WorldWideScience

Sample records for china current magnitude

  1. Environmental problems in the People`s Republic of China: Current magnitude and possible control options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadtti, N.; Biang, C.A.; Poch, L.A.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been undergoing rapid economic development over the past several decades. This development has taken place with little or no attention being paid to its environmental consequences. This situation has resulted in severe contamination of the air, water, and soil resources of China, with attendant damage to human and natural populations. This report determines the major causes of air, water, and soil pollution in China and assesses their extent and magnitude. It then examines the impacts of the pollutants on various components of the human and natural environment. It identifies possible regulatory and ameliorative options available to China to deal with these pollution problems and provides information on specific strategies and the costs associated with their implementation. The objective is to shed light on China`s pollution control and remediation requirements in the near future.

  2. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  3. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. PMID:20493245

  4. MAGNITUDE AND SEISMIC MOMENT SCALES IN WESTERN YUNNAN, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.; Li, Yizheng; Fischer, F.G.; Jin, Yafu

    1985-01-01

    Seismograms and accelerograms from 77 earthquakes in 1982 to 1984 near the northwest end of the Red River fault in western Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, have been used to calculate seismic moment, M//O, and local magnitude, M//L, using techniques established in California. For 1 1/2 APP 1STH M//L APP 1STH 3 1/2, log M//O equals 16. 97 plus (1. 17 plus or minus 0. 05)M//L, consistent with the log M//O minus M//L relation appropriate for central California. A comparison of these M//L values and the coda duration magnitudes M and S-wave amplitude magnitudes M assigned by the Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province suggests that M and M values are generally larger than the M//L values.

  5. Autonomous Method and System for Minimizing the Magnitude of Plasma Discharge Current Oscillations in a Hall Effect Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Pote, Bruce (Inventor); Rosenblad, Nathan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An autonomous method for minimizing the magnitude of plasma discharge current oscillations in a Hall effect plasma device includes iteratively measuring plasma discharge current oscillations of the plasma device and iteratively adjusting the magnet current delivered to the plasma device in response to measured plasma discharge current oscillations to reduce the magnitude of the plasma discharge current oscillations.

  6. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency. PMID:26709301

  7. Magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in the Tarim River basin, China: Changes, causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Sun, Peng; Chen, Xiaohong; Kong, Dongdong

    2016-04-01

    The flood magnitude, frequency and timing were analyzed using daily flow data for a period of 1950-2007 from 8 stations in the Tarim River basin, a typical arid inland river basin in China. The causes for flood occurrences were investigated using daily meteorological data. Results indicated that precipitation and temperature were increasing persistently since the 1980s and significant increases in precipitation and temperature were observed after the 1990s. As a result, floods amplified at annual and seasonal time scales in most tributary basins after the 1980s. The floods in the basin are mainly attributed to rainstorms and melting of glaciers and snowpack, and rainstorm-induced floods and temperature-induced floods were dominant in the basin. Extreme floods, such as the three largest recorded floods and floods with return periods > 10 years occurred mainly after the 1990s, with significant increase in flood-induced crop and livestock losses. It was found that heavy floods in many tributary basins often occurred about the same time. The Tarim River basin is a typical arid inland river basin in a high altitude zone and amplifying floods in recent decades, particularly after 1990s, is arousing considerable concern for mitigation of flood hazards. Results of this study shed light on hydrological response of arid regions to warming climate at higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere.

  8. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  9. Changes in river water temperature between 1980 and 2012 in Yongan watershed, eastern China: Magnitude, drivers and models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, D.; Hu, M.; Guo, Y.; Dahlgren, RA

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Climate warming is expected to have major impacts on river water quality, water column/hyporheic zone biogeochemistry and aquatic ecosystems. A quantitative understanding of spatio-temporal air (Ta) and water (Tw) temperature dynamics is required to guide river management and to facilitate adaptations to climate change. This study determined the magnitude, drivers and models for increasing Tw in three river segments of the Yongan watershed in eastern China. Over the 1980-...

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Perspectives on the Salience and Magnitude of Dam Impacts for Hydro Development Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Tullos

    2010-06-01

    Survey results indicate differences in the perceived salience and magnitude of impacts across both expert groups and dam scenarios. Furthermore, surveys indicate that stakeholder perceptions changed as the information provided regarding dam impacts became more specific, suggesting that stakeholder evaluation may be influenced by quality of information. Finally, qualitative comments from the survey reflect some of the challenges of interdisciplinary dam assessment, including cross-disciplinary cooperation, data standardisation and weighting, and the distribution and potential mitigation of impacts. Given the complexity of data and perceptions around dam impacts, decision-support tools that integrate the objective magnitude and perceived salience of impacts are required urgently.

  13. Early Holocene High Magnitude Debris Flow Events and Environmental Change as Illustrated by the Moxi Platform, Hengduan Mountains, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junyan; CHENG Genwei; LI Yongfei

    2006-01-01

    Thick debris flow deposits in the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China record landscape instability at the close of the last glaciation and in the early Holocene. The deposits, ranging in thickness from 100 to 200 m, are common and in high magnitude in the valleys of this region. They are products of large debris flows induced by glacier and enabled by the presence of large amount of glacial debris on the landscape. The carbon 14 dating from Moxi Platform indicates that a period of catastrophic debris flows occurred at c. 7 kyr B.P., and was concurrent with other glacial-fluvial fans and terraces which tied to regional climatic oscillations elsewhere in the Himalaya. The comparable events suggest a strong climatic control on earth surface processes for the dynamics, magnitude, and frequency in this region.

  14. Earthquake probabilities and magnitude distribution (M≥6.7) along the Haiyuan fault, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉洪流

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have studied the paleoearthquake along the Haiyuan fault and revealed a lot of paleoearthquake events. All available information allows more reliable analysis of earthquake recurrence interval and earthquake rupture patterns along the Haiyuan fault. Based on this paleoseismological information, the recurrence probability and magnitude distribution for M≥6.7 earthquakes in future 100 years along the Haiyuan fault can be obtained through weighted computation by using Poisson and Brownian passage time models and considering different rupture patterns. The result shows that the recurrence probability of MS≥6.7 earthquakes is about 0.035 in future 100 years along the Haiyuan fault.

  15. Improving Students' Ability to Intuitively Infer Resistance from Magnitude of Current and Potential Difference Information: A Functional Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseigne, Gerard; Giraudeau, Caroline; Lafon, Peggy; Mullet, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the knowledge of the functional relations between potential difference, magnitude of current, and resistance among seventh graders, ninth graders, 11th graders (in technical schools), and college students. It also tested the efficiency of a learning device named "functional learning" derived from cognitive psychology on the…

  16. Current status of radiology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Su Zeng; Kang Rong Zhou; Zhi Yong Zhang; Wei Jun Peng; Fu Hua Yang; Jiang Lin; Jun Yang; Xin Ye Han

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Radiology has been greatly advanced in China since its founding in 1949 and has been developed faster and further more since China adopted the policy of socioeconomic reform in 1978. It plays an increasingly important role in the medical health care and treatment in the country and has reached the world′s advanced level in certain fields. We now briefly review the history of China′s radiology so as to give a clear picture of its development.

  17. 10 Orders of Magnitude Current Measurement Digitisers for the CERN Beam Loss Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vigano, W; Dehning, B; Kwiatkowski, M; Venturini, G G; Zamantzas, C

    2014-01-01

    A wide range current digitizer card is needed for the acquisition module of the beam loss monitoring systems in the CERN Injector Complex. The fully differential frequency converter allows measuring positive and negative input currents with a resolution of 31nA in an integration window of 2μs. Increasing the integration window, the dynamic range covers 2•1010 were the upper part of the range is converted by measuring directly the voltage drop on a resistor. The key elements of this design are the fully differential integrator and the switches operated by an FPGA. The circuit is designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and reliability and failsafe operational considerations are main design goals. The circuit will be discussed in detail and lab and field measurements will be shown.

  18. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lin, Zheng; Qiu-lin LIU

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  19. Current situation and development of solar heating technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ruicheng

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced the current situation and development for solar heating technology including passive solar heat-ing and solar heating combisystems in China in this paper. Combined with the engineering application projects, the au-thor gave the technical and economic analysis of the passive solar and solar heating combisystems in China and summa-rized the developing obstacle and the spreading tactics for raising marketing of the solar heating in China.

  20. Current progress of China's free ART program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Jie; ZHANG; Jennifer; PAN; Lan; YU; Yi; WEN; Yan; ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    China's Free ART Program was initiated in 2002 as an emergency response to save and improve the lives of AIDS patients living mainly in impoverished rural regions of central China. With little experience in HIV/AIDS treatment and care and resource limitations, China's efforts to provide widespread access to free antiretroviral therapy has been a process fraught with difficulty. However, the Free ART Program is progressing from an emergency response to a standardized treatment and care system. The development of national guidelines, training programs, a laboratory support network, a national patient database, programs for special populations such as children and patients living with coinfections, and operational research has improved the scope and quality of the free treatment program. As of June 30,2005, a total of 19,456 patients in 28 provinces, autonomous regions, and special municipalities had received free ART.Challenges stemming from the nature of China's health system and patient population persist, but with strong government support and a diverse set of resources, China has the capacity to overcome these challenges and to provide nationwide access to high quality treatment and care.

  1. China's spent nuclear fuel management: Current practices and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although China's nuclear power industry is relatively young and the management of its spent nuclear fuel is not yet a concern, China's commitment to nuclear energy and its rapid pace of development require detailed analyses of its future spent fuel management policies. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy, and to suggest strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program. The study is broken into four sections. The first reviews China's current nuclear fuel cycle program and facilities. The second discusses China's current spent fuel management methods and the storage capability of China's 13 operational nuclear power plants. The third estimates China's total accumulated spent fuel, its required spent fuel storage from present day until 2035, when China expects its first commercialized fast neutron reactors to be operational, and its likely demand for uranium resources. The fourth examines several spent fuel management scenarios for the present period up until 2035; the financial cost and proliferation risk of each scenario is evaluated. The study concludes that China can and should maintain a reprocessing operation to meet its R and D activities before its fast reactor program is further developed. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy.→ This study suggests strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program.→ China will experience no pressure to lessen the burden of spent fuel storage in the next 30 years.→ China should maintain sufficient reprocessing operations to meet its demands for R and D activities.→ China should actively invest on R and D activities of both fuel cycling and fast reactor programs.

  2. Using Large Waveform Archives of Historical Seismic Events to Improve Relative Magnitude Estimates In and Near China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, D. P.; Richards, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    typical detection thresholds. Making measurements of the logarithm of the ratio of the L2 norms is shown to remove the bias due to degradation of waveform similarity for real data. The scatter of these measurements is also much less than those estimated in the catalog. Out of 14,025 events we have studied in and near China, 34% had over an order of magnitude reduction in the median standard deviation (0.0342 magnitude units) as compared to the estimated scatter in the catalog (0.3454 magnitude units). And 78% of the events show a factor 3 improvement or better as compared to the catalog for relative magnitudes measured as the ratio of the L2 norms. These results suggest that the logarithm of the ratio of the L2 norms is an appropriate measure of relative event size for analyzing general seismicity of a region where there are many pairs of neighboring events that have sufficient similarity, even though they are not co-located. The logarithm of the L2 ratio still shows significant improvement over the relative station magnitude for a large percentage of the events.

  3. Enhancing performance in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias U. Hauser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately process numerical magnitudes and solve mental arithmetic is of highest importance for schooling and professional career. Although impairments in these domains in disorders such as developmental dyscalculia (DD are highly detrimental, remediation is still sparse. In recent years, transcranial brain stimulation methods such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS have been suggested as a treatment for various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC is known to be crucially involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. In this study, we evaluated whether tDCS has a beneficial effect on numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Due to the unclear lateralization, we stimulated the left, right as well as both hemispheres simultaneously in two experiments. We found that left anodal tDCS significantly enhanced performance in a number comparison and a subtraction task, while bilateral and right anodal tDCS did not induce any improvements compared to sham. Our findings demonstrate that the left PPC is causally involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Furthermore, we show that these cognitive functions can be enhanced by means of tDCS. These findings encourage to further investigate the beneficial effect of tDCS in the domain of mathematics in healthy and impaired humans.

  4. Current Advanced Power Generation Technologies and Options for China (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China,electricity consumption keeps growing at a high speed and installed capacity will be doubled in the next fifteen years.As the world second CO2 producer and also a member of Kyoto Protocol,how to balance energy needs and environmental protection responsibility in the future is a serious problem for China.As such,there are a number of technology choices for today's electric power generation.After discussing the current advanced power generation technologies based on Chinese energy structure and current conditions of power industry,this paper gives a reference to the technology options for China in the future.

  5. Seismic properties of the Longmen Shan complex: Implications for the moment magnitude of the great 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai; Long, Changxing; Salisbury, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is the largest active tectonic event reported to date in Sichuan (China). We have experimentally calibrated, up to 800 MPa, seismic and elastic properties of 12 representative samples from the Longmen Shan complex in which this great earthquake took place and its coseismic ruptures nucleated and propagated. Most of the samples show little Vp or Vs anisotropy at pressures above the microcrack-closure pressure (Pc = 200-300 MPa), and so the variation of anisotropy with pressure provides important hints for the preferred orientation of microcracks in the nonlinear poroelastic regime below Pc. Geothermal and rheological profiles indicate that the focal depth (~ 19 km) corresponds to the base of the schizosphere, below which the Longmen Shan complex switches from the brittle to ductile behavior. The investigation reveals that the crust of the Longmen Shan range consists of 4 layers from the surface to the Moho: Layer 1: Vp forecast of earthquake hazards in the region. Furthermore, the study, which yields a moment magnitude of 7.9-8.0 given the variation in the dip of the coseismic ruptures and the uncertainty in the depth to which the coseismic rupture may propagate downwards below the depth of the mainshock hypocenter, presents the first accurate quantification of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake's size.

  6. Current status of acupuncture and moxibustion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Min Yee; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Baixiao; Ha, Lue

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion are more integrated in the Chinese healthcare system than in the national healthcare systems of other countries. Development of acupuncture and moxibustion in China is making progress in this field. For overseas researchers, this commentary offers perspectives on the current status of acupuncture and moxibustion in China and examines relevant opportunities and challenges in healthcare reforms. There has been a steady increase in the number of undergraduates and pos...

  7. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang ZHANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China’s future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China’s marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  8. Changes in river water temperature between 1980 and 2012 in Yongan watershed, eastern China: Magnitude, drivers and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming is expected to have major impacts on river water quality, water column/hyporheic zone biogeochemistry and aquatic ecosystems. A quantitative understanding of spatio-temporal air (Ta) and water (Tw) temperature dynamics is required to guide river management and to facilitate adaptations to climate change. This study determined the magnitude, drivers and models for increasing Tw in three river segments of the Yongan watershed in eastern China. Over the 1980-2012 period, Tw in the watershed increased by 0.029-0.046 °C yr-1 due to a ∼0.050 °C yr-1 increase of Ta and changes in local human activities (e.g., increasing developed land and population density and decreasing forest area). A standardized multiple regression model was developed for predicting annual Tw (R2 = 0.88-0.91) and identifying/partitioning the impact of the principal drivers on increasing Tw:Ta (76 ± 1%), local human activities (14 ± 2%), and water discharge (10 ± 1%). After normalizing water discharge, climate warming and local human activities were estimated to contribute 81-95% and 5-19% of the observed rising Tw, respectively. Models forecast a 0.32-1.76 °C increase in Tw by 2050 compared with the 2000-2012 baseline condition based on four future scenarios. Heterogeneity of warming rates existed across seasons and river segments, with the lower flow river and dry season demonstrating a more pronounced response to climate warming and human activities. Rising Tw due to changes in climate, local human activities and hydrology has a considerable potential to aggravate river water quality degradation and coastal water eutrophication in summer. Thus it should be carefully considered in developing watershed management strategies in response to climate change.

  9. Current Advanced Power Generation Technologies and Options for China (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Nubo; Mohsen Assadi; Yang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China,electricity consumption keeps growing at a high speed and installed capacity will be doubled in the next fifteen years.As the world second CO2 producer and also a member of Kyoto Protocol,how to balance energy needs arid environmental protection responsibility in the future is a serious problem for China.As such,there are a number of technology choices for today's electric power generation.After discussing the current advanced power generation technologies based on Chinese energy structure and current conditions of power industry,this paper gives a reference to the technology options for China in the future.Here published is the second part of the paper.

  10. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  11. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  12. Computer Informational Retrieval in China: Current Situation and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the background and the current situation of computer information retrieval systems in China. Problem areas considered include: (1) lack of coordination of activities; (2) lack of data on user demand; and (3) shortages of personnel in computer science, mathematics, and systems engineering. An agenda for the future is outlined. (MES)

  13. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  14. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  15. The Current Status of Physical Therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Jones; Margot A Skinner

    2013-01-01

    The current health system in China has evolved by embracing both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.China is the only country in the world where the number of doctors is larger than the number of nurses but education programmes for other health professions like physical therapy have been slow to develop.In the case of physical therapy it was not until China won the bid for the Olympic Games that permission to establish the first physical therapy programme was granted.Since then China has undergone a period of rapid economic growth enabling many people to have a higher standard of living and improved health,but at the same time the country is faced with massive urbanization,industrialization,increasing environmental health threats,increased health disparities and an aging population.With the support of the Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine,an increased investment by the Government in public health and rehabilitation and engagement of international education experts,entry-level education programmes for physical therapy have started to develop and there are now nine which are modeled,at least to some extent,on the World Confederation for Physical Therapy's international guidelines.The paper explores the development of physical therapy education in China and discusses possible options for the way forward so that as the demand for physical therapy to service 1.4 billion people grows,the profession is prepared and the standards expected of the entry-level physical therapist will not be compromised.

  16. The blink reflex magnitude is continuously adjusted according to both current and predicted stimulus position with respect to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Talbot, Kerwin; Camfferman, Danny; Moseley, G L; Iannetti, G D

    2016-08-01

    The magnitude of the hand-blink reflex (HBR), a subcortical defensive reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the median nerve, is increased when the stimulated hand is close to the face ('far-near effect'). This enhancement occurs through a cortico-bulbar facilitation of the polysynaptic medullary pathways subserving the reflex. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal characteristics of this facilitation, and its adjustment during voluntary movement of the stimulated hand. Given that individuals navigate in a fast changing environment, one would expect the cortico-bulbar modulation of this response to adjust rapidly, and as a function of the predicted spatial position of external threats. We observed two main results. First, the HBR modulation occurs without a temporal delay between when the hand has reached the stimulation position and when the stimulus happens (Experiments 1 and 2). Second, the voluntary movement of the hand interacts with the 'far-near effect': stimuli delivered when the hand is far from the face elicit an enhanced HBR if the hand is being moved towards the face, whereas stimuli delivered when the hand is near the face elicit an enhanced HBR regardless of the direction of the hand movement (Experiment 2). These results indicate that the top-down modulation of this subcortical defensive reflex occurs continuously, and takes into account both the current and the predicted position of potential threats with respect to the body. The continuous control of the excitability of subcortical reflex circuits ensures appropriate adjustment of defensive responses in a rapidly-changing sensory environment. PMID:27236372

  17. China's Current Real Estate Cycle and Potential Financial Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Zhang; Tao Sun

    2006-01-01

    The real estate cycle and financial stability are closely correlated. In light of global real estate bubbles, China's real estate cycle has attracted wide attention since 1998. The present paper analyzes three driving factors in the context of the current real estate cycle; namely,economic growth, macroeconomic environment and institutional establishment. Supported by econometric analysis using quarterly data from 1992-2004, the present paper indicates that real estate will develop steadily and that housing prices will consistently rise in the relative long run. Based on quantitative analysis, it is concluded that the implications of the current real estate cycle for financial stability include risks of real estate credit exposure,government guarantees and maturity mismatch. Some corresponding policy implications are discussed, such as advancing banking reform, encouraging the rational behavior of local governments and strengthening the regulation of foreign capital flows in and out of China's real estate industry.

  18. Research on current e-commerce of tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce in China has been accompanied by a similar development in tourism-based e-commerce. Taking the network as the medium, e-commerce has already become the new model for tourism transactions in the information age: By building one convenient bridge between tourism-based enterprises and tourists, can directly influence the profitability of enterprises. The paper will introduce the current development of tourism-based e-commerce websites, by firstly examining...

  19. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  20. Current situation and development of wind power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Nengsheng; NI Weidou

    2007-01-01

    The current development of wind power in China was presented in this paper.Many regions such as Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and southeast coastal region,etc.in China have abundant wind energy resource.At the same time,the utilization of wind power in China has been developing quickly and its prospect is promising in spite of many some obstacles.With the implementation of the Renewable Energy Law,some previous obstacles have been or are being eliminated.Much investment and many enterprises start to enter this field.In spite of this,there still exist some financial and technological obstacles.One of the technological obstacles is the stability of local power grid owing to the increasing proportion of the wind power capacity.Because the centralized development mode of wind power was adopted,the quick fluctuation of wind speed will influence the voltage and frequency stability of local power grid.In addition,large wind farm has little dispatching ability because of the uncontrollability,randomness and fluctuation of natural incoming wind.To erase these obstacles,a novel hybrid power system combining wind farm and small gas turbine power plants is discussed.

  1. Historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Ni; Yao, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in China is increasing. Detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. Questionnaires were conducted between December 2006 and May 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. Our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), 5 (5) false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), 94 (80) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 48 (30) Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 36 (32) beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 10 (10) pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 8 (8) Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), 2 (2) short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), 2 (2) Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 5 (0) baiji dolphins (Lipotes vexillifer). The number of cetaceans has increased markedly in the past 32 years, especially since 1995. Currently, 184 individuals are under human care throughout China, a number larger than any other country with an International Species Information System membership. In addition, the Annual Survival Rates of bottlenose dolphins (0.959) and beluga whales (0.968) were found higher than those reported previously (0.93-0.951 and 0.94-0.954, respectively). PMID:21674602

  2. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  3. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  4. Diagnostic analysis on the northern South China Sea winter counter-wind current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Bo; WANG Dongxiao

    2006-01-01

    The winter counter-wind current (also named the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC)) in the northern South China Sea (SCS)has been known well for decades, but its mass and momentum origination have not be quantitatively evaluated before. In this paper, the high resolution three-dimensional ocean circulation model is adopted to reproduce the circulation in the northern SCS. The diagnostic analyses are performed to investigate the momentum budget in the northern SCS continental shelf/slope and the momentum propulsion of the SCSWC. It is indicated that the across-shelf pressure gradient and the across-shelf transport are responsible for the formation of the SCSWC, while the along-shelf pressure gradient is balanced by the surface stress, bottom stress, and Coriolis force. The magnitude of the terms in the along-shelf momentum equation is smaller than that in the across-shelf one.The analysis on the momentum budget in the northern SCS will benefit the marine environmental prediction in the future.

  5. CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS IN FREEZE SHAFT SINKING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 翁家杰; 夏正明

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of the development of shaft sinking by artificial ground freezing since 1949 when new China was founded. Several shaft freezing schemes which have been successfully applied from the economic and safe viewpoints are presented. Current technology and some innovative techniques,especially the shah lining which have experienced major improvements over the last four decades,are briefly reviewed. The technique of the in-situ pour concrete incorporating ailica fume with higher early strength under low temperature curing conditions is described. The temperature field in shah freezing and its finite difference solution are given in this paper. A recently developed method combining freeze wall model test with back analysis technique based on numerical simulation is also described.

  6. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  7. On the Currents Magnitude of a Tunable Planar-Inverted-F Antenna for Low-Band Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    Tunable antennas are a promising way to overcome bandwidth limitations for the new communication standards. Nevertheless they become very lossy at low frequencies. This paper presents an investigation on the currents running through the source, the short and the capacitor of a tunable Planar Inve...

  8. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  9. The Dependency of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment on Magnitude Limits of Seismic Sources in the South China Sea and Adjoining Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zongchen; Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Peitao; Gao, Yi; Hou, Jingming; Shan, Di

    2016-08-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent small basins including Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea are commonly identified as tsunami-prone region by its historical records on seismicity and tsunamis. However, quantification of tsunami hazard in the SCS region remained an intractable issue due to highly complex tectonic setting and multiple seismic sources within and surrounding this area. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is performed in the present study to evaluate tsunami hazard in the SCS region based on a brief review on seismological and tsunami records. 5 regional and local potential tsunami sources are tentatively identified, and earthquake catalogs are generated using Monte Carlo simulation following the Tapered Gutenberg-Richter relationship for each zone. Considering a lack of consensus on magnitude upper bound on each seismic source, as well as its critical role in PTHA, the major concern of the present study is to define the upper and lower limits of tsunami hazard in the SCS region comprehensively by adopting different corner magnitudes that could be derived by multiple principles and approaches, including TGR regression of historical catalog, fault-length scaling, tectonic and seismic moment balance, and repetition of historical largest event. The results show that tsunami hazard in the SCS and adjoining basins is subject to large variations when adopting different corner magnitudes, with the upper bounds 2-6 times of the lower. The probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for specified return periods reveal much higher threat from Cotabato Trench and Sulawesi Trench in the Celebes Sea, whereas tsunami hazard received by the coasts of the SCS and Sulu Sea is relatively moderate, yet non-negligible. By combining empirical method with numerical study of historical tsunami events, the present PTHA results are tentatively validated. The correspondence lends confidence to our study. Considering the proximity of major sources to population-laden cities

  10. Gastric carcinoma in China: Current status and future perspectives (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in China, with an estimated 380,000 new cases each year, accounting for more than 40% of the worldwide annual cancer incidence. There is geographical clustering of the distribution of gastric cancer in China, with most of the high-risk areas being rural. D2 resection is the standard lymphadenectomy for curative resection in China, but more extensive lymphadenectomy is conducted for selected patients. Perioperative chemotherapy, po...

  11. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  12. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  13. China-Indian Silk Trade: Current Production and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Feng; Sun Shimin; Qiao Xianjuan

    2009-01-01

    As an important traditional labor-inteusive industry of both India and China, the cocoon silk industry has long made great contributions to the ecological environment protection, rural economic development and the increase in export income of both countries. India is not only a very important cocoon silk trading partner, but an important production competitor of China.In recent years, there has been a large increase in the production and trade of the cocoon silk between China and India; however,China relies heavily on Indian market, which leads to a tendency of further deterioration in the silk trade environment between both countries. The present article makes an empirical study of the cocoon silk resources of the two countries and the scale, product mix and market structure of China-Indian silk trade from 2001 to 2007. Overall silk trading volumes from China to India and market concentration rate are on the increase because of the superiority of Chinese cocoon silk production over that of India. Owing to scat-tered market share and export that mainly focused on raw materi-als product, there has been a phenomenon of price reduction and quantity increase. India carries out fierce competition with China in the international market and even imposes antidumping sanction on Chinese silk, which are key factors restricting further increase between China-India trade. Based on the abovementioned facts, the authors aim to put forward suggestions for steadily developing the production and trade of China's silk.

  14. Current Status and Future Development of Integrated Geophysical Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhanxiang

    2003-01-01

    The gap between China''s integrated geophysical technology and the world''s advanced technologies has been significantly narrowed as the result of developments in the last decade.The new technology has played a very important role in oil and gas exploration in China, especially for the purposes of targeting seismically opaque zones, decreasing exploration risk, and improving exploration efficiency in the western territories and complex areas in China. The current status and future development of non-seismic integrated geophysical teams in China is discussed.

  15. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  16. Current Situation of Preschool Immersion Programs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林蔚

    2014-01-01

    English Immersion programs in China have become a popular choice among parents for their children since the intro-duction of the Canadian model to the Chinese school system in 1997. English Immersion programs in China differ from tradition-al English instruction because in such programs content-based language programs are designed to immerse Chinese students in English and promote their communicative skills. From the perspective of Education and Applied Linguistics, this essay tries to study the idea and practice of English Immersion programs in China on preschool children in the perspective of the conception, theoretical foundation, foreseeable problems, etc., in order to make a thorough inquiry of their feasibility.

  17. Current status and progress of digital orthopaedics in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Xian Pei; Ya-Bo Yan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the development of digital medicine and digital anatomy, the concept of “digital orthopaedics” was raised by Pei Guo-Xian in China in 2006. The most striking feature of digital orthopaedics is the combination of basic and clinical orthopaedic knowledge with digital technology. In this review, we summarised the development of digital orthopaedics in China in recent years with respect to: the foundation of the Chinese Association of Digital Orthopedics, virtual human project (VHP), thr...

  18. Observed sub-inertial current variability and volume transport over the continental shelf in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wendong; Guo, Pu; Liu, Changjian; Fang, Guohong; Li, Shujiang

    2015-05-01

    Sub-inertial currents (SICs) over the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea (NSCS) are investigated using the in-situ current observations of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mooring arrays off the Pearl River Estuary in 2006 and 2007. The survey was carried out in four separate time periods: summer, winter, spring (before the onset of the southwesterly monsoon), and fall (after the establishment of the northeasterly monsoon). The observations showed that the current directions were generally along the shelf, consistent with the directions of monsoonal winds. The currents were also affected by a few of mesoscale eddy events. In summer 2006, the volume transport was northeastward with a mean magnitude of 1.4 Sv through a cross-shelf section from the site of the depth of 135 m to the coast; in winter 2006/2007, spring 2007 and fall 2007, the volume transports were all southwestward with magnitudes of 2.0, 2.1, and 0.9 Sv, respectively, through a cross-shelf section from the site of the depth of 290 m to the coast. The standard deviations of the SICs were generally smaller than the velocities of the mean currents, and the variability of SICs showed significant correlation with the local sea surface winds. No persistent counter-wind currents were observed in the study area during the fall and winter observational periods.

