was higher than that of the cultivated land. A total of 14 bacterial strains were isolated from the desert steppe soil. The strains belonged to the following three phyla:γ-Proteobacteria(Psychrobacter), Actinobacteria(Kytococcus), and Firmicutes(Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Solibacillus, Aerococcus). Among which Bacillus and Psychrobacter were the predominant genus. Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from the cultivated land and were further affiliated to four phyla:ɑ-Proteobacteri(Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium), γ-Proteobacteria(Pseudomonas), Firmicutes(Bacillus) and Actinobacteria(Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Kocuria). Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum(occupied 57.9%). A total of 8 actinomycetes strains were isolated from the desert steppe soil and were identified to belong to three phylogenetic groups:Atreptomyces, Micromonspora, Intrasporangium. And Atreptomyces, Micromonspora were the dominant communities in cultivated land. The fungi strains from the desert steppe were identified and designated as Alternaria and Cladosporium. But Penicillium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Mucor and Coniothecium were isolated from cultivated land. The results indicated that the

  16. Diversity of Culturable Thermophilic Actinobacteria in Hot Springs in Tengchong, China and Studies of their Biosynthetic Gene Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Salam, Nimaichand; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The class Actinobacteria has been a goldmine for the discovery of antibiotics and has attracted interest from both academics and industries. However, an absence of novel approaches during the last few decades has limited the discovery of new microbial natural products useful for industries. Scientists are now focusing on the ecological aspects of diverse environments including unexplored or underexplored habitats and extreme environments in the search for new metabolites. This paper reports on the diversity of culturable actinobacteria associated with hot springs located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 58 thermophilic actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples collected from ten hot springs distributed over three geothermal fields (e.g., Hehua, Rehai, and Ruidian). Phylogenetic positions and their biosynthetic profiles were analyzed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene and three biosynthetic gene clusters (KS domain of PKS-I, KSα domain of PKS-II and A domain of NRPS). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, the 58 strains were affiliated with 12 actinobacterial genera: Actinomadura Micromonospora, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, Thermoactinospora, Thermocatellispora, and Verrucosispora, of which the two novel genera Thermoactinospora and Thermocatellisopora were recently described from among these strains. Considering the biosynthetic potential of these actinobacterial strains, 22 were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the three biosynthetic gene clusters (PKS-I, PKS-II, and NRPS). These actinobacteria were further subjected to antimicrobial assay against five opportunistic human pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis). All of the 22 strains that were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the biosynthetic gene domains exhibited

  17. Highlighting patterns of fungal diversity and composition shaped by ocean currents using the East China Sea as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Pan, Haoqin; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Jiajia; Luo, Tian; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Shoumei; Cai, Lei

    2018-01-01

    How ocean currents shape fungal transport, dispersal and more broadly fungal biogeography remains poorly understood. The East China Sea (ECS) is a complex and dynamic habitat with different water masses blending microbial communities. The internal transcribed spacer 2 region of fungal rDNA was analysed in water and sediment samples directly collected from the coastal (CWM), Kuroshio (KSWM), Taiwan warm (TWM) and the shelf mixed water mass (MWM), coupled with hydrographic properties measurements, to determine how ocean currents impact the fungal community composition. Almost 9k fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) spanning six phyla, 25 known classes, 102 orders and 694 genera were obtained. The typical terrestrial and freshwater fungal genus, Byssochlamys, was dominant in the CWM, while increasing abundance of a specific OTU affiliated with Aspergillus was revealed from coastal to open ocean water masses (TWM and KSWM). Compared with water samples, sediment harboured an increased diversity with distinct fungal communities. The proximity of the Yangtze and Qiantang estuaries homogenizes the surface water and sediment communities. A significant influence of ocean currents on community structure was found, which is believed to reduce proportionally the variation explained by environmental parameters at the scale of the total water masses. Dissolved oxygen and depth were identified as the major parameters structuring the fungal community. Our results indicate that passive fungal dispersal driven by ocean currents and river run-off, in conjunction with the distinct hydrographic conditions of individual water masses, shapes the fungal community composition and distribution pattern in the ECS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in a targeted population in Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenchao; Kang, Lixia; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yuhua; Xie, Qing; Wang, Shuai; He, Tong; Li, Han; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Zuo, Suqiong; Kong, Lingmin; Li, Pengju; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-03-02

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease, worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. vaginalis and contrasted the most prevalent strains of T. vaginalis isolated from Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China. In Xinxiang from September 2015 to September 2017, a total of 267 (1.64%, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.45-1.85) clinical T. vaginalis-positive samples from vaginal secretions were observed by wet mount microscopy from 16,294 women with some clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis. We found that trichomoniasis frequently occurred in the 21- to 40-year-old age group and in winter. After the 267 clinical T. vaginalis positive samples were cultured, 68 isolates of T. vaginalis were harvested and identified as genotype E (58.82%), H (17.65%), mixed 1 (17.65%) and mixed 2 (5.88%) using a sensitive and reliable polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing method on the actin gene. The phylogenetic diversity analysis showed that the genotype E samples fell within a separate clade compared to the other T. vaginalis isolates, while the samples of the genotype H separated into two clades. Our results demonstrate a notable gene polymorphism of clinical isolates from the targeted population and provide insight into the performance of these genetic markers in the molecular epidemiology of trichomoniasis. However, further studies are needed to clarify the association between a certain genotype and the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  19. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Liu, Yining; Wang, Xiangping; Fang, Jingyun; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Mohammat, Anwar; Terwei, André

    2015-01-01

    Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR), together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1) the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2) RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP) while showed a hump-shaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT); and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3) LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of species pool

  20. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  1. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus

  2. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Zhuo, Jingxian; Liu, Bo; Long, Chunlin

    2013-04-19

    Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these

  3. ISSR diversity and genetic differentiation of ancient tea (camellia sinensis var. assamica) plantations from China: implications for precious tea germplasm conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.Q.; Ji, P.Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Gao, L.Z.; Cheng, Z.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Over 10 centuries, ancient cultivated tea populations (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) are still planted merely in Yunnan province of China. Genetic diversity and differentiation were examined in 10 ancient tea plantations by using ISSR markers. The average genetic diversity within populations, estimated with Nei's genetic diversity (HE), was approximately 0.2809, while Shannon indices (HO) was 0.4179. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the 10 populations ranged from 56.5% to 90.91%. We found a moderate level of genetic differentiation among population as evidenced by the coefficients of gene differentiation (Gst) of 0.3911 and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 39.70%. The result could be explained by the nature of highly out crossing in the tea species as well as serious habitat fragmentation. Finally, conservation strategies were discussed to protect these ancient tea populations, including in situ reserve settings and ex situ germplasm sampling. (author)

  4. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  5. Habitat structure and diversity influence the nesting success of an endangered large cavity-nesting bird, the Southern Ground-hornbill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Combrink

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat features can have a profound effect on the nesting success of birds. Savannas are often managed with predators and large herbivores as priority species, with little thought to the many bird species that management decisions could affect. Using a data set spanning seven breeding seasons, we examined how nesting success of Southern Ground-hornbills (SGHs Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Kruger National Park varied as a result of various environmental and habitat factors within a radius of 3 km surrounding the nest site. Identifying which factors affect nesting success will allow for targeted management efforts to ensure the long-term survival of SGHs both within and outside of protected areas. Habitat structure and diversity of the vegetation surrounding the nest were the most influential factors on SGH nesting success. SGHs require open grassy areas for foraging and areas with large trees for nesting. Savanna habitat drivers such as elephants and fire should be managed to ensure that sufficient large trees are able to establish in the landscape and to control for bush encroachment. This is especially important in areas earmarked for SGH reintroductions. Nest sites of SGHs should be monitored to mitigate any structural changes in the habitat surrounding the nests. Nests should be modified or artificial nest sites provided, where nests have been damaged or lost, to ensure the continued presence of these birds in African savannas. Conservation implications: Habitat structure and diversity surrounding Southern Groundhornbill nests has a significant impact on their nesting success. This highlights the importance of monitoring vegetation change in savanna habitats where they occur. Management of savanna areas should take factors that influence bush encroachment, such as fire and elephants, into account to ensure the long-term persistence of these birds.

  6. Crops are a main driver for species diversity and the toxigenic potential of Fusarium isolates in maize ears in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Brankovics, Balázs; Xu, J.; Xu, J.S.; Guo, C.; Guo, J.G.; Jin, S.J.; Chen, W.Q.; Feng, J.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Waalwijk, C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years increasing demands and the relatively low-care cultivation of the crop have resulted in an enormous expansion of the acreage of maize in China. However, particularly in China, Fusarium ear rot forms an important constraint to maize production. In this study, we showed that members of

  7. Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

    2014-12-01

    Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-06-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

  9. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  11. Elevational sensitivity in an Asian ‘hotspot’: moth diversity across elevational gradients in tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, L. A.; Nakamura, A.; Burwell, C. J.; Tang, Y.; Cao, M.; Whitaker, T.; Sun, Z.; Huang, H.; Kitching, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    South-western China is widely acknowledged as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’: there are high levels of diversity and endemism, and many environments are under significant anthropogenic threats not least climate warming. Here, we explore diversity and compare response patterns of moth assemblages among three elevational gradients established within different climatic bioregions - tropical rain forest, sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forest in Yunnan Province, China. We hypothesised that tropical assemblages would be more elevationally stratified than temperate assemblages, and tropical species would be more elevationally restricted than those in the temperate zone. Contrary to our hypothesis, the moth fauna was more sensitive to elevational differences within the temperate transect, followed by sub-tropical and tropical transects. Moths in the cooler and more seasonal temperate sub-alpine gradient showed stronger elevation-decay beta diversity patterns, and more species were restricted to particular elevational ranges. Our study suggests that moth assemblages are under threat from future climate change and sub-alpine rather than tropical faunas may be the most sensitive to climate change. These results improve our understanding of China’s biodiversity and can be used to monitor future changes to herbivore assemblages in a ‘hotspot’ of biodiversity. PMID:27211989

  12. Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical forests in Southeast China during succession as measured by donor and receiver value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtr...