  19. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  20. Current status of electron beam treatment of flue gas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil resource especially coal will remain the main energy resource in China over the next 3 ∼4 decades. Pollution of flue gas from fossil power station is one problem being desiderated to solve since 1990's. Electron beam treatment of flue gas as an advanced technique has been developed and used by some institutes and industries in China. The current status of flue gas treatment using electron beam and the development of electron accelerator in China are reviewed. (author)

  1. A brief review on current progress in neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Min; WU BeiBei; LIU Ying

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience has been undergoing a rapid development in China since the beginning of the 21 st century.Chinese scientists are working on neuroscience and getting more and more important results.As described by Poo Mu-ming [1],the increasing funding support,the flood of returning overseas researchers and numerous international conferences held in China give birth to the springtime of neuroscience in China.The development of nervous system and neural cells The nervous system is a complex network of axonal projections and synaptic connections [2].At the early stage of neural development,besides generation of neurons and glial cells,synapse formation is the foundation of neuronal circuits and the basis of functions of nervous system including learning and memory.

  2. Current Status of Oil Distribution and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China has rich oil resources, yet relatively low-quality crude oil and difficulty in exploration and development limit the pace the oil industry will be. At present, the prospects of oil development are in a moderate mature stage, the increasing trend of high basic value in oil reserves pose a huge potential of oil exploration and development in China. The most proved reserves are distributed in big-and-middle-sized basins, and will be the main fields of undiscovered oil resources. In addition,though the degree of exploration in unconventional oil is low, its development with abundance resources will be as a significant complementary resource to conventional oil.

  3. Current state and recent developments of child psychiatry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi

    2015-01-01

    China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the c...

  4. Bibliometric Analysis of Current Web Survey Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; SHAO Peiji; FANG Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with the advancement of information technology and its application in survey activities, web surveys have not only greatly developed, but have also encountered many problems in China. An analysis of domestic research is important for better understanding of web surveys, to guide further research and application. This paper gives a bibliometric analysis of 120 domestic articles on web surveys from 1998 to 2006, on publication growth, author and organization distribution, journal distribution, and research subjects. Research on web surveys in China should make progress comparable with research abroad in comparative studies, specific studies, and technical application studies.

  5. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work. PMID:26931045

  6. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  7. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed. PMID:25218237

  9. Approaches to China's Current Maritime Disputes%Approaches to China's Current Maritime Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2012-01-01

    China is one of the largest Asian countries, sharing land borders with 14 countries and sea borders with 6 countries. It has a 22,000-kilometer land border, an 18,000-kilometer mainland coastline and a 14,000-kiolmeter island coastline. Maritime frontiers have a great impact on the national security of China and its relations with neighboring countries.

  10. The current state of public health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liming

    2004-01-01

    In the past 50 years, China has made great achievements in controlling infectious diseases and improving the public's health and hygiene. However, in the twenty-first century, owing to the negative effects brought on by aging of the population and the burdens of diseases, urbanization, industrialization, and globalization, Chinese public health officials are encountering greater difficulties than ever. Old operating models of public health cannot meet present requirements. The main problems are poor capacity to respond to public health emergencies, severe inequality of health care services, and lagging development of public health information systems. Public health in China can gradually meet the requirements of social development and the increasing public demand for health care services only when the public health is directed by informatization, globalization, technification, and humanization. PMID:15015923

  11. Current status and perspective of percutaneous coronary intervention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in China was performed in 1984. Since then the progresses in this field have been achieved gradually. The development process can be divided into 3 phases roughly. According to a national survey organized by Chinese Society of Cardiology,1-3 from 1984 to 1996, as the first phase, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can only be performed in a few centers by a few cardiologists.

  12. The Current State of China's Freshwater Resources and Related Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ruijin

    2001-01-01

    China has many lakes, marshlands and rivers. Due to their uneven geographical distribution and varied degrees of salinity, their exploitable freshwater resources are limited. In the wake of the highspeed growth of national economy in recent years, human infringement upon their natural settings has been increasingly intense, leading to the degeneration of China's lacustrine ecosystems and the degradation of their surrounding environments. Lakes are shrinking and becoming more saline. In arid and semi-arid inland areas, some of them have even disappeared. In addition, lake water pollution and eutrophication in densely populated areas are getting worse, resulting in serious water shortages in some places. Silt deposition in lake basins, water surface shrinkage caused by hectic and irrational reclamation for farmland, the prevalence of flooding and water-logging calamities and ecosystem depletion caused by predatory exploitation of fishery resources, all of these have become restrictive factors in regional sustainable development. The author of this article suggests measures for the protection and sustainable exploitation of limnetic settings in China.

  13. Gastric carcinoma in China: Current status and future perspectives (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIAODONG; LI, JIN

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in China, with an estimated 380,000 new cases each year, accounting for more than 40% of the worldwide annual cancer incidence. There is geographical clustering of the distribution of gastric cancer in China, with most of the high-risk areas being rural. D2 resection is the standard lymphadenectomy for curative resection in China, but more extensive lymphadenectomy is conducted for selected patients. Perioperative chemotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can be combined with surgery. It remains uncertain which option is best, but if surgery is insufficient, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. In the palliative setting, although there is no standard first-line chemotherapy, regimens based on taxane, oxaliplatin or capecitabine, or the epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil regimen and its modifications are the most common options selected by Chinese oncologists. Several studies to evaluate target therapy are ongoing, but it is too early to draw any conclusions. However, the development of target therapy is likely to become a milestone in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:22966316

  14. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  15. Current trends in China's coal mining industry; Aktuelle Entwicklungen im Steinkohlebergbau Chinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlich, B.J. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    It's not only its role as a coal producer which makes China to the subject of talks everywhere. China has a high economic growth despite of the global economical crisis and SARS. China shows highest scientific and technical performance, e.g. with the space flight of the first Chinese astronaut. The Transrapid is running in Shanghai, in 2003 Volkswagen has sold more cars in China than in Germany and, statistically, 2,5 Chinese share one cell phone, i.e. presently there are 500 million cell phones in China, tendency increasing. Observing the developments in Beijing or even better in Shanghai, Shenzen, Guoangou (Kanton) gives you a feeling for dynamics and economic growth which we have been missing in Germany for a long time. This national economy has been growing rapidly thus increasing also the hunger for energy. To feed this hunger is one of the main tasks of the Chinese central government; this is the only way to maintain the economic growth in the future. The economic growth is needed urgently if the changes in economy are to be implemented by the WTO and globalisation of the markets. China needs an economic growth rate of 8% in order to create new jobs needed to make for the ones breaking away in the old, government-controlled enterprises due to the new orientation in its industry. As mentioned before: energy and especially hard coal are key and engine of this development. [German] China ist nicht nur als Kohleproduzent derzeit in aller Munde. Es verfuegt ueber ein hohes Wirtschaftswachstum, trotz globaler Wirtschaftskrise und SARS. China zeigt wissenschaftlich/technische Hoechstleistung, beispielsweise mit dem Flug des 1. chinesischen Astronauten ins All. Der Transrapid faehrt in Shanghai, VW verkaufte 2003 mehr Autos in China als in Deutschland und 2,5 Chinesen teilen sich statistisch ein Mobiltelefon - es gibt also derzeit ca. 500 Mio. Mobiltelefone allein in China, Tendenz weiter steigend. Beobachtet man die Entwicklung Pekings oder noch besser die von

  16. Insecticide cytotoxicology in China: Current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guohua; Cui, Gaofeng; Yi, Xin; Sun, Ranran; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide cytotoxicology, as a new branch of toxicology, has rapidly developed in China. During the past twenty years, thousands of investigations have sprung up to evaluate the damages and clarify the mechanisms of insecticidal chemical substances to insect cells in vivo or in vitro. The mechanisms of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy induced by synthetic or biogenic pesticides and virus infections have been systematically illuminated in many important models, including S2, BmN, SL-1, Sf21 and Sf9 cell lines. In addition, a variety of methods have also been applied to examine the effects of insecticides and elaborate the modes of action. As a result, many vital factors and pathways, such as cytochrome c, the Bcl-2 family and caspases, in mitochondrial signaling pathways, intracellular free calcium and lysosome signal pathways have been illuminated and drawn much attention. Benefiting from the application of insecticide cytotoxicology, natural products purifications, biological activities assessments of synthetic compounds and high throughput screening models have been accelerated in China. However, many questions remained, and there exist great challenges, especially in theory system, evaluation criterion, evaluation model, relationship between activity in vitro and effectiveness in vivo, and the toxicological mechanism. Fortunately, the generation of "omics" could bring opportunities for the development of insecticide cytotoxicology. PMID:27521907

  17. Policy Risk of Current Bank Bailouts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianxinZhao

    2004-01-01

    China's banking risk is mainly driven by "moral hazard", the inherent deficiency of state ownership. The ongoing reform strategy for state-owned banks, adopted by the government, mainly aims at this target, but fails to take a correct path. Since the government still holds the controlling right of the banks, there is no evidence to show that recapitalization and initial public offering (IPO) will lead to sound practices for banking governance. Furthermore, in order to accelerate the recapitalization process, the reformers have injected a large amount of foreign exchange reserves into the state-owned banks, which consequently expands money supply and will lead to instability of future economic growth. Our conclusion is that there is a latent banking risk. China's banking reform should be in line with the external environment and the overall economic reform process, and the reformers should always keep in mind that sustainability of future economic growth is the ultimate means by which banking risk can be cushioned and absorbed.

  18. Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

  19. Current status of spent fuel management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administration organization and the laws and regulations on spent fuel management in China are described at first. In the year of 2000, CNN C and GNPJVC signed a contract of take-over mode for spent fuel, in which CNNC will take-over the spent fuel annually since 2003. In the year of 2001, CNNC and QNPC signed another contract of take-over mode for spent fuel. Transportation by road is the realistic selections of the transportation of the spent fuel from the nuclear power stations to LNFC. As for spent fuel management, the construction of CNNC's reprocessing pilot plant is going on and R and D of spent fuel management are launching continuously. (author)

  20. Study on Difficulties and Development Directions of Current Human Resource Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Faping He

    2009-01-01

    With the implementing of Labor Contract Law of the PRC in 2008, the development of China human resource management will face very austere challenge and encounter unexpected difficulties. The human resource management of China is developed under the backgrounds without the pressure of labor union and legal restriction, which makes enterprises adopt the single and employer-oriented development mode of the human resource management and rarely consider employees’ benefits. The current human resou...

  1. The Current and Potential Production of Forest Biomass for Energy in Europe, Russia, and China

    OpenAIRE

    Schopfhauser, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this analysis, the forest biomass utilization and the potential for energy production for Western and Eastern Europe, Russia and China has been estimated. Western and Eastern Europe are assessed on a country level and Russia and China as regions. Current trends and developments of forest resources characterize their ability to produce forest biomass for energy production. Europe is characterized by a slowly increasing forest land area, underutilization of the forest resource, and increased...

  2. Research on the Vegetable Trade Current Situation and Its Trade Competitiveness in China

    OpenAIRE

    LI Shasha

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper analyzed the Current situation and status of China in the world vegetable trade, measured and analyzed main export varieties of vegetables trade competitiveness in China by using international market share(IMS) and trade competitiveness index(TCI). The conclusion is that: China’s vegetable export scale expands gradually, frozen vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, and dried vegetables have significant comparative advantages and hold high stability in the int...

  3. Current status and development of traumatic brain injury treatments in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiyun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Due to its high incidence,high disability rate,and high mortality rate,traumatic brain injury (TBI) poses a serious threat to human health.This manuscript describes the urgent problems currently existing in China's TBI treatment and proposes a scheme of a nationwide collaboration platform for the treatment of TBI so as to improve the overall level of TBI treatment in China,and reduce disability and mortality rates in TBI patients.

  4. Study on the Current Capital Management of China Modern Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lijie Sha; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    The current capital management of the enterprise mainly includes cash management, accounts receivable management and inventory management. The following methods should be selected to strengthen the current capital management of modern enterprises, which includes reasonably allocating capitals, really enhancing the cash using efficiency, strengthening the accounts receivable management, revitalizing the capital turnover, emphasizing the inventory management and striving for the unification of ...

  5. Study on the Current Capital Management of China Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Sha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The current capital management of the enterprise mainly includes cash management, accounts receivable management and inventory management. The following methods should be selected to strengthen the current capital management of modern enterprises, which includes reasonably allocating capitals, really enhancing the cash using efficiency, strengthening the accounts receivable management, revitalizing the capital turnover, emphasizing the inventory management and striving for the unification of the inventory cost and the inventory benefit.

  6. Evidence for a counter-wind current in winter off the southeast coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bingxian

    1986-12-01

    Regarding the current pattern in winter in the near-sea region of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong (including the western and central parts of the Taiwan Strait), oceanographers both at home and abroad had considered unanimously that under the intense influence of the northerly monsoon, the current (not only at the surface but also in the deep and near-bottom layers) flows southwestward with the wind. It was not until the end of the fifties that scientists began to question such a traditional concept. In this paper, based on the results of more than 20 years’ studies on the current patterns of the East China and South China Seas, all kinds of current data available are reanalysed comprehensively. These data include: 1) current measurements at day-night anchored stations, and with mooring buoys, collected mostly from 1959 to 1982 by many Chinese oceanographic and fisheries organizations; 2) current vectors derived from the ship-drift of Japanese naval vessels in the period from 1910 to 1921; and 3) geostrophic current velocities deduced from hydrographic observations in the periods of the CSK and 1975 1976 conducted by the Fisheries Research Station, Hong Kong, and the SOA. A combination of all the evidences revealed in the above data suggests and confirms that, besides the China Coastal Current flowing southwestward at a shallow layer of a zone closely adjacent to the coast, there also exists a northeastward counter-wind current in winter off the southeast coast of China (though its surface current may be weakened or even covered up by the drift current when the northerly monsoon strengthens). Furthermore, the two parts of the winter counter-wind current in the South China Sea and the East China Sea are connected through the Taiwan Strait. This suggestion now has been confirmed by the recent observations in the Taiwan Strait, i.e., 1) with sea-bed drifters released in 1984 (Zhang, 1985) and 2) with current meter moorings deployed in 1983 (Chuang, 1985). It is

  7. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  8. Current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShaoHong Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harboring rich marine species and playing important ecological functions, coral reef ecosystems have attracted widespread concern around the world. Ecosystem diversity, conservation and management of coral reefs are becoming a hot research area. Coral reefs in China are mainly distributed in the South China Sea and Hainan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guangdong, and Guangxi coastal waters. In recent years, due to the global climate change and the growing impact of human activities, coral reef biodiversity in China have been reducing and the ecological functions of coral reef ecosystems are severely degenerating. In this paper we summarized the current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China. Some progress in coral reef research was discussed.

  9. China & India - Analysing The Current & Anticipating the Future Asian Security Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ølgaard, Daniel Møller; Gill, Tina S.L.; Sousa, David; Löchte, Ida; Wasiq, Mujeeb; Maximillian, Lukas Müller

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates the positions of India and China in the context of the Asian region. Our focus on these two states owes to their currently increasing relevance as economies and powers. In order to analyse them in their regional context, we apply the Regional Security Complex Theory by Barry Buzan and seek to answer two questions: By focusing on China and India, what is the current security structure of the Asian regional security complex (RSC)? And based on this, what is the most li...

  10. Effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the WAVEWATCH-III model to quantify the effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East-China-Sea (ECS). Typhoons Jelawat and Saomai in the autumn of 2000 are hindcasted. The oceanic currents in the ECS are mainly constituted of Kuroshio and typhoon-generated currents. The results show distinguishable differences in wave height and wave period under the typhoon conditions. The oceanic current causes the maximum differences, of up to a 0.5 m significant wave height and a 1 s mean wave period. Comparisons between typhoons Jelawat and Saomai show the dependence of the current effect on the typhoon characteristics

  11. How China's Leaders Think The Inside Story of China's Past, Current and Future Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Robert Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    How China’s next generation of leaders think and what that means for its future China will soon undergo a complete change of senior leaders and this book covers that new generation’s background and ideas based on personal interviews with member of China’s ruling party. It covers the future of state media, culture, the press, religion, science and technology, healthcare, agricultural, and economic and financial issues. For anyone who wants to understand China’s future, this book offers valuable insight.

  12. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. PMID:20137912

  13. [Current status in rehabilitation of burn injury in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyu, Jia; Xiaofang, Zou

    2015-06-01

    Along with the advance in national economy, modern concept of burn rehabilitation from major burn injury implies that measures should be taken to help the patients return to society with dignity. This article briefly reviews the development and achievement of burn rehabilitation in our country, as well as the current difficulties in carrying out rehabilitation measures such as outmoded ideology, lack of trained personnel, low rat of popularization, outdated techniques and methodology, and relatively low level in scientific research, etc. The future development of burn rehabilitation in our country needs more social support, popular attention, and multidisciplinary joint efforts to help burn patients return to society with dignity. In order to fulfill this goal, we still have a long way to go. PMID:26564559

  14. Higher Education Research as a Field in China: Its Formation and Current Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Ye; Hu, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the field of higher education research in China from its historical roots through to its current development. It is a case study of how the field of higher education research emerged and was co-constructed by the state and the academic community of higher education researchers to become an established and recognised discipline…

  15. New features in current information work of nuclear power of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, China is accelerating the nuclear power construction and developing nuclear energy research. China has possessed the ability to independently develop nuclear power. So, Scientific and technological work and information work in the field of nuclear power of China show new features. Based on the new features of nuclear power development, related information work is also developing further and extending in a wide range. Collection and construction of nuclear power information resources and service modes change. Based on the demands of users resource and service modes changes based on the demands of users, information workers should provide an active service by fully using various advanced information techniques, and quickly and accurately deliver the required information to the user, which is the direction of the information services. (author)

  16. Vehicle-use intensity in China: Current status and future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle-use intensity (kilometers traveled per vehicle per year or VKT) is important because it directly affects simulation results for vehicle fuel use and emissions, but the poor understanding of VKT in China could significantly affect the accuracy of estimation of total fuel use and CO2 emissions, and thus impair precise evaluation of the effects of associated energy and environmental policies. As an important component of our work on the Fuel Economy and Environmental Impacts (FEEI) model, we collected VKT survey data in China from available sources and conducted additional surveys during 2004 and 2010, from which we derived VKT values and VKT-age functions by vehicle type for China. We also projected the future VKT for China by examining the relationship of vehicle use to per-capita GDP in 20 other countries worldwide. The purpose of this work is to achieve a better understanding of vehicle-use intensity in China and to generate reliable VKT input (current and future VKT levels) for the FEEI model. The VKT results obtained from this work could also benefit other work in the field associated with vehicle energy use and emissions. - Highlights: ► VKT is key in estimating fuel use and emissions, but its knowledge is poor in China. ► We determined VKT in China from available survey data and the surveys we conducted. ► VKT-age functions by vehicle type were derived from the surveys we conducted. ► Future VKT was projected based on vehicle use to per-capita GDP in 20 countries.

  17. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  18. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  19. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  20. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Bo Wang; Hai-Tao Yu; Quan-Fu Sun

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is sugges...

  1. Past, current and future water footprints, water scarcity and virtual water flows in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, La

    2016-01-01

    The increasing water consumption as a result of population growth and economic development, especially in fast growing developing countries, puts an increasing strain on the sustainable use of the globe’s finite freshwater resources and poses a key challenge for the future. The objective of the thesis is to evaluate past, current and future water footprints (WFs), water scarcity and virtual water (VW) flows at both river basin and national level in China, focusing on the agricultural sector, ...

  2. Current status of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a central teaching hospital in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianming; Song, Yan; Zhu, Yuanjun; Du, Xin; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Background To control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals, infection control measures such as hand hygiene practices were introduced into the teaching hospitals in Shanghai, China, in 2008. Currently, there is limited information characterizing the latest hospital-acquired S. aureus infections in this area. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and genotype-phenotype correlation of hospital-acquired S. aureus inf...

  3. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  4. Effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Hong; He Hai-Lun; Liu Xiao-Hui; Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    We use the WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ model to quantify the effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East-China-Sea (ECS).Typhoons Jelawat and Saomai in the autumn of 2000 are hindcasted.The oceanic currents in the ECS are mainly constituted of Kuroshio and typhoon-generated currents.The results show distinguishable differences in wave height and wave period under the typhoon conditions.The oceanic current causes the maximum differences,of up to a 0.5 m significant wave height and a 1 s mean wave period.Comparisons between typhoons Jelawat and Saomai show the dependence of the current effect on the typhoon characteristics.

  5. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China. PMID:25836664

  6. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Båth

    2010-01-01

    Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m) and surface-wave magnitudes (M) are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave ...

  7. Computation of Wave, Tide and Wind Current for the South China Sea Under Tropical Cyclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱良生; 宋运法; 邱章; 陈秀华; 麦波强; 丘耀文; 宋丽莉

    2003-01-01

    Based on the third-generation oceanic wave prediction model (WAVEWATCH Ⅲ),the third-generation nearshore wave calculation model (SWAN) and the mathematical tide, tidal current and cyclone current model, which have been improved, interconnected and expanded, a coupled model of offshore wave, tide and sea current under tropical cyclone surges in the South China Sea has been established. The coupled model is driven by the tropical cyclone field containing the background wind field. In order to test the hindcasting effect of the mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the calculated results and the observational results of waves of 15 cyclone cases, water levels and current velocities of the of 7 cyclones. The results of verification indicate that the calculated and observed results are basically identical.

  8. Current status and future prospects of the development of clinical Pharmacy in China: A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongyu; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    In many industrialized countries, clinical pharmacy has developed into a separate discipline and become a vital part of inpatient care in hospitals. However, as compared to many established branches of medicine, clinical pharmacy is still in its infancy, with much room for growth, improvement, and recognition by both the medical community and patients. In this study, a widely-recognized development strategy analysis tool, Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), was used to systematically address several key issues to the development of clinical pharmacy in China. This analysis aims to provide feasible recommendations for the development of clinical pharmacy in China by identifying current problems and growth opportunities. Full development of clinical pharmacy as a mature clinical discipline will help promote the rational use of drugs by both clinicians and patients and lead to enhanced drug efficacy and safety. PMID:27087089

  9. Current epidemiological profile and features of visceral leishmaniasis in people's republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is still an important public health problem in China. In recent years endemic regions spread, prevalence increased, and even an outbreak of the disease occurred in China due to global warming and population movement. It is essential to elucidate the current epidemic situation and epidemiological characteristics of VL for designing control policy. In the present study we describe the current epidemiological profile and characteristics of VL in China based on retrospectively reviewing of VL cases reported between 2005 and 2010 by a passive surveillance system. Methods The present study was a retrospective review of VL cases notified between 2005 and 2010 based on the passive surveillance data. The data were tabulated, diagrammatized and analyzed through descriptive statistics in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Results A total of 2450 VL cases were notified, with a mean of 408 cases per year. 61 counties were identified as endemic area with 2224 autochthonous cases, and the other 118 counties as non-endemic areas with 226 imported cases. 97.71% of cases were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. 9 major counties reported a mean of > 10 cases per year, with a total of 1759 cases reported. Different types of VL revealed distinct epidemiological characteristics. Conclusions The number of VL cases and endemic counties both increased in the period 2005-2010 in China. Different type or sub-type of VL revealed distinct epidemiological characteristics. Therefore, differential control measures must be taken in different endemic areas against incidence increase and endemic area spread.

  10. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. PMID:22691204

  11. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  12. Current status and prospects of ex situ cultivation and conservation of plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper summarizes the history of plant introduction and acclimatization in China, and reviews the current status and progress of plant ex situ conservation. Overall, a total of 23,340 species belonging to 3,633 genera, and 396 families are maintained in botanical gardens, whereas 412,000 accessions of 1,890 crop or crop relatives species are preserved in Chinese national crop germplasm banks and 54,000 accessions of 7,271 wild plants in Chinese germplasm bank of wild species. The paper also discussed problems and challenges in plant ex situ conservation and outlooked further development in future: (1 initiation of “Ex situ Cultivated Flora of China project”; (2 development of integrating research of ex situ and in situ plant conservation; (3 enhancing research in ex situ conservation theory and methodology for endemic plants of China; (4 facilitating restoration and recovery of rare and endangered plants into wild on basis of ex situ conservation; and (5 strengthening evaluation and utilization of economic important plants.

  13. Current Status and Perspective Development of Broomcorn Millet Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper analyzed present status of broomcorn millet produc- tion in China, including cultivation methods, fertilization utilization, diseases, insect pests and disasters, machinery development, planting benefit and other aspects. [Method] The corn millet data reported by China Industrial and Technological Re- search System of Millet in 2011 were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis of EXCEL. [Result] The results show that 17 678.57 kg/ha of farm manure, 155.77 kg/ha of urea, 259.5 kg/ha of compound fertilizer, 203.13 kg/ha of phosphate fertilizer and 75 kg/ha of potash fertilizer were used in China; the national mechanization degree of broomcorn millet production is lower than 30% in all; the average income of broomcorn millet production is 10 503.33 yuan/ha, and the VCR is 2.64; most broomcorn millet producing areas are affected by mild pests and diseases, very few are affected by mild and moderate pests and diseases, and the impact of natural disasters is the lightest. [~onclusien] Currently fertilizer utilization for broomcorn millet is proper but the mechanization level and planting benefit are low, natural disasters, pests and diseases are not severe; finally the authors proposed some suggestions on the fertilizer utilization, mechanization production, benefit increasing, disaster warning, disease and insect controlling and government policy-making for broomcorn millet production.

  14. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  15. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  16. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Båth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m and surface-wave magnitudes (M are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave magnitudes from broad-band and narrow-band short-period seismographs are compared and relations deduced. Applications are made both to underground nuclear explosions and to earthquakes. The possibilities of explosion-earthquake discrimination on the basis of magnitudes are examined, as well as the determination of explosive yield from magnitudes. For earthquakes, relations between magnitudes of main earthquakes and largest aftershocks are investigated. A world-wide station network for more homogeneous magnitude determinations is suggested in order to provide the necessary reference system.

  17. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport...... in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  18. Current Situation,Problems and Countermeasures of World Heritage Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The development of World Heritage protection in China can be characterized by four facts,which are the increasing number,the domination of cultural heritages,the uneven spatial distribution,and the abundant candidate reserve for nomination.Currently,the problems of the dislocation of understanding,the absence of planning,the disorder of management,the lack of relevant institutions still exist in the field of World Heritage protection,aiming at which,the author puts forward some countermeasures,such as completing legislation system,carrying out scientific planning,implementing hierarchical and assorted administration,strengthening supervision,increasing investments,and enhancing propaganda and education.

  19. Ecotourism in nature reserves in China: current situation,problems and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ju-chun; ZHENG Jing-ming

    2008-01-01

    Our presentation focuses on some important issues associated with ecotourism in nature reserves in mainland China. Conducting ecotourism in certain areas in nature reserves is important for its protection. However, some problems do exist because of special conditions in our society and in the current projects of nature reserves themselves, such as water and air pollution, unplanned construction of roads and facilities, damage of core zones and buffer zones, and confused ownership of nature reserves. These problems are discussed and solutions are proposed in detail, and we emphasize the participation of local communities in order to help residents fight against poverty.

  20. Deep water bottom current deposition in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Lei; LI XueJie; GENG JianHua; PANG Xiong; LEI YongChang; QIAO PeiJun; WANG LiaoLiang; WANG HongBin

    2007-01-01

    There are some active bottom currents on the northern continental slope of the South China Sea (SCS). Reflection seismic profiles show that the bottom current channels occur in the water depth range of 1000 to 2700 m, extending from the NE to the SW, leading to accumulation of discontinuous drifts with higher sedimentation rates on the eastern side of the channel. The stacking pattern of the layers suggests that these drifts propagated southwestward, following the direction of the bottom currents. One sedimentary drift to the southeast of the Dongsha Islands has the highest sedimentation rate of 97cm/ka in the last 12 ka. The sedimentary characteristics of the sediment layers indicate that these bottom currents are most likley caused by the water movement of a branch of the West Pacific Ocean Current, which enters the northern SCS via the Bashi Strait. Once formed, the bottom currents transport sediments along the northern slope of SCS southwestward and finally disappear into the central basin of the SCS. Due to the bottom current activity, the deep-sea sedimentary process in the northern SCS is complex.

  1. CO2 mitigation potential in farmland of China by altering current organic matter amendment pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CADISCH; Georg

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the global warming mitigation potential in terrestrial ecosystems is of great importance for decision makers to adopt measures to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. In this paper, we compiled data published in peer-reviewed journals, and conducted a holistic analysis of the effects of organic matter amendment on soil organic carbon sequestration, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in paddy and upland systems. Results showed that organic matter amendment increased soil organic carbon content, and apparent conversion rate of organic matter carbon to soil organic carbon in paddies was constant, while that in uplands decreased along with amendment years at 25 years time scale. Organic matter amendment during the rice season led to large CH4-C emissions, e.g on average 99.5 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under intermittent flood conditions, and 191.7 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under continuous flood conditions, respectively. By alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, estimated CH4-C emissions in China could be cut by 3.5 Tg yr-1, accounting for 63% of current CH4-C emissions (5.5 Tg). If organic matter amendment percentage was increased from current 30% to future 50% of organic matter production and by alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, the equivalent CO2-C mitigation potential in farmland of China would be 49.2 Tg yr-1 at the 10th year organic matter amendment and 36.0 Tg yr-1 at the 30th year amendment. These findings are important not only for China but also for the other rice production countries to increase farmland global warming mitigation.