  13. The Impact of Self-Concept and College Involvement on the First-Year Success of Medical Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a…

  14. Ecological footprint analysis of environmental impacts by cascaded exploitation of diversion-type small hydropower: a case study in southwest china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Qingyun; Huang, Zhuo; Tang, Xianqiang; Zhao, Weihua

    2017-05-01

    Cascaded exploitation of diversion-type small hydropower (SHP) offers a source of new energy as well as socioeconomic benefits; however, it inevitably causes environmental disturbance and damage. Previous studies on the cumulative effect of cascaded diversion SHP rarely discussed using quantitative analysis method. In this paper, the ecological footprint analysis approach is proposed to assess the positive and negative impacts of cascaded diversion SHP on environment of a small-scale river in Southwest China. Positive impact is defined as ecological supply footprint (ESF), which refers to vegetation protection by replacing firewood with SHP. Negative impact is defined as ecological loss footprint (ELF), which includes fish and net primary productivity loss, vegetation destruction and soil erosion. With the raising in the number (n>4) of diversion SHP stations, the difference between ELF and ESF increases remarkably, suggesting that the adverse impacts of cascaded diversion SHP accumulate in the study area. Compared with vegetation destruction and soil erosion, the cumulative loss of fish and net productivity is the most important aspect of the adverse impacts which needs more attentions.

  15. Diversity and structure of a bacterial community in grassland soils disturbed by sheep grazing, in the Loess Plateau of northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Y N; Nan, Z B; Hou, F J

    2015-12-15

    The relationship between disturbance, biodiversity, and ecosystem function has been a hot topic recently in international ecological research, and a universally applicable model remains elusive. In this study, we assessed the diversity and structure of a bacterial community in grassland soils along a disturbance gradient due to sheep grazing. Bacteria were identified based on 16S rDNA gene libraries prepared from a 12-year field experiment that included four grazing, intensity treatments: no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing and heavy grazing in the Loess Plateau of northwestern China. We found that diversity indices of bacterial 16S rDNA increased with grazing intensity, suggesting that disturbance led to higher bacterial diversity. The bacterial community structure, measured as species composition, was also affected by grazing. In addition, the change in soil bacterial community composition was maximum under heavy grazing, based on the Sorensen similarity index. Overall, the relationship between disturbance and bacterial diversity is complex, therefore, more studies are required to determine the possibility of using microbial diversity as an indicator of ecosystem stability.

  16. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  17. Low Genetic Diversity and High Invasion Success of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) (Müller, 1774) in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cidália; Sousa, Ronaldo; Mendes, Tito; Borges, Rui; Vilares, Pedro; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, is an invasive alien species (IAS) originally from Asia that has spread worldwide causing major ecological and economic impacts in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluated C. fluminea genetic (using COI mtDNA, CYTb mtDNA and 18S rDNA gene markers), morphometric and sperm morphology variation in Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The COI marker revealed a single haplotype, which belongs to the Asian FW5 invasive lineage, suggesting a common origin for all the 13 Portuguese C. fluminea populations analysed. Morphometric analyses showed differences between the populations colonizing the North (with the exception of the Lima River) and the Centre/South ecosystems. The sperm morphology examination revealed the presence of biflagellate sperm, a distinctive character of the invasive androgenetic lineages. The low genetic variability of the Portuguese C. fluminea populations and the pattern of sperm morphology have been illuminating for understanding the demographic history of this invasive species. We hypothesize that these populations were derived from a unique introductory event of a Corbicula fluminea FW5 invasive androgenic lineage in the Tejo River, which subsequently dispersed to other Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The C. fluminea asexual reproductive mode may have assisted these populations to become highly invasive despite the low genetic diversity.

  18. Low Genetic Diversity and High Invasion Success of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae (Müller, 1774 in Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidália Gomes

    Full Text Available The Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, is an invasive alien species (IAS originally from Asia that has spread worldwide causing major ecological and economic impacts in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluated C. fluminea genetic (using COI mtDNA, CYTb mtDNA and 18S rDNA gene markers, morphometric and sperm morphology variation in Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The COI marker revealed a single haplotype, which belongs to the Asian FW5 invasive lineage, suggesting a common origin for all the 13 Portuguese C. fluminea populations analysed. Morphometric analyses showed differences between the populations colonizing the North (with the exception of the Lima River and the Centre/South ecosystems. The sperm morphology examination revealed the presence of biflagellate sperm, a distinctive character of the invasive androgenetic lineages. The low genetic variability of the Portuguese C. fluminea populations and the pattern of sperm morphology have been illuminating for understanding the demographic history of this invasive species. We hypothesize that these populations were derived from a unique introductory event of a Corbicula fluminea FW5 invasive androgenic lineage in the Tejo River, which subsequently dispersed to other Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The C. fluminea asexual reproductive mode may have assisted these populations to become highly invasive despite the low genetic diversity.

  19. Epigenetic Diversity of Clonal White Poplar (Populus alba L. Populations: Could Methylation Support the Success of Vegetative Reproduction Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guarino

    Full Text Available The widespread poplar populations of Sardinia are vegetatively propagated and live in different natural environments forming large monoclonal stands. The main goals of the present study were: i to investigate/measure the epigenetic diversity of the poplar populations by determining their DNA methylation status; ii to assess if and how methylation status influences population clustering; iii to shed light on the changes that occur in the epigenome of ramets of the same poplar clone. To these purposes, 83 white poplar trees were sampled at different locations on the island of Sardinia. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis was carried out on the genomic DNA extracted from leaves at the same juvenile stage. The study showed that the genetic biodiversity of poplars is quite limited but it is counterbalanced by epigenetic inter-population molecular variability. The comparison between MspI and HpaII DNA fragmentation profiles revealed that environmental conditions strongly influence hemi-methylation of the inner cytosine. The variable epigenetic status of Sardinian white poplars revealed a decreased number of population clusters. Landscape genetics analyses clearly demonstrated that ramets of the same clone were differentially methylated in relation to their geographic position. Therefore, our data support the notion that studies on plant biodiversity should no longer be restricted to genetic aspects, especially in the case of vegetatively propagated plant species.

  20. Soil quality succession of mudflat in coastal area of China under different types of man-made land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiying; Shao, Hongbo; Xu, Zhaolong; Peng, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Marshy reclamation in coastal area is becoming an important strategy for food safety security and economic development in China. After the reclamation of mudflat, the nutrient concentration in soil is one of the dominated factors restricting the development of marshy agriculture. However, little information is available for soil nutrient dynamics and its driving mechanisms under different types of man-made land uses. In this review, we summarized the soil nutrient dynamics under different types of man-made land uses (bare mudflat soil, rice-wheat rotation soil, aquaculture soil, and forest soil), including the change of physical and chemical features of the reclaimed soil; ii) the dynamics of soil organic matters and its driving mechanism in marshy land; iii) the migration of N, P, and K in marshy soil; and iv) the oriented cultivation and improvement for soil nutrient in marshy soil. This study contributes not only to understanding the soil nutrient cycling in marshy land, but also to providing valuable information for the sustainable development of salt-soil agriculture in marshy land along seaside cities of China.

  1. Public perception of an ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northern China: Success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi; Miao, Zheng; Li, Zongxing; Li, Jianguo; Si, Jianhua; S, Yonghong; Chang, Zongqiang

    2015-05-01

    The need for environmental protection challenges societies to deal with difficult problems because strategies designed by scientists to protect the environment often create negative effects on impoverished local residents. We investigated the effects of China's national and regional policies related to environmental protection and rehabilitation projects in inland river basins, by studying the effect of projects in the Heihe and Shiyang river basins, in northwest China. Interviews and surveys were conducted at 30 sites in the lower reaches of these two arid basins, an area that has experienced severe ecological degradation. The survey results show the ecological rehabilitation projects adversely affected the livelihoods of 70.35% of foresters, 64.89% of farmers and 62.24% of herders in the Minqing region in the lower Shiyang River Basin; also, the projects negatively affected 51.9% of residents in the Ejin Qi in the lower Heihe River Basin. This caused 16.33% of foresters, 39.90% of farmers and 45.32% of herders in the Minqing region to not support the project and 37.5% of residents in the Ejin Qi region said they will deforest and graze again after the project ends. The negative impacts of the policies connected to the projects cause these attitudes. The projects prohibit felling and grazing and require residents to give up groundwater mining; this results in a great amount of uncompensated economic loss to them. Extensive survey data document the concerns of local residents, concerns that are supported by the calculation of actual incomes. In addition, the surveys results show poorer interviewees believe the projects greatly affected their livelihoods. While citizens in this region support environment protection work, the poor require considerable assistance if one expects them to support this type of work. Governmental assistance can greatly improve their living conditions, and hence encourage them to participate in and support the implementation of the projects

  2. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  3. Open software to innovation: the critical success factors of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPG) in China and Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates the factors leading to the success of China’s Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPG) market and gives an analysis of how Open source has contributed to these success factors. It then will look at how the use of open source is mirrored in Ireland’s market for example, the software sector to see if the same factors are apparent or there are indicators of these. Knowledge Management plays a very important role for fasten the innovation of Open source s...

  4. Functional diversity of benthic ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients in a wetland of Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Zhang, Liquan; Xu, Henglong

    2018-02-01

    Researches on the functional diversity of benthic ecosystems have mainly focused on macrofauna, and studies on functional structure of ciliate communities have been based only on trophic- or size-groups. Current research was carried out on the changing patterns of classical and functional diversity of benthic ciliates in response to environmental gradients at three sites in a wetland in Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that changes of environmental factors (e.g. salinity, sediment grain size and hydrodynamic conditions) in the Yangtze Estuary induce variability in species composition and functional trait distribution. Furthermore, increased species richness and diversity did not lead to significant changes in functional diversity due to functional redundancy. However, salt water intrusion of Yangtze Estuary during the dry season could cause reduced functional diversity of ciliate communities. Current study provides the first insight into the functional diversity of ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA revealed the extent of genetic diversity and invasion origin of populations from two separate invaded areas of a newly invasive pest, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Duan, X; Qiao, X; Li, X; Wang, K; Men, Q; Chen, M

    2015-08-01

    Cydia pomonella is a serious invasive insect pest in China, and has caused severe damage to the production of apple and pear in its invaded areas. This species is distributing in the northwest and northeast of China, but no occurrence of it has been recorded in the large areas (about 3000-5000 km away) between the invaded northwestern and northeastern regions despite continuous monitoring. As yet the genetic diversity and invasion origin of the C. pomonella populations in Northwestern and Northeastern China is obscure. In this study, we investigate the genetic diversity of 14 populations of C. pomonella sampled throughout the main distribution regions in Northwestern (Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces) and Northeastern (Heilongjiang Province) China and compared them with nine populations from Europe and other continents using the mitochondrial COI, COII and Cytb genes. Both the populations from Northeastern and Northwestern China shared some haplotypes with populations from other countries. Haplotypes of the three mitochondrial genes had a different distribution in Northeastern and Northwestern China. The northeastern populations had more private haplotypes than the northwestern populations. A large number of the individuals from northwestern populations shared a few haplotypes of each of the three genes. The haplotype numbers and haplotype diversities of the northeastern populations were similar to those of field populations in other countries, but were higher than those of the northwestern populations. Populations from the Northwestern China showed similar haplotype number and haplotype diversity. We conclude that the population genetic background of C. pomonella populations in Northeastern and Northwestern China varies due to different invasion sources and that this should be considered before the application of new pest control tactics.

  6. Successful in Science Education and Still Popular: A Pattern That Is Possible in China Rather than in Germany or Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Duan, Xiaoju; Sutherland, Margaret; Ziegler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Across several countries, science is often regarded as unpopular and a male-dominated domain. Furthermore, the number of students who are interested in science education or intend to work in the field of science is relatively low. This might be due to expectations adolescents hold towards science and successful scientists. The current…

  7. From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C; Selden, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to a stagnant persistent lineage, pinpointing the Devonian as the period during which this evolutionary regime shift occurred. The late Devonian biotic crisis is potentially unique among the "Big Five" mass extinctions in exhibiting a drop in speciation rates rather than an increase in extinction. Our study reveals eurypterids show depressed speciation rates throughout the Devonian but no abnormal peaks in extinction. Loss of morphospace occupation is random across all Paleozoic extinction events; however, differential origination during the Devonian results in a migration and subsequent stagnation of occupied morphospace. This shift appears linked to an ecological transition from euryhaline taxa to freshwater species with low morphological diversity alongside a decrease in endemism. These results demonstrate the importance of the Devonian biotic crisis in reshaping Paleozoic ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  9. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  10. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... at the nursery stage of production....

  11. A Gateway to Successful River Restorations: A Pre-Assessment Framework on the River Ecosystem in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural rivers have been disturbed for hundreds of years by human activities. Previous water conservancy projects in the form of dams, reservoirs, dykes, and irrigation infrastructure focused on the social and economic benefits and disregarded the adverse effects on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the affected rivers. Since the 2000s, the comprehension of river remolding has transformed so decisions are more socially and ecologically beneficial. However, restoration actions are often implemented aimlessly, without a detailed plan or sufficient communication, leading to the failure of accomplishing objectives for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Thus, a pre-assessment framework is proposed in this paper, to determine river restoration priorities, emphasizing both social and ecological aspects. The vague notion of river health is evaluated using the Variable Fuzzy Assessment Model (VFAM and expressed by modified Nightingale Rose Diagrams (NRDs. The river social ecosystem was subsequently analysed using this framework in the Ashihe River near Harbin City, Northeast China. The application of VFAM demonstrated that the health status of the upper, middle, and lower sections of the river could be classified as sub-healthy, degraded, or sick in terms of ecosystem structures, and sub-healthy, degraded, or degraded in terms of social functions, respectively. The health status of the lower section was the poorest and should be restored first. Using NRDs, we found that water quality deterioration and irrigation works are the two key factors in river degradation, which must be improved throughout the entire watershed. Aesthetics and recreation should also be given priority to restore the lower section due to the demands of nearby residents. Several measures are also suggested for decision makers who need a more detailed design to implement. This framework potentially assists with communicating with stakeholders

  12. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Babesia motasi-like in small ruminants and ixodid ticks from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Ovine babesioses, an important tick-borne disease of sheep and goats in China, is caused by the reproduction of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Babesia genus. Babesia motasi-like is a Babesia parasite that infects small ruminant in China, and two sub-groups of B. motasi-like can be subdivided based on differences in the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 gene. This study aimed to characterize the distribution, epidemiology and genetics of B. motasi-like in animals and ticks. A molecular investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2015 in 16 provinces in China. In total, 1081 blood samples were collected from sheep and goats originating from 27 different regions, and 778 ixodid tick samples were collected from 8 regions; the samples were tested for the presence of B. motasi-like using a specific nested PCR assay based on the rap-1b gene. The results indicated that 139 (12.9%), 91 (8.4%), 48 (4.4%) and 6 (0.7%) of the blood samples were positive for general B. motasi-like, Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan and Ningxian), Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei sub-groups, mixed infections, respectively. Among the collected 778 ixodid ticks (including Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus), the most frequently infected with Babesia were D. silvarum and I. persulcatus (35.7%), followed by H. longicornis (26.8%), H. qinghaiensis (24.8%) and R. sanguineus (9.3%). The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The positive rates of B. motasi-like infection in ticks were found to be higher in China, compared with previous studies in other countries. B. motasi-like infections have not previously been reported in D. silvarum, I. persulcatus or R. sanguineus. The findings obtained in this study could be used for planning effective control strategies against babesiosis in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diverse Multilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuthnow, Joel; Li, Xin; Qi, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses Chinas multilateral diplomacy by identifying four distinct strategies: watching, engaging, circumventing, and shaping. The typology builds on two literatures: power transition theory, and the more recent “assertiveness” discourse in the West. Drawing from a range of cases...... in both the economic and security domains, the article argues that China’s multilateralism is diverse, and that it cannot be un-problematically characterized as either status-quo or revisionist in nature. However, the general trend appears to be towards engagement, but with an assertive tact as China......’s interests become further entangled in the business of international institutions....

  14. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  15. Microbial Diversity and Community Structure of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediment Cores from the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xungong; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have been studied extensively in marine sediments because of their vital roles in both sulfur and carbon cycles, but the available information regarding the highly diverse SRB and SOB communities is not comprehensive. High-throughput sequencing of functional gene amplicons provides tremendous insight into the structure and functional potential of complex microbial communities. Here, we explored the community structure, diversity, and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously through 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses of core samples from the East China Sea. Overall, high-throughput sequencing of the dsrB and soxB genes achieved almost complete coverage (>99%) and revealed the high diversity, richness, and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers of the SRB and SOB communities, which suggest the existence of an active sulfur cycle in the study area. Further analysis demonstrated that rare species make vital contributions to the high richness, diversity, and OTU numbers obtained. Depth-based distributions of the dsrB, soxB , and 16S rRNA gene abundances indicated that the SRB abundance might be more sensitive to the sedimentary dynamic environment than those of total bacteria and SOB. In addition, the results of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis and redundancy analysis revealed that environmental parameters, such as depth and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and the sedimentary dynamic environment, which differed between the two sampling stations, can significantly influence the community structures of total bacteria, SRB, and SOB. This study provided further comprehensive information regarding the characteristics of SRB and SOB communities.

  16. Microbial Diversity and Community Structure of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediment Cores from the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB have been studied extensively in marine sediments because of their vital roles in both sulfur and carbon cycles, but the available information regarding the highly diverse SRB and SOB communities is not comprehensive. High-throughput sequencing of functional gene amplicons provides tremendous insight into the structure and functional potential of complex microbial communities. Here, we explored the community structure, diversity, and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously through 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses of core samples from the East China Sea. Overall, high-throughput sequencing of the dsrB and soxB genes achieved almost complete coverage (>99% and revealed the high diversity, richness, and operational taxonomic unit (OTU numbers of the SRB and SOB communities, which suggest the existence of an active sulfur cycle in the study area. Further analysis demonstrated that rare species make vital contributions to the high richness, diversity, and OTU numbers obtained. Depth-based distributions of the dsrB, soxB, and 16S rRNA gene abundances indicated that the SRB abundance might be more sensitive to the sedimentary dynamic environment than those of total bacteria and SOB. In addition, the results of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA clustering analysis and redundancy analysis revealed that environmental parameters, such as depth and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and the sedimentary dynamic environment, which differed between the two sampling stations, can significantly influence the community structures of total bacteria, SRB, and SOB. This study provided further comprehensive information regarding the characteristics of SRB and SOB communities.

  17. Structure and diversity of bacterial communities in two large sanitary landfills in China as revealed by high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Lu, Wenjing; Liu, Yanting; Ming, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yanjun; Meng, Ruihong; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-05-01

    Landfill disposal has been considered as a very economically viable management practice for municipal solid waste in mainland China. However, insufficient knowledge of the bacterial community structure and diversity in landfills hampers effectively landfill disposal. In this study, the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in two large sanitary landfills in northern and western parts of China were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. Nearly 1million effective sequences (981,575) were obtained from the 20 samples collected from four independent sites with different deposit depths (up to 18m). These sequences contained high amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 2511-9955 OTUs at a cutoff level of 3% and a sequencing depth of 23,928. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the samples. Clear geographical differences between the sampling sites were revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Most of the samples from the same sampling site could be clustered together. Thus, the heterogeneity of the bacterial community structures was more significantly affected by the sampling site than by sampling depth. Redundancy analysis results suggested that seven physicochemical attributes, namely NH 4 + -N, NO 2 - -N, moisture, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO 4 2- and total Cu element, significantly affected the bacterial community structures (Plandfills and discerned the relationships between bacterial community structures and physicochemical attributes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among the first to characterize bacterial community structures in landfills by using this novel high-throughput sequencing approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G, building patch (B, mature patch (M and degenerate patch (D. To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1 Different species (or functional groups had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2 Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3 Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4 The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′ were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  19. Isolation, diversity, and antimicrobial activity of rare actinobacteria from medicinal plants of tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Li, Jie; Chen, Hua-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-10-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria are relatively unexplored as potential sources of novel species and novel natural products for medical and commercial exploitation. Xishuangbanna is recognized throughout the world for its diverse flora, especially the rain forest plants, many of which have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. However, little is known about the endophytic actinobacteria of this tropical area. In this work, we studied the diversity of actinobacteria isolated from medicinal plants collected from tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna. By the use of different selective isolation media and methods, a total of 2,174 actinobacteria were isolated. Forty-six isolates were selected on the basis of their morphologies on different media and were further characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed an unexpected level of diversity, with 32 different genera. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the isolation of Saccharopolyspora, Dietzia, Blastococcus, Dactylosporangium, Promicromonospora, Oerskovia, Actinocorallia, and Jiangella species from endophytic environments. At least 19 isolates are considered novel taxa by our current research. In addition, all 46 isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity and were screened for the presence of genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The results confirm that the medicinal plants of Xishuangbanna represent an extremely rich reservoir for the isolation of a significant diversity of actinobacteria, including novel species, that are potential sources for the discovery of biologically active compounds.