  2. Radiological impacts from nuclear industrial facilities on the public and the environment - Their current magnitude and the next 50 years forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since their inception, nuclear industrial facilities (front-end cycle, reactors, back-end cycle) have been designed and operated with such a high level of containment that under normal operations, only a minuscule fraction of the radioactive materials used by these facilities has been released into the environment. The best indicator of the radiological impacts from nuclear industrial facilities on the environment is 'radiation dose to the public'. This integrated indicator accounts for the radiation hazard (radiotoxicity) from each radionuclide, the transfer of each radionuclide into the environment, and the exposure scenarios for the group of individuals which are potentially the most exposed among the public. Potential radiation risk for humans is expressed in units of milliSievert (mSv). From the 'radiation dose to the public' indicator, regulatory authorities have set limits to strictly control air and liquid radioactive releases from nuclear industrial facilities into the environment. Until the last decade or so, regulatory limits for radioactive releases were derived from a public dose limit of 5 mSv per year. In practice though, it is emphasized that nuclear facilities were required to comply with much lower operational limits (often about a few hundred times smaller). Over the last decade or so, the nuclear industry brought forward further significant improvements in effluent controls that resulted in significantly lower radioactive releases. A corresponding reduction of the resulting public dose impacts by about a factor 10 is not unusual. In parallel with these improvements, the regulatory framework has been updated in most countries on the basis of a reduced public dose limit of 1 mSv per year. This means that currently, public dose impacts from nuclear facilities are for the most part about 100 times smaller (and sometimes even smaller) than either the public dose limit or background radiation, and about 10 times smaller than the local

  3. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future. PMID:26263768

  4. Image of a subsurface current core in the southern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. S. Tang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A legacy seismic transect acquired on 30 and 31 May 2009 in the southern South China Sea (SCS was reprocessed to reveal the thermohaline structure of the water column. In the study region, a mesoscale subsurface lens with extraordinary features was detected at 113.5° E, 11.5° N. It is centred at 450 m depth, occupies both the subsurface and intermediate water from 250 to 600 m, and has an intersection diameter of around 60 km. The simulated results from Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model reveal an eddy-induced subsurface current running southwestward along the deep basin edge and suggest that the imaged lens is a snapshot of the subsurface current core rather than a subsurface eddy.

  5. Effects of Tidal Currents on Nonlinear Internal Solitary Waves in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhisong; SHI Xingang; Antony K. Liu; LIU Hailong; LI Peiliang

    2013-01-01

    The propagation and fission process of intemal solitary waves (ISWs) with amplitudes of about 170m are simulated in the northeast of the South China Sea (NSCS) by using the generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation under continuous stratification.More attention is paid to the effects of the ebb and flood background currents on the fission process of ISWs.This kind of background current is provided by the composed results simulated in terms of monthly mean baroclinic circulation and barotropic tidal current.It is found that the obtained relation of the number of fission solitons to the water depth and stratification is roughly in accordance with the fission law derived by Djordjevic and Redekopp in 1978; however,there exists obvious difference between the effects of the ebb and flood background currents on the wave-lengths of fission solitons (defined as the distance between two neighboring peaks of ISWs).The difference in nonlinearity coefficient α between the ebb and flood background currents is a main cause for the different wave-lengths of fission solitons.

  6. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (pdensity and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. PMID:27196991

  7. [Current status of mangrove germplasm resources and key techniques for mangrove seedling propagation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-You; Chen, Shun-Yang; Wang, Wen-Qing; Dong, Ke-Zuan; Lin, Guang-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Mangrove germplasm and nursery operation are the foundations of all mangrove ecological restoration projects. Based on the existing literatures and our own experiences, and by using cluster analysis and other methods, this paper assessed the current status of the mangrove germplasm resources and the key techniques for mangrove seedlings propagation in China. In China, the mangrove communities could be divided into 4 types, including low temperature tolerant widespread type, widespread type, thermophilic widespread type, and tropical type, and the mangrove distribution sites could be divided into 5 regions, i. e., eastern Hainan coast, Beibuwan Gulf coast, Pearl River estuary and eastern Guangdong coast, southern Fujian and Taiwan coast, and eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang coast. The mangroves in Beibuwan Gulf coast region took up 75.3% of the total mangrove germplasm resources in the country. At present, the percentage of the mangrove species applied for seedling propagation in China was estimated at 52.6%, most of which were of viviparous species. The six key steps in mangrove nursery operation included the selection of proper seedling propagation methods, the collection and storage of seeds or propagules, the ways of raising seedlings, the management of water and salinity, the control of diseases and pests, and the prevention of cold damage during winter. The structure, functions, and applieations of the present five types of mangrove nurseries, including dry land nursery, mangrove tidal nursery, mudflat nursery, Jiwei pond nursery, and Spartina mudflat nursery, were also analyzed, which could provide guidance for the integrated management of mangrove ecological restoration engineering. PMID:22803457

  8. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  9. Current attitudes toward organ donation after cardiac death in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaoming; Liu Linjuan; Xiang Heli; Ding Chenguang; Ren Li; Xue Wujun

    2014-01-01

    Background People's attitude toward organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) has not come to an agreement in different countries and regions.Influenced by the local culture in China for thousands of years,the general public has different ideas about this issue.The purpose of this study was to investigate the current attitudes trend and characteristics of transplantation with organs donated after cardiac death in northwest China.Methods This largest single-center cohort study was performed by an interview or by telephone using a questionnaire.The family members of potential DCD donors were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital,medical college of Xi'an Jiaotong University located in a metropolitan area of northwest China.The 12-item attitude questionnaire was specifically developed from the literature review with coordinator,physician,and donor's family feedback.The participants were asked to rate the queries on a 5-point Likert intensity scale.Results The 174 participants included 56 (32.2%) women and 118 (67.8%) men.Most people were aged between 41 and 50 years (n=63,36.2%),31 and 40 years (n=59,33.9%),and less than 30 years (n=36,20.7%).The top five attitudes of participants were the best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the DCD coordinator of Red Cross Organization (RCO,n=160,92%),donor is a hero (n=143,82.2%),honor to be a donor's family member (n=136,78.2%),improved relationship with colleagues (n=124,71.3%),and with recipient after donation (n=123,70.7%).The best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the coordinator of RCO (n=160,92%),doctor unrelated to transplantation (n=104,59.8%),social worker (n=36,20.7%),and doctor related to transplantation (n=25,14.4%).The top two reasons for non-consent to donation were that the family insisted on intact body after patient death and did not want to have surgery again (n=51,41.5%),and feared that they would be misunderstood by neighbors

  10. The current status, threats and protection way of Sanjiang Plain wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUZhi-qiang; LIUTong

    2005-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. It is the largest tract of wetlands in China and East Asia outside of Siberia. 28 wetland nature reserves exist on the Sanjiang Plain, and three of them have been listed as wetlands of international importance to water bird conservation by the Ramsar Convention Bureau. The wetlands of Sanjiang Plain are noteworthy for its rich biodiversity, but they continue to decline in area and deteriorate in quality currently. The main threats or constrains, immediate cause, root cause and required response are analyzed in this paper, and the four aspects opinion such as improvement of watershed management, enhancement of protection and restoration of habitats and biodiversity, alternative livelihoods of rural residents living in and near natural wetland reserve, and reinforcement of capacity building of natural reserves are brought forward as the effective measures for the Sanjiang Plain wetland protection.

  11. Errors of Mean Dynamic Topography and Geostrophic Current Estimates in China's Marginal Seas from GOCE and Satellite Altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and satellite altimetry can provide very detailed and accurate estimates of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) and geostrophic currents in China's marginal seas, such as, the newest high-resolution GOCE gravity field model GO...... and geostrophic current estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry are investigated and evaluated in China's marginal seas. The cumulative error in MDT from GOCE is reduced from 22.75 to 9.89 cm when compared to the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field model ITG...

  12. Oil consumption and CO2 emissions in China's road transport: current status, future trends, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid economic growth in China, the Chinese road transport system is becoming one of the largest and most rapidly growing oil consumers in China. This paper attempts to present the current status and forecast the future trends of oil demand and CO2 emissions from the Chinese road transport sector and to explore possible policy measures to contain the explosive growth of Chinese transport oil consumption. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate the historical oil consumption and CO2 emissions from China's road transport sector between 1997 and 2002 and to forecast future trends in oil consumption and CO2 emissions up to 2030. To explore the importance of policy options of containing the dramatic growth in Chinese transport oil demand, three scenarios regarding motor vehicle fuel economy improvements were designed in predicting future oil use and CO2 emissions. We conclude that China's road transportation will gradually become the largest oil consumer in China in the next two decades but that improvements in vehicle fuel economy have potentially large oil-saving benefits. In particular, if no control measures are implemented, the annual oil demand by China's road vehicles will reach 363 million tons by 2030. On the other hand, under the low- and high-fuel economy improvement scenarios, 55 and 85 million tons of oil will be saved in 2030, respectively. The scenario analysis suggests that China needs to implement vehicle fuel economy improvement measures immediately in order to contain the dramatic growth in transport oil consumption. The imminent implementation is required because (1) China is now in a period of very rapid growth in motor vehicle sales; (2) Chinese vehicles currently in the market are relatively inefficient; and (3) the turnover of a fleet of inefficient motor vehicles will take a long time

  13. Modeling assessment of tidal current energy in the Qiongzhou Strait, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU He; YU Huaming; DING Jie; YUAN Dekui

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, an existing three-dimensional finite volume computational ocean model (FVCOM) was refined and configured including an algorithm for computing the power density and mean power density at Qiongzhou Strait of China. The refined model was validated with the measured tidal levels and tidal currents at different gauging stations. The model results are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Based on the modeling results, we assess the resource of the tidal stream energy in the Qiongzhou Strait and discuss the temporal and the spatial distribution of the tidal current energy there. The conclusion is extracted: the higher power density occurs in the middle area of the strait, and lower at both sides. Characteristics of power density such as the maximum possibility speed, maximum power density during the spring tide period and the neap tide period, have the similar distribution. The southeast part and central area of the strait are of rich tidal current energy, where the maximum possibility speed can reach to 4.6 m/s, and the maximum power density of the spring tide period and the neap tide period can reach 5 996 and 467 W/m2 separately in the surface layer The annual mean power density can reach 819 W/m2. Statistical length of accumulative time of the velocity exceeding 0.7 m/s is about 4 717 h at local point during a year. The total theoretical tidal current energy resource is approximately 189.55 MW and the available exploited energy on present technology condition is 249, 20.2 and 263 GW/a separately by using the methods FLUX, FARM and GC in the Qiongzhou Strait.

  14. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-07-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  15. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency and to boost the alternative fuels produced from the renewable energy sources. - Highlights: • A Chinese transport model was created and three transport strategies were evaluated • Transport is the biggest driver of the oil demand in China not the industry • The energy demand of transport in 2020 will be twice as much as today • Strategies contribute 13% energy saving and 12% CO2 emission reduction • More initiatives are needed if a sustainable transport is the long-term objective

  16. Current Status of Treatment for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in China and Its Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虎天; 魏强华

    2002-01-01

    @@ CURRENT OVERALL LEVEL IN CHINA OF SLE TREATMENTSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a kind of most complicated auto-immune disease and its etiology is still not clear so far. There are at least one million patients in China. SLE was taken as an “inc urable disease” in the fifties, but recently th e understanding of SLE got gradually elevated, and the efficacy of treatment won further progresses, therefore prognosis was obviously improved. According to the re sult of an 18-year follow-up of 50 SLE patients treated by Shanghai Renji Hospital in 1999, their 5-, 10-, 15- and 18-year survival rate reached 98%, 84%, 76% and 70% respectively, and the international progressive level has been reach ed (1) , it was also discovered that 13 cases (26%) has stopped medication for 12 years (2-17 years) and did not have manifestation of SLE activation. SLE usually occurred in child-bearing women, hence pregnancy complicated with SLE was also a problem fr e quently encountered. The most frequent thought then was to take measures to stop pregnancy to save the life of the women, while at present, if a woman took small dosage of prednisone without the activation of SLE over 12 months, pregnancy can be considered; for those already pregnant women, dosage of pre dnisone could be inc reased under the guidance of rheumatologic and gynecologic specialists; during labor corticosterone (CS) intravenous dripping and other measures were added. Eighty-one new born babies by 80 cases of pregnancy complicated with SLE, have been delivered with both mot her and baby surviving: an inspiring good outcome (2) .

  17. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENT IN THE NORTHERN EAST CHINA SEA AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SEA CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; YANG Zuosheng; GUO Zhigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the grain size distribution of sediment and currents in the northern East China Sea on the basis of the grain size analysis. The results show that grain size distribution of suspended sediment is controlled by the currents. Suspended sediment in the littoral water is finer than those in the open sea currents. Grain size distribution of surface sediment is affected by the sea currents to some extent. And the grain size of suspended sediment and surface sediment do not agree with each other in positions.

  18. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  19. Risk factors of mesenteric venous thrombosis and current situation of diagnosis and treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of mesenteric venous thrombosis and current situation of diagnosis and treatment in China. Methods: One hundred and seven case of mesenteric venous thrombosis reported in literature were analyzed. The literature from 2003 to 2007 were retrieved from Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodical Database and Wanfangdata. Results: One hundred and seven papers included 978 MVT patients, male: female = 1. 9:1, the average age was 47. 9. The most common risk factors were portal hypertension (28. 9% ), splenectomy (18. 8%) and thrombophlebitis (11. 5%) in 833 cases with integrated medical history. Final diagnosis was established by medical imageology (40. 0%) and exploratory laparotomy (60. 0%). The achievement ratio of thrombolysis therapy was 83. 9% (73 /87) by peripheral vein and 90. 0% (63 /70) by superior mesenteric artery. 34. 7% patients took warfarin orally after discharge. Conclusions: Portal hypertension, splenectomy and thrombophlebitis may be the most common risk factor for MVT; through peripheral vein or superior mesenteric artery urokinase thrombolytic therapy is an effective means of treatment of early MVT; MVT diagnostic awareness and anticoagulant therapy after surgery awareness of the importance is to be strengthened. (authors)

  20. Graduate education of library science in China:Current status and recommendations for improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE; Ping; WANG; Ping; TANG; Chengxiu

    2008-01-01

    More than twenty years ago,Wuhan University and Nanjing University offered library science(LS)graduate programs.Since then,LS graduate education has been growing quickly in many aspects.At the same time,however,LS graduate education was also facing enormous challenges stemming from the dynamic development and wide applications of information technologies into the pedagogical arena of teaching and learning at all levels.Social evolution also made it necessary for LS educators to re-examine once again their graduate education model,curricular composition,educational philosophy and educational missions.In analyzing the present situation of LS graduate education in China,this paper focuses on the following issues:1)Growing size of LS graduate education(quantity and quality);2)educational objectives,including research direction and placement for graduates;3)structure of knowledge and curricular construction;4)conditions of administering a library school of high quality and 5)the management of teaching resources.The keystone of this paper is to pinpoint where current library science curricular deficiencies are lying.It is hoped that more serious scholarly discussions and perhaps also even concerted efforts among LS scholars and library practioners may be evoked in having the graduate education system of library and information science thoroughly realigned for the informational needs of the 21stcentury.

  1. Current status of the development and use of decision support systems for nuclear emergency management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As required by the national regulations on nuclear emergency management, decision support systems (DSS)/accident consequence assessment (ACA) systems have been basically established at national, provincial and licensee levels in China. They build actually an important cornerstone of the so-called three-level framework for nuclear emergency management in the country. They are comprised in general of comprehensive methodologies and models for the assessment and prediction of the consequences as a result of an accidental release to atmosphere. Their major components include wind field modeling, atmospheric dispersion calculation, and radiation dose estimation as well as protective actions simulation. Unlike the practice generally adopted in many other countries, comprehensive DSS/ACA systems have also been established or under development at both local governmental and licensee levels besides at national level. This is a very specific character in China. This paper gives an overview of the current status of the development and operational use of the DSS/ACA systems in China. lt focuses on the emergency management in the early phase of an accident. At the first, the regulation framework and the organizational structure for nuclear emergency management in China are briefly described. Then it outlines the major technical features of the DSS/ACA systems used at national, provincial and licensee levels. The main experience gained and the challenges facing us are also presented. Finally, the perspectives an the development and operational use of DSS/ACA systems in China are given in this paper. tab. 1 (author)

  2. Magnitude correlations in global seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than Mw6.5.

  3. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  4. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Zhifu [Dept. of Isotope, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    The research and application of the technology of isotopes and radiation have been reviewed. Since the setup of the China`s first nuclear reactor at China Institute of Nuclear Energy in 1958, the technology of isotopes and radiation has been developed significantly. A research and application system has formed a considerable state. The technology of isotopes and radiation has been taken into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and scientific research. The main achievements are on radiopharmaceuticals, radiation source, radiation process, and radioactive tracers. (author)

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung

    2002-01-01

    China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...

  6. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  7. History and Current Status of Development and Use of Viral Insecticides in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulian Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect viruses as biological control agents started in the early 1960s in China. To date, more than 32 viruses have been used to control insect pests in agriculture, forestry, pastures, and domestic gardens in China. In 2014, 57 products from 11 viruses were authorized as commercial viral insecticides by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. Approximately 1600 tons of viral insecticidal formulations have been produced annually in recent years, accounting for about 0.2% of the total insecticide output of China. The development and use of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus, Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus are discussed as case studies. Additionally, some baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their killing rate, infectivity, and ultraviolet resistance. In this context, the biosafety assessment of a genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus is discussed.

  8. Current Status, Challenges, and Future Sustainable Development Strategies for China Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文颖; 吴宗鑫

    2004-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth,high-energy-intensitive industrial and product structure,coal- dominated energy structure,and low-energy efficiency result in China being the second largest energy consumer as well as the second largest CO2 emission country in the world.The Markal model,an integrated energy,environment,and economic model,was used to analyze China's energy development scenarios from 1995 through 2050 for policy study of long-term energy strategies.The results show that diversified,reliable,and environmentally sound energy development strategies should be adopted for China to solve the challenges of the increasing energy demand,the enlarging gap between the oil demand and supply,and growing concerns over local as well as global environmental issues.Coal-derived synthetic transportation fuels through coal liquefaction,hydrogen making,and advanced coal-based poly-generation technologies should be developed to solve energy security issues.

  9. Current State of Clinical Studies on Diagnosis and Treatment of Sudden Deafness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yaping; YANG Shiming; GUO Wei; YANG Weiyan; GU Rui

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current status of clinical studies on diagnosis and treatment of sudden deafness (SD) in China by retrospective reviewing articles on SD published in Chinese journals in the past 5 years.Special attention is given to whether the diagnosis and treatment standards established in 1996 by the otolaryngology branch of Chinese Medical Association (the"1996 standard") were followed. Methods The terms of "Sudden deafness" and "treatment" were used as the keywords in searching articles published between 2000 and 2004 in the Chinese biomedicine literature database and Chinese journal network. Principles of evidence-based medicine were applied in reviewing the articles. Results Two hundreds and thirty- four articles were identified, including 176 between 2000 and 2002 and 58 between 2003 and 2004. Among the 176 articles published between 2000 and 2002,effects of medications were studies in 126 articles, of which only 26 (20.6%) followed the"1996 standards".Eighty-nine (70.6%) were reported based on controlled clinical trials (CCT) and 36 (28.5%) met the criteria of randomized controlled trails (RCT). Of the 58 articles published between 2003 and 2004, drug effects were evaluated in 25 articles, which were all based on the "1996 standards". However, there lacked placebo control, follow-up data or statistical analysis in these papers. Only 6 articles reported side-effects from pharmacological treatment. Conclusions While a significant number of articles on SD were published in the past 5 years, the "1996 standards" were followed only in a small number of them. The standards may not be appropriate in guiding research and need to be modified for improved guidance to SD management. Multi-center, RCTs should be a crucial part in studies on SD.

  10. Forest management policies and resource balance in China: an assessment of the current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Démurger, Sylvie; Yuanzhao, Hou; Weiyong, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Working paper du GATE 2007-12 Using the latest forest inventory, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of China's forest sector by focusing on new forest trends, forest policy changes and challenges to achieve a sustainable forest management. We analyze the dynamics of forest resources and provide an impact assessment of forest policies on China's forestry development over the last decades. Moreover, the analysis of the forest market highlights substantial disequilibria marked by a ...

  11. The Impact of Changes in Income Distribution on Current and Future Food Demand in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhihao; Henneberry, Shida Rastegari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of changes in income distribution on food demand in the urban Jiangsu province of China is estimated in this study. Findings suggest that changes in income distribution have a considerable impact on the demand for individual food commodity groups. Therefore, given that a significant change in income distribution has occurred in urban China, food demand projections should account for expected changes in future income distribution.

  12. The current status of self-management of type 2 diabetic people in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: In the Chinese community, rapid urbanization, sedentary life style, stress, smoking and changes in dietary may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies conducted in China showed an increasing prevalence rate from 1.1%in 1980 to 4.56% in 1996. However, no studies carried on self-management implementation is available in China now. Objectives: To describe the status of self-management implementation among diabetic people in Beijing and to identify possible factors in...

  13. Current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China

    OpenAIRE

    ShaoHong Wu; WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Harboring rich marine species and playing important ecological functions, coral reef ecosystems have attracted widespread concern around the world. Ecosystem diversity, conservation and management of coral reefs are becoming a hot research area. Coral reefs in China are mainly distributed in the South China Sea and Hainan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guangdong, and Guangxi coastal waters. In recent years, due to the global climate change and the growing impact of human activities, coral reef biodivers...

  14. The Problems of Current Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education for Undergraduates in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Youli

    2008-01-01

    The tourism industry has boomed within the last three decades. With the rapid development of the tourism industry in China, tourism and hospitality education, especially higher education, has also flourished in China. In 1978, not a single program was offered in tourism and hospitality education at any of the universities and colleges. However, in 2005 there were 693 universities and colleges offering tourism and hospitality programs and this number is still rapidly increasing. This dissertat...

  15. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Hu; Qian Jin; Philip Kavan

    2014-01-01

    In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide a...

  16. Current treatment of chronic hepatitis C in China: Dilemma and potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qun-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Major advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with the advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). China has the most cases of HCV infection worldwide, but none of the DAAs has been approved in mainland China so far, and interferon (IFN)-α-based treatment remains the standard of care. HCV patients without response or with contraindications to IFN-based therapy have no alternative options. However, many patients buy DAAs, especially the generic forms of sofosbuvir, from other countries or areas. Under these circumstances, the use of these drugs may cause many predictable and unpredictable problems in ethics, law and medical practice. Given the obstacles of legal accessibility to DAAs and the potential problems of obtaining and using DAAs in China, the early launching of the DAAs in China or the legalization of buying drugs from areas outside China and using these drugs in China is an urgent issue and needs to be dealt with as soon as possible, in the interest of the patients. PMID:27217693

  17. Current status of agricultural and rural non-point source Pollution assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of non-point source (NPS) contribution to total water pollution in China range up to 81% for nitrogen and to 93% for phosphorus. We believe these values are too high, reflecting (a) misuse of estimation techniques that were developed in America under very different conditions and (b) lack of specificity on what is included as NPS. We compare primary methods used for NPS estimation in China with their use in America. Two observations are especially notable: empirical research is limited and does not provide an adequate basis for calibrating models nor for deriving export coefficients; the Chinese agricultural situation is so different than that of the United States that empirical data produced in America, as a basis for applying estimation techniques to rural NPS in China, often do not apply. We propose a set of national research and policy initiatives for future NPS research in China. - Estimation techniques used in China for non-point source pollution are evaluated as a basis for recommending future policies and research in NPS studies in China.

  18. Environmental externality and inequality in China: Current Status and future choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with China's rapid economic growth, the environmental externality in the country is getting more and more serious. China's environmental externality is accompanied by environmental inequality, which presents two characteristics: First, the health loss caused by environmental externality is concentrated in the elderly and children. We take Beijing as an empirical analysis to conclude that children (0–4 years old) are the largest group suffered from respiratory disease; while the seniors are the largest group suffered from cardiovascular disease. Second, China's environmental inequality is mainly caused by the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas/suburbs. The villagers in poor rural areas are the biggest victims. China's environmental inequality is reflected particularly by the phenomenon of “cancer villages” which has existed ever since the end of 1970s. Finally, policy recommendations are provided for reducing China's environmental externality and inequality. - The seniors and children are the biggest victims of air pollution, and the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas led to occurrence of “cancer villages” in China

  19. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei SHI; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practition...

  20. Local magnitude scale in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bajc; Zaplotnik, Ž.; Živčić, M.; M. Čarman

    2013-01-01

    In the paper a calibration study of the local magnitude scale in Slovenia is presented. The Seismology and Geology Office of the Slovenian Environment Agency routinely reports the magnitudes MLV of the earthquakes recorded by the Slovenian seismic stations. The magnitudes are computed from the maximum vertical component of the ground velocity with the magnitude equation that was derived some thirty years ago by regression analysis of the magnitudes recorded by a Wood-Ander...

  1. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  2. Current status and problems in certification of sustainable forest management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US$0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US$150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship. PMID:21327561

  3. Diagnostic imaging in AIDS in China:current status and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ AIDS has been a serious problem threatening the health of people all over the world.In China,AIDS,as the new plague in the 21th century,has been listed as one of the major communicable diseases.Despite its low prevalence in China,AIDS has a high prevalence in certain populations and in local areas.China's AIDS plague was jointly accessed by the Ministry of Health of China,United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO),which indicated that by the end of 2007 there were about 0.7 million (0.55 to 0.85 million) people infected with HIV in China,with an infection rate of 0.05%.1 Great efforts have been continuously made to control the HIV infected cases to be within 1.5 million by the year of 2010.2 The severe challenge of preventing and treating AIDS has attracted extensive attention from both the government and the public and it has reached a top priority.

  4. Current status and strategy of safety regulation of nuclear power plants in China [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of China, which insists on the policy of 'safety first, quality first', regulates nuclear power plants by means of a licensing system according to international standards and experiences, and performs nuclear safety reviews and inspections strictly since its foundation 20 years ago. The nuclear safety regulation in China, starting from zero and developing gradually, has established its elementary system and has greatly contributed to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power will be developed on a larger scale in the future in China, so there would be more challenges in the field of safety administration. NNSA will take positive measures to face the challenges in order to ensure nuclear safety

  5. A Survey of Current and Future Perceived Multi-National Corporation Manufacturing Training Needs in Tianjin, (T.E.D.A.) China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Will

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that surveyed current and perceived future employer-provided training practices among multinational corporations manufacturing companies in the Tianjin Economic Development Area (T.E.D.A.) of China. Highlights include labor market; human resources management in China; workforce productivity; and return on investment. (Author/LRW)

  6. Mapping surface tidal currents and Changjiang plume in the East China Sea from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zifeng; Wang, Dong-Ping; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the semidiurnal M2 tidal currents in the East China Sea (ECS) is mapped from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), taking advantage of the satellite's unique 8 hourly local daytime sequential images. The GOCI-derived surface M2 tidal currents are validated with a comprehensive set of twenty-eight surface drifters and four mooring observations. The agreement is outstanding with the error variance less than 10% of the total variance. The gridded GOCI-derived tidal currents are also in good agreement with the Oregon State University (OSU) high-resolution regional tidal model of the China Seas. The detided mean flow shows a strong Changjiang plume extending hundreds of kilometers offshore, in agreement with the concurrent satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) distributions. The observed surface currents are compared with the daily mean flows derived from the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment (JCOPE2). The model results are consistent with the observations, showing the sensitivity of Changjiang plume to wind forcing. The study clearly demonstrates the utility of geostationary satellite in mapping the surface currents over a wide (˜400 km), tidally dominated continental shelf.

  7. Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in China. Current status and the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the China Country Report of the project: Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies. Under this project four country studies have been carried out, on China, India, Brazil, and South Africa respectively. The focus of this report is on the energy sector policies that mainstream climate interests within development choices. The report gives a short introduction to the project and its approach, followed by analyses of Chinese energy, development and climate change and an assessment of cross-country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. (BA)

  8. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from the East China Sea (Tung Hai) as part of the United States/Peoples Republic of China Cooperative Study from 03 June 1980 to 04 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8700311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms from the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 03 June 1980 to 04 August 1981. Data were collected by the...

  9. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  10. Status of road traffic injury rescue and current work in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bao-guo

    2011-01-01

    STATUS OF TRAFFIC INJURY IN CHINA According to WHO statistics,every year there are more than 1.2 million people who die in traffic accident,around three thousand every day,and about 50 million people injured in traffic accident.Economic loss due to traffic accidents is as high as 518 billion US dollar.

  11. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  12. A Snapshot of the Current Status of Social Work Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Daley, James

    2014-01-01

    This article compares 49 colleges and universities in mainland China on the level of social work education, department and school affiliation, and duration of the program. Findings indicate great diversity in all 3 categories. Bachelor's degrees of social work are offered in 83.3% of the programs, and 38.8% of the programs offer master's…

  13. Current Status and Development Prospect of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon sequestration forestry plays an important role in climate change and global warming mitigation, and thus gains more and more attention around the world. The paper introduced the concept, the significance and the status of carbon sequestration forestry in China, discussed existing issues and put forward countermeasures and suggestions to address these issues. Finally, development prospect of carbon sequestration forestry was analyzed.