  20. Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of noroviruses in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China in 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Jin, Miao; Li, Huiying; Li, Quanrui; Wang, Jing; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) infections that cause acute gastroenteritis are commonly observed during colder months. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of NoVs in adult outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China from August 2008 to July 2009. Five hundred nineteen patients were enrolled, their stool specimens were collected, and 136 (26.2%) were positive for NoV. The elderly were found to be more susceptible to NoVs than other age groups. The greatest number of gastroenteritis cases associated with occurred in October. Six GI and eleven GII NoV genotypes were isolated; among these, the GII.4 genotype was most prevalent (70/140 and 50% were the 2006b variant). The elderly were more susceptible to the GII.4 genotype than to other genotypes. Greater numbers of neutrophils in the peripheral blood were observed in the NoV infected group than in uninfected control group. However, the levels of neutrophils and leukocytes in the non-GII.4 patients infected with NoV were higher than those of the GII.4-infected patients. The data highlight the role of NoV as a primary agent responsible for gastroenteritis in adults in Beijing, China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Inter-simple sequence repeat data reveals high genetic diversity in wild populations of the narrowly distributed endemic Lilium regale in the Minjiang River Valley of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhu-hua; Shi, Jisen; Xi, Meng-li; Jiang, Fu-xing; Deng, Ming-wen; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2015-01-01

    Lilium regale E.H. Wilson is endemic to a narrow geographic area in the Minjiang River valley in southwestern China, and is considered an important germplasm for breeding commercially valuable lily varieties, due to its vigorous growth, resistance to diseases and tolerance for low moisture. We analyzed the genetic diversity of eight populations of L. regale sampled across the entire natural distribution range of the species using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers. The genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity= 0.3356) was higher than those reported for other narrowly distributed endemic plants. The levels of inbreeding (Fst = 0.1897) were low, and most of the genetic variability was found to be within (80.91%) than amongpopulations (19.09%). An indirect estimate of historical levels of gene flow (Nm =1.0678) indicated high levels of gene flow among populations. The eight analyzed populations clustered into three genetically distinct groups. Based on these results, we recommend conservation of large populations representing these three genetically distinct groups.

  2. Submerged macrophytes shape the abundance and diversity of bacterial denitrifiers in bacterioplankton and epiphyton in the Shallow Fresh Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhou; Han, Rui-Ming; Ma, Jie; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    nirK and nirS genes are important functional genes involved in the denitrification pathway. Recent studies about these two denitrifying genes are focusing on sediment and wastewater microbe. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the abundance and diversity of denitrifiers in the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes Potamogeton malaianus and Ceratophyllum demersum as well as in bacterioplankton in the shallow fresh lake Taihu, China. Results showed that nirK and nirS genes had significant different niches in epiphyton and bacterioplankton. Bacterioplankton showed greater abundance of nirK gene in terms of copy numbers and lower abundance of nirS gene. Significant difference in the abundance of nirK and nirS genes also existed between the epiphyton from different submerged macrophytes. Similar community diversity yet different community abundance was observed between epiphytic bacteria and bacterioplankton. No apparent seasonal variation was found either in epiphytic bacteria or bacterioplankton; however, environmental parameters seemed to have direct relevancy with nirK and nirS genes. Our study suggested that submerged macrophytes have greater influence than seasonal parameters in shaping the presence and abundance of bacterial denitrifiers. Further investigation needs to focus on the potential contact and relative contribution between denitrifiers and environmental factors.

  3. Phytoplankton diversity in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea measured by PCR-DGGE and its relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Yu, Zhigang; Gao, Yahui; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhen, Yu; Chen, Hongtao; Zhao, Liyuan; Yao, Qingzhen; Mi, Tiezhu

    2010-03-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) were investigated using geochemical and molecular microbiology methods. The diversity of phytoplankton was characterized using cultivation-independent PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Groups resulting from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages clustering of the DGGE profiles showed good consistency with the eco-environmental characteristics of the sea area they belonged to. Additionally, the clustering results based on DGGE fingerprinting and those based on morphological compositions were practically identical. The relationship of phytoplankton diversity to environmental factors was statistically analyzed. Temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and silicate-Si were found significantly related to the phytoplankton community composition. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed to reveal the relationship between community composition and these three environmental factors. Generally, values of the ECS are clearly separated from those of the YS in the CCA biplot, due to mainly the effect of temperature and DIN.

  4. The fate of a colonizer: successful but lonely? The establishment of inter- and intra-specific diversity in ferns by means of long-distance dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Global changes currently result in strong declines in species richness and population-genetic diversity. For maintenance of diversity in protected areas and developing new diversity in restored or newly created areas, immigration by long-distance dispersal (LDD) is of vital importance, as it allows

  5. Modelling the response of shallow groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wei, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was implemented to quantify the temporal variation of shallow groundwater levels in response to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios over the next 40 years (2011-2050) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) Plain, China. Groundwater plays a key role in the water supply, but the Jing-Jin-Ji Plain is facing a water crisis. Groundwater levels have declined continuously over the last five decades (1961-2010) due to extensive pumping and climate change, which has resulted in decreased recharge. The implementation of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) will provide an opportunity to restore the groundwater resources. The response of groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios has been quantified using a groundwater flow model. The impacts of climate change were based on the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset for future high (A2), medium (A1B), and low (B1) greenhouse gas scenarios; precipitation data from CMIP3 were applied in the model. The results show that climate change will slow the rate of decrease of the shallow groundwater levels under three climate-change scenarios over the next 40 years compared to the baseline scenario; however, the shallow groundwater levels will rise significantly (maximum of 6.71 m) when considering scenarios that combine climate change and restrictions on groundwater exploitation. Restrictions on groundwater exploitation for water resource management are imperative to control the decline of levels in the Jing-Jin-Ji area.

  6. Investigating the Genetic Diversity, Population Differentiation and Population Dynamics of Cycas segmentifida (Cycadaceae Endemic to Southwest China by Multiple Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyan Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, species dispersal ability and habitat fragmentation are major factors influencing species distribution and genetic diversity, especially for the range-restricted and threatened taxa. Here, using four sequences of chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs, three nuclear genes (nDNAs and 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs, we investigated the genetic diversity, genetic structure, divergence time and population dynamics of Cycas segmentifida D. Y. Wang and C. Y. Deng, a threatened cycad species endemic to Southwest China. High levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were revealed in C. segmentifida. Haplotypes of networks showed two evolutionary units in C. segmentifida, with the exception of the nuclear gene GTP network. Meanwhile, the UPGMA tree, structure and PCoA analyses suggested that 14 populations of C. segmentifida were divided into two clades. There was significant effect of isolation by distance (IBD in this species. However, this species did not display a significant phylogeographic structure. The divergence time estimation suggested that its haplotypes diverged during the Middle Pleistocene. Additionally, the population dynamics inferred from different DNA sequences analyses were discordant. Bottleneck analysis showed that populations of C. segmentifida did not experience any recent bottleneck effect, but rather pointed to a contraction of its effective population size over time. Furthermore, our results suggested that the population BM which held an intact population structure and occupied undisturbed habitat was at the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, implying that this population is a free-mating system. These genetic features provide important information for the sustainable management of C. segmentifida.

  7. Advanced investigation on the change in the streamflow into the water source of the middle route of China's water diversion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dunxian; Xia, Jun; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Gu, Huanghe

    2017-07-01

    To alleviate water shortage in northern China, the middle route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (MRP) was constructed by the Chinese government. A dramatic reduction in the annual streamflow into Danjiangkou Reservoir (ASDR), the water source of MRP, during 1990 has raised some concerns on the MRP's operation. This paper employed an advanced segmented regression model with more recent data to have a clear picture and understand the changing pattern of the ASDR. Our study first revealed a zigzag changing pattern (decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing) of ASDR during 1960-2013, which was supported by statistical criteria compared with a monotonic or single abrupt change. Particularly, the significantly decreasing trend from 1990s was reversed after 2000, and such change may relieve the concern about the water availability in the future. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes in streamflow were largely influenced by the combined effects of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and were more sensitive to P than ET0. As ET0 is estimated from other primary variables, further analysis was conducted to understand the sensitivities of ET0 to its primary driving variables (wind speed, actual vapor pressure, temperature, and sunshine duration) and indicated that ET0 is mostly sensitive to actual vapor pressure during 1960-2013. The findings will assist the MRP's operation and management. Moreover, the results in this study also indicate that an adaptive water diversion plan, rather than the current plan with a constant annual amount of diversion water, might be a better option in the MRP's operation.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of the narrow endemic and endangered species Heteroplexis microcephala Y. L. Chen. in China revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yancai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteroplexis microcephala Y. L. Chen. is an endemic and endangered species found only in karst limestone regions in the Yangshuo County of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China: it is a habitat representative of species in the Heteroplexis genus. To provide basic genetic information for its conservation, in this study we evaluated the genetic variation and differentiation among six wild populations of H. microcephala by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD. The leaves of 141 individuals were sampled. Based on 12 primers, 113 DNA fragments were generated. Genetic diversity was low at the population level (Nei’s gene diversity (h=0.0579; Shannon information index (I=0.0924; percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB=23.30%, but relatively high at the species level (h=0.1701; I=0.2551; PPB=46.34%. The coefficient of genetic differentiation based on Nei’s genetic diversity analysis (0.6661 was high, indicating that there was significant genetic differentiation among populations, which was confirmed by AMOVA analysis exhibiting population differentiation among populations of 68.77%. Low gene flow among populations (0.2507 may result from several factors, such as a harsh pollination environment, population isolation and low seed dispersal distance. Limited gene flow and self-compatibility are the primary reasons for the high genetic differentiation observed for this species. We propose the collection of seeds from more populations with fewer individuals and core populations for ex situ conservation and suggest methods to increase seed germination rates.

  9. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  10. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  11. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu eJian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species’ evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH and trnL-rps4 and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into Yuanjiang-Nanhun basin and Ejia-Jiepai basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the

  12. Diversity, Bacterial Symbionts and Antibacterial Potential of Gut-Associated Fungi Isolated from the Pantala flavescens Larvae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Shao

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi associated with the gut of Pantala flavescens larvae was investigated using a culture-dependent method and molecular identification based on an analysis of the internally transcribed spacer sequence. In total, 48 fungal isolates were obtained from P. flavescens larvae. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the fungal isolates were grouped in 5 classes and 12 different genera. Fourteen bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from total genomic DNA extractions of fungal mycelia were obtained. The majority of the sequences were associated with Proteobacteria (13/14, and one Bacillaceae (1/14 was included. Leclercia sp., Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi and Methylobacterium extorquens, were reported for the first time as bacterial endosymbionts in fungi. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis indicated that bacterial symbionts produced specific metabolites and also exerted an inhibitory effect on fungal metabolites. The biological activity of the fungal culture extracts against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 was investigated, and 20 extracts (42% exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains. This study is the first report on the diversity and antibacterial activity of symbiotic fungi residing in the gut of P. flavescens larvae, and the results show that these fungi are highly diverse and could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  14. The diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in saline biological desert crusts in Xinjiang, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun; Yun, Juanli

    2013-07-01

    Although microorganisms, particularly oxygenic phototrophs, are known as the major players in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in desert soil ecosystems and have received extensive attention, still little is known about the effects of salinity on the composition and abundances of microbial community in desert soils. In this study, the diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in biological desert crusts from Xinjiang province, which were under different salinity conditions, were investigated by using clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacteria, mainly Microcoleus vagnitus of the order Oscillatoriales, were predominant in the low saline crusts, while other phototrophs, such as diatom, were the main microorganism group responsible for the oxygenic photosynthesis in the high saline crusts. Furthermore, the higher salt content in crusts may stimulate the growth of other bacteria, including Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, and some subdivisions of Proteobacteria (β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria). The cpcBA-IGS gene analysis revealed the existence of novel M. vagnitus strains in this area. The qPCR results showed that the abundance of oxygenic phototrophs was significantly higher under lower saline condition than that in the higher saline crusts, suggesting that the higher salinity in desert crusts could suppress the numbers of total bacteria and phototrophic bacteria but did highly improve the diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria.

  15. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  16. Diversity of culturable root-associated/endophytic bacteria and their chitinolytic and aflatoxin inhibition activity of peanut plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Ding, Qing-Long; Wu, Qin-Xi; Wang, Zhong-Bo; Peng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A total of 72 isolates of root-associated/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from peanut plants grown in the main producing areas of 6 provinces in China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were determined and phylogenetic analyses revealed that 72 isolates belonged to the classes Bacilli (49 isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (23 isolates). The majority of RAE bacteria in Bacilli belonged to 2 genera, Bacillus and Lysinibacillus (48 and 1) while those in Gammaproteobacteria belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas (7, 11, 3 and 2 isolates, respectively). This is the first report of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus isolate as biocontrol agent against AFs. All of the selected RAE bacteria showed inhibitory activities against Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) growth and/or aflatoxins (AFs) production by visual agar plate assay and tip culture method. Most of the RAE bacteria strains (96 % strains) were determined to have decreased mycelia growth or AFs production levels by >50 % (p chitinolytic activity and 22 strains (30 % strains) of identified RAE bacteria degraded colloidal chitin on the chitin medium plate. Ten selected chitinolytic RAE bacteria were tested for antifungal activity on peanuts and most of them significantly decreased mycelial growth and AFs production levels by >90 %. These results showed a wide distribution of biological control bacteria against AFs in Chinese peanut main producing areas and the selected RAE bacteria could potentially be utilized for the biocontrol of toxicogenic fungi.

  17. Diversity and dynamics of fungal endophytes in leaves, stems and roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Quan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jixiang; Qin, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to explore fungal endophyte communities inhabiting a toxic weed (Stellera chamaejasme L.) from meadows of northwestern China. The effects of plant tissue and growth stage on endophyte assemblages were characterized. Endophytes were recovered from 50 % of the samples, with a total of 714 isolates. 41 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) were identified, consisting of 40 OTUs belonging primarily to Ascomycota and 1 OTU belonging to Basidiomycota. Pleosporales and Hypocreales were the orders contributing the most species to the endophytic assemblages. The total colonization frequency and species richness of endophytic fungi were higher in roots than in leaves and stems. In addition, for the plant tissues, the structure of fungal communities differed significantly by growth stages of leaf emergence and dormancy; for the plant growth stages, the structure of fungal communities differed significantly by plant tissues. This study demonstrates that S. chamaejasme serves as a reservoir for a wide variety of fungal endophytes that can be isolated from various plant tissues.

  18. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  19. Patterns and relationships of plant traits, community structural attributes, and eco-hydrological functions during a subtropical secondary succession in central Yunnan, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Denggao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes in land use lead to major changes in plant community composition and structure which have strong effects on eco-hydrological processes and functions. We here tested the hypothesis that changes in traits of living plants have resulted in changes in structural attributes of the community that influenced eco-hydrological functions by altering eco-hydrological processes. This was done in the context of a subtropical secondary forest suc­cession following land abandonment in Central Yunnan (Southwest China. During the succession, species with high specific leaf area (SLA, high leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC, high specific root length (SRL, and low leaf dry matter content (LDMC were progressively replaced by species with the opposite characteristics. The obtained results of correlation analyses were as follows: (1 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and the leaf area index (LAI. Significant correlations were detected between LAI, canopy interception and stemflow, and surface runoff and soil erosion. (2 Significant correlations were also found between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, LDMC, and accumulated litter biomass. High accumulated litter biomass strongly increases the maximum water-retaining capac­ity of litter. However, significant correlations were not found between the maximum water-retaining capacity of litter and surface runoff and soil erosion. (3 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was not significantly related to the maximum water-retaining capacity of the soil, but was significantly related to surface runoff and soil erosion. These results suggest that canopy characteristics play a more important role in control of runoff and soil erosion at the studied site. It follows that plant functional traits are closely linked with canopy characteristics, which should be used as a standard for selecting species in

  20. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106, with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44. Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2 and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals.

  1. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Zhong, Zhijun; Gong, Chao; Cao, Xuefeng; Song, Yuan; Wang, Wuyou; Huang, Xiangming; Liu, Xuehan; Hu, Yanchun; Fu, Hualin; He, Min; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106), with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44). Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2) and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans) and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals.

  2. Emergence and Diversity of Salmonella enterica Serovar Indiana Isolates with Concurrent Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime from Patients and Food-Producing Animals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Zhao, Jiayong; Gan, Xin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xiuli; Cui, Shenghui; Xia, Shengli; Hu, Yujie; Yan, Shaofei; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Fengqin; Fanning, Séamus; Xu, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a major global foodborne infection, and strains that are resistant to a great variety of antibiotics have become a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum β-lactams in nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) from patients and food-producing animals in China. In total, 133 and 21 NTS isolates from animals and humans, respectively, exhibiting concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were cultured independently from 2009 to ∼2013. All of the isolates were identified, serotyped, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Importantly, the isolates with concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime all were confirmed as S. enterica serovar Indiana. The presence of fluoroquinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was established by PCR and DNA sequencing. The occurrence and diversity of different genes conferring fluoroquinolone resistance [qepA, oqxAB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr] with mutations in topoisomerase-encoding genes (gyrA and parC) and several ESBLs (including CTX-M-65, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-14/CTX-M-15) were noteworthy. Genes located on mobile genetic elements were identified by conjugation and transformation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, used to determine the genetic relationships between these isolates, generated 91 pulsotypes from 133 chicken isolates and 17 pulsotypes from the 21 clinical isolates that showed considerable diversity. Analysis of the pulsotypes obtained with the isolates showed some clones appeared to have existed for several years and had been disseminating between humans and food-producing animals. This study highlights the emergence of ciprofloxacin- and cefotaxime-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana, posing a threat to public health. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Trait variation and functional diversity maintenance of understory herbaceous species coexisting along an elevational gradient in Yulong Mountain, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahuang Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing trait variation across different ecological scales in plant communities has been viewed as a way to gain insights into the mechanisms driving species coexistence. However, little is known about how changes in intraspecific and interspecific traits across sites influence species richness and community assembly, especially in understory herbaceous communities. Here we partitioned the variance of four functional traits (maximum height, leaf thickness, leaf area and specific leaf area across four nested biological scales: individual, species, plot, and elevation to quantify the scale-dependent distributions of understory herbaceous trait variance. We also integrated the comparison of the trait variance ratios to null models to investigate the effects of different ecological processes on community assembly and functional diversity along a 1200-m elevational gradient in Yulong Mountain. We found interspecific trait variation was the main trait variation component for leaf traits, although intraspecific trait variation ranged from 10% to 28% of total variation. In particular, maximum height exhibited high plasticity, and intraspecific variation accounted for 44% of the total variation. Despite the fact that species composition varied across elevation and species richness decreased dramatically along the elevational gradient, there was little variance at our largest (elevation scale in leaf traits and functional diversity remained constant along the elevational gradient, indicating that traits responded to smaller scale influences. External filtering was only observed at high elevations. However, strong internal filtering was detected along the entire elevational gradient in understory herbaceous communities, possibly due to competition. Our results provide evidence that species coexistence in understory herbaceous communities might be structured by differential niche-assembled processes. This approach –– integrating different