  14. China's Bilingual Education Policy and Current Use of Miao in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Bilingual teaching in which ethnic minority spoken and written language are used along with the Han language is China's basic policy for minority education. By means of a survey of the present state of the use of Miao written language in teaching, this article analyzes problems in the policies for minority-language teaching in ethnically mixed…

  15. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China. Current status and suggestion on future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviewed the main achievements of nuclear agricultural sciences, analyzed its developmental gap and provided some thoughts on its future development in China. Since the research and application of nuclear agricultural sciences was initiated in 1956, it has penetrated into the main fields of agriculture and made outstanding achievements, in some fields, China keeps a leading place in the world. By the end of 2001, China obtained 625 mutant varieties and strains, accounting for 27.2% of the total number in the world. The total planting area of the mutant varieties amounted to about 9 million hectares, and brought about an annual increase of grains by 3-4 million tons, cotton by 1.5-1.8 million tons, oilseeds by 0.75 million tons, with total annual economic benefit of 3.3-4.0 billion RMB Yuan. Among the released mutant varieties, 18 were awarded the national innovation prize. China approved national hygiene standards for 6 classes of irradiated foods, and 17 national technological standards of irradiated foods. The annual amount of irradiated foods and agricultural commodities ranged from 80-100 thousand tons. In general, the application of nuclear agricultural sciences in mutation breeding, space breeding, agricultural isotope tracers, food irradiation, sterile insect technique and radiation hormesis, has made considerable advancement and gained tremendous economic, social as well as ecological benefits. As a result, the IAEA and its technical officials highly evaluated nuclear agriculture in China. In 1999, China was approved as the RCA lead country for thematic agriculture. In considering its future development, the focus should be placed on the applied basic research and the development of some key technologies, and endeavor to make some breakthroughs in the molecular mechanism of mutation breeding and space breeding, irradiation quarantine technology , isotope tracing in environmental protection, animal health and production. The general objective is

  16. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  17. Current genetic counseling in China%中国目前的遗传咨询

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章远志; Nanbert ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 1975, the American Society of Human Genetics adopted the following definition of genetic counseling: genetic counseling is a communication process which deals with the human problems associated with the occurrence or risk of occurrence of a genetic disorder in a family. This definition indicates that genetic counseling is the delivery of information about genetic diseases, including genetic risks, natural history of the disease, and clinical management of the disease, to patients and their families. Although genetic counseling is not a new word for both western countries and China, the development of which is quite different. Many excellent genetic counseling programs have been developed since then in developed countries, whereas there is no formal one in China. In the United States, professionals who carry out genetic counseling must have taken a professional training and have had the certificate of American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) (www.abgc.net). The ABGC prepares and administers examinations to certify individuals who provide services in the medical genetics specialty of genetic counseling, and accredits training programs in the field of genetic counseling. There are more than two dozen master degree programs of genetic counseling accredited by the ABGC with either full, interim, or recognized new programs (www.abgc.net). There are twenty-one full credential programs in the United States, three in Australia, three in Canada and two in United Kingdom (www.abgc.net). Looking through all over the China, there is no any official genetic counseling program, so neither any professional genetic counselor. Genetic counseling in China now is not offered by professionally trained genetic counselors, but clinicians such as pediatricians or obstetricians[1]. These clinicians who performing genetic counseling in China have not been trained professionally on genetic counseling. Further more, there is no any board to certificate counselors.

  18. Current status of clinical nursing specialists and the demands of osteoporosis specialized nurses in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical nursing specialist (CNS is an expert who applies an expanded range of practical, theoretical, and research-based competencies to the care of patients within in a specialty clinical area within the larger discipline of nursing. A large number of studies consistently conclude that the CNS is a valuable healthcare resource that provides high-quality clinical and evidence-based nursing practice and improves patient outcome. The CNS has been involved in healthcare practices for many years, with an increasingly diverse role. However, the training for the CNS in China is only in a preliminary developmental stage. The aim of this article is to review the history and development of the CNS role. Furthermore, the epidemiologic status of osteoporosis, as well as the feasibility and necessity of developing training programs in China for the osteoporosis CNS, will be discussed.

  19. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinrong, Z. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, (China). Department of Isotopes

    1997-10-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations

  1. Current status and trends of wheat genetic transformation studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yi; WANG Qiong; ZENG Jian; SUN Tao; YANG Guang-xiao; HE Guang-yuan

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the ifrst report on successful genetic transformation of wheat. With the establishment and improvement of transformation platform, great progresses have been made on wheat genetic transformation both on its fundamental and applied studies in China, especial y driven by the National Major Project for Transgenic Organism Breed-ing, China, initiated in 2008. In this review, wheat genetic transformation platform improvement and transgenic research progresses including new techniques applied and functional studies of wheat quality, yield and stress tolerant related genes and biosafety assessment are summarized. The existing problems and the trends in wheat transformation with traditional methods combined with genomic studies and genome editing technology are also discussed.

  2. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  3. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON CURRENT FAMILY WEALTH IN RURAL CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Hiroshi; Li, Shi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of family human capital on offspring's economic status in post reform rural China, using nationally representative cross-sectional survey of rural households for 2002. Focuses are on family class origin and occupational experiences. The major findings are as follows. First, parental experiences of a nonagricultural family business before collectivization have a positive and statistically significant effect on offspring's family wealth. Second, the offspring o...

  4. Revolution and family in rural China: influence of family background on current family wealth

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Hiroshi; Shi, Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of family human capital on offspring's economic status in post reform rural China by concentrating on the father-son relationship. We focus on two indicators of family background: family class origin (jiating chengfen) and occupational experience. The results of a family wealth function for 2002 suggest that, after controlling for other individual and family characteristics, both measures of family background have a significant influence on family wealth. Fir...

  5. Current Situation and Prospect of Pumped-Storage Hydropower Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of national economy in China, pumped-storage power plant (PSPP) has developed very fast for its special stable and dynamic benefits in recent years.Because of the ever-increasing power load and its peak-to-valley ratio, customers have higher expectation for the security and quality of power supply. PSPPs are playing a role in load regulation,energy saving and reliable operation of power girds with its unique peak-shifting character.

  6. Current Status and Development Trend of Natural Gas Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingming Li; Dongxu Li; Xiaojun Li; Fudong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In China, the proven reserves of natural gas is 3.86 trillion cubic meters (rcm). This figure will quite possibly increase at a high speed in the future. At present, the annual production of natural gas has exceeded 34 billion cubic meters (bcm), which, likewise, will rise sharply. The pipeline construction has basically taken shape, which will be gradually perfected. And the gas consumption market is in the startup stage, which will be rapidly expanded in the quite near future.

  7. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business ...

  8. Information service of special libraries in China:Current status and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xiwen

    2008-01-01

    The article firstly summarizes the structure and development of special libraries in China.Then,the best practices of the documentation,information and consulting services of the Chinese special libraries in the digital and networking environment are provided.It finally explores the approaches for the special libraries to offer new professional services in order to meet the needs for knowledge-based services.

  9. Analysis of China's Renewable Energy Development under the Current Economic and Technical Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Shi

    2009-01-01

    At present, the development of renewable energy relies mainly on government support. The government invests in a considerable number of projects to improve public welfare and to assist in poverty relief. If China is to replace fossil fuels on a large scale with renewable energy sources, the production costs und prices of renewable energy must he brought down. All countries are facing the challenge of moving to a more secure and low-carbon energy system without weakening economic and social development. In this regard, China is facing an even greater challenge in terms of economic cost, as cheap coal remains the main energy form. Technical innovation and industrialization in the area of renewable energy is an important means of lowering cost. China is in for a period of high-speed development of its economy and the rising demand for energy is irreversible. If the technical progress and development speed of renewable energy lags behind the growth in demand, it will be difficult to realize the improvement of its energy structure.

  10. Current use of immunosuppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease patients in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Juan Huang; Qin Zhu; Min Lei; Qian Cao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate immunosuppressive agents used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in East China. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted, involving 227 patients with IBD admitted to Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University from June 2000 to December 2007. Data regarding demographic, clinical characteristics and immunosuppressants usage were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 227 eligible patients were evaluated in this study, including 104 patients with Crohn's disease and 123 with ulcerative colitis. Among the patients, 61 had indications for immunosuppressive agents use. However, only 21 (34.4%) received immunosuppressive agents. Among the 21 patients, 6 (37.5%) received a subtherapeutic dose of azathioprine with no attempt to increase the dosage. Of the 20 patients that received immunosuppressive agent treatment longer than 6 mo, 15 patients went into remission, four patients were not affected and one relapsed. Among these 20 patients, four patients suffered from myelotoxicity and one suffered from hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressive agents are used less frequently to treat IBD patients from East China compared with Western countries. Monitoring immunosuppressive agent use is recommended to optimize dispensation of drugs for IBD in China.

  11. Atmospheric environmental protection in China: Current status, developmental trend and research emphasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric environmental quality in China has been improving due to a variety of programs implemented by the Chinese government in recent decades. However, air pollution is still serious because of rapid socioeconomic development and increased energy consumption. Atmospheric environmental problems appear to be complex and regional in nature, and China's climate is aggravated by global climatic change. Air pollution originates from multiple sources and the effect on public human health will increase. The influence of acid rain in southern China will be long term, and the impact of climate change will rise. In order to reduce the adverse effects of air pollutants on the environment, the total number of emission sources from major industry, fine particle pollutants, SO2 emissions from power plants and the vehicle exhaust must be lowered and strictly controlled. The energy structure will affect the quality of the atmosphere for a long time. Increased energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure and the generation of a sustainable consumption and production patterns will provide opportunities to resolve regional and the global environmental problems

  12. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting

  13. The Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasure Research of Chain-management Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, Chinese Chain-management, which is still at the initial stage of development, is in obvious disadvantage in the competition with foreign large-scale chain enterprises. Merger, franchise and some other approaches should be adopted by Chinese chain enterprises in order to broad in scale. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to informatization system, constant optimization and upgrade information system. By choosing good promotion and advertising modes to increase customer’s awareness to chain enterprises brand, we could smoothly implement the chain enterprise brand strategy. Finally, chain enterprise management in China will expand under the context of new market.

  14. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. PMID:26372167

  15. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  16. Statistical models for seismic magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersson, Anders

    1980-02-01

    In this paper some statistical models in connection with seismic magnitude are presented. Two main situations are treated. The first deals with the estimation of magnitude for an event, using a fixed network of stations and taking into account the detection and bias properties of the individual stations. The second treats the problem of estimating seismicity, and detection and bias properties of individual stations. The models are applied to analyze the magnitude bias effects for an earthquake aftershock sequence from Japan, as recorded by a hypothetical network of 15 stations. It is found that network magnitudes computed by the conventional averaging technique are considerably biased, and that a maximum likelihood approach using instantaneous noise-level estimates for non-detecting stations gives the most consistent magnitude estimates. Finally, the models are applied to evaluate the detection characteristics and associated seismicity as recorded by three VELA arrays: UBO (Uinta Basin), TFO (Tonto Forest) and WMO (Wichita Mountains).

  17. WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.

  18. Current situation and consideration of training base hospitals for residents of neurosurgical specialization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-zeng JIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015

  19. A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao

    2006-01-01

    The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.

  20. Current status of research and development for nuclear heating reactor in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present the coal is the main source for district heating in China. It results in serious problems for transportation and pollution. Nuclear district heating reactor can substitute the coal and supply the clear and ecenomic heat energy for the cities. A feasibility studies for a district heating reactor with the power of 450 MW(t) in Harbin were carried out. With cooperation of heating boilers heat demand of 1.2 million pupulation can be satisfied. 600 x 103 tons coal per year can be saved. The temperature of the heat grid is 130/70 deg C. The main parameters of the 450 MW(t) and 5 MW(t) heating reactors are given. The technical design, safety aspects, economic analysis and the stability of test loop are also discussed. (Liu)

  1. Current Situation and Characteristics Analysis on Cerebral Palsy Rehabilitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴玉

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic characteristics and patterns of cerebral palsy rehabilitation in China. Method: To elaborate the specific acupuncture methods and action mechanism of cerebral palsy in China by combining analysis on the therapeutic situation of cerebral palsy from both home and abroad with research literatures. Conclusion: Acupuncture has great potential in social and economic benefits in the treatment of cerebral palsy. It is necessary to develop prospective, multi-center and randomly controlled trials on acupuncture treatment of cerebral palsy with exact and feasible therapeutic plans and establish acupuncture-centered cerebral palsy rehabilitation system with Chinese characteristics.%目的:探讨中国脑性瘫痪的康复治疗特点及模式.方法:分析国内外脑性瘫痪治疗现状,结合文献详细阐述国内采用针灸治疗脑瘫的具体方法及其机理研究.结论:针灸治疗脑瘫有着极大的潜在社会效益和经济效益.宜开展针灸治疗小儿脑瘫的前瞻性、多中心、随机对照试验,探索出疗效确切、可行性强的针灸治疗方案,建立以针灸为中心的有中国特色的脑性瘫痪康复体系.

  2. Current Land Subsidence in Tianjin, China Recorded by Three Continuous GPS stations (2010-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Jing, Q.; Yan, B.; Yu, J.; Gan, W.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to urban subsidence studies, both as a complement, and an alternative to conventional surveying methods. These studies have demonstrated that high-accuracy GPS techniques are an efficient tool in tracking long-term land subsidence. A great number of Continuously Operating Reference GPS Stations (CORS) have been installed in China during the past five years. Considerable land subsidence has been observed from CORS stations installed in several large cities. This study investigated GPS time series observed at three CORS in Tianjin: TJBD (2010-2014), TJBH (2010-2014), and TJWQ (2010-2014). Tianjin is one of the largest cities that is experiencing severe land subsidence problems in China. The observations at the three GPS sites indicate different subsidence rates. The average subsidence rate over four years are 0.2 cm/year at TJBD, 2 cm/year at TJBH, and 4.4 cm/year at TJWQ. The GPS station TJBD is located at Baodi, Tianjin. This area is the least economically developed and have the smallest population compared to the other two areas. Over 80% of water usage in Baodi is for agriculture and only less than 15% is from groundwater. The rapid subsidence at TJBH and TJWQ were caused by huge groundwater withdrawals associate with rapid urban and industrial developments in Binhai and Wuqing. Wuqing district, with a unique location advantage called "Corridor of Beijing and Tianjin", has been experiencing major urbanization. The population has reached 1,053,300 and the water usage has reached 350 million cubic meters in 2012. Over 25% of water usage is from groundwater. Significant annual and half-annual seasonal ground surface fluctuation has been observed from all three GPS stations. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the annual signal is 1.5 cm.

  3. Current antibody-based immunoassay algorithm failed to confirm three late-stage AIDS cases in China: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhi-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoassays composed of screening and confirmation are the established algorithm to confirm HIV infection in China, with a Western blot result as the final diagnosis. Case presentation In this report, three late-stage AIDS patients were initially tested HIV antibody positive using multiple screening kits, but tested indeterminate using Western blot. HIV infection diagnosis was confirmed based on nucleic acid assays, clinic manifestations and epidemiological history. Case A was identified positive at 30 months, using Western blot, Case B at 8 months, and case C remained indeterminate until he died of Kaposi's sarcoma 4 months after HAART. Conclusion The report indicates that current antibody-based testing algorithms may miss late-stage AIDS patients and therefore miss the opportunity for preventing these cases from further transmission. The report also implies that viral load assays is not easy to be universely applicated in developing country like China although it is helpful in diagnosing complicated cases of HIV infection, so the counselling before and after testing is imperative to the diagnosis of HIV infection and risk behavior survey on the examinee should be as detailed as possible.

  4. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively. PMID:24010996

  5. High rate of missed HIV infections in individuals with indeterminate or negative HIV western blots based on current HIV testing algorithm in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Kong, Wen-Hua; Tang, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Schilling, Robert F; Cai, Thomas; Zhou, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear if China's current HIV antibody testing algorithm misses a substantial number of HIV infected individuals. Of 196 specimens with indeterminate or negative results on HIV western blot (WB) retrospectively examined by HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT), 67.57% (75/111) of indeterminate WB samples, and 16.47% (14/85) of negative WB samples were identified as NAT positive. HIV-1 loads in negative WB samples were significantly higher than those in indeterminate WB samples. Notably, 86.67% (13/15) of samples with negative WB and double positive immunoassay results were NAT positive. The rate of HIV-1 infections missed by China's current HIV testing algorithm is unacceptably high. Thus, China should consider using NAT or integrating fourth generation ELISA into current only antibodies-based HIV confirmation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1462-1466, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856240

  6. SAR observation and numerical modeling of tidal current wakes at the East China Sea offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XiaoMing; Chi, Lequan; Chen, Xueen; Ren, YongZheng; Lehner, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    A TerraSAR-X (TS-X) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired at the East China Sea offshore wind farm presents distinct wakes at a kilometer scale on the lee of the wind turbines. The presumption was that these wakes were caused by wind movement around turbine blades. However, wind analysis using spaceborne radiometer data, numerical weather prediction, and in situ measurements suggest that the prevailing wind direction did not align with the wakes. By analyzing measurement at the tidal gauge station and modeling of the tidal current field, these trailing wakes are interpreted to have formed when a strong tidal current impinged on the cylindrical monopiles of the wind turbines. A numerical simulation was further conducted to reproduce the tidal current wake under such conditions. Comparison of the simulated surface velocity in the wake region with the TS-X sea surface backscatter intensity shows a similar trend. Consequently, turbulence intensity (T.I.) of the tidal current wakes over multiple piles is studied using the TS-X observation. It is found that the T.I. has a logarithmic relation with distance. Furthermore, another case study showing wakes due to wind movement around turbine blades is presented to discuss the differences in the tidal current wakes and wind turbine wakes. The conclusion is drawn that small-scale wakes formed by interaction of the tidal current and the turbine piles could be also imaged by SAR when certain conditions are satisfied. The study is anticipated to draw more attentions to the impacts of offshore wind foundations on local hydrodynamic field.

  7. A brief study of the existing problems and possible solutions to current senior schools’ oral English teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan; Xingwu; Zhang; Ling

    2015-01-01

    with the development of China’s integration into the global economy,English has become an essential tool to communicate and a substantial quality that anyone in modern society is supposed to acquire,which can be directly reflected by whether you can express yourself fluently and accurately in English.Due to the current College Entrance Examination,senior school’s oral English teaching has long been underrated,which results in the problem that most of the senior students cannot speak English well,much less communicating with foreigners in a confident way.This essay will argue that the present situation of oral English teaching in senior schools of Tongling city,Anhui province,China can be improved by creating a livelier atmosphere,constructing a more genuine context and varying the activities of oral English.

  8. Grand Research Plan for Neural Circuits of Emotion and Memory-Current status of neural circuit studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Gui Zhu; He-Qi Cao; Er-Dan Dong

    2013-01-01

    During recent years,major advances have been made in neuroscience,i.e.,asynchronous release,three-dimensional structural data sets,saliency maps,magnesium in brain research,and new functional roles of long non-coding RNAs.Especially,the development of optogenetic technology provides access to important information about relevant neural circuits by allowing the activation of specific neurons in awake mammals and directly observing the resulting behavior.The Grand Research Plan for Neural Circuits of Emotion and Memory was launched by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.It takes emotion and memory as its main objects,making the best use of cutting-edge technologies from medical science,life science and information science.In this paper,we outline the current status of neural circuit studies in China and the technologies and methodologies being applied,as well as studies related to the impairments of emotion and memory.In this phase,we are making efforts to repair the current deficiencies by making adjustments,mainly involving four aspects of core scientific issues to investigate these circuits at multiple levels.Five research directions have been taken to solve important scientific problems while the Grand Research Plan is implemented.Future research into this area will be multimodal,incorporating a range of methods and sciences into each project.Addressing these issues will ensure a bright future,major discoveries,and a higher level of treatment for all affected by debilitating brain illnesses.

  9. Teahouses and the Tea Art: A Study on the Current Trend of Tea Culture in China and the Changes in Tea Drinking Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    he subject of this thesis is tradition and the current trend of tea culture in China. In order to answer the following three questions whether the current tea culture phenomena can be called tradition or not; what are the changes in tea cultural tradition and what are the new features of the current trend of tea culture; what are the endogenous and exogenous factors which influenced the change in the tea drinking tradition , I did literature research from ancient tea classics and historic...

  10. 中国的科技传播现状研究%Researches on Current Situation of Technical Communication in the People's Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2003-01-01

    This article first discusses researches, basically from the western viewpoints, on current situation of technical communication education in China and technical communication opportunities in China. Later, the article proposes four areas that need further research. Researches on technical communication in China not only benefit China, but also help other countries to understand Chinese market and potential consuming power in technical communication market.%本文首先主要从西方的观点讨论中国的科技传播教育和机遇,然后提出了四个需要进一步研究的领域,指出研究中国的科技传播不仅对中国有利,而且也有助于其它国家了解中国的科技传播的市场和消费潜力.

  11. Tidal elevation, current, and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Dwi Susanto, R.; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Fan, Bin; Setiawan, Agus; Li, Shujiang; Wang, Yonggang; Gao, Xiumin

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents, and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2, and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in the Karimata and Gaspar straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The semi-major axes lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semidiurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semidiurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the antinodal band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semidiurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  12. Current situations and technical development of energy-savings in China refrigeration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of Energy Efficiency Standards and the implementation of Energy Labels have greatly improved energy efficiencies of Chinese refrigeration products in recent years. These products are now moving towards multiple heat sources and multiple functions, to obtain further energy-savings. Some typical products, such as solar energy refrigerators and air conditioning-water heater system are introduced. The current energy efficiencies of Chinese refrigeration products are also introduced in this paper. Some recommendations are given to make the standards accommodate these changes

  13. 我国农业保险现状的统计分析%The Statistical Analysis of Current Situation of Agricultural Insurance of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉

    2004-01-01

    The guarantee of insurance is crucial to the development of modern agriculture. The current development of agricultural insurance is not satisfactory. The developing level and pace of agriculture is far from the need. The paper analyses the developing situation, institutional background of agricultural insurance by looking at the statistics, demonstrates the urgence to develop agricultural insurance and agricultural insurance statistics of China.

  14. Control of antibiotic resistance in China must not be delayed: The current state of resistance and policy suggestions for the government, medical facilities, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Li, Jiajia; Kong, Fanlei; Sun, Long; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world, leading to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality. In the European Union alone, drug-resistant bacteria are estimated to cause 25,000 deaths and cost more than US$1.5 billion every year in healthcare expenses and productivity losses. The problems of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance are quite serious in China. In 2015, results of a study by the State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences indicated that the total antibiotic usage in China in 2013 was approximately 162,000 tons, including human use (48%) and use in animals (52%). This amount accounted for about half of the antibiotic usage worldwide. The per-capita use of antibiotics in China is more than 5 times that in Europe and the United States. These data mean that China is one of the world's leading countries with serious problems in terms of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance. The current article analyzes the current state and harms of antibiotic misuse and causes of antibiotic resistance in China. The Government needs to pay close attention to the issue of antibiotic resistance in China and formulate a strategy at the national level. Thus, the following suggestions are offered: i) The Chinese Government should implement policies that promote antibiotic research and development; ii) Medical facilities in China should create multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) and encourage early action by MDTs to control the spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDRB); iii) An intervention in the form of health education should target patients and accompanying family members (AFM) in China. In other words, antibiotic resistance is not a personal problem but an

  15. Study on Current Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Middle School Students in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Duan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine current levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in middle school students on the basis of grade, sex, student attitudes toward physical education, and residence location.In 2013, a cross-sectional study of 1793 students aged 12 to 15 years was conducted across eight middle schools in Beijing, China. Four schools were selected from an urban district and another four schools were from a suburban district. Physical activity and sedentary behavior data were collected using the commonly used school-based Chinese version of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.The mean age of sampled students was 13.3 ± 1.0 years; 51.5% were boys. Approximately 76.6% of students reported having three 45-minute physical education classes every week. A total of 35.6% students spent ≥ 1 h/day performing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA during school, and 34.9% spent ≥ 1 h/day in MVPA outside school time. Approximately half (49.7% of the students engaged in reading, writing, or drawing for ≥ 2 h/day, and 42.9% reported screen time for ≥ 2 h/day. Although boys spent more time engaged in physical activity than girls did, they also spent more time exhibiting sedentary behavior. Each 10-unit increase in attitudes toward physical education was associated with an increased odds of 1.15 (95%CI: 1.09-1.20 for spending more than 1 h/day on MVPA. Students in suburban schools reported engaging in physical activity less when compared with those in urban schools.The majority of our students did not meet the current physical activity recommendations, and about half of the students spent excessive time engaging in sedentary behaviors. Findings from this study highlight a positive association between student attitudes toward physical education and physical activity. Studies are needed to further explore the role of student attitudes toward physical education in promoting physical activity among Chinese students.

  16. Magnitude and energy of earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Francis Richter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discrepancies arise among magnitudes as derived from local earthquake data (ML, body waves (MB and surface waves (MS. The relation of ML to the others is as yet not definitive; but MS – mB = a (MS – b. The latest revision gives a = 0.37, b = 6.76. Pending further research it is recommended that ML continue to be used as heretofore, but MS (and ultimately ML should be referred to mB as a general standard, called the unified magnitude and denoted by m. Tentatively log E = 5.8 + 2.4 m (E in ergs. Revised tables and charts for determining m are given.

  17. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  18. Radiation doses - maps and magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' Series presents information on the numerous sources and magnitude of exposure of man to radiation. These include the medical use of radiation, radioactive discharges to the environment, cosmic rays, gamma rays from the ground and buildings, radon gas and food and drink. A Pie chart represents the percentage contribution of each of those sources. Finally, the terms becquerel, microsievert and millisievert are explained. (U.K.)

  19. Homogeneous determination of maximum magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Meletti, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; D'Amico, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Martinelli, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable represents the result of the activities performed by a working group at INGV. The main object of the Task 3.5 is defined in the Description of Work. This task will produce a homogeneous assessment (possibly multiple models) of the distribution of the expected Maximum Magnitude for earthquakes expected in various tectonic provinces of Europe, to serve as input for the computation and validation of seismic hazard. This goal will be achieved by combining input from earthqu...

  20. Current status of safety design and safety analysis for China ITER helium coolant ceramic breeder test blanket system long

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium Coolant Ceramic Breeder (HCCB) Test Blanket System (TBS) designed by China are planned to be tested in ITER to validate key technologies, including demonstration of nuclear safety, for future fusion reactor breeding blankets. Furthermore, in order to be operated in ITER, a nuclear facility (INB) recognized by French nuclear safety authority, safety design and safety analysis of the TBS are mandatory for the licensing procedures. This paper summarizes the status at current design phase with following main elements: The main radiological source terms in the system are tritium and activation products. Nuclear and tritium analysis are performed to identify their inventories and distributions in system. Multiple confinement barriers are considered to be the most essential safety feature. French regulation for pressure equipment and nuclear equipment (ESP/ESPN regulations) will be followed to ensure the system integrities. ALARA principle is kept in mind during the whole safety design phases. Protective actions including choice of advanced materials, improvement of shielding, optimization of operation and maintenance activities, usage of remote handling operations, zoning and access control have been considered. Passive safety is emphasized in the system design, only minimal active safety functions including call for fusion plasma shutdown and isolation of TBM from ex-vessel ancillary systems. High reliability and redundancies are required for components related to these functions. Several accidents have been identified and analyzed. Consider the limited inventories in the system and the intrinsic safety of fusion device, positive conclusions have been obtained. (author)

  1. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  2. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients in China:current status and influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Guo Xiaohui; Xiong Zhenzhen; Lou Qingqing; Shen Li; Zhao Fang; Sun Zilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is crucial for long-term health,yet numerous cultural,economic and health factors can reduce SMBG.Most studies on SMBG adherence have come out of the US and Europe,and their relevance to Asia is unclear.The aims of the present study were to assess the current state of SMBG in China and analyze demographic and diabetes-related characteristics that may influence it.Methods In this multi-center,cross-sectional study,5 953 individuals with T2D from 50 medical centers in 29 provinces across China filled out a standardized questionnaire that requested information on demographic characteristics,education level,occupation,income,lifestyle risk factors,duration of diabetes,chronic complications,and frequency of SMBG.Respondents were also asked whether their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) had been checked in the past 6 months.The most recent values for fasting plasma glucose,2-hour postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c were recovered from medical records.Results Only 1 130 respondents (18.98%) performed SMBG with the recommended frequency,while 4 823 (81.02%) did not.In fact,nearly 2 105 (35.36%) reported never performing SMBG.In the subset of 3 661 individuals on insulin therapy,only 266 (7.27%) performed SMBG at least once a day,while 1 210 (33.05%) never performed it.In contrast,895 of 2 292 individuals (39.05%) on diet/exercise therapy or oral hypoglycemic therapy never performed it.Multivariate Logistic regression identified several factors associated with SMBG adherence:female gender,higher education level,higher income,longer T2D duration and education about SMBG.Conclusions SMBG adherence in our Chinese population with T2D was less frequent than that in developed countries.Several factors influence SMBG adherence:gender,education level,income,T2D duration,therapy regimen and exposure to education about SMBG.

  3. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  4. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  5. Radiation doses - maps and magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three slide sets which can be used in lectures about radiation protection have been published by NRPB. Each consists of 20 slides with captions, and are available at a price of Pound 25 + VAT per set (UK), Pound 25 (Europe) or Pound 35 (rest of world). The slide sets are based on publications in the NRPB ''At-a-Glance'' series of broadsheets, which use illustrations as the main source of information, supported by captions; the series generally avoids the jargon of radiation protection, although each leaflet is based on scientific studies. Slide Set Number 1, ''Radiation Doses - Maps and Magnitudes'' based on the broadsheet of the same name shows visually the main sources of radiation exposure, natural and man-made, with emphasis on the range of doses as well as the averages. The enormous variation in doses across the country is clearly set out. (author)

  6. The November 14, 2001 west of Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake: An earthquake with unsaturated surface wave magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui-feng; CHEN Yun-tai; REN Xiao; HOU Jian-min; ZOU Li-ye

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the magnitude determination of the November 14, 2001 west of Kunlun Mountain Pass (KMP) earthquake at the juncture of Xinjiang and Qinghai, northwestern China. Comparisons are made among surface wave magnitudes determined by China National Digital Seismograph Network (CNDSN),National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of US Geological Survey (USGS) and moment magnitudes determined by different institutions in China and abroad. The result shows that different institutions yield different surface wave magnitudes, as different data and calculation formulae are used in magnitude determination. The magnitude of the earthquake in China's Rapid Earthquake Information Release was given as Ms=8.1; measurement given in the formally edited and published Observation Report of China Digital Seismograph Network is Ms=8.2;and magnitude determined by USGS/NEIC is Ms=8.0. Soon after the occurrence of the KMP earthquake, Harvard University (Harvard), USGS/NEIC, Earthquake Research Institute, Tokyo University (ERI), Center for Analysis and Prediction, China Earthquake Administration (APCEA) and Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA) gave the moment magnitude Mw as 7.8, 7.7, 7.7, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively, based on data from Global Seismograph Network (GSN), CNDSN and China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN). These measurements, with an average value of Mw=7.7, are close to each other. As moment magnitude is a physical quantity measuring the absolute size of an earthquake and has obvious advantages over conventional magnitude scale, and is the preferred magnitude of the international seismological community. It is concluded that the KMP earthquake is an earthquake with unsaturated surface wave magnitude with moment magnitude Mw=7.7 and surface wave magnitude Ms=8.0.

  7. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  8. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  9. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Lü; Leichao Liang; Yi Feng; Rena Li; Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern i...

  10. The Correlation between Prorocentrum donghaiense Blooms and the Taiwan Warm Current in the East China Sea - Evidence for the “Pelagic Seed Bank” Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xinfeng Dai; Douding Lu; Weibing Guan; Ping Xia; Hongxia Wang; Piaoxia He; Dongsheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, large-scale high biomass algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS). The role of increasing nutrient concentrations in driving those blooms is well-established, but the source population that initiates them is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the front of Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) may serve as a 'seed bank' that initiates P. donghaiense blooms in the ECS, as the physiochemical conditio...

  11. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  12. Autism in China: From Acupuncture to Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elaine; Zhou, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    It has been only in the past decade that autism has been widely recognized among Chinese service providers. As a result, there are few professionals who are trained to treat the disorder. Although efforts are currently under way to determine the prevalence of autism in China, to date there are no reliable data that indicate the magnitude of the…

  13. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  14. 浅论我国现行财务报告的改进%Improvement of the Current Financial Reports in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲莉

    2015-01-01

    财务报告作为会计信息的一部分,与经济发展有着密切的联系。本文通过分析我国现行的财务报告,对现行财务报告提出了改进建议。%As the part of the accounting information, financial reports are closely related to the economic development. This paper analyzes the current financial reports in China and puts forward the improvement suggestion for the current financial reports.

  15. Intellectual property law and competition law in China - Analysis of the current framework and comparison with the EU approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Nga Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yeung Nga Man looks at the question of protection of intellectual property rights in the Chinese legal system with comparative reference to policy and practice in the European Union. What is the best way to stimulate competition but yet also protect innovation? Part I of the essay examines the present IPRs protection in China. In Part II, contrary to the myth that competition and IP law conflict with one another, the author argues that both foster innovation and development, and enhance consumer welfare. Part III discusses the competition law regime in China with a specific focus on AML and evaluation of the enforcement of the regime. Part IV outlines the European Union approach, which China might consider adopting. Part V discusses the Block Exemptions approach from the E.U. on horizontal agreements.

  16. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the offline-coupled WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  17. Current status of surgical treatment of gastric cancer in the era of minimally invasive surgery in China: Opportunity and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, En-Hao; Ling, Tian-Long; Cao, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. In the past decade, with the developments in surgical instruments and technologies, minimally invasive surgery has rapidly become an accepted treatment for gastric cancer in China. Many Chinese surgeons and researchers have contributed to the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. Their efforts have transformed into unique laparoscopic technique, workshops, academic communications, education and international communications in China. Meanwhile, many retrospective comparative trials and randomized controlled trials have revealed the advantages in minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. However, multicenter randomized controlled trials are still needed to delineate significantly quantifiable differences between laparoscopic and open gastrectomy. With more and more experience has accumulated, laparoscopic gastrectomy has been performed on older and overweight patients. Moreover, advanced minimally invasive techniques, such as modified laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymphadenectomy, various laparoscopic gastric reconstruction methods and robotic gastrectomy have been developed. It seems that China owns the potential to keep up with her neighbor, Japan and Korea, to become one of leading countries utilizing minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. PMID:26889972

  18. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment

  19. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  20. Bias in Absolute Magnitude Determination from Parallaxes

    OpenAIRE

    Feast, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Relations are given for the correction of bias when mean absolute magnitudes are derived by the method of reduced parallaxes. The bias in the case of the derivation of the absolute magnitudes of individual objects is also considered.

  1. Analysis of the current situation and problems of China' cultural exports%我国文化出口的现状及问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海远

    2012-01-01

    现阶段,我国文化出口的整体状况并不令人乐观。尽管从统计数据看,我国的文化产品和服务出1:7连年增长,获取的经济效益也不断增加,但这些不断攀升的数据并不能掩盖我国文化出口整体实力较弱的现实。产品和服务缺乏国际竞争力、缺少国际市场经验、创新不足、以内容为核心的文化产品占比过小等等都是制约文化出口的因素。%The current overall situation of China's cultural exports is not encouraging. Although the statistics suggest Chinese cultural product and service exports grow year after year, and the economic benefits are also grow- ing, but these rising data can not cover up the reality of the general weaker situation of cultural exports in China. The lack of international competitiveness of products and services, of experience in international markets, and of in- novation, as well as the too small proportion of content-based cultural products are the constraining factors of cuhur- al exoorts in China.

  2. 华东电网短路电流计算标准研究%Short-Circuit Current Calculation Standard for East China Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯煜尧; 祝瑞金; 庄侃沁; 李建华

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays five IEC 60909-based calculation methods are commonly used for domestic short-circuit current calculation.On the basis of small system calculation examples,and artificial short circuit field test data for East China Power Grid,this paper theoretically analyzes the validity of the five short-circuit current calculation methods and the calculation influencing factors.Finally,short-circuit current calculation standard is proposed applicable for power grid of no less than 220 kV in East China.%介绍了目前国内短路电流计算工程应用主要根据IEC 60909形成的5种常用的计算方法,从理论分析的角度,结合小系统算例、华东实际电网以及现场人工短路试验实测数据,分析了5种短路计算方法的合理性以及影响短路电流计算的因素,并提出了适合华东220 kV及以上电网短路电流计算的标准。

  3. Current Development Analysis of Control Valve Industry in China%我国控制阀行业发展状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炯; 武丽英

    2012-01-01

    阐述我国控制阀行业的现状和存在问题,分析了市场状况、竞争格局和应用市场的情况,指出了行业未来的发展趋势。%This article describes the current development status and existing problems of control valve industry in China. A detailed analysis is also given on market situation, competition status and implementation in industry, as well as future development trend of this industry.

  4. Current Situation and Future Trends of Meat Consumption in China%我国肉类消费现状与未来发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 王济民

    2013-01-01

    Through the comprehensive analysis on the changes of urban and rural resident's meat consumption quantity and structure,taking into account the current situation of China's economic development,the future trends of our country's meat consumption were analyzed and prospected.%本文通过对我国城乡居民肉类消费水平和消费结构变动特征的全面分析,综合考虑当前经济发展形势,对我国未来肉类消费趋势进行了分析和展望.

  5. Discussion on the Relationship between Different Earthquake Magnitude Scales and the Effect of Seismic Station Sites on Magnitude Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongzhi; Diao Guiling; Zhao Mingchun; Wang Qincai; Zhang Xiao; Huang Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the earthquake catalog reported by the Chinese digital seismic network in recent years, we select the earthquakes with both surface wave magnitude and local magnitude and fit them into a relationship between the two magnitudes. The systematic difference is found from the formula which has been used for 30 years. Because of a large dynamic range and wide frequency range of the current digital observation system, in addition to a larger number of stations and earthquakes being used compared to before, the relation obtained in this paper seems more reliable. Our calculation shows that there is no significant difference before and after magnitude conversion so we suggest the abandonment of magnitude conversion. The site response of a station consists of amplification at different frequencies. The amplification is equal to about 1 and changes little with frequency at stations located on basement rock, and it is greater than 1 at low frequency ranges and less than 1 at high frequency ranges at stations located on sediment layers. The difference between magnitudes from single station located on sediment layer and the average magnitude from the whole network increases from negative to positive with period. It seems that there is no fixed station correction factor and the station correction method does not work to improve the accuracy and magnitude estimates.

  6. 当代中国体育文化输出状况和对策%Current Condition and Strategy of China Sports Culture Export in Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊珊

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the western sports culture import brought the huge challenge for China, the Chinese sports culture has been under the serious cultural impact, this paper,from the concept, current condition and im- portance of sports culture import, analyzes the historical opportune of China culture sports meet in the new century of Beijing Olympics, puts forward that we should export China sports culture through large - scale sports match, sports exchange, sports star, brand, books and video products towards to the world, and finally points out the long -term coexistence between China and western sports culture on global sports culture development.%近年来,西方体育文化的输入给中国体育文化带来了巨大的挑战,中国体育文化受到了严重的冲击。从体育文化输出的概念、现状、输出的重要性着手,剖析了中国体育文化恰遇新世纪北京奥运会等难得的历史机遇,提出了通过大型体育赛事、体育交流、走出国门的体育明星、体育品牌、书籍、影像产品、网络等途径输出中国体育文化,最后提出了中西方体育文化将长期共存的全球体育文化发展趋势。

  7. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  8. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  9. A scheme to set preferred magnitudes in the ISC Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main purposes of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) is to collect, integrate and reprocess seismic bulletins provided by agencies around the world in order to produce the ISC Bulletin. This is regarded as the most comprehensive bulletin of the Earth's seismicity, and its production is based on a unique cooperation in the seismological community that allows the ISC to complement the work of seismological agencies operating at global and/or local-regional scale. In addition, by using the seismic wave measurements provided by reporting agencies, the ISC computes, where possible, its own event locations and magnitudes such as short-period body wave m b and surface wave M S . Therefore, the ISC Bulletin contains the results of the reporting agencies as well as the ISC own solutions. Among the most used seismic event parameters listed in seismological bulletins, the event magnitude is of particular importance for characterizing a seismic event. The selection of a magnitude value (or multiple ones) for various research purposes or practical applications is not always a straightforward task for users of the ISC Bulletin and related products since a multitude of magnitude types is currently computed by seismological agencies (sometimes using different standards for the same magnitude type). Here, we describe a scheme that we intend to implement in routine ISC operations to mark the preferred magnitudes in order to help ISC users in the selection of events with magnitudes of their interest.

  10. Suckers (Fish, Catostomidae) from the Eocene of China ac-count for the family's current disjunct distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liu, T. S., Loess and the Environment, Beijing: China Ocean Press, 1985, 1-251.[2]Chen, L. X., Zhu, Q. G., Luo, H. B. et al., East Asian Monsoon, Beijing: China Meteorology Press, 1991, 28-61.[3]An, Z. S., Liu, T. S., Lu, Y. C. et al., The long-term palaeomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-palaeosol sequence in central China, Quaternary International, 1990, (7/8): 91-95.[4]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Shift of the monsoon intensity on the Loess Plateau at ca. 0.85 MaBP, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1993, 38(2): 586-591.[5]Chen, J., An, Z. S., Wang, Y. J. et al., Distributions of Rb and Sr in the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence of China during the last 800 ka: Implications for paleomonsoon variations, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(3): 225-232.[6]Chen, J., Wang, Y. J., Ji, J. F. et al., Rb/Sr variations and its climatic stratigraphical significance of a loess-paleosol profile from Luochuan, Shaanxi Province, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(4): 350-356.[7]Guo, Z. T.,Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Climate extremes in loess of China coupled with the strength of deep-water for-mation in the North Atlantic, Global and Planetary Change, 1998, 18: 113-128.[8]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., An, Z. S., Paleosols of the last 0.15 Ma in the Weinan loess section and their paleoclimate signifi-cance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1994, 14(3): 256-269.[9]Guo, Z, T,, Fedoroff, N., Liu, T. S., Micromorphology of the loess-paleosol sequence of the last 130 ka in China and pa-leoclimatic event, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26(3): 392-398.[10]Guo, Z., Liu, T., Guiot, J., et al., High frequency pulses of East Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: Link with the North Atlantic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[11]Guo, Z. T., Peng, S. Z., Wei, L. Y. et al., Weathering signals of Millennial-Scale oscillations of the East Asian Summer monsoon over the last 220 ka, Chinese Science

  11. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  12. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  13. Evolution and Magnitudes of Candidate Planet Nine

    CERN Document Server

    Linder, Esther F

    2016-01-01

    Context. Given the recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer Solar System, the thermodynamic evolution of such an object was studied, assuming that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims. We have modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the black body spectrum of distant ice giants. The aim is to provide also estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess the object's detectability. Methods. Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 Mearth containing 10, 14, 21, and 37 % H/He in mass that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition was varied from purely rocky to purely icy as well as 50% rock and 50% ice. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results. We find for the nominal 10 Mearth planet at 700 AU at the current age of the Solar System an effective temperature of 47 K, much more ...

  14. Suckers (Fish, Catostomidae) from the Eocene of China ac-count for the family's current disjunct distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Unequivocal Eocene suckers from China are for the first time reported here. This discovery demonstrates that catostomids of the Eocene Epoch (some 55-35 Ma ago) are scattered widely on mainland Asia as well as western North America. The present day disjunct distribution pattern of catostomids, with 68 extant species widespread in North America and the northern part of Middle America and only two in the restricted areas of Asia, is the result of their post-Eocene decline in Asia due to the competitive pressure from cyprinids, their Late Cenozoic radiation in North America, and the vicariant and dispersal events triggered by the changed biogeographic landscape. All of these prove to be a historical product of the geological, biological, and climatic changes throughout the Cenozoic.

  15. 我国肉类食品安全风险现状与对策%Current Status and Countermeasures of Meat Safety and Risk in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 王守伟; 臧明伍; 张凯华; 张哲奇; 赵金杨

    2015-01-01

    当前我国肉类食品安全整体趋稳向好,但影响肉类食品安全的深层原因仍然存在,食品安全形势依然严峻。本文分析了我国肉类食品从养殖、加工到消费和流通的整个产业链中存在的食品安全问题和风险,以及对比分析了国外肉类食品存在的食品安全问题和风险,剖析了我国肉类食品安全的制约因素,并提出提高我国肉类食品安全的对策建议,期望通过加强风险监测、构建风险预警体系以及开展经济利益驱动型食品安全风险专项整活动,提高我国肉类食品安全水平。%Currently, the overall situation of meat safety in China is getting better but still grim, for the underlying factors causing meat food safety risks still exist. This paper analyzes the food safety problems and risks along the whole industry chain of meat products in China, including breeding, processing, consumption and circulation, and provides a comparative analysis with those in other countries, outlines the factors constraining meat safety in China, and proposes four suggestions on improving the safety of Chinese meat products: strengthening risk monitoring, constructing early warning system, promoting meat safety risk communication and conducting food safety special rectification activities of meat adulteration driven by economic interests.

  16. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  17. The Role of Executive Functions in Numerical Magnitude Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Hoijtink, Herbert J. A.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are closely related to math performance. Little is known, however, about the role of EF in numerical magnitude skills (NS), although these skills are widely acknowledged to be important precursors of math learning. The current study focuses on the different roles of updating, shifting, and inhibition in NS. EF and NS were…

  18. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  19. Development of online instructional resources for Earth system science education: An example of current practice from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaochun; Xu, Shijin; Lu, Xiancai

    2009-06-01

    Educators around the world are striving to make science more accessible and relevant to students. Online instructional resources have become an integral component of tertiary science education and will continue to grow in influence and importance over the coming decades. A case study in the iterative improvement of the online instructional resources provided for first-year undergraduates taking " Introductory Earth System Science" at Nanjing University in China is presented in this paper. Online instructional resources are used to conduct a student-centered learning model in the domain of Earth system science, resulting in a sustainable online instructional framework for students and instructors. The purpose of our practice is to make Earth system science education more accessible and exciting to students, changing instruction from a largely textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and student-centered approach, and promoting the integration of knowledge and development of deep understanding by students. Evaluation on learning performance and learning satisfaction is conducted to identify helpful components and perception based on students' learning activities. The feedbacks indicate that the use of online instructional resources has positive impacts on mitigating Earth system science education challenges, and has the potential to promote deep learning.

  20. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  1. Unusually large 210Po deficiencies relative to 210Pb in the Kuroshio Current of the East China and Philippine seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three vertical water profiles of 210Pb and 210Po have been measured in the East China and Philippine seas. All the profiles show a large 210Po deficiency of ∼ 8 dpm/cm2 relative to 210Pb in the top ∼ 1,000 m of the water column. Based on the 210Po deficiency, the steady state flux for 210Po removal from the surface water is estimated to be 14 dpm cm-2/yr. The 210Po/210Pb ratio of sinking particles will be too high unless an additional source of 210Pb into the surface is accounted for. Thus the large 210Po deficit is probably caused by the increased atmospheric input of 210Pb without any significant 210Po, which is focused in the Kuroshio region by isopycnal transport, and the preferential scavenging of 210Po relative to 210Pb by settling particles. The transient model calculations indicate that the model can account for the observed high excess 210Pb inventory and large 210Po deficiency in the water column if focusing of atmospherically derived 210Pb in the Kuroshio water is a factor of 2-3 more than the local input. Such lateral redistribution by the western North Pacific gyre circulation is not inconsistent with the deeper penetration and the high water column inventories of anthropogenic substances observed in this region

  2. China's Post Accession WTO Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Mallon; John Whalley

    2004-01-01

    We discuss China's stance in the WTO post-accession, noting the many issues with implementation of China's accession terms by 2007. We evaluate how much benefit China can realistically receive from WTO membership given current problems with dumping actions against China and trade restrictions against textile and apparel exports. We discuss emerging WTO and non-WTO trade disputes involving China, and China's now extensive regional trade initiatives which raise issues of multilateral regional b...

  3. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  4. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1-1 h-1. Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  5. Cometary Nuclear Magnitudes from Sky Survey Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Michael; Rauer, Heike; Sterken, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The determination of the nuclear magnitudes of comets, and with it nuclear size frequency distributions, is strongly complicated by cometary activity. By now, only nuclear size frequency distributions for Jupiter-Family comets are available, and they are still subject of uncertainties. For comets of other dynamical classes, nuclear magnitudes are known for only a few comets. The size frequency distributions are thus not well constrained. In this work we study wh...

  6. Empirical calibration of local magnitude datasets versus moment magnitude in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Gasperini, P.; Università di Bologna; Lolli, B.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Vannucci, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia

    2013-01-01

    Using general orthogonal regressions (GORs), we calibrated local magnitudes, estimated in Italy using various methods in different periods of time from 1981 to 2010, with a set of homogeneous moment magnitudes (Mw). Magnitude uncertainties, necessary for the application of GOR methods, are inferred by a trial-anderror procedure based on a priori information and empirical regression results. We found that local magnitudes determined using real or synthesized Wood–Anderson waveforms (ML) scale ...

  7. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  8. Executive function and magnitude skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Emily O; Sera, Maria D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2016-07-01

    Executive function (EF) has been highlighted as a potentially important factor for mathematical understanding. The relation has been well established in school-aged children but has been less explored at younger ages. The current study investigated the relation between EF and mathematics in preschool-aged children. Participants were 142 typically developing 3- and 4-year-olds. Controlling for verbal ability, a significant positive correlation was found between EF and general math abilities in this age group. Importantly, we further examined this relation causally by varying the EF load on a magnitude comparison task. Results suggested a developmental pattern where 3-year-olds' performance on the magnitude comparison task was worst when EF was taxed the most. Conversely, 4-year-olds performed well on the magnitude task despite varying EF demands, suggesting that EF might play a critical role in the development of math concepts. PMID:27082019

  9. Geoinformatics Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D.; Gong, J; Yue, P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by th...

  10. Sedimentary history of the eastern Bohai Sea, China since the deglacial and implications for paleo-tidal current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhengquan; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulation suggests that the Holocene sediments re-suspension and distribution in the Bohai Sea was mainly controlled by tidal current regime, which was closely related with sea-level change. Study on sediments in the Bohai Sea thus can provide insights into the evolution of tidal-influenced sedimentary environment and its links with sea-level change. Our understanding of this issue remains incomplete, however, owing to the lack of comprehensive study on sediment core with high-resolution proxies to test such inference. In this study, analyses of sedimentary facies, proxies (grain size, total organic carbon and total nitrogen, X-ray fluorescence scanning Sulfur and Chlorine ratio) and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates of a sediment core recovered from the eastern Bohai Sea were carried out to clarify the Holocene sedimentary environment, tidal current change and its relation to the sea-level. The results indicate that the eastern Bohai Sea was dominated by fluvial-coastal environment prior to 12400 cal. a BP due to the sea-level lowstand and changed to tidal-influenced environment from 12400 to 6700 cal. a BP following the rapid sea-level rising. Thereafter shelf environment with minor tidal influence dominated the eastern Bohai Sea under the condition of a deceleration of sea-level rise. The significant change at ~6700 cal. a BP both in sedimentary environment and sediment proxies, indicating an environmental transition from strong tidal-influenced to less tidal-influenced setting. With the sea-level rising from the early Holocene to the mid-Holocene, tidal-current was much strong due to the low sea-level stand and became weak after the maximum transgression at ~6700 cal. a BP. These results are consistent with the numerical simulation, which suggested that less strong tidal current were the consequence of the most highstand sea-level since the mid-Holocene. Our study thus provides a sedimentary record to support the interpretation of numerical

  11. Current status of drug resistance ofStreptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in China%儿童肺炎链球菌耐药现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛玲丽; 韩志英

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen of community- acquired infections in children, and antibiotics are the effective way of treatment for pneumococcal disease. Disease burden of pneumococcal infections has increased due to enhanced antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and it has a large regional differences. In recent years, surveillance for bacterial resistance ofStreptococcus pneumoniaeamong children has enhanced, and the related researches are increasing in China. This article provided an overview of the current status of drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniaeto β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics and other antibiotics in children in China.%肺炎链球菌是儿童社区获得性感染最常见细菌病原,抗菌药物是治疗肺炎链球菌疾病的有效手段。由于抗生素的长期过度使用,肺炎链球菌对抗生素的耐药性逐渐增强,肺炎链球菌感染性疾病造成的负担逐渐加重,且不同地区差异较大。近年来国内对儿童肺炎链球菌抗生素耐药性的监测加强,文献报道增多,此文就国内儿童肺炎链球菌对β-内酰胺类、大环内酯类及其他种类抗生素的耐药状况进行综述。

  12. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  13. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  14. Argument on the magnitude-frequencyrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈时军; 王丽凤; 马丽; 张红军

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of seismicity and the relation of magnitude and frequency are discussed in this paper on the basis of nonlinear dynamics and multifractal theory. We argue that seismic active systems normally have multifractal characteristics, either for the spatial-temporal distribution or the intensity distribution of events. In the view of multifractal theory the nonlinear characteristics of the magnitude-frequency relation are discussed and the formulation is revised. Also, one example of the variance of bq estimated based on the recent New Zealand catalogue is enumerated.

  15. CFD simulation on the generation of turbidites in deepwater areas:a case study of turbidity current processes in Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; ZHANG Yingzhao; TANG Sulin; ZHANG Daojun; ZUO Qianmei; LIN Weiren; WANG Yahui; SUN Hui; WANG Bo

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity currents represent a major agent for sediment transport in lakes, seas and oceans. In particu-lar, they formulate the most significant clastic accumulations in the deep sea, which become many of the world’s most important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Several boreholes in the Qiongdongnan Basin, the north-western South China Sea, have recently revealed turbidity current deposits as significant hydrocarbon res-ervoirs. However, there are some arguments for the potential provenances. To solve this problem, it is es-sential to delineate their sedimentary processes as well as to evaluate their qualities as reservoir. Numerical simulations have been developed rapidly over the last several years, offering insights into turbidity current behaviors, as geologically significant turbidity currents are difficult to directly investigate due to their large scale and often destructive nature. Combined with the interpretation of the turbidity system based on high-resolution 3D seismic data, the paleotophography is acquired via a back-stripping seismic profile integrated with a borehole, i.e., Well A, in the western Qiongdongnan Basin; then a numerical model is built on the basis of this back-stripped profile. After defining the various turbidity current initial boundary conditions, includ-ing grain size, velocity and sediment concentration, the structures and behaviors of turbidity currents are investigated via numerical simulation software ANSYS FLUENT. Finally, the simulated turbidity deposits are compared with the interpreted sedimentary bodies based on 3D seismic data and the potential provenances of the revealed turbidites by Well A are discussed in details. The simulation results indicate that a sedimen-tary body develops far away from its source with an average grain size of 0.1 mm, i.e., sand-size sediment. Taking into account the location and orientation of the simulated seismic line, the consistence between normal forward simulation results and the revealed cores

  16. 近期中国社会语言学的几个热点%Current topics of general interest in sociolinguistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈章太

    2001-01-01

    Since sociolinguistics was introduced into China during the 70's of last century, sociolinguistic studies, especially macrosociolinguistic studies, have made rapid progress in various fields. To illustrate this point, the paper focuses on the status quo of the studies in language identification, endangered languages, bilingualism and professional jargons. The author concludes that China's sociolinguistics is still young and immature, however, sociolinguistics has a vast range of prospects, as the social circumstances of China provide very favorable conditions for its development.

  17. 我国现行创业投资法规之检视%On Current Regulations of Venture Capital in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁

    2012-01-01

    创业投资的发展,离不开法律的引导与支持,法律环境的友善是产业蕴育、吸引新进者及外商进入的重要因素。法制的完善与否直接影响创业投资活动的精准运作程度和投资风险的可预期性,进而影响投资者的投资意愿。本文以为创业投资企业提供的特别法律保护为切入点,以《创业投资企业管理暂行办法》和《外商投资创业投资企业管理规定》为核心进行比较与研究,并对其与我国现行《公司法》及外商企业法冲突之处予以检视,认为可将我国目前的创投法制体系视为创投法制发展的过渡阶段,但发展成熟之后应尽可能放宽法令限制,扩大企业自治范围,由创投企业自主构建契约治理机制。%The development of venture capital investment cannot do without the guidance and support of the law and the legal environment is an important factor to breed industry, attract new entrants and foreign access. Perfection of the legal system will impact directly the precise operation of venture capital investment activities, predictability of investment risk, thereby affecting investors' willingness to invest. This paper, starting from nine special legal protection for the venture capital enterprises, makes a comparison between and analysis of Interim Measures for the Administration of Venture Capital Enterprises and Foreign - inves- ted Venture Capital Enterprise Management Provisions, and examines the conflict between them and current Company Law and Foreign Enterprise Law in China. And it holds that current China' s venture capital legal system can be regarded as the transition phase of the venture capital development of the legal system, but after it developed maturely, it is suggested to relax the statute of limitations, expand the corporate limits of the autonomy and courage the venture capital company to build their own contractual governance mechanisms.

  18. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Local magnitudes ML have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and the estimated calibration function of the Dahshour area. These were compared with their corresponding values of duration magnitudes obtained from the analog short period seismograms of the HLW station. The local magnitudes M L and the duration magnitudes M D for this region imply a linear relation as follows: M L = 1.2988 (± 0.04 M D – 0.9032 (± 0.14. Seismic moment has also been estimated for these events using simple measurements from the time domain records. These measurements based on the simulated Wood Anderson seismograms are used for the local magnitude (ML estimation. The derived relationship between seismic moment (M 0 and magnitude (M L is: log (M 0 = 0.954 (± 0.019 M L + 17.258 (± 0.075.

  19. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection; Revision historica de la magnitud exposicion y las magnitudes dosimetricas empleadas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  20. Discounting Behaviour and the Magnitude Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    rate that is independent of the scale of the project for cost–benefit analysis and capital budgeting. Using data from a field experiment in Denmark, we find statistically significant evidence of a magnitude effect that is much smaller than is claimed. This evidence surfaces only if one controls for...

  1. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  2. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Abdelwahed; E. M. Abdelrahman; H. M. Hussein; M. M. Dessokey

    2000-01-01

    Local magnitudes ML have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and the estimated calibration function of the Dahshour area. These were compared with their corresponding values of duration magnitudes obtained from the analog short period seismograms of the HLW station. The local magnitudes M L and the duration magnitudes M D for this region imply a linear relation as follows: M L = 1.2988 (± 0.04) M D – 0.9032 (± 0...

  3. Middle Miocene mound-shaped sediment packages on the slope of the Xisha carbonate platforms, South China Sea: Combined result of gravity flow and bottom current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Wu, Shiguo; Lv, Fuliang; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xinyuan; Ma, Benjun

    2015-12-01

    Deep-water mound-shaped sediment packages on the northern slope of the Xisha carbonate platforms in the northern South China Sea were analyzed by integrating high-resolution multi-channel seismic and drilling data. The mounds are distributed in the Beijiao depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin within the T41-T40 seismic horizons, which correspond to the middle Miocene. Mound-shaped reflections were identified both in the NE-SW and NW-SE oriented seismic profiles. The mound shapes are most prominent in the center of the NW-SE oriented seismic profiles, and the undulating tops flatten out towards the NW and SE. Similar reflections are mostly asymmetric, with steeper eastern flanks in the NE-SW oriented seismic profiles, and they are mostly round in shape. The wave impedance from the inversion calculation is 6-8×106 kg/(m2·s). It is much lower than that of the reef reservoir in the LH11-1 Reef Oilfield. Paleogeographic analysis shows that the Xisha uplift was dominated by tropical shallow carbonate platforms, while the Beijiao depression became a bathyal environment in the middle Miocene. Drilling data confirmed that the mound-shaped sediment packages are mainly composed of calcareous mudstone. Therefore, we infer that the mound-shaped sediment packages could be reef complexes or they were presumably built by combined gravity flow and bottom current.

  4. 当前国内汽车营销策略重构探析%An Analysis of the Reconstruction of China's Current Automobile Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海侠

    2012-01-01

    China's automobile market is now showing the competition of a "post-market", which means that the past 4S sales mode and marketing strategy is lagging behind the current situation and there is an imperative need to introduce the management concept of integrated marketing communication and the new 4V marketing strategy. The new approaches require intensive service marketing, enriched marketing modes and service items and differentiated marketing methods. The new approaches also call for the full exploitation of products and services, the increased value for money and the rapid improvement of informationization and marketing talent training. Only in this way can the new market trends be met.%目前国内汽车市场正进入“后市场”竞争时代,原有的4S销售模式和营销策略已经有所滞后,急需引入整合营销传播的管理理念和4V新型营销策略,深化服务营销,扩充营销模式和服务内涵,体现差异化营销,充分挖掘产品和服务功能,增加附加值,并加速完善信息化和营销人才培养机制,以适应新市场趋势的需求。

  5. The Current Situation and Tendency of Underground Space Planning in China%中国地下空间规划现状与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵继中; 王海丰

    2013-01-01

      对于城市的地下空间规划,中国许多城市已进行了初步探索,积累了一定经验。但同时,由于法律、政策、技术等原因对地下空间规划的未来发展形成了阻碍。所以,本文通过对中国城市地下空间规划现状的调查与分析,剖析现阶段地下空间规划与利用过程中的有关问题。创新性地提出建立与地面规划相协调的从总规到详规的统一体系,并展望地下空间规划的未来蓝图。%Many cities in China have carried out the preliminary explorations about urban underground space planning, and accumulated experiences. However, the underground space planning has some barriers on the way of its future development due to the law, government policies, technical problems etc. This article shows results of investigation and analysis about the current situation of Chinese urban underground space planning, dissects the relevant issues in the process of current underground space planning and utilizing. It also proposes innovatively in this paper to establish the unified system which is coordinating with the ground planning, and includes both general regulations and the detailed regulations. The underground space planning blueprint for the future is also descried.

  6. Correlation between subsurface high-salinity water in the northern South China Sea and the North Equatorial Current-Kuroshio circulation system from HYCOM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Du, Y.; Zhuang, W.; Qi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by subsurface high salinity, is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and is often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) from 2008 through 2013, this study investigates the seasonal variability of subsurface high-salinity water (SHSW) in the northern SCS and its relationship with the North Equatorial Current-Kuroshio circulation system. Results show that the obvious seasonal variability of the SHSW appears at about 100-200 m in depth. It extends as far west as southeast of Hainan, reaching its volume maximum (minimum) in January (May). The seasonal variance contribution (seasonal variance accounting for the entire variance) is 0.38 in the period we considered, albeit with significant annual variance in other years. Further analysis shows that the changes in high-salinity water volume are highly correlated with the shift in the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude (NECBL), which reaches its northernmost point in December and its southernmost point in May. Due to the large-scale wind changes in the Pacific, the Luzon Strait transport (LST) weakens (strengthens) when the NECBL shifts to the south (north) during summer (winter), which results in the reduced (enhanced) SHSW intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the northern SCS. It is also found that, on a seasonal timescale, the Kuroshio transport (KT) does not vary in phase with NECBL, LST and SHSW, indicating that the KT changes are probably not the governing factor for the seasonal variability of SHSW in the northern SCS.

  7. The Current Situation and Countermeasures of Foreign Exchange Management of Capital Projects in China%我国资本项目外汇管理的现状及对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大龙

    2015-01-01

    我国资本项目的开放一直备受国内国际经济界的关注.本文通过分析我国资本项目外汇管理的现状及其所面临的突出问题,以此探讨如何完善我国资本项目外汇管理的相关对策建议.%The opening of capital projects in China has been concerned by domestic and international economic circles. This paper analyzes the current situation of China's foreign exchange management of capital projects and the outstanding issues, in order to explore how to improve China's capital projects related to foreign exchange management of relevant countermeasures.

  8. Transition matrix analysis of earthquake magnitude sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of complexity is a fascinating research topic in nonlinear signal and system analysis. Information theoretic functionals can be used to identify and quantify general relationships among variables; these relationships can be considered as the fingerprints of complexity. Up to now, the complexity of seismic sequences has been mostly related to the concept of self-similarity, suggesting that the earthquake dynamics can be interpreted as due to many components interacting over a wide range of time or space scales. This paper deals with a new idea of complexity of seismicity, focusing, in particular, on the transition probability between magnitudes. Using the Transition Matrix Method, a set of complexity parameters can be defined for earthquakes. Furthermore, the relationships among these parameters and those characterizing the earthquake magnitude dynamics have been analyzed in simulated and observational seismic sequences

  9. Forced displacement in Colombia: Magnitude and causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Ibáñez

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the magnitude, geographical extent, and causes of forced populationdisplacements in Colombia. Forced migration in Colombia is a war strategy adopted by armed groups to strengthen territorial strongholds, weaken civilian support to the enemy, seize valuable lands, and produce and transport illegal drugs with ease. Forced displacement in Colombia today affects 3.5 million people. Equivalent to 7.8 percent of Colombia’s population, and second worldwide only to Sudan, this s...

  10. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  11. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  12. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data: A New Approach for Predicting Earthquake Magnitudes from Fault Segment Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, N. S.; Payne, S. J.; Schafer, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range faults in the Intermountain Seismic Belt, U.S.A. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths, Lseg, where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements, D, along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M ~ Lseg, should equal M ~ D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating Lseg with surface rupture length, SRL. Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M ~ SRL relationship using Lseg as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M ~ Lseg and M ~ D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude, Mw, and length, where length is Lseg instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw ~ Lseg results are strikingly consistent with Mw ~ D calculations using paleoearthquake data for

  13. Prediction of maximum magnitude and original time of reservoir induced seismicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of potentially maximum magnitude and origin time for reservoir induced seismicity (RIS). The factor and sign of seismology and geology of RIS has been studied, and the information quantity for magnitude of induced seismicity provided by them has been calculated. In terms of information quan-tity the biggest possible magnitude of RIS is determined. The changes of seismic frequency with time are studied using grey model method, and the time of the biggest change rate is taken as original time of the main shock. The feasibility of methods for predicting magnitude and time has been tested for the reservoir induced seismicity in the Xinfengjiang reservoir, China and the Koyna reservoir, India.

  14. Scaling Relations of Local Magnitude versus Moment Magnitude for Sequences of Similar Earthquakes in Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, F.

    2011-03-22

    Theoretical considerations and empirical regressions show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, local magnitude, ML, and moment magnitude, Mw, scale 1:1. Previous studies suggest that for smaller magnitudes this 1:1 scaling breaks down. However, the scatter between ML and Mw at small magnitudes is usually large and the resulting scaling relations are therefore uncertain. In an attempt to reduce these uncertainties, we first analyze the ML versus Mw relation based on 195 events, induced by the stimulation of a geothermal reservoir below the city of Basel, Switzerland. Values of ML range from 0.7 to 3.4. From these data we derive a scaling of ML ~ 1:5Mw over the given magnitude range. We then compare peak Wood-Anderson amplitudes to the low-frequency plateau of the displacement spectra for six sequences of similar earthquakes in Switzerland in the range of 0:5 ≤ ML ≤ 4:1. Because effects due to the radiation pattern and to the propagation path between source and receiver are nearly identical at a particular station for all events in a given sequence, the scatter in the data is substantially reduced. Again we obtain a scaling equivalent to ML ~ 1:5Mw. Based on simulations using synthetic source time functions for different magnitudes and Q values estimated from spectral ratios between downhole and surface recordings, we conclude that the observed scaling can be explained by attenuation and scattering along the path. Other effects that could explain the observed magnitude scaling, such as a possible systematic increase of stress drop or rupture velocity with moment magnitude, are masked by attenuation along the path.

  15. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  16. The intensities and magnitudes of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since 1935, when C.F Richter devised the earthquake magnitude scale that bears his name, seismologists have been able to view energy release from earthquakes in a systematic and quantitative manner. The benefits have been obvious in terms of assessing seismic gaps and the spatial and temporal trends of earthquake energy release. A similar quantitative treatment of volcanic activity is of course equally desirable, both for gaining a further understanding of the physical principles of volcanic eruptions and for volcanic-hazard assessment. A systematic volcanologic data base would be of great value in evaluating such features as volcanic gaps, and regional and temporal trends in energy release.  

  17. 我国椰子副产物的利用现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Utilization of Coconut By -product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鹏; 刘立云; 孙程旭; 冯美利

    2011-01-01

    The article investigated and analyzed the current situation of researches and utilization of coconut by -products (coconut pericarp, coconut water, coconut bran, coconut cake, coconut wood and coconut litter crack) in China, and pointed out the existent main problems in the utilization of coconut by -products, including low recognition degree and awareness of resource utilization, inadequate scientific research investment and low technological content of products, behindhand equipments and small scale production , imperfect policy and insufficient service system. The following countermeasures for the utilization of coconut by - products were proposed; government guidance and support, strengthening scientific research and development, integration of technology, establishing and improving the policy for the utilization of agricultural resources.%分析了我国椰子副产物利用的现状和存在问题,主要是椰子果皮、椰子水、椰麸、椰粕、椰子木和椰子枯落裂物的研究和利用现状,指出当前椰子副产物利用方面的主要问题是重视程度不够,资源利用意识低;科研投入不足,产品科技含量低;技术装备落后,生产规模小;政策不健全,服务体系缺乏等问题.并提出了其利用对策,包括:政府引导与支持;加强科研开发力度;技术集成;建立与健全农业资源化利用政策.

  18. 国内耐药肺炎链球菌的流行现状%Current status of drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚开虎; 张敬仁

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes devastating infectious diseases, such as bacterial pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis in both developed and developing countries. Due to the excessive use of antibiotics, the re sistance of pneumococcal isolates to many of the commonly used antibiotics results in fewer effective antibiotics available for treat ment. As the resistant S. pneumoniae is gradually approaching what the “superbug” is, the emergent situation demands our full at tention and efforts in seeking short-and long-term solutions. This article provides an overview of the current status of drug resis tance of S. pneumoniae and the related research in China.%肺炎链球菌可引起细菌性肺炎、中耳炎和脑膜炎等疾病,是当今发达国家和发展中国家共有的一个重要病原.由于抗生素长期的过度使用,许多肺炎链球菌菌株能够同时耐受多种常用的抗生素,使得临床可应用的有效抗生素越来越少.耐药肺炎链球菌正在朝着"超级细菌"方向发展.这种现状值得我们关注并寻求近期和长期的解决方法.本文对国内肺炎链球菌耐药现状及相关研究进行综述.

  19. Analysis of Current Problems of China's Energy Audit Team%简析我国能源审计队伍现状及存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯京亮; 翟国富; 苗杨; 马伟; 田东蒙

    2014-01-01

    The current situation of China's energy audit team was found out through this paper. It showed that among energy audit practitioners, energy audit professional qualification of employees was unclear, and professional and continuing education needed to be improved, and lack of regulatory mechanism also existed. There were also problems of the third-party energy audit agency. For example, reporting audit procedures was to be further standardized, and there were falsifications during the operation, and the working activity of personnel was falling down result of the unreasonable audit fee. The establishment of an independent third party auditor energy system was proposed to solve these problems.%通过调研,摸清了目前我国能源审计队伍现状。研究表明,我国能源审计从业人员存在着专业资格认定不清、专业教育和继续教育水平有待提高、审计活动监管机制仍须改进等问题;第三方能源审计机构存在着申报审核程序有待进一步规范、运行过程有弄虚作假行为、审计费用不合理工作积极性下降等问题。针对这些问题,提出了在我国建立独立第三方能源审计师制度的构想。

  20. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  1. Absolute Magnitude Calibration for Dwarfs Based on the Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Galactic Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Karaali, S; Bilir, S; Guctekin, S Tuncel

    2014-01-01

    We present two absolute magnitude calibrations for dwarfs based on colour-magnitude diagrams of Galactic clusters. The combination of the $M_g$ absolute magnitudes of the dwarf fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, M5, NGC 2420, M67 and NGC 6791 with the corresponding metallicities provides absolute magnitude calibration for a given $(g-r)_0$ colour. The calibration is defined in the colour interval $0.25\\leq (g-r)_0 \\leq 1.25$ mag and it covers the metallicity interval $-2.15\\leq \\lbrack Fe/H\\rbrack \\leq +0.37$ dex. The absolute magnitude residuals obtained by the application of the procedure to another set of Galactic clusters lie in the interval $-0.15 \\leq \\Delta M_g \\leq +0.12$ mag. The mean and standard deviation of the residuals are $=-0.002$ and $\\sigma=0.065$ mag, respectively. The calibration of the $M_J$ absolute magnitude in terms of metallicity is carried out by using the fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, 47 Tuc, NGC 2158 and NGC 6791. It is defined in the colour interval $0.90 ...

  2. Involvement of Working Memory in Longitudinal Development of Number-Magnitude Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Leseman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The ability to connect numbers and magnitudes is an important prerequisite for math learning, here referred to as number-magnitude skills. It has been proposed that working memory plays an important role in constructing these connections. The aim of the current study was to examine if working memory

  3. The Road to Convergence in Earthquake Frequency-Magnitude Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, M.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation is a fundamental empirical law of seismology, but its form remains uncertain for rare extreme events. Convergence trends can be diagnostic of the nature of an underlying distribution and its sampling even before convergence has occurred. We examine the evolution of an information criteria metric applied to earthquake magnitude time series, in order to test whether the Gutenberg-Richter law can be rejecting in various earthquake catalogues. This would imply that the catalogue is starting to sample roll-off in the tail though it cannot yet identify the form of the roll-off. We compare bootstrapped synthetic Gutenberg-Richter and synthetic modified Gutenberg-Richter catalogues with the convergence trends observed in real earthquake data e.g. the global CMT catalogue, Southern California and mining/geothermal data. Whilst convergence in the tail remains some way off, we show that the temporal evolution of model likelihoods and parameters for the frequency-magnitude distribution of the global Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue is inconsistent with an unbounded GR relation, despite it being the preferred model at the current time. Bell, A. F., M. Naylor, and I. G. Main (2013), Convergence of the frequency-size distribution of global earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2585-2589, doi:10.1002/grl.50416.

  4. Current Status and Improvement Strategy of Port Logistics in China%我国港口物流发展现状与改进策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耕新

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the current status of development of port logistics in China and pointed out the major problems existing therein as well as the correspoding improvement strategies.%分析了我国港口物流发展现状,指出了存在的主要问题,并从几个方面对加强我国港口物流发展提出了改进策略.

  5. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  6. Extracting parameters from Colour-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C; Kepler, S O; Bica, E

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M\\,67, NGC\\,6791, and NGC\\,2635, which are characterised by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  7. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-01

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences. PMID:11955557

  8. Dilemmas for China: Energy, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Benjamin C. McLellan; Snowden, Simon; Zhang, Baosheng; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    China's current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a "world factory", but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China's economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China...

  9. Reinforcer magnitude and rate dependency: evaluation of resistance-to-change mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Under many circumstances, reinforcer magnitude appears to modulate the rate-dependent effects of drugs such that when schedules arrange for relatively larger reinforcer magnitudes rate dependency is attenuated compared with behavior maintained by smaller magnitudes. The current literature on resistance to change suggests that increased reinforcer density strengthens operant behavior, and such strengthening effects appear to extend to the temporal control of behavior. As rate dependency may be understood as a loss of temporal control, the effects of reinforcer magnitude on rate dependency may be due to increased resistance to disruption of temporally controlled behavior. In the present experiments, pigeons earned different magnitudes of grain during signaled components of a multiple FI schedule. Three drugs, clonidine, haloperidol, and morphine, were examined. All three decreased overall rates of key pecking; however, only the effects of clonidine were attenuated as reinforcer magnitude increased. An analysis of within-interval performance found rate-dependent effects for clonidine and morphine; however, these effects were not modulated by reinforcer magnitude. In addition, we included prefeeding and extinction conditions, standard tests used to measure resistance to change. In general, rate-decreasing effects of prefeeding and extinction were attenuated by increasing reinforcer magnitudes. Rate-dependent analyses of prefeeding showed rate-dependency following those tests, but in no case were these effects modulated by reinforcer magnitude. The results suggest that a resistance-to-change interpretation of the effects of reinforcer magnitude on rate dependency is not viable. PMID:25115595

  10. Understanding high magnitude flood risk: evidence from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N.

    2009-04-01

    The average length of gauged river flow records in the UK is ~25 years, which presents a problem in determining flood risk for high-magnitude flood events. Severe floods have been recorded in many UK catchments during the past 10 years, increasing the uncertainty in conventional flood risk estimates based on river flow records. Current uncertainty in flood risk has implications for society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and water resource managers (flood/drought risk). An alternative approach is required which can improve current understanding of the flood frequency/magnitude relationship. Historical documentary accounts are now recognised as a valuable resource when considering the flood frequency/magnitude relationship, but little consideration has been given to the temporal and spatial distribution of these records. Building on previous research based on British rivers (urban centre): Ouse (York), Trent (Nottingham), Tay (Perth), Severn (Shrewsbury), Dee (Chester), Great Ouse (Cambridge), Sussex Ouse (Lewes), Thames (Oxford), Tweed (Kelso) and Tyne (Hexham), this work considers the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flooding. The selected sites provide a network covering many of the largest river catchments in Britain, based on urban centres with long detailed documentary flood histories. The chronologies offer an opportunity to assess long-term patterns of flooding, indirectly determining periods of climatic variability and potentially increased geomorphic activity. This research represents the first coherent large scale analysis undertaken of historical multi-catchment flood chronologies, providing an unparalleled network of sites, permitting analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flood patterns on a national scale.

  11. Current status of protection of forest genetic resources in China%中国林木遗传资源保护现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵罕; 宗亦臣; 郑勇奇

    2014-01-01

    Complex and diverse geographical conditions formed unique geographical areas,and also gave birth to many forest types and rich forest genetic resources. As a basis for strategic resources of the country,China has more than 8 000 kinds of woody plants,including 1 000 kinds of economically important species,seven endemic families,239 genera and about 1 100 unique endemics. For comprehensive understanding and analysis of forest genetic resources conservation sta-tus,in-situ,ex-situ,and facilitiesconservation status,damage and loss status of resource and related laws and regulations were summarized,current problems were analyzed,and preliminary proposal were put for more rational and effective pro-tection of forest genetic resources.%复杂多样的地理条件形成了各具特色的地理区域,同时也孕育了我国众多的森林类型和极为丰富的林木遗传资源。作为国家的基础性战略资源,我国拥有木本植物8000多种,其中具有重要经济价值的树种约1000种,同时具有7个特有科、239个特有属和约1100个特有种。为对我国林木遗传资源保存状况进行全面的了解和分析,对我国林木遗传资源的原地、异地及设施保存状况,资源破坏、流失状况及相关的法律法规进行了总结,对目前存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了初步的建议,为合理、有效的保护林木遗传资源提供了参考。

  12. Analysis on the Current Situation of Illegal Drug Advertising in China%我国药品广告管理现状及问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悦; 杨世民

    2016-01-01

    Objective To reflect the current situation of drug advertising control in China,to find out the existing problems,and to pro-pose suggestions on drug advertisement control. Methods The illegal drug advertising during 2014-2015 was collected. The content analysis,secondary analysis and comparative analysis methods were adopted to evaluate the drug advertising control. Results The liter-ature research,annual number of illegal drug advertisement increased year by year. An advertisement for medicines should not in any way contain any unscientific assertions or assurances in terms of efficiency or uses. The problems like expansion of the treatment effi-ciency or curative rate still existed. Conclusion It is still an essential issue to strengthen the management of drug advertising con-trol. We suggest that the laws and regulations concerned drug advertising control should be improved;the drug advertising regulatory de-partments should be unified;the penalties for violations of the law should be aggravated;the management of publishing media should be strengthened;the supervision of illegal websites should be intensified.%目的:了解我国近年药品广告管理的现状,找出存在的问题,为加强药品广告管理提出建议。方法收集2014年至2015年违法药品广告的资料,采用文献研究、内容分析、二次分析、对比分析等研究方法探讨药品广告管理情况。结果我国药品违法广告数量增加,广告宣传内容含有不科学表示功效的断言和保证,扩大宣传治愈率或有效率等问题依然存在。结论加强药品广告管理依然是业内关注的重要问题之一。建议完善药品广告管理的法规建设,统一药品广告审批监管部门,加大对违法行为的处罚力度,加强对发布媒体的管理,加大对违法网站的监管。

  13. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it ...

  14. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  15. China's carbon flow: 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Huanan Li; Yi-Ming Wei; Zhi-Fu Mi

    2014-01-01

    As the world's largest CO2 emitter, China's CO2 emissions have become one of the most popular issues concerned by domestic and foreign researchers. Therefore, analysis of the current status of China's carbon emissions is very important. After drawing a chart of China's carbon flow in 2012, based on the IPCC carbon emission inventory method and China's energy balance table, this paper gives a detailed description of the current status of China's carbon flow and compares the changing characteri...

  16. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Blake L; Bui, Eric; Marin, Marie-France; Holt, Daphne J; Lasko, Natasha B; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial variability across individuals in the magnitudes of their skin conductance (SC) responses during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To manage this variability, subjects may be matched for demographic variables, such as age, gender and education. However, limited data exist addressing how much variability in conditioned SC responses is actually explained by these variables. The present study assessed the influence of age, gender and education on the SC responses of 222 subjects who underwent the same differential conditioning paradigm. The demographic variables were found to predict a small but significant amount of variability in conditioned responding during fear acquisition, but not fear extinction learning or extinction recall. A larger differential change in SC during acquisition was associated with more education. Older participants and women showed smaller differential SC during acquisition. Our findings support the need to consider age, gender and education when studying fear acquisition but not necessarily when examining fear extinction learning and recall. Variability in demographic factors across studies may partially explain the difficulty in reproducing some SC findings. PMID:26151498

  17. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil

    2015-04-01

    displayed ductile behaviour under standard strain-controlled monotonic shear tests. We applied dynamic stresses of varying amplitude, frequency and sequence, and monitored the resultant strain response to determine which factors, when combined, create significant deviations from standard monotonic shear behaviour. Critically, we demonstrate that multiple dynamic stress/shaking events that are largely insufficient to cause permanent strain accumulation (and hence are conventionally deemed geomorphologically ineffective) can, under favourable though limited conditions, affect material stiffness such that the future behaviour of the sediment/landslide differs considerably from that observed in standard monotonic shear tests. In other words, low-magnitude ground shaking events can be effective precursory geomorphic processes. Our results have important implications for studies of long-term landscape evolution, in which modelled hillslopes are repeatedly subjected to multiple earthquake events but that currently lack appropriate empirically-constrained strength parameters.

  18. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  19. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    was higher than on the current trial. According to the attention band hypothesis[Green and Luce, 1974, Perception & Psychophysics] these dependencies arise from a process similar to selective attention, but observations of rapid adaptation of neurons in the inferior colliculus based on stimulus level...

  20. 中国HIV抗体检测策略的应用评价%Evaluation on HIV antibody testing strategy currently used in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓莉; 鲍作义; 刘永健; 耿海山; 郝钦芳; 王莉; 凌爱琴; 王海燕; 李敬云

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价中国HIV抗体检测策略在不同人群应用的效果和收益.方法 (1)收集103 133份一般人群(临床就诊病例、献血员、新兵)标本、1276份HIV感染高危人群(吸毒人群、HIV感染者的配偶)标本、2323份生化和免疫指标异常的标本,用现行HIV抗体检测策略进行检测.(2)对2002-2008年武警总医院90 289人次临床病例HIV抗体检测数据进行回顾性分析;对3个省级确认中心实验室过去3~5年确认检测的结果进行回顾性分析.结果 (1)筛查试验的收益在高危人群与一般人群显著不同,高危人群筛查阳性者中HIV抗体真阳性的比例约为50%,显著高于一般人群;主要针对一般人群的确认实验室筛查阳性标本中真阳性的比例为19.58%,显著低于主要针对高危人群的确认实验室.(2)2002-2008年临床HIV抗体检测,首次筛查阳性的真阳性率由3.7%上升到16.0%,同时,复检效率由92.6%下降为61.5%.(3)常见的生化和免疫异常未增加HIV抗体检测的非特异反应.结论 HIV抗体筛查阳性预示HIV感染的意义在不同人群有显著差别,高危人群显著高于一般人群.随着近年来HIV抗体检测试剂质量的改进和实验室质量控制水平的提高,HIV抗体首次筛查的准确性大幅度提高,而复检的效率显著下降.应考虑对不同人群采取不同的检测程序.%Objective To evaluate the yield of HIV antibody testing strategy currently used on different populations, in China. Methods (1) The following samples were collected and tested according to the currently used HIV antibody testing strategy in China. 103 133 samples from the general populations (outpatients, new recruits and blood donors), 1276 people under high risk (spouses of the HIV infected individuals, intravenous drug users) and 2323 biochemical or immunological abnormal samples. (2) Retrospective analysis was done on data from the HIV testing among outpatients in General Hospital of People's Armed

  1. 中国行为医学教学溯源与发展现状%The development and current situation of behavioral medicine education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白波; 吉峰; 冯学泉; 李诺; 李妮娜; 杨艳杰; 刘新民; 杨志寅

    2016-01-01

    采用问卷调查、电话访谈和网络查询相结合的方式调查31所高等医学院校行为医学教学开展情况.国内行为医学最早在医学院校开设《行为医学》课程的是原湖南医学院(现中南大学湘雅医学院),随后有多所大学相继开设行为医学课程.目前国内开设《行为医学》课程的高等院校有济宁医学院、中南大学湘雅医学院、哈尔滨医科大学等20余所高校.主要为本专科生开设,部分院校为研究生及留学生开课,开课专业主要集中在精神病与精神卫生和心理学两个专业,开课学时数从10学时到60学时不等.除了济宁医学院和湘雅医学院设立行为医学教研室外,大部分院校的《行为医学》课程由心理学教研室或医学心理学教研室承担.《行为医学》课程教学内容存在多样性和不统一性.随着开设行为医学课程的高等院校越来越多,行为医学规划教材和专著也蓬勃发展.目前,国内行为医学教学主要存在着课程定位、课程设置与教学研究、行为医学继续教育和科普工作、行为医学专业人才培养等方面的问题.%Questionnaire surveys,telephone interviews and network research were carried out concerning behavioral medicine education in 31 medical colleges and universities in China.The former Hunan Medical College (now Xiangya School of Medicine,Central South University) was the first to offer behavioral medicine courses,followed by an increasing number of medical intuitions of higher education.Currently,over 20 medical colleges and universities including Jining Medical University,Xiangya School of Medicine of Central South University,Harbin Medical University and so on provide behavioral medicine courses,mostly for undergraduates while some schools also for postgraduates and international students,majoring in psychiatry and mental health and psychology.The curriculum duration ranges from 10 to 60 hours.Behavioral medicine courses

  2. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulaf, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  3. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  4. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid and authoritative reviews of current important developments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents are selected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  5. SCIENCE IN CHINA (SCIENTIA SINICA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Science in China is a comprehensive academic journal of natural sciences sponsored by the Chinese Academy ofSciences. The primary purpose is to provide regulap rapid and authoritative reviews of current importantdevelopments in scientific research in China for scientific workers in China and other countries. The contents areselected by an extensive editorial committee which is composed of the most highly esteemed scientists in China

  6. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  7. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Stierle, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  8. An epidemiological study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, China: current progress. Case-control study on lung cancer and cooking fuel.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X Z; Chen, W; Liu, Z. Y.; Chapman, R S

    1991-01-01

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality rates are among China's highest in males and females. Previous studies have shown a strong association of lung cancer mortality with air pollution from "smoky" coal combustion. In the present quantitative risk assessment of indoor air pollution study, the result strongly shows an obvious on-site exposure-response relationship between benzo[a]pyrene concentration in indoor air and lung cancer mortality and strongly supports the hypothe...

  9. 中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状与发展趋势%The History, Current Situation and Development of Alfalfa Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青川; 孙彦

    2011-01-01

    The history and current situation of alfalfa breeding in China were introduced. The methods for alfalfa breeding and problems in alfalfa breeding were elaborated. The goal and development direction of alfalfa breeding were put forward.%介绍了中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状,阐述了苜蓿育种的方法和目前中国苜蓿育种中存在的问题,提出了今后苜蓿育种发展的方向与目标.

  10. Introduction:Theory and Practice in China's Current Electoral Svstem Reforms%导言:中国选举制度改革的理论和实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡定剑

    2004-01-01

    @@ This corpus of essays and articles is devoted to current institutional reform of China's electoral system. Their authors are nationally recognized scholars and researchers, and include some of the most authoritative, well informed specialists in the field. They include suffrage experts exclusively engaged in electoral legislation at the NPC Standing Committee, state officials officiating over democratic elections at grassroots constituencies, professors in the field and research professionals working for the universities or institutions. They have for a long time been training their attention on promoting and studying the existing electoral system. Their works and ideas offer us a direct, lively and vigorous as well as comprehensive exposition of the basics in this field.

  11. The Current Global Economic Situation and China's Strategic Choice%当前世界经济形势与中国战略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文玲

    2016-01-01

    At present,the trend of economic recovery is still weak and slow;the"new normal"of slow world economic growth,which takes the"Three Low","Three High"and"Three Imbalance"as the characteristics,will not be fundamentally changed;differentiations in world economic growth,monetary policies,global trade patterns,and commodity prices will be highlighted;and the development of global cross-border e-commerce will be blooming. With the increasingly enhanced comprehensive national strength of China,the noticeable new interactions between China and other countries,and the new international situation,to establish the future open strategic system and make the new strategic choice,China should,first, accelerate the strategy of RMB internationalization and rebuild the international monetary system;second,China should promote the reform of international monetary system with the help of RMB internationalization;third,China should fully promote the strategy of Free Trade Zone (FTZ) and establish the network system of FTZ;fourth,China should accelerate the industrial restructuring and strategic upgrade and rebuild the global value chain system;and fifth,China should further implement the innovation-oriented strategy and form the innovation-oriented economic system.%当前,世界经济总体复苏依旧乏力缓慢,以"三低""三高""三个失衡"为特征的世界经济低速增长的"新常态"不会发生根本改变,但世界经济继续分化,货币政策加剧分化,国际贸易格局日益分化,大宗商品市场价格在跌宕起伏中分化,全球跨境电子商务蓬勃发展.随着我国综合国力的不断增强,随着我国与世界新型互动态势的日益明显,面对新的国际形势,为构建面向未来的全球开放型经济体系,必须进行新的战略选择,一要加快推进人民币国际化战略,重构国际货币体系;二要以人民币国际化推动国际货币体系改革;三要全面推进自由贸易区战略,构建自由贸易区网络体

  12. Functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution and completeness magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) to identify its dependence on the completeness magnitude Mc. The FMD takes the form N(m) ∝ exp(-βm)q(m) where N(m) is the event number, m the magnitude, exp(-βm) the Gutenberg-Richter law and q(m) a detection function. q(m) is commonly defined as the cumulative Normal distribution to describe the gradual curvature of bulk FMDs. Recent results however suggest that this gradual curvature is due to Mc heterogeneities, meaning that the functional shape of the elemental FMD has yet to be described. We propose a detection function of the form q(m) = exp(κ(m - Mc)) for m FMD of angular shape. The two FMD models are compared in earthquake catalogs from Southern California and Nevada and in synthetic catalogs. We show that the angular FMD model better describes the elemental FMD and that the sum of elemental angular FMDs leads to the gradually curved bulk FMD. We propose an FMD shape ontology consisting of 5 categories depending on the Mc spatial distribution, from Mc constant to Mc highly heterogeneous: (I) Angular FMD, (II) Intermediary FMD, (III) Intermediary FMD with multiple maxima, (IV) Gradually curved FMD and (V) Gradually curved FMD with multiple maxima. We also demonstrate that the gradually curved FMD model overestimates Mc. This study provides new insights into earthquake detectability properties by using seismicity as a proxy and the means to accurately estimate Mc in any given volume.

  13. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  14. China-Pakistan Energy Cooperation:Background, Current Situation and Prospect%中巴能源合作:背景·现状·前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云龙

    2015-01-01

    China and Pakistan have developed into all-day,all-round strategic cooperative partners,and have made notable progress in various fields,especially in the field of energy. China-Pakistan energy cooperation has two favourable condi-tions strategy cooperation and Pakistan’s geo-strategic position,but due to Pakistan’s poor domestic security and infras-tructure,there exist challenges to the cooperation between the two nations. At present,China and Pakistan cooperate mainly in hydropower,nuclear power,coal-gen and new energies(wind power and solar energy)and so on. Due to the requirements of China-Pakistan’s strategic interests,particularly the requirements of common energy security interests,China-Pakistan’s ener-gy channel construction should be strengthened in the future since the two countries have actively promoted energy cooperation in recent years and the cooperation in the fields of electricity,nuclear power is mature now;the two countries are actively preparing for the energy channel construction and are promoting the energy strategy;Gwadar Port is a favourable factor for energy channel construction. The energy strategy channel construction would not only ease the pressure on Pakistan’s economic development,but also boost economic development in Western China.%中巴关系已发展成为全天候、全方位的战略合作伙伴关系,在各个领域都取得了显著的发展,尤其是在能源领域。中巴能源领域合作具有两国战略推动和巴基斯坦所具有的地缘战略优势地位等有利条件,但也由于其国内安全和基础设施差等问题而让中巴合作存在挑战。目前,中巴能源合作主要是在水电、核电、煤电以及新能源(风力发电和太阳能)等领域。由于中巴两国战略利益的要求,特别是共同能源安全利益的需要,未来应加强中巴能源通道建设,其可行性在于:近年来两国积极推动能源合作,在电力、核能领域的合作日

  15. 中日农产品贸易的现状与融合%The Current Situation and Fusion of Agricultural Trade between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国和日本经贸关系非常紧密。中日农产品由于地缘、经济、人口等因素,在双边贸易中占据着重要的地位。但是最近几年,中日的农产品贸易出现了一系列的问题,这既有中国农产品自身品质差,出口结构单一等问题,也存在日本通过各种手段阻碍中日农产品贸易的正常进行的问题。同时更受到全球大环境的影响,金融危机、中日紧张的政治局面都在不同程度上影响着中日农产品贸易的进行。但是由于历史、地理位置、消费习惯等原因,中日两国农产品贸易存在相互融合的基础。为继续增进两国的农产品贸易,中国应积极改善农产品的品质,并逐步推进出口结构的优化,而日本就应该遵循世贸组织的规定,撤销各种贸易壁垒,在相互信任的基础上推进中日两国农产品贸易的健康发展。%China and Japan are very close economic and trade relations. Because of the geographic, economic, de-mographic factors, China′s agricultural products occupies an important position in bilateral trade. But in recent years, there is a series of problems in China-Japan trade in agricultural products, which is not only because of China′s prob-lems which are the poor quality of agricultural products and the single export structure and other issues, and Japan′s problems which to obstruct the normal agricultural trade by all means, but also the impact of the global environment, the financial crisis, and the tense political situation between China and Japan. However, due to historical, geographical location, spending habits and other reasons, the foundation of trade fusion exists in agricultural products between China and Japan. To promote agricultural trade between the two countries, China should actively improve the quality of agri-cultural products, and gradually promote the optimization of export structure, while Japan should follow the provisions of the WTO

  16. The current state of the financial sector and the regulatory framework in Asian economies: The case of the People's Republik of China

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Reform of financial regulation is a priority on the international agenda. At the call of the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G-20), a number of new international standards have been issued, most notably Basel III. As a member of the G-20, the Financial Stability Board (FSB), and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is now on a faster track in adopting international standards. However, the key issue for the PRC - as well...

  17. 中国紫菜养殖业的发展现状研究%Analysis of Development Process and Current Situation of China Laver Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2012-01-01

    紫菜养殖是中国水产养殖业中的代表产业之一。从20世纪70年代开始通过引进外资,开发新品种,创新养殖技术,推动出口,加强协会组织建设等一系列举措,经过30多年的发展,紫菜养殖产业逐步趋于成熟,中国已经成为世界有数的紫菜养殖及出口大国。但是,分析研究发现紫菜养殖业快速发展的同时,在高效率生产及稳定供给、原藻质量保证、市场开发、行业协会建设以及政府管理投入方面仍存在着一些亟待解决的问题。因此,针对这些问题制定相应的措施政策对中国紫菜养殖业的可持续发展有着重要意义。%Laver aquaculture is a representative of China aquaculture industries. From the 1970s, through a series of measures such as, the introduction of foreign investment, developing new products, innovative farming techniques, promotion exports, strengthening of the construction of associations, abd China Laver aquaculture gradually matured. After' thirty years of development, China,is now one of the few countries in the world exports and seaweed' aquaculture. However, by the analysis, it could be found that the rapid development of seaweed aquaculture while, high efficiency in production and a stable supply, quality assurance of raw seaweed, marketing development, construction industry association and government investment there were still some problems to be solved. Therefore, for these issues, to develop appropriate policy measures to solve laver aquaculture issues in China has an important significance for sustainable development.

  18. Analysis on Current Laws and Regulations of Medical Device Clinical Trial in China%对我国现阶段医疗器械临床试验法规热点的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李天萍; 梁宁霞

    2014-01-01

    A series of laws and regulations are the essential legal requirement in the field of clinical trial of medical device currently in China, especial y the Provision for Clinical Trial of Medical Device. On the basis of current situation of medical device clinical trial, systemic analysis on the hot spot topics in the regulations was conducted to explore the way of improving the control system of clinical trial of medical device in China, which wil provide the reference for medical device industry and the investigators of the clinical trial of medical device.%《医疗器械临床试验规定》等一系列法规是目前我国进行医疗器械临床试验的主要法律依据。该文基于我国医疗器械临床研究的现状,对这些法规中若干热点问题加以解读和剖析,旨在探索完善我国医疗器械临床试验监管体系的途径,为医疗器械业内人士及医疗器械临床试验的研究者和管理者提供参考。

  19. 我国应急物流发展现状及问题对策研究%Study on the Current Situation Problems and Countermeasures of Emergency Logistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 郑瑞巧

    2014-01-01

    文中通过应急物流与普通物流之间的全面比较,简明地阐述了应急物流的定义和特征,并结合近年来我国应急物流在应对突发性灾害事件中的应用实例和管理经验,深入地了解了我国应急物流的发展现状,然后比较全面地剖析了我国应急物流目前所存在的问题,最后在总结国外经验的基础上针对我国应急物流所存在的问题提出了相应的解决对策。%By comprehensively comparing emergency logistics with general logistics,the definition and characteristics of emergency logistics were briefly discussed.Based on the sudden disaster events that the emergency logistics was in response to and management experience in recent years and understanding the current situation of the development of emergency logistics in China,the current problems of emergency logistics was comprehensively analyzed.Finally,on the basis of summarizing the foreign experience,some corresponding countermeasures were put forward for emergency logistics problems in China.

  20. THE CURRENT PREVALENCE STATUS OF BVDV IN CHINA%牛病毒性腹泻在中国的流行现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱礼倩; 周艳君; 于海; 童光志

    2011-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻是由牛病毒性腹泻病毒(Bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)引起的,主要侵害牛、羊、鹿、牦牛等反刍动物及猪的一种重要传染病。该病对畜牧业危害巨大,欧美等国家已经开始实施BVDV根除计划。该病在中国广泛流行,本文就BVDV在中国的流行状况进行分析和概述。%Bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) imposes severe threat to cattle,sheep and other ruminants and swine.The disease has caused significant economical loss to cattle farms worldwide.The eradication program for BVDV has being carried out in Europe.Bovine viral diarrhea virus is widely distributed in China.The prevalence of BVDV in China was updated in the review.

  1. Gaze direction affects the magnitude of face identity aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The face perception system partly owes its efficiency to adaptive mechanisms that constantly recalibrate face coding to our current diet of faces. Moreover, faces that are better attended produce more adaptation. Here, we investigated whether the social cues conveyed by a face can influence the amount of adaptation that face induces. We compared the magnitude of face identity aftereffects induced by adaptors with direct and averted gazes. We reasoned that faces conveying direct gaze may be more engaging and better attended and thus produce larger aftereffects than those with averted gaze. Using an adaptation duration of 5 s, we found that aftereffects for adaptors with direct and averted gazes did not differ (Experiment 1). However, when processing demands were increased by reducing adaptation duration to 1 s, we found that gaze direction did affect the magnitude of the aftereffect, but in an unexpected direction: Aftereffects were larger for adaptors with averted rather than direct gaze (Experiment 2). Eye tracking revealed that differences in looking time to the faces between the two gaze directions could not account for these findings. Subsequent ratings of the stimuli (Experiment 3) showed that adaptors with averted gaze were actually perceived as more expressive and interesting than adaptors with direct gaze. Therefore it appears that the averted-gaze faces were more engaging and better attended, leading to larger aftereffects. Overall, our results suggest that naturally occurring facial signals can modulate the adaptive impact a face exerts on our perceptual system. Specifically, the faces that we perceive as most interesting also appear to calibrate the organization of our perceptual system most strongly. PMID:25761338

  2. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit. PMID:25018746

  3. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: Space, time and number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KennySkagerlund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1 children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2 a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3 a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  4. 我国儿科临床科学研究的现状与思考%Current status of pediatric clinical research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锡强

    2008-01-01

    @@ Various definitions have been given to the term "scientific research". It is described as " pursuing truth and exploring knowledge", " critical thinking to develop knowledge", or " collection, synthesis, and analysis of information" . In China, the Ministry of Education proposed that scientific research is to "promote and apply knowledge to invent new techniques and provide creative work". Based on the definitions given above, we describe scientific research as " to explore what we do not know, and to collect, analyze, distinguish, apply, and evaluate what we have known". It is characterized by innovation and non-replication, which involve discontinued and complicated exploration. According to this definition, medical scientific research is therefore defined as investigating the nature of human life and rules of illness, as well as seeking methods to prevent and treat diseases, and improve people's health.

  5. 我国手机杂志APP现状与发展对策%The Current Situation and Development Dtrategy of China Mobile Magazine APP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单宁; 红云

    2015-01-01

    Based on expounding and analyzing the development status and problems of mobile magazine APP in our country, this article puts forward that the development of China's mobile magazine APP should focus on brand extension, personalized custom publishing, proift model optimization and the construction of the high-quality user experience in the future.%文章首先对我国手机杂志APP的发展现状和存在的问题进行阐述和分析,在此基础上提出我国手机杂志APP在未来发展中应注重品牌延伸化、个性化定制出版、盈利模式优化和优质用户体验的构建等对策。

  6. 浅析我国音乐教育的现状与改革%Analysis of the current situation and reform of music education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2012-01-01

      音乐是一门创造性的学科,它的最大优势就是能够培养人感受美,创造美的能力,而音乐的实践特征、教学内容所具有的体验性和操作性也决定了音乐教学方法的多样性和多变性。随着时代的发展,我国音乐教育在教育观念、教学方法等方面等难以适应我国音乐教育事业的需要,改革势在必行。论文从音乐教育的多个角度入手,针对目前我国音乐教育中教育观念、教育思路、教育方法所存在问题,提出相应的解决办法和思路%  Music is a creative subject, its biggest advantage is to raise people to feel the beauty, the ability to create art, and practice characteristics, teaching content of music has experience and operation also determines the multiplicity and variability of music teaching method. With the development of the times, China's music education is difficult to adapt to China's music education reform need in education concept, teaching methods and other aspects, the reform is imperative. The paper from multiple angles of music education, in view of the problems in education concept, education idea, education method in present our country music education, proposes the corresponding solution and the train of thought.

  7. Analysis on the Current Situation and Legislation of Family Violence in China%我国家庭暴力的现状及法律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊

    2012-01-01

    With the social development and the progress of human right protection drive, family violence, especially on women, becomes an international problem. Recently in China, family violence occurs frequently, which is one factor causing the imbalance of the society. Family violence severely destroys the health of women both mentally and physically, and has bad effect on the growing minors. Reasons for family violence are both so- cial and individual. China doesn't have enough legislati system is not complete. It is required to draft legislation the attention of all the society, and improve the degree of and the price caused by it. ve interference on family violence, and the legislation against it, help the victims with detailed methods with civilization of the whole nation to reduce family violence%目前,我国家庭暴力频繁发生,已成为社会不稳定因素之一。家庭暴力不仅严重损害妇女的身心健康,而且给少年儿童的健康成长造成恶劣影响。针对我国对家庭暴力的法律干预力度不够,立法体系不完善的现状,丞须制定反家庭暴力法,运用全社会的力量,采取具体措施救助受害人,提高全民的文明程度等以减少家庭暴力的发生,减轻为家庭暴力所付出的社会代价。

  8. Current levels and composition profiles of emerging halogenated flame retardants and dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Yawei; Lam, Paul K S; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-11-01

    Occurrence of new toxic chemicals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of concern for the environment and human health. Alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a group of potentially harmful organic contaminants in the environment. In this study, a nationwide survey was carried out to identify the occurrence of HFRs and their potential dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from 62 WWTPs in China. Of all 20 target chemicals analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1, 2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE) were detected in all sludge samples, and the concentrations were in the range of 0.82-215, 0.09-65.8, and 0.10-2.26 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP) was found in 60 of 62 samples, and the concentration ranged from nd-298 ng g(-1) with a mean of 18.9 ng g(-1) d.w. The anti-DP fractional abundance fanti (0.79) in the samples was much higher than the commercial DP composition (fanti=0.59), indicating a stereoselective degradation. Comparison with global sludge concentrations of HFRs indicate that China is at the medium pollution level in the world. Principal components analysis revealed that strong correlations existed between ln-transformed concentrations (natural logarithm) of the dominant BFRs and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as industrial wastewater proportion, influent volume and serving population. Significant linear relationships (R=0.360-0.893, penvironment. Two kinds of dehalogenated products, pentabromocyclododecane (PBCD) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11-DP), derived from HBCD and DP, were also identified in sewage sludge for the first time. PMID:25286358

  9. 我国食品添加剂的使用现状及对策%Current situation of food additives use in China and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖辉; 张智新

    2012-01-01

    食品添加剂广泛用于食品生产和加工,随着我国现代食品工业的快速发展,其种类和数量越来越多,也出现了一系列由于不规范使用食品添加剂引发的事件,已经严重危及到我国食品安全.作者深入分析了当前我国食品添加剂使用中存在的超剂量、超范围、重复使用、隐瞒使用等各种不规范使用甚至违法使用的问题,最后建设性地提出了加强立法、完善标准、提高检测水平、采取新工艺、实行分类监管、强化使用者食品安全意识等解决问题的有效对策.%Food additives are widely used in food production and processing. With the rapid development of modem food industry, types and number of food additives are increasing rapidly, and there are a series of events triggered by non-standard use of food additives, which has seriously influenced the food safety in China. The paper analyzes various problems of non-standard use and illegal use of food additives at present in China, including high dose, beyond its scope, repeated use and conceal use, then puts forward countermeasures of strengthening legislation, perfecting standards, improving detection level, adopting new technology, implementing classification regulation, as well as strengthening users'awareness of food safety.

  10. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  11. Book review: Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Sin Yee

    2013-01-01

    "Urban China." Xuefei Ren. Polity. March 2013. --- Currently there are more than 125 Chinese cities with a population exceeding one million. The unprecedented urban growth in China presents a crucial development for studies on globalization and urban transformation. This book examines the past trajectories, present conditions, and future prospects of Chinese urbanization, by investigating five key themes – governance, migration, landscape, inequality, and cultural economy. Sin Yee Koh fin...

  12. Healthy Aging in China

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  13. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  14. When teaching: Out with magnitudes, in with monochromatic luminosities!

    OpenAIRE

    Verbunt, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this document is to illustrate that teaching the concepts of magnitudes is a needless complication in introductory astronomy courses, and that use of monochromatic luminosities, rather than arbitrarily defined magnitudes, leads to a large gain in transparency. This illustration is done through three examples: the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the cosmic distance ladder, and interstellar reddening. I provide conversion equations from the magnitude-based to the luminosity-based syste...

  15. Heuristic and computer calculations for the magnitude of metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Willerton, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The notion of the magnitude of a compact metric space was considered in arXiv:0908.1582 with Tom Leinster, where the magnitude was calculated for line segments, circles and Cantor sets. In this paper more evidence is presented for a conjectured relationship with a geometric measure theoretic valuation. Firstly, a heuristic is given for deriving this valuation by considering 'large' subspaces of Euclidean space and, secondly, numerical approximations to the magnitude are calculated for squares, disks, cubes, annuli, tori and Sierpinski gaskets. The valuation is seen to be very close to the magnitude for the convex spaces considered and is seen to be 'asymptotically' close for some other spaces.

  16. Integration and magnitude homogenization of the Egyptian earthquake catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is to compile and update a catalogue of the instrumentally recorded earthquakes in Egypt, with uniform and homogeneous source parameters as required for the analysis of seismicity and seismic hazard assessment. This in turn requires a detailed analysis and comparison of the properties of different available sources, including the distribution of events with time, the magnitude completeness and the scaling relations between different kinds of magnitude reported by different agencies. The observational data cover the time interval 1900- 2004 and an area between 22--33.5 deg N and 25--3 6 deg. E. The linear regressions between various magnitude types have been evaluated for different magnitude ranges. Using the best linear relationship determined for each available pair of magnitudes, as well as those identified between the magnitudes and the seismic moment, we convert the different magnitude types into moment magnitudes MW, through a multi-step conversion process. Analysis of the catalogue completeness, based on the MW thus estimated, allows us to identify two different time intervals with homogeneous properties. The first one (1900- 1984) appears to be complete for MW ≥ 4.5, while the second one (1985-2004) can be considered complete for magnitudes MW ≥ 3. (author)

  17. Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China%被忽视的人畜共患病在我国的流行及防控现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 朱宏儒; 杨国静

    2013-01-01

    被忽视的人畜共患病不仅严重威胁人类尤其是贫困地区畜禽养殖户的健康,且造成了巨大的经济损失.本文对被忽视的人畜共患病(狂犬病、牛结核病、布鲁氏菌病、炭疽、钩端螺旋体病、棘球蚴病、囊尾蚴病、利什曼病和肝片吸虫病)在我国的流行及防治现状进行了概述,旨在为我国更好地防控乃至消灭上述疾病提供流行病学信息.%Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human,especially to the livestock keepers in povertystricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry.This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status,prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies,bovine tuberculosis,brucellosis,anthrax,leptospirosis,echinococcosis,cysticercosis,leishmaniasis and fascioliasis,so as to provide the basic information for better controlling,even eliminating,the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  18. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  19. 气流输送式条播机现状及我国应用情况分析%Analysis of Air Seed Drill Current Situations and Using Situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 刘立晶; 周军平; 赵郑斌; 赵金辉

    2013-01-01

    气流输送式条播机具有减少钢材使用量、增加作业幅宽和提高作业效率等优点,是未来条播机主要发展机型。为此,对气流输送式条播机的国内外技术现状、种类及在我国应用中存在的问题进行了分析。结果表明:国外气流输送式播种技术已经成熟并广泛应用,我国仅处于实验室研究阶段,试制产品还未推广应用,且对技术的理论研究很少。%Air seed drills have many advantages which can reduce the use quantity of steel , increase working width , im-prove efficiency etc .It will be the main form of future seeders .The current research status at home and abroad , classifi-cations and problems existing in China of air seed drills were analyzed .Analysis showed that the technology of air seed drills at abroad had been very successful and widely used .However , the study in China was still in laboratory stage , the product had not been applied , and it lacked of theoretical study .

  20. Current Status and Challenges ofLeptospira Vaccine Development in China%我国钩端螺旋体疫苗的发展现状与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖华; 辛晓芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:总结分析我国钩端螺旋体的发展现状以及面临的问题与挑战。方法:根据国内外文献材料进行整理、归纳和分析。结果与结论:应解决钩体疫苗发展中面临的一些困境,进一步优化我国钩体疫苗,从而保证国家扩大计划免疫规划成功实施。%Objective: To analyze and summarize current status as well as problems and challenges of Leptospira vaccine development in China.Methods: The relevant domestic and international literatures were sorted, analyzed and summarized.Results and Conclusion: The problems in Leptospira vaccine development should be solved, and this vaccine product in China should be further optimized, so as to ensure the successful implementation of national program on expanded immunization.

  1. Current Status and Future Development of Watermelon Seed Production and Processing in China%我国西瓜种子生产加工处理现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思慧; 熊兴耀; 孙小武; 肖杰; 罗伏青

    2012-01-01

    We discusses the international challenges, current status and problems of watermelon seed production and seed processing in China in this article. Some suggestions were given for the development of watermelon seed production and seed processing in China. The progress and competitiveness of watermelon produce industry and seed industry are heavily dependent on high seed quality achieved through best seed production practices and best seed processing technologies.%概述了我国西瓜种子生产加工技术发展面临的国际挑战、发展现状和存在的问题,对我国西瓜种子加工技术今后的发展方向提出了建议,认为提高西瓜种子生产和加工水平,实现其精细加工,才能提高我国西瓜种子质量和市场竞争力,促进西瓜种业进一步发展.

  2. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of currently alive HIV-1 infected former blood donors naive to antiretroviral therapy in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; SU Bing; DING Xin-ping; GAO Bing; GU Yong-bin; CAO Xiao-yun; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue; PENG Hong; ZHAO Quan-bi; YUAN Lin; WANG Jian-jun; FENG Yi; ZHANG Gui-yun; MA Li-ying; WU Lan; SHAO Yi-ming; HAN Li-feng; XU Chen; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Zhen-hou; CHEN Xi; LIU Zhen-dong; WANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Unregulated commercial blood/plasma collection among farmers occurred between 1992 and 1995 in central China and caused the second major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection in China. It is important to characterize HIV-1-infected former blood donors and to study characteristics associated with disease progression for future clinical intervention and vaccine development.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1-infected former blood donors (FBDs) and age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents. Demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and key laboratory data were collected from all study participants. Both unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regressions were employed to analyze the association of the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts with other characteristics.Results Two hundred and ninety-four HIV-1-infected FBDs and 59 age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents were enrolled in this study. The unregulated blood/plasma collection occurred more than a decade (10.8- 12.8 years) ago, which caused the rapid spread of HIV-1 infection and the high prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV, 89.5%); hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was observed in only 11 HIV+participants (3.7%). Deterioration in both clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters and increase of viral loads were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts. The decrease of total lymphocyte counts (P<0.001)and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and the appearance of dermatosis (P=0.03) were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts whereas viral loads (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-cell counts (P=0.01) were inversely associated with CD4+ T-cell counts.Conclusions Co-infection with HCV but not HBV is highly prevalent among HIV-1-infected FBDs. CD4+ T-cell counts is a reliable indicator for disease progression among FBDs. Total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin level and appearance of dermatosis were positively

  3. First measurement of σ8 using supernova magnitudes only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tiago; Quartin, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    A method was recently proposed which allows the conversion of the weak-lensing effects in the Type Ia supernova (SNeIa) Hubble diagram from noise into signal. Such signal is sensitive to the growth of structure in the universe, and in particular can be used as a measurement of σ8 independently from more traditional methods such as those based on the cosmic microwave background, cosmic shear or cluster abundance. We extend here that analysis to allow for intrinsic non-Gaussianities in the supernova probability distribution function, and discuss how this can be best modelled using the Bayes factor. Although it was shown that a precise measurement of σ8 requires ˜105 SNeIa, current data already allow an important proof of principle. In particular, we make use of the 706 supernovae with z ≤ 0.9 of the recent Joint Lightcurve Analysis catalogue and show that a simple treatment of intrinsic non-Gaussianities with a couple of nuisance parameters is enough for our method to yield the values σ _8 = 0.84^{+0.28}_{-0.65} or σ8 < 1.45 at a 2σ confidence level. This result is consistent with mock simulations and it is also in agreement with independent measurements and presents the first ever measurement of σ8 using SNeIa magnitudes alone.

  4. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  5. I Am Broadcasting From China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since January 25,every morning from7 to 8 a.m.,listeners to China Radio International(CRI),one of China's national radio stations,have been able to hear a new voice hosting a news program called The Beijing Hour,a program with lively news and current affairs in China as well as around the world.The host was the focus of great attention even before she showed up for the program because of her career background.

  6. Analysis of Current Rural Food Hygiene Supervision and Management in China%浅析我国当前农村食品卫生监督管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effective measures to strengthen the food hygiene supervision and management. Methods Through the focus,quality, cooperation,education and other methods,gradual y improve the health surveil ance and disease control system in our country. Results The health supervision and law enforcement work gradual y into the legal track. Conclusion To take effective regulatory measures,to improve China's rural food hygiene supervision and management,and effectively solve the food safety problems of peasants.%目的:探讨加强农村食品卫生监督管理的有效措施。方法通过抓重点、提素质、强合作、重普及等方法,逐步完善我国的卫监与疾控体制。结果使卫生的监督执法工作逐渐步入法制化的轨道。结论采取有效的监管措施,能够提高我国农村食品卫生监督和管理工作,切实解决广大农民的食品卫生安全问题。

  7. On the Current Level of Macro Tax Burden in China%我国当前宏观税负水平评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜薇

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a superuormal growth of tax revenuem,which aroused among people of all circles a fierce debate on whether or not tax should be reduced. In fact, the measurement of tax burden should be based on the minor standard of totalizing tax revenue and costs of social security, and on a comparison with other countries in the world. It is, therefore, urgent for China now to flexibly adjust the structure of tax system in order to optimize this system, balance tax burden and stimulate the development of economy.%近十年采,我国税收收入呈现超常增长的态势。社会各界对是否应该减税展开了激烈的讨论。衡量税负水平应采取税收收入加社保费用的小口径标准,并和世界上其他国家进行比较。我国需要对税制进行有增有减的结构性调整,以达到优化税制、公平税负、刺激经济发展的目的。

  8. 中国生态补偿的现状与趋势%Current Status and Future Trends for Eco-compensation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢高地; 曹淑艳; 鲁春霞; 张昌顺; 肖玉

    2015-01-01

    Eco-compensation, known as payment for ecosystem services, is defined in China as an institutional arrangement for regulating the relationship of economic interests among ecological protectors, beneficiaries and destructors in order to protect ecological service function and foster harmony between people and nature with non-market and market tools including transfer payment, taxes and fees. Reasonable compensation to ecological service providers significantly contributes to the protection of ecological assets and effective supply of ecological services by adopting transfer payments or market transactions on the basis of comprehensively considering the costs of ecological protection, costs of development opportunity and ecological service values. It is helpful for implementing a strategy for main functional areas. The building of eco-compensation mechanisms is therefore highly valued as the most important institutional guarantee for promoting the ecological civilization. Existing eco-compensation mechanisms mainly fall into three categories: exchequer based transfer payment, vertical and horizontal, and market based compensation in China. The institutional framework has been primarily established, inclusive of a forest ecological benefit compensation fund system, grassland eco-compensation system and transfer payment system of national key ecological function areas. Under the framework, various areas and departments have actively explored the building of an eco-compensation system and achieved important progress for forests, grassland, wetlands, river basins and water resources, exploitation of mineral resources, oceans and national key ecological functions areas. However, the eco-compensation system dominated by vertical transfer payments is stil far from perfect in China. The interest regulation pattern of"developer to protect and beneficiary to compensate" has not been formed. Its role in the protection of the ecological environment has not been brought into full

  9. The Current Situation of China's Peat industry and the Development of Peat Standardization%浅论我国泥炭产业现状及泥炭标准化发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫木林

    2011-01-01

    本文阐述了国内和国外泥炭产业的发展现状,分析了泥炭产业对发展循环经济,促进可持续发展的重要性和泥炭产业发展的资源、环境问题,以及现今泥炭标准化的发展现状.指出了我国泥炭行业标准化存在的问题,并提出了相应发展方向和对策.%In this paper, domestic and foreign industry development in peat, peat industry analysis for thedevelopment of recycling economy and promote the importance of sustainable development, industrialdevelopment and peat resources, environmental issues, as well as standardization of the current developmentstatus of peat. That the peat industry standardization of China's problems, and the corresponding direction andstrategies.

  10. A Study on the Current Situation and Countermeasures for Food Cold Chain Logistics Development in China%我国食品冷链物流发展现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成琳

    2015-01-01

    Based on analyzing the urgency of developing food cold chain logistics,this study further reviews its current situation from the view point of industrial development, personnel and equipment status, and operation and management. Consequently,we prescribe relevant measures for the developing China's food cold chain logistics.%在分析发展食品冷链物流迫切性的基础上,又进一步从产业发展、人才和设备现状,以及运作和管理方面对我国食品冷链物流的现状进行分析,从而提出了我国发展食品冷链物流的相关措施。

  11. Some Effects of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Persistence of Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie C.; Jimenez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The influence of magnitude of reinforcement was examined on both response rate and behavioral persistence. During Phase 1, a multiple schedule of concurrent reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcement for one response option was held constant at VI 30 s across both components, while magnitude of reinforcement for the other response option…

  12. Dynamic detection of wake-sleep transition with reaction time-magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Gao; Bin Chen; Wei Wei

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to observable behaviors, sleep and wakefulness are two fundamentally different behavioral states. Although electroencephalogram (EEG) is traditionally used to define sleep stage, it is difficult to detect or to quantify microarousals or disruptions during sleep. In addition,initial sleep cannot be defined. It is thought that the wake-sleep transition cannot be defined by EEG patterns.OBJECTIVE: To observe the behavioral response magnitude during wake-sleep transition by EEG monitoring and to define the wake-sleep transition.DESIGN, TIME AND SE'n'ING: A behavioral and neural network study was performed at the Key Lab of Human Being Development and Mental Health of Central China Normal University, and Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science of South Central University for Nationalities, China in July 2007.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30 healthy volunteers, of equal gender and aged (19.7+1.1) years, were recruited from the Central China Normal University, China for this study. None of the subjects had undergone EEG recording prior to this study or received any medication for sleep disturbances.METHODS: A novel adaptive approach was applied to detect wake-sleep transition, which avoided stimulus-induced waking. To test the difference between wake state and wake-sleep transition, the amount of self-information and mutual-information were effective parameters to analyze wake-sleep transition.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following parameters were measured: morphological changes in reaction time-magnitude, as well as correlation between phase changes and sleep, and wake and wake-sleep transition.RESULTS: There were three typical phases in morphological changes of reaction time-magnitude.With regard to the behavioral definition and criterion for sleep, the phase morphological characteristics displayed good correlation with behavioral states, such as sleep, wakefulness, and sleep onset. Entropy as an indicator of brain cognitive processes was introduced to test

  13. Sediment resuspension in the Lake Taihu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the intensity of surficial sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, a large shallow lake in eastern China, suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were measured on the basis of analysis of water samples collected using an innovative multi-level water sampler. The results show that under calm weather conditions, the SSC is relatively homogenous through the entire water column. However, when strong winds occur, the SSC in the bottom layer is 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than in the surface layer; thus, in this case, the amount of total suspended matter in the water column cannot be estimated using the SSC values of the surface layer alone. Furthermore, the depth of disturbance, or the thickness of the sediment layer that is set in motion by wind-wave induced currents, is of the order of 100 mm.

  14. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  15. Constraints on dark energy from H II starburst galaxy apparent magnitude versus redshift data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we use H II starburst galaxy apparent magnitude versus redshift data from Siegel et al. (2005) to constrain dark energy cosmological model parameters. These constraints are generally consistent with those derived using other data sets, but are not as restrictive as the tightest currently available constraints.

  16. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of American Unity Investments,...

  17. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  18. GRID-CONNECTED CONVERTER CONTROL STRATEGY BASED ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shansheng Feng

    2015-01-01

    Grid-connected converter is an important power interface between the DC bus of renewable energy power system and public grid. By virtue of vector relation of grid voltage, converter voltage and line impedance voltage, realtime control of active current and reactive current injected into the grid is realized. The simulation results show that grid-connected converter based on relationship between magnitude and phase of system voltage can flexibly regulate active power and reactive p...

  19. 我国现行会计准则存在的问题及对策研究%The Problems of China's Current Accounting Standards and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于婧婧

    2014-01-01

    China's accounting standards now have some problems. The defined scopes of the assets need to extend and divide meticulous-ly. The vague provisions of contingent amounts payable need to confirm following the principle of prudence principle of accounting. The use of fair value needs to adopt prudence principle and consider the actual. Facing the problems of identification of non-monetary assets exchange and tax, accounting standards should give an accurate concept and definition, so as to make up for the deficiency.%目前,我国会计准则中资产的界定范围、或有事项处理、公允价值计量与非货币性资产交换等方面存在的问题主要是对资产的定义有待扩展,进行细致划分;或有应付金额确认的规定存在模糊,应该遵照会计的谨慎性原则进行确认;对公允价值的运用既要采用谨慎性原则,还要考虑实际;在处理非货币的资产交换认定和税费的问题时,会计准则应给出一个准确的概念和定义,进而补充各项会计准则的不足之处。

  20. Current Status of Studies on Urban Wetland Park in China%中国城市湿地公园研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 赵捷; 朱晋; 程莉; 海全胜; 同丽嘎

    2013-01-01

    The urban wetland park(UWP) was an important part of urban green space and urban water systems in Eco-city construction, which has attracted widespread attention of the whole society and access to extensive development, in the rapid momentum of development of the East China especially, but the basic theoretical research is still relatively lacking which guide the urban wetland park construction and protection. The geographic distribution characteristics and development status was analyzed of the urban wetland park by statistics, on this basis, analyzing the research perspective and updated progress on the urban wetland park. Against the problems in the development of the urban wetland park, pointing out the next major research direction and content of the urban wetland park. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the construction, development and protection of the urban wetland park.%城市湿地公园是生态型城市建设中城市绿地系统和城市水系统的重要组成部分,已引起全社会的普遍重视,并获得广泛发展,尤其在华东地区发展势头较快,但是,指导中国城市湿地公园建设与保护的基础理论研究还比较缺乏.因此,通过统计分析中国城市湿地公园的地理布局特征、发展现状,综合分析了近年来对城市湿地公园的研究视角与最新进展.针对城市湿地公园发展中存在的问题,指出城市湿地公园未来主要的研究方向和内容.

  1. 中国中草药饲料添加剂的现状与展望%Current Status and Prospect of Chinese Herbal Feed Additives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the present situation of research, development and application of the Chinese herbal feed additives and its prospect. It can provide scientific references for researchers to carry out in-depth study. Chinese herbal feed additives will hopefully solve problems such as antibiotic residues, environmental pollu-tion, low productivity which hinders the development of livestock and provides strong support for developing green husbandry, meeting the food safety demand, closing the gap of livestock between the developed countries and Chi-na, increasing competitiveness of Chinese animal products in world markets. The development of Chinese herbal feed additives have very important economic and social benefits.%  本文综述了中草药饲料添加剂的研究、开发和应用现状及其发展前景,为研究者继续深入开展研究提供科学的参考。中草药添加剂有望解决长期困扰畜牧业发展的抗生素残留、提高生产率低、环境污染、安全性等问题,为发展绿色畜牧业、满足人民的食品安全需求、缩小我国畜牧业与发达国家的差距、增强我国畜产品在国际市场的竞争力提供有力支持,中草药饲料添加剂的发展具有重要的经济社会效益。

  2. 我国具身认知研究现状与未来进路%Current Situation and Future Trends of Embodied Cognition Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蒙成; 王会亭

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognition is a new field of psychology and education research, and some achievements have been made in China, including the connotations, characteristics, ideological origins, effects and applications in education, which profoundly deepens the people' s related understanding. However, there are also some defects among the researches. For example, the systems of research are very chaotic, the modes of thinking are linear, the empirical and applied researches are very rare and the simple imitations of foreign relevant research output are very obvious. From now on, in our research, we should agree on the systems of research, have a dialectical thinking, strengthen the empirical and applied researches and seek for the localization.%具身认知是我国心理学及教育学研究的一个新兴领域,且已取得了一些初步的研究成果,涉及具身认知的内涵、特征、思想渊源、效应、在教育中的应用等,深化了人们的相关认识. 但相关研究也存在研究思潮凌乱散漫、研究思维点状割裂、实证和应用研究匮乏、简单搬套西方相关成果等不足. 今后的研究应统一研究纲领、秉持辩证思维、强化实证和应用研究、加强本土化追求.

  3. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  4. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  5. The contribution of China's emissions to global climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bengang; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Tao, Shu; Balkanski, Yves; Hauglustaine, Didier; Boisier, Juan-Pablo; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Laurent Zhaoxin; Li, Yue; Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Junfeng; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Zehao; Sun, Zhenzhong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Tao; Yin, Guodong; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Feng

    2016-03-17

    Knowledge of the contribution that individual countries have made to global radiative forcing is important to the implementation of the agreement on "common but differentiated responsibilities" reached by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Over the past three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development, accompanied by increased emission of greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols, but the magnitude of the associated radiative forcing has remained unclear. Here we use a global coupled biogeochemistry-climate model and a chemistry and transport model to quantify China's present-day contribution to global radiative forcing due to well-mixed greenhouse gases, short-lived atmospheric climate forcers and land-use-induced regional surface albedo changes. We find that China contributes 10% ± 4% of the current global radiative forcing. China's relative contribution to the positive (warming) component of global radiative forcing, mainly induced by well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols, is 12% ± 2%. Its relative contribution to the negative (cooling) component is 15% ± 6%, dominated by the effect of sulfate and nitrate aerosols. China's strongest contributions are 0.16 ± 0.02 watts per square metre for CO2 from fossil fuel burning, 0.13 ± 0.05 watts per square metre for CH4, -0.11 ± 0.05 watts per square metre for sulfate aerosols, and 0.09 ± 0.06 watts per square metre for black carbon aerosols. China's eventual goal of improving air quality will result in changes in radiative forcing in the coming years: a reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions would drive a faster future warming, unless offset by larger reductions of radiative forcing from well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon. PMID:26983540

  6. A unitary or multiple representations of numerical magnitude? – The case of structure in symbolic and non-symbolic quantities

    OpenAIRE

    KorbinianMoeller; EliseKlein; RoiCohen Kadosh

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a controversial debate on whether there is an abstract representation of number magnitude, multiple different ones or multiple different ones that project onto a unitary representation. The current study aimed at evaluating this issue by means of a magnitude comparison task involving Arabic numbers and structured as well as unstructured non-symbolic patterns of squares. In particular, we were interested whether a specific numerical effect, the unit-decade co...

  7. A Unitary or Multiple Representations of Numerical Magnitude? – the Case of Structure in Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a controversial debate on whether there is an abstract representation of number magnitude, multiple different ones, or multiple different ones that project onto a unitary representation. The current study aimed at evaluating this issue by means of a magnitude comparison task involving Arabic numbers and structured as well as unstructured non-symbolic patterns of squares. In particular, we were interested whether a specific numerical effect, the unit-decade compatibility ef...

  8. Quantifying Heartbeat Dynamics by Magnitude and Sign Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    We review a recently developed approach for analyzing time series with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that time series with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We apply our approach to series of time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis method we find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications. Further, we study the heartbeat magnitude and sign series during different sleep stages — light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. For the heartbeat sign time series we find short-range anticorrelations, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during light sleep and even weaker during REM sleep. In contrast, for the heartbeat magnitude time series we find long-range positive correlations, which are strong during REM sleep and weaker during light sleep. Thus, the sign and the magnitude series provide information which is also useful for distinguishing between different sleep stages.

  9. Improvements in magnitude precision, using the statistics of relative amplitudes measured by cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, David P.; Richards, Paul G.

    2014-04-01

    waveforms inevitably contain both signal and noise. However, this bias is predicted to be minimal for typical detection thresholds. Making measurements of the ratio of the L2 norms is shown to remove the bias due to degradation of waveform similarity for real data. The scatter of these cross-correlation measurements of relative magnitude is much less than those obtained by differencing magnitudes in a traditional catalogue. Of 14 025 events in and near China, 34 per cent had over an order of magnitude reduction in the median standard deviation (0.0342 magnitude units) as compared to the estimated scatter in the catalogue (0.3454 magnitude units). And 78 per cent of the events show a factor 3 improvement or better in the precision of relative event size measured as the ratio of the L2 norms as compared to the precision of the catalogue for relative magnitudes. These results suggest that the ratio of the L2 norms is an appropriate measure of relative magnitudes for general seismicity of a monitoring region, when there is significant waveform dissimilarity for neighbouring events. This measure maintains a higher degree of measurement precision as compared to the catalogue.

  10. Regression between earthquake magnitudes having errors with known variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications on the regression between earthquake magnitudes assume that both magnitudes are affected by error and that only the ratio of error variances is known. If X and Y represent observed magnitudes, and x and y represent the corresponding theoretical values, the problem is to find the a and b of the best-fit line y = a x + b. This problem has a closed solution only for homoscedastic errors (their variances are all equal for each of the two variables). The published solution was derived using a method that cannot provide a sum of squares of residuals. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the goodness of fit for different pairs of magnitudes. Furthermore, the method does not provide expressions for the x and y. The least-squares method introduced here does not have these drawbacks. The two methods of solution result in the same equations for a and b. General properties of a discussed in the literature but not proved, or proved for particular cases, are derived here. A comparison of different expressions for the variances of a and b is provided. The paper also considers the statistical aspects of the ongoing debate regarding the prediction of y given X. Analysis of actual data from the literature shows that a new approach produces an average improvement of less than 0.1 magnitude units over the standard approach when applied to Mw vs. mb and Mw vs. MS regressions. This improvement is minor, within the typical error of Mw. Moreover, a test subset of 100 predicted magnitudes shows that the new approach results in magnitudes closer to the theoretically true magnitudes for only 65 % of them. For the remaining 35 %, the standard approach produces closer values. Therefore, the new approach does not always give the most accurate magnitude estimates.

  11. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  12. Current Conditions and Future Considerations of Rehabilitation Organization System for the Disabled in China%我国残疾人康复组织体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹跃进; 陈森斌

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation organization system for the disabled is the basis of the disability work. Along with the development of disability research and disability work in China, it’s an urgent task of comprehensive review on rehabilitation organization system. China’s rehabilitation organizations include rehabilitation administrative, rehabilitation service and the third party organizations. China’s rehabilitation organization system includes organized management net, technical supporting net and rehabilitation service net. “Socialized” is the biggest characteristic of this system. Due to the changing conditions of undertakings for the disabled, rehabilitation organization system for the disabled have to face with challenges such as reform of work division and business field, impacts from the market and outflow of talents. Therefore, the authors suggest these organizations to prepare in advance. Besides insisting socialized feature, the rehabilitation administrative organizations should keep their core business while giving up the backward; the rehabilitation service organizations should improve their own abilities and the private-owned ones should play more active roles.%随着残疾人研究的深入和残疾人事业的发展,对残疾人康复组织体系的系统梳理迫在眉睫。我国的残疾人康复组织主要包括康复行政组织、康复服务组织和第三方组织,残疾人康复组织体系主要由组织管理网、技术指导网和康复服务网构成,“社会化”是这一组织体系最显著的特点。随着我国残疾人事业的发展,残疾人康复组织将面临业务分工和职能重组、市场冲击和人才流失等挑战。因此,建议残疾人康复组织提前准备,除了应坚持社会化特点之外,残疾人康复行政组织应“有进有退”,残疾人康复服务组织应“苦练内功”,民办残疾人康复机构应发挥更积极作用。

  13. 我国信用评级行业现状及前景分析%Current Situation and Prospect of Credit Rating Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzed the present situation and features of our country’s credit rating market. According to the development of international rating business and financial market, the prospect of credit rating industry in China was analyzed. This paper believes that the domestic rating industry barrier is weak, but the level of domestic rating business is improving gradually. Because of the domestic slowing economic growth and other factors, relative to the size of financial markets, the demand of domestic credit rating market is still insufficient. Because of the long-term bull regulation , it is difficult to unified supervision departments in the short term. But the national rating agencies are actively trying to enter the international market and successfully enter the EU market , these advances are also worthy of attention. Thus the domestic rating agency is expected to cut a striking figure in the international market.%本文分析了我国信用评级市场现状及特征,并根据金融市场发展情况及国际评级业务发展规律对我国信用评级行业发展前景进行分析,认为:国内评级行业壁垒较低,国内评级水平正逐步提高,但因国内经济增长减缓等因素,相对于金融市场规模,国内信用评级市场有效需求仍显不足;因长期多头监管,短期内难以实质统一监管部门;但是也应关注到民族评估公司正积极尝试进入国际市场并成功进入欧盟市场,有望在国际崭露头角。

  14. Magnitude-frequency distribution of volcanic explosion earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masato; Hendrasto, Mohammad; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Yamada, Taishi; Ripepe, Maurizio; Genco, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Magnitude-frequency distributions of volcanic explosion earthquakes that are associated with occurrences of vulcanian and strombolian eruptions, or gas burst activity, are examined at six active volcanoes. The magnitude-frequency distribution at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan, shows a power-law distribution, which implies self-similarity in the system, as is often observed in statistical characteristics of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. On the other hand, the magnitude-frequency distributions at five other volcanoes, Sakurajima and Tokachi-dake in Japan, Semeru and Lokon in Indonesia, and Stromboli in Italy, are well explained by exponential distributions. The statistical features are considered to reflect source size, as characterized by a volcanic conduit or chamber. Earthquake generation processes associated with vulcanian, strombolian and gas burst events are different from those of eruptions ejecting large amounts of pyroclasts, since the magnitude-frequency distribution of the volcanic explosivity index is generally explained by the power law.

  15. When teaching: Out with magnitudes, in with monochromatic luminosities!

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this document is to illustrate that teaching the concepts of magnitudes is a needless complication in introductory astronomy courses, and that use of monochromatic luminosities, rather than arbitrarily defined magnitudes, leads to a large gain in transparency. This illustration is done through three examples: the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the cosmic distance ladder, and interstellar reddening. I provide conversion equations from the magnitude-based to the luminosity-based system; a brief discussion; and a reference to sample lecture notes. I suggest that we, astronomers in the 21st century, abolish magnitudes and instead use (apparent) monochromatic luminosities in non-specialist teaching. Given the large gain in transparency I further propose that we seriously consider using (apparent) monochromatic luminosities also in research papers, bringing optical astronomy in line with astronomy at other wavelengths. Comments are welcome.

  16. Rapid earthquake magnitude determination for Vrancea early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the huge amount of recorded data, an automatic procedure was developed and used to test different methods to rapidly evaluate earthquake magnitude from the first seconds of the P wave. In order to test all the algorithms involved in detection and rapid earthquake magnitude estimation, several tests were performed, in order to avoid false alarms. A special detection algorithm was developed, that is based on the classical STA/LTA algorithm and tuned for early warning purpose. A method to rapidly estimate magnitude in 4 seconds from detection of P wave in the epicenter is proposed. The method was tested on al recorded data, and the magnitude error determination is acceptable taking into account that it is computed from only 3 stations in a very short time interval. (author)

  17. Frequency-Magnitude Relationship of Hydraulic Fracture Microseismicity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismicity has become a common imaging technique for hydraulic fracture stimulations in the oil and gas industry, offering a wide range of microseismic data sets in different settings. Typically, arrays of 3C sensors are deployed in single monitoring wells presenting processing challenges associated with the limited acquisition geometry. However, the proximity of the sensors to the fracture network results in good sensitivity to detect small magnitude microseisms (down to about moment magnitude -3 in some cases). This sensitivity allows a comparison of the magnitude-frequency relationship between microseisms attributed to hydraulic fracturing with those related to activation of interaction with a pre-existing fault. A case study will be presented showing a clear change in the frequency-magnitude characteristics as the injection interacts with a known fault.

  18. Variable stars magnitudes estimations exploiting the eye physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of the dark adaption process of the eye is revisited from an astronomical point of view. A new method for the magnitude estimation of a star is presented. It is based upon the timing of the physiological cycle of the rhodopsin during the eye dark adaption process. The limits of the application of the method are discussed. This method is suitable for bright stars as Betelgeuse, Antares or Delta Scorpii or stars at the limiting magnitude observed with a telescope.

  19. Locating geologic contacts with magnitude transforms of magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Mark

    2007-10-01

    Locating geologic contacts by mapping lateral magnetization changes provides a variety of useful geologic information. Magnetic contacts will often correspond to lithologic boundaries, while the shapes and textures of contact maps can also indicate rock type and the style of deformation present. Well-established methods for contact mapping are the horizontal gradient magnitude of the pseudogravity (PSG-hgm) and the total field (TF-hgm). More recent mappers include the analytic signal (AS), the 3-D local wavenumber (LW) and the horizontal gradient magnitude of the tilt (TI-hgm). PSG-hgm and TF-hgm generally produce coherent contact trends but the locations are dependent on the contact dip and its magnetization direction. The AS, LW and TI-hgm methods produce contact locations that are independent of dip and magnetization. Magnitude transforms of the anomalous magnetic field offer an alternative approach to contact mapping since only the field components or the field component derivatives are used, in contrast with other methods that require total field derivatives, possibly up to second order. The magnitude transforms are also dip- and magnetization-independent. Contact maps determined for the magnitude transforms are compared with those from the PSG-hgm and TF-hgm methods for a recently-flown survey over a poorly-exposed Precambrian Shield area in Manitoba, Canada. The T transform map (magnitude of the anomalous magnetic field) is similar to that from PSG-hgm. The other magnitude transforms perform less well because of sensitivity to noise and gridding artefacts, resulting in less coherent trends. None of the transforms are able to resolve the same detail that TF-hgm does. Contact maps from magnitude transforms are therefore only to be preferred over PSG-hgm and TF-hgm maps in areas of high remanent magnetization and gently dipping geology.

  20. Magnitude determination of earthquakes in the Baltic Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Rutger Wahlström; T. Ahjos

    1984-01-01

    Station corrections have been introduced into the M"SUB L"-scale hitherto used for Baltic Shield earthquakes. The new formula is valid for Benioff and Grenet seismograph stations in Finland and Sweden. An extension of the magnitude scale to distances as small as 30 km is made by adding the constant 0.31 to the equation. Correlating the instrumental magnitude with macroseismic parameters, a relationship between the radius of areas of perceptibility (km) and maximum intensity has been obtained ...

  1. An Overview of the Study on Stress Magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Shuzhong; Wan Yongge

    2009-01-01

    Crustal stress field holds an important position in geodynamics research, such as in plate motion simulations, uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and earthquake preparation and occurrence. However, most of the crustal stress studies emphasize particularly on the determination of stress direction, with little study being done on stress magnitude at present. After reviewing ideas on a stress magnitude study from geological, geophysical and various other aspects, a method to estimate the stress magnitude in the source region according to the deflection of stress direction before and after large earthquakes and the stress drop tensor of earthquake rupture has been developed. The proposed method can also be supplemented by the average apparent stress before and after large earthquakes. The stress direction deflection before and after large earthquakes can be inverted by massive focal mechanisms of foreshocks and aftershocks and the stress drop field generated by the seismic source can be calculated by the detailed distribution of the earthquake's rupture. The mathematical relationship can then be constructed between the stress drop field, where its magnitude and direction are known and the stress tensor before and after large earthquakes, where its direction is known but magnitude is unknown, thereby obtaining the stress magnitude. The average apparent stress before and after large earthquakes can be obtained by using the catalog of broadband radiated energy and seismic moment tensor of foreshocks and aftershocks and the different responses to stress drops. This relationship leads to another estimation of stress magnitude before a large earthquake. The stress magnitude and its error are constrained by combining the two methods, which provide new constraints for the geodyuamics study.

  2. Magnitude, diversity, capacities, and dimensions of metric spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Meckes, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Magnitude is a numerical invariant of metric spaces introduced by Leinster, motivated by considerations from category theory. This paper extends the original definition for finite spaces to compact spaces, in an equivalent but more natural and direct manner than in previous works by Leinster, Willerton, and the author. The new definition uncovers a previously unknown relationship between magnitude and capacities of sets. Exploiting this relationship, it is shown that for a compact subset of E...

  3. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.; Silva, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are extremely difficult to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, HV, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, but only few are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of TNOs, many of which have been observed and modeled within the program "TNOs are cool", which is one of the Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering a magnitude variability that is due to the rotational light-curve. Results: We obtained 237 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, six of which were without previously reported measurements. Including the data from the literature, we report a total of 110 absolute magnitudes with their respective phase coefficients. The average value of HV is 6.39, bracketed by a minimum of 14.60 and a maximum of -1.12. For the phase coefficients we report a median value of 0.10 mag per degree and a very large dispersion, ranging from -0.88 up to 1.35 mag per degree.

  4. Some explicit expressions for the probability distribution of force magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2008-08-01

    Recently, empirical investigations have suggested that the components of contact forces follow the exponential distribution. However, explicit expressions for the probability distribution of the corresponding force magnitude have not been known and only approximations have been used in the literature. In this note, for the first time, I provide explicit expressions for the probability distribution of the force magnitude. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases are considered.

  5. 我国商务英语专业实训教学现状与问题的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Current Situation and Problems of Business English Practical Training in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王录; 毛婷; 邵宗音

    2013-01-01

    Practical business English training plays a vital role in enhancing students’ professional capabilities at higher vocational education in China. Competence-based education (CBE) and occupation-oriented business English training pattern has been recognized in higher vocational education throughout China, in which practical abilities training is the key to realizing the goal. The current situation of business English training at over 400 higher vocational colleges and institutes is explored based on the questionnaires and interviews, focusing on the training content, training venues, teachers, textbooks, etc. And data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS17.0) to draw percentages for variables included in the questionnaire. Findings showed that a vast difference exists between the western and eastern, southern and northern areas due to the economic and cultural difference. Relevant suggestions were put forward to improve practical business English training in China.%实训教学在高职教育中具有重要的地位和作用。能力本位和职业发展导向的商务英语专业人才培养模式已经成为我国高职人才培养模式的共识,而专业实训则是达到该培养目标的关键环节。基于对我国大陆400多所高职院校商务英语专业教师进行的关于实训教学的开设情况,如实训基本条件、实训师资、实训教学资料和实训内容等的问卷调研,结合对部分教师的访谈,运用SPSS17.0统计软件对调研数据做了处理。调研结果表明,上述方面存在着较大的区域差别,分析了存在的问题并提出了改进对策,以期为我国商务英语专业的实训教学提供借鉴。

  6. Evidence-based medicine analysis on current clinical research status of negative pressure wound therapy in China%国内负压创面治疗技术临床研究现状的循证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡恺轩; 章宏伟

    2009-01-01

    目的 采用循证医学的方法,对国内负压创面治疗技术的临床现状进行系统性研究. 方法 系统性检索2008年12月前国内发表的关于负压创面治疗技术的文献,并对结果进行证据分级和质量等级的评估. 结果 检索到符合标准的文献5篇(均为随机对照试验):1篇证据分级为1b,质量等级为"优",余4篇证据分级为2b,质量等级为"差". 结论 对于负压技术相对宽泛的适应证,目前国内缺乏足够的证据证明其疗效.今后需进一步规范该技术的科学研究及临床应用,包括注重选题和立题的创新性、试验设计的完善性和实用性、治疗过程的标准化等问题.提高发表文献的质量,以更好地指导临床工作.%Objective To systematically review the current research status of negative pressure wound therapy in China based on method of evidence-based medicine (EBM). Methods A systematic retrieval was undertaken on literatures related to negative pressure wound therapy in China. Evidence grading of EBM and quality rating system of preventive service task force were used for evaluation of the results. Results We finally retrieved five randomized controlled trials (RCT), of which only one RCT was classified as good quality and high grade of evidence, whereas the other four were classified as poor quality and low grade of evidence. Conclusions With relatively wide indications, there still lack sufficient evidences to witness the clinical efficiency of NPWT in China. in the future, we should further researches on NPWT including emphasizing on novelty of research topics and intactness and usefulness of experimental design and standardize clinical application of such technique including standardization of treatment procedures. In the meantime, high quality research papers are needed to provide certain guidance for clinical therapy.

  7. 国内E-learning数据挖掘研究现状与应用综述%Review of the current research and application of E-learning data-mining in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2015-01-01

    随着数据挖掘技术在教育领域越来越多的应用,E-learning数据挖掘逐渐成为当前的研究热点。梳理国内近十年来E-learning研究领域的217篇核心期刊文献,从研究现状、数据挖掘方法、数据挖掘任务等方面对我国E-learning数据挖掘研究领域进行分析,结果表明:国内的研究才刚起步,有许多工作需要研究者来完成,如建设系统数据可以实现无障碍迁移和共享的E-learning平台;加强E-learning数据挖掘领域实证研究的深度和广度;开发简单易用的E-learning数据挖掘专用工具等。%With the increasing application of the technology of data-mining in educational field, E-learning has gradually become a hot topic in current research. This paper studied the 217 key papers in the field of E-learning in the past 10 years in China, carried out a detailed study of China's E-learning data-mining in terms of research situation, research methods, and data-mining task. The result showed the research in China had just begun and needed more efforts. The problems to be dealt with are as followed:constructing of systematic data for barrier-free transfer and shared E-learning platform; strengthening of empirical study of E-learning data-mining in depth and width; and developing of particular tools which are easy to use for E-learning data-mining.

  8. Current Issues Regarding the Origin and Evolution of the South China Sea: Developing Hybrid Models Incorporating Non-rigid Intra-plate Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, A.

    2012-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) opened in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene as an oceanic spreading ridge formed and propagated into SE Asia following widespread and protracted rifting of continental crust (Dangerous Grounds terrane, DGs) sutured to Asia in the Cretaceous. Although, the extent of SCS oceanic crust is well-defined from bathymetric and marine gravity data, opinions diverge regarding its age and tectonic evolution. Different interpretations of magnetic data for the onset (37-32 Ma) and cessation (20.5-16 Ma) of sea floor spreading represent a 50% uncertainty in duration. The two most commonly cited driving mechanisms, extrusion of Indochina during India's collision vs. slab pull owing to subduction of the proto-SCS beneath Borneo, are almost mutually exclusive models and have respective kinematics dependent on the amount of horizontal displacement