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  5. Genetic diversity and evolution of Bradyrhizobium populations nodulating Erythrophleum fordii, an evergreen tree indigenous to the southern subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Jun Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-10-01

    The nodulation of Erythrophleum fordii has been recorded recently, but its microsymbionts have never been studied. To investigate the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with this leguminous evergreen tree, root nodules were collected from the southern subtropical region of China. A total of 166 bacterial isolates were obtained from the nodules and characterized. In a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ribosomal intergenic sequences, the isolates were classified into 22 types within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS), and the housekeeping genes recA and glnII classified the isolates into four groups: the Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi groups, comprising the dominant symbionts, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, and an unclassified group comprising the minor symbionts. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five or six lineages among the isolates, which was largely consistent with the definition of genomic species. The phylogenetic results and evolutionary analysis demonstrated that mutation and vertical transmission of genes were the principal processes for the divergent evolution of Bradyrhizobium species associated with E. fordii, while lateral transfer and recombination of housekeeping and symbiotic genes were rare. The distribution of the dominant rhizobial populations was affected by soil pH and effective phosphorus. This is the first report to characterize E. fordii rhizobia. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of dengue virus during the third largest historical outbreak of dengue in Guangdong, China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Huan; Guan, Dawei; He, Xiang; Cai, Songwu; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    The third largest historical outbreak of dengue occurred during July to December 2014, in 20 of 21 cities of Guangdong, China. The epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, expansion and phylogeny of the DENV isolates involved in this outbreak were investigated. A combination analyses of epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of dengue virus was performed in this study. In total, 45,236 cases and 6 fatalities were reported. Unemployed individuals, retirees and retailers were the most affected populations. A total of 6024 cases were verified to have DENV infections by nucleic acid detection, of which 5947, 74 and 3 were confirmed to have DENV-1, -2, and -3 infections, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of DENV-1 isolates were assigned into three genotypes (I, IV, and V). Genotype V was the predominant genotype that likely originated from Singapore. The DENV-2 isolates were assigned to the Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. A unique DENV-3 isolate (genotype III) shared high similarity with isolates obtained from Guangdong in 2013. A combination analyses demonstrated the multiple geographical origins of this outbreak, and highlight the importance of early detection, the case management and vector surveillance for preventing further dengue epidemics in Guangdong. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Allele and haplotype diversity of new multiplex of 19 ChrX-STR loci in Han population from Guanzhong region (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yao-Shun; Mei, Ting; Huang, Rui-Zhe; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-07-01

    X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have been proved to be useful for some deficiency paternity cases in recent years. Here, we studied the genetic polymorphisms of 19 X-STR loci (DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164, DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075, DXS6809-DXS6789, DXS7424-DXS101, DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 and DXS7423-DXS10134) in 252 male and 222 female individuals from Guanzhong Han population, China. No deviation for all 19 loci was observed from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphism information content values of the panel of 19 loci were more than 0.5 with the exception of the locus DXS7423. The combined power of discrimination were 0.9999999999999999999994340 in females and 0.9999999999997662 in males, respectively; and the combined mean exclusion chances were 0.999999993764 in duos and 0.999999999997444 in trios, respectively. The haplotype diversities for all the seven clusters of linked loci were more than 0.9. The results showed that the panel of 19 X-STR loci were powerful for forensic applications in Guanzhong Han population. Locus by locus population comparisons showed significant differences at more than seven loci between Guanzhong Han population and the groups from North America, Europe and Africa. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, an endangered tree species endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Jiang, J M; Chen, Y T

    2014-06-17

    Our objective was to examine the genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, to elucidate whether the central-peripheral hypothesis applies to these populations. We analyzed 392 individuals from nine natural populations using eight pairs of polymorphic SSR primers. The results showed that the mean numbers of observed and expected alleles in peripheral populations were higher than in central populations. Common widespread and rare local (RL) alleles were observed in all populations. However, common local alleles were found in five populations and rare widespread alleles were only found in three. The total numbers of the four types of alleles were higher in peripheral than in central populations, and the quantity of the RL allele was obviously higher in the peripheral populations than in the central populations. Both the observed and expected heterozygosities were higher in peripheral populations compared with the central populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation of the peripheral populations was 0.3045, which was significantly higher than that of the central populations. The gene flow between central populations was greater than one, but less than one between peripheral populations. This indicates that frequent gene flow exists between central populations, while terrain and habitat fragmentation prevent gene flow between peripheral populations. A Mantel test indicated that there was no relationship between genetic and geographical distance of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  10. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora sojae isolates in Heilongjiang Province in China assessed by RAPD and EST-SSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. J.; Xu, P. F.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, W. G.; Zhang, S. Z.; Wei, L.

    Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and EST-SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationship among thirty-nine P.sojae isolates from three locations in Heilongjiang Province, and nine isolates from Ohio in America were made as reference strains. 10 of 50 RAPD primers and 5 of 33 EST-SSR were polymorphic across 48 P.sojae isolates. Similarity values among P.sojae isolates were from 49% to 82% based on the RAPD data. The similarities based on EST-SSR markers ranged from 47% to 85%. The genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR marker analysis was higher than that obtained from RAPD. The similarity matrices for the SSR data and the RAPD data were moderately correlated (r = 0.47). Genetic similarity coefficients were also relatively lower, which demonstrated complicated genetic background within each location. The high similarity values range revealed the ability of RAPD/EST-SSR markers to distinguish even among morphological similar phytophthora.

  11. [Bird species diversity and related protection measures in urban park green spaces of Loudi City, Hunan Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-de; Liu, Ping-yuan; Gong, Xun-sheng; Xiao, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    Urban park green space is an important physical part of urban ecosystem, and also, the important habitat and carrier for birds and other animals. Rapid urbanization induces the great change in the spatial pattern of urban park green space, while the patched distribution of urban park green space has the habitat features similar to 'habitat islands', giving obvious effects on urban avian communities. In order to understand the bird species distribution and species diversity in Loudi City and to provide the basic information for the bird conservation, a line transect method and a quadrat sampling method were adopted to investigate the distribution pattern and species richness of the birds across seven urban parks in the Loudi City from November, 2010 to January, 2012. A total of 56 birds species belonging to 11 orders and 27 families were recorded, among which, there were 32, 12 and 12 species belonging to resident birds, summer migrant birds and winter migrant birds, accounting for 57.2%, 21.4% and 21.4%, respectively. As for the fauna, there were 27, 14, and 15 bird species belonging to oriental species, palaearctic species and widely distributed species, accounting for 48.2%, 25.0% and 26.8%, respectively. A total of 7 species belonging to the second class of the national key protected species were recorded, accounting for 12.5% of the total. The Shannon, Pielou and G-F indices of the bird communities in the urban parks in Loudi City were 1.49, 0.85 and 0.62, respectively. Zhushan Park had the highest species number (42), Shannon index (1.41), G index (3.46), F index (6.12) and G-F index (0.43), and Yueqin Hill Park had the highest Pielou index (0.92). The reasons of the poor bird species in Loudi City were analyzed, and some suggestions for preventing the birds were put forward.

  12. The Power of Interactive Groups: How Diversity of Adults Volunteering in Classroom Groups Can Promote Inclusion and Success for Children of Vulnerable Minority Ethnic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited success of grouping students by attainment in enhancing educational achievement for all, this practice is still widely followed in European schools. Aiming at identifying successful educational actions that promote high academic achievement and social inclusion and cohesion, part of the EU-sponsored Europe-wide INCLUD-ED…

  13. The role of remnant trees in carbon sequestration, vegetation structure and tree diversity of early succession regrowing fallows in eastern Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; Lindsell, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Remnant tree presence affects forest recovery after slash-and-burn agriculture. However, little is known about its effect on above-ground carbon stocks, especially in Africa. We focused our study on Sierra Leone, part of the Upper Guinean forests, an important centre of endemism threatened...... by encroachment and forest degradation. We studied 99 (20-m-radius) plots aged 2-10 years with and without remnant trees and compared their above-ground carbon stocks, vegetation structure (stem density, basal area) and tree diversity. Above-ground carbon stocks, stem density, basal area, species richness...... and tree diversity increased significantly with fallow age. Remnant tree presence affected significantly tree diversity, species dominance and above-ground carbon stocks, but not vegetation structure (stem density, basal area). Number of remnant trees and number of species of remnant trees were also...

  14. A new armored archosauriform (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the marine Middle Triassic of China, with implications for the diverse life styles of archosauriforms prior to the diversification of Archosauria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhao, Li-jun; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Stocker, Michelle R.; Wang, Li-Ting

    2016-12-01

    Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases. Here, we introduce a new Middle Triassic (245-235 Ma) archosauriform, Litorosuchus somnii, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete skeleton from the Zhuganpo Member (Ladinian [241-235 Ma]) of the Falang Formation, Yunnan, China. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that Litorosuchus is a stem archosaur closely related to the aberrant Vancleavea just outside of Archosauria. The well-preserved skeleton of L. somnii bears a number of morphological characters consistent with other aquatic-adapted tetrapods including: a dorsally directed external naris, tall neural spines and elongate chevrons in an elongated tail, a short and broad scapula, webbed feet, long cervical vertebrae with long slender ribs, and an elongated rostrum with long and pointed teeth. Together these features represent one of the best-supported cases of a semi-aquatic mode of life for a stem archosaur. Together with Vancleavea campi, the discovery of L. somnii demonstrates a growing body of evidence that there was much more diversity in mode of life outside Archosauria. Furthermore, L. somnii helps interpret other possible character states consistent with a semi-aquatic mode of life for archosauriforms, including archosaurs.

  15. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the nematode parasite Baylisascaris schroederi from wild giant pandas in different mountain ranges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Xie, Yue; Zhang, Zhi-he; Wang, Cheng-dong; Sun, Yun; Gu, Xiao-bin; Wang, Shu-xian; Peng, Xue-rong; Yang, Guang-you

    2013-08-08

    Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most common nematodes of the giant panda, and can cause severe baylisascarosis in both wild and captive giant pandas. Previous studies of the giant pandas indicated that this population is genetically distinct, implying the presence of a new subspecies. Based on the co-evolution between the parasite and the host, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic differentiation in the B. schroederi population collected from giant pandas inhabiting different mountain ranges, and further to identify whether the evolution of this parasite correlates with the evolution of giant pandas. In this study, 48 B. schroederi were collected from 28 wild giant pandas inhabiting the Qinling, Minshan and Qionglai mountain ranges in China. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCytb) gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding population genetic diversity of the three mountain populations was determined. In addition, we discussed the evolutionary relationship between B. schroederi and its host giant panda. For the DNA dataset, insignificant Fst values and a significant, high level of gene flow were detected among the three mountain populations of B. schroederi, and high genetic variation within populations and a low genetic distance were observed. Both phylogenetic analyses and network mapping of the 16 haplotypes revealed a dispersed pattern and an absence of branches strictly corresponding to the three mountain range sampling sites. Neutrality tests and mismatch analysis indicated that B. schroederi experienced a population expansion in the past. Taken together, the dispersed haplotype map, extremely high gene flow among the three populations of B. schroederi, low genetic structure and rapid evolutionary rate suggest that the B. schroederi populations did not follow a pattern of isolation by distance, indicating the existence of physical connections before these populations became geographically separated.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, based on mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liqiang; Song, Chao; Wang, Minghua; Chen, Youming; Qin, Qin; Pan, Jianlin; Chen, Xiaohui

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 143 specimens sampled from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China; 151 polymorphic sites defined 72 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity indices (0.903-0.953) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00378-0.00970) demonstrated low genetic diversity of the yellow catfish populations in the five lakes. The analysis of molecular variance and the fixation index (F(st) = 0.0896) revealed insignificant genetic difference between samples from different lakes. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that yellow catfish might have undergone a population expansion. Neighbor-joining tree indicated a correlation between these population genetic differences and geographic distance. This study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the yellow catfish and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification, conservation, and artificial breeding.

  18. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Peacock, Joseph P; Huang, Qiuyuan; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenjun; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of

  19. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  20. Influence of Afforestation on the Species Diversity of the Soil Seed Bank and Understory Vegetation in the Hill-Gullied Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Jiao, Juying; Jia, Yanfeng; Wang, Dongli

    2017-10-24

    The Chinese Loess Plateau region has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Thus, large-scale afforestation has continued during the past decades in order to control soil erosion. Afforestation can dramatically alter nutrient cycles, affect soil-carbon storage, and change hydrology. However, it is unknown how afforestation influences species diversity of the soil seed bank and understory vegetation compared with spontaneous restoration of abandoned land. Forest land with trees planted 30 years ago, abandoned slope land restored spontaneously for 30 years, and the corresponding slopes with remnant natural vegetation were selected as sampling sites. The species richness both in the soil seed bank and vegetation was significantly higher on the afforested slope compared to the spontaneously restored abandoned land. The species similarity between the afforested slope and the remnant slope land was high both in the soil seed bank and standing vegetation compared to the abandoned land. The soil seed bank density varied from 1778 ± 187 to 3896 ± 221 seeds/m², and more than half of it was constituted by annual and biennial species, with no significant difference among sampling habitats. However, the afforested slope had higher seed density of grass and shrub/subshrubs compared to the abandoned slope. The present study indicates that in the study region, characterized by serious soil erosion, afforestation can better facilitate vegetation succession compared to spontaneously restoration of abandoned slope land.

  1. Can MHC-assortative partner choice promote offspring diversity? A new combination of MHC-dependent behaviours among sexes in a highly successful invasive mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pablo S C; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Sommer, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Sexual selection involving genetically disassortative mate choice is one of several evolutionary processes that can maintain or enhance population genetic variability. Examples of reproductive systems in which choosers (generally females) select mates depending on their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have been reported for several vertebrate species. Notably, the role of MHC-dependent choice not in mating contexts, but in other kinds of social interactions such as in the establishment of complex social systems, has not yet drawn significant scientific interest and is virtually absent from the literature. We have investigated male and female MHC-dependent choice in an invasive population of North American raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany. Both male and female raccoons rely on olfaction for individual recognition. Males have an unusually complex social system in which older individuals choose unrelated younger ones to form stable male coalitions that defend territories and a monopoly over females. We have confirmed that females perform MHC-disassortative mate choice and that this behaviour fosters genetic diversity of offspring. We have also observed that males build coalitions by choosing male partners depending on their MHC, but in an assortative manner. This is the first observation of antagonistic MHC-dependent behaviours among sexes. We show that this is the only combination of MHC-dependent partner choice that leads to outbreeding. In the case of introduced raccoons, such behaviours can act together to promote the invasive potential of the species by increasing its adaptive genetic divergence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Natural Selection in 42 kDa Region of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 from China-Myanmar Endemic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Tambo, Ernest; Su, Jing; Fang, Qiang; Ruan, Wei; Chen, Jun-Hu; Yin, Ming-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009-2012. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP142 has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP133. Our results also demonstrated that PvMSP142 of P. vivax isolates collected on China-Myanmar border areas display higher genetic polymorphisms than those collected from inland of China. Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P. vivax population and may be useful information towards China malaria elimination campaign strategies.

  3. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  4. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Scheib, Peter; Ko, Nayeong; Wirsching, Michael; Kuhnert, Andrea; Hick, Jie; Schüßler, Gerhard; Wu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Shen; Cat, Nguyen Huu; Vongphrachanh, Sisouk; Linh, Ngo Tich; Viet, Ngyuen Kim

    2012-08-29

    With the "ASIA-LINK" program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary for the topics of "breaking bad

  5. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary

  6. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  7. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  8. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. Methods A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. Results A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32 pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7% were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%, Dichlorvos (8.7%, and Dimethoate (8.1%. Conclusion The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  9. What Makes a Successful EFL Teacher in China? A Case Study of an English Language Teacher at Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the traits of a successful EFL teacher at a Chinese University by collecting qualitative data, including surveys with questionnaires and interviews, from Miss H and a group of her students and her colleagues. The purpose is to detect what special qualities she has and what other roles she undertakes in her teaching…

  10. Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L

    2012-09-01

    Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were…

  12. Enrichment of U-Se-Mo-Re-V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifeng; Seredin, Vladimir V.; Ward, Colin R.; Hower, James C.; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Song, Weijiao; Wang, Peipei

    2015-02-01

    We present multi-element data on the super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS; 5.19 % on average) coals of Late Permian age from Guiding, in Guizhou Province, China. The coals, formed on restricted carbonate platforms, are all highly enriched in S, U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and Cr, and, to a lesser extent, Ni and Cd. Although the Guiding coals were subjected to seawater influence, boron is very low and mainly occurs in tourmaline and mixed-layer illite/smectite. Uranium, Mo, and V in the coal are mainly associated with the organic matter. In addition, a small proportion of the U occurs in coffinite and brannerite. The major carrier of Se is pyrite rather than marcasite. Rhenium probably occurs in secondary sulfate and carbonate minerals. The U-bearing coal deposits have the following characteristics: the formation age is limited to Late Permian; concentrations of sulfur and rare metals (U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and in some cases, rare earth elements and Y) are highly elevated; the U-bearing coal beds are intercalated with marine carbonate rocks; organic sulfur and rare metals are uniformly distributed within the coal seams; and the combustion products (e.g., fly and bottom ash) derived from the coal deposits may have potential economic significance for rare metals: U, Se, Mo, Re, V, rare earth elements, and Y.

  13. Increased associated effects of topography and litter and soil nutrients on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass along vegetation successions in karst ecosystem, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fujing; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yueming; Liu, Shujuan; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-07

    Studying the influence of topography and litter and soil nutrients on soil enzymes and microbial biomass is important to the understanding of soil nutrient transformation and cycling, but these relationships in heterogeneous soils of karst ecosystem remains poorly understood. We determined environment factors influencing the urease (URS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) with advancing vegetation succession. The results showed that ALP increased but URS decreased with the advancing vegetation succession. The MBC and MBN were highest in shrubland, but both were lowest in grassland. The URS was positively correlated with the surface cover of rock outcrops (SRO) but negatively correlated with litter N, and soil available N and pH. Conversely, ALP was positively correlated with litter N, soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil available N and pH, but negatively correlated with soil total N. The MBC was positively related to litter quantities and SOC but negatively related to soil pH; the MBN was positively related to slope gradient (SLG), SOC, and soil total P and available P. Additionally, the trends of the index URS/MBN were grassland > secondary forest > shrubland > primary forest, but the index ALP/MBN increased with advancing vegetation succession. It indicated that soil microorganism mainly exudate extracellular URS and ALP to soils. We also found the interactions of topography (SLG and SRO), litter (nutrients and quantity), and soil (nutrients and pH) explained 42.00, 87.00, and 66.00% of the variations in URS, ALP, and microbial biomass, respectively. Path analysis showed that the topography had a directly positive effect on litter nutrients and quantities, but not on soil nutrients; the litter nutrients and quantities had direct positive effect on soil nutrients, which had direct effect on soil enzymes and microbial biomass; the relationships (R 2 ) between the independent variable and enzymes activities and

  14. Greater diversity of soil fungal communities and distinguishable seasonal variation in temperate deciduous forests compared with subtropical evergreen forests of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhong; Tedersoo, Leho; Hu, Ang; Han, Conghai; He, Dan; Wei, Hui; Jiao, Min; Anslan, Sten; Nie, Yanxia; Jia, Yongxia; Zhang, Gengxin; Yu, Guirui; Liu, Shirong; Shen, Weijun

    2017-07-01

    Whether and how seasonality of environmental variables impacts the spatial variability of soil fungal communities remain poorly understood. We assessed soil fungal diversity and community composition of five Chinese zonal forests along a latitudinal gradient spanning 23°N to 42°N in three seasons to address these questions. We found that soil fungal diversity increased linearly or parabolically with latitude. The seasonal variations in fungal diversity were more distinguishable in three temperate deciduous forests than in two subtropical evergreen forests. Soil fungal diversity was mainly correlated with edaphic factors such as pH and nutrient contents. Both latitude and its interactions with season also imposed significant impacts on soil fungal community composition (FCC), but the effects of latitude were stronger than those of season. Vegetational properties such as plant diversity and forest age were the dominant factors affecting FCC in the subtropical evergreen forests while edaphic properties were the dominant ones in the temperate deciduous forests. Our results indicate that latitudinal variation patterns of soil fungal diversity and FCC may differ among seasons. The stronger effect of latitude relative to that of season suggests a more important influence by the spatial than temporal heterogeneity in shaping soil fungal communities across zonal forests. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  16. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic micropollutants in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China: A case study of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Yang, Haohan; Dong, Huike; Ma, Binni; Sun, Hongwei; Pan, Ting; Jiang, Runren; Zhou, Ranran; Shen, Jie; Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua

    2018-04-12

    Water diversion has been increasingly applied to improve water quality in many water bodies. However, little is known regarding pollution by organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water diversion projects, especially at the supplier, and this pollution may threaten the quality of transferred water. In the present study, a total of 110 OMPs belonging to seven classes were investigated in water and sediment collected from a supplier of the Yangtze River within four water diversion projects. A total of 69 and 58 target OMPs were detected in water and sediment, respectively, at total concentrations reaching 1041.78 ng/L and 5942.24 ng/g dry weight (dw). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pharmaceuticals were the predominant pollutants identified. When preliminarily compared with the pollution in the receiving water, the Yangtze River generally exhibited mild OMPs pollution and good water quality parameters, implying a clean water source in the water diversion project. However, in Zongyang and Fenghuangjing, PAHs pollution was more abundant than that in the corresponding receiving water in Chaohu Lake. Ammonia nitrogen pollution in the Wangyu River was comparable to that in Taihu Lake. These findings imply that water diversion may threaten receiving waters in some cases. In addition, the risks of all detected pollutants in both water and sediment were assessed. PAHs in water, especially phenanthrene and high-molecular-weight PAHs, posed high risks to invertebrates, followed by the risks to fish and algae. Pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics and antidepressants, may also pose risks to algae and fish at a number of locations. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe OMPs pollution in water diversion projects, and the results provide a new perspective regarding the security of water diversion projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combating Ageism: How Successful Is Successful Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2016-12-01

    To explore the extent to which the successful aging discourse has accomplished Rowe and Kahn's (1998) goal of combating ageism by (a) eradicating the narrative of decline and burden, and highlighting the positive aspects of aging; and (b) emphasizing individuals' ability to age successfully. To investigate this, I first situate ageism in a framework of age relations. Using a qualitative approach, I analyze data generated from semistructured, in-depth interviews conducted among a diverse sample of 19 middle-aged men and women. Respondents were asked about what successful aging means to them, as well as their perceptions of their own aging, and old age. Respondents are familiar with the notion of successful aging, and they believe that they can and should achieve this. However, rather than easing ageism, they experience the mandate to age successfully as a source of tension as they simultaneously realize that it is outside their control. They express continued fears of aging; and they implicitly blame themselves or others who fail to age successfully. Their comments suggest that, rather than supplanting the discourse of decline, the successful aging narrative coexists with it. By not challenging the age relations that denigrate differences, the successful aging framework does not eliminate ageism and might even increase it. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  18. Investigation of genetic diversity and epidemiological characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolates from poultry in southwest China by population structure, multi-locus sequence typing and virulence-associated gene profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangcheng; Cheng, Fangjun; Lan, Shimei; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Luo, Zeli; Zhang, Manli; Wu, Juan; Shi, Yang

    2018-04-25

    Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida has always been a disease of global importance for poultry production. The aim of this study was to obtain more information about the epidemiology of avian P. multocida infection in southwest China and the genetic characteristics of clinical isolates. P. multocida isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. The distributions of the capsular serogroups, the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping and the presence of 19 virulence genes were investigated in 45 isolates of P. multocida that were associated with clinical disease in poultry. The genetic diversity of P. multocida strains was performed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that most (80.0%) of the P. multocida isolates in this study represented special P. multocida subspecies, and 71.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. 45 isolates belonged to capsular types: A (100%) and two LPS genotypes: L1 (95.6%) and L3 (4.4%). MLST revealed two new alleles (pmi77 and gdh57) and one new sequence type (ST342). ST129 types dominated in 45 P. multocida isolates. Isolates belonging to ST129 were with the genes ompH+plpB+ptfA+tonB, whereas ST342 included isolates with fur+hgbA+tonB genes. Population genetic analysis and the MLST results revealed that at least one new ST genotype was present in the avian P. multocida in China. These findings provide novel insights into the epidemiological characteristics of avian P. multocida isolates in southwest China.

  19. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  20. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sinibrama macrops from Ou River and Ling River based on mtDNA D-loop region analysis, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangjie; Chenoweth, Erica L; Liu, Qigen

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of human activities such as habitat fragmentation on freshwater fish population evolution, we investigated and compared the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Sinibrama macrops populations in the Oujiang River and Ling River. Mitochondrial control region sequences (D-loop region) of 131 specimens from six populations were obtained and analyzed. The diversity of main stream in the Ou River was lower than that in Ling River. Changtan population showed the lowest diversity (H = 0.646 ± 0.077; π = 0.00060 ± 0.00820). Pairwise F ST , gene flow (Nm), and genetic distance (Da) indicated that Longquan and Changtan significantly differentiate from other populations. Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) showed some clades and total cladogram experienced isolation by distance. In conclusion, the populations from severely fragmented Ou River have the lower diversity and more intense differentiation than that from the mainstream of Ling River, Changtan population present the lowest diversity and were isolated by the dam construction.

  1. Gunboat Diplomacy in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    support of Taiwan. 52 China’s aggressive, yet fractured , statements on the South China Sea may be a product of China’s diverse interests in the area. The...when operational, is meant to challenge the U.S. F-22 Raptor . As the DoD notes in its 2011 annual report on China, “In all areas, China is

  2. COPD and its association with smoking in the Mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of 0.5 million men and women from ten diverse areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2,3 Jenny Wang,1 Iona Y Millwood,1 Junshi Chen,4 Rory Collins,1 Yu Guo,2 Zheng Bian,2 Jiangtao Li,5 Biyun Chen,6 Kaixu Xie,7 Weifan Jia,8 Yali Gao,9 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group 1Nuffield Department of Population Health, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, 3Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, 4China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, 5NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Huixian CDC, Huixian, Henan, 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Tongxiang CDC, Zhejiang, 8NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuyang CDC, Baiyikengdao, Liuyang, Changsha, Hunan, 9NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Sichuan CDC, Sichuan, Mainland China Purpose: In adult Chinese men, smoking prevalence is high, but little is known about its association with chronic respiratory disease, which is still poorly diagnosed and managed. Methods: A nationwide study recruited 0.5 million men and women aged 30–79 years during 2004–2008 from ten geographically diverse areas across the Mainland China. Information was collected from each participant regarding smoking and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CB/E, along with measurement of lung function indices. Logistic regression was used to yield sex-specific odds ratios (ORs relating smoking to airflow obstruction (AFO, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC <0.7 and CB/E, adjusting for age, areas, education, and income. Results: Overall 74% of men were ever regular smokers; among them, 7.2% had AFO compared with 5.4% in never-smokers, yielding an OR of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34–1

  3. Efficiency of improved RAPD and ISSR markers in assessing genetic diversity and relationships in Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels varieties of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Mei

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: This study genetically characterized the Angelica species, which might have a significant contribution to the genetic and ecological conservation of this important medicinal plant. Also, this study indicates that the improved RAPD and ISSR analyses are important and potent molecular tools for the study of genetic diversity and authentication of organisms.

  4. Diversity and activity patterns of sympatric animals among four types of forest habitat in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehua; Wu, Pengfeng; Shao, Xiaoming; Songer, Melissa; Cai, Qiong; He, Xiangbo; Zhu, Yun

    2017-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to various habitats and may influence the diversity and activity patterns of wildlife among habitats. We used camera traps to assess wildlife habitat use in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve from 2009 to 2012. We focused on four types of habitat including open areas with gentle slope (wildlife migration passages (Type4). We analyzed the differences in species richness, relative abundance index (RAI), species diversity, and animals' activity pattern among habitats. Total six species were analyzed on activity pattern, which are Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), wild boar (Sus scrofa), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), and porcupine (Hystrix hodgsoni). The results are (1) that there were significant differences in richness and RAI t among habitats; (2) Type4 habitat had the highest richness and RAI t while Type2 had the highest species diversity; giant pandas were found in these two habitats; (3) there were significant differences in species' activity during daytime and nighttime; and (4) differences appeared in habitat preference of the most abundant species. Takin and tufted deer preferred Type1, Himalayan goral preferred Type2, and golden pheasant preferred Type3. Type4 habitat was used by most animals. All these revealed that habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in species diversity and the importance for conservation.

  5. Probing into the diversity of trypanosomatid flagellates parasitizing insect hosts in South-West China reveals both endemism and global dispersal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Maslov, D. A.; Yurchenko, V.; Jirků, Milan; Kment, P.; Lun, Z.-R.; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2010), s. 243-253 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : trypanosomatids * phylogeny * diversity * insects Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2010

  6. Field observed relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning during secondary succession in a tropical lowland rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wensheng; Zang, Runguo; Ding, Yi

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is one of the most concerned topics in ecology. However, most of the studies have been conducted in controlled experiments in grasslands, few observational field studies have been carried out in forests. In this paper, we report variations of species diversity, functional diversity and aboveground biomass (AGB) for woody plants (trees and shrubs) along a chronosequence of four successional stages (18-year-old fallow, 30-year-old fallow, 60-year-old fallow, and old-growth forest) in a tropical lowland rainforest recovered after shifting cultivation on Hainan Island, China. Fifty randomly selected sample plots of 20 m × 20 m were investigated in each of the four successional stages. Four functional traits (specific leaf area, wood density, maximum species height and leaf dry matter content) were measured for each woody plants species and the relationships between species/functional diversity and AGB during secondary succession were explored. The results showed that both plant diversity and AGB recovered gradually with the secondary succession. AGB was positively correlated with both species and functional diversity in each stage of succession. Consistent with many controlled experimental results in grasslands, our observational field study confirms that ecosystem functioning is closely related to biodiversity during secondary succession in species rich tropical forests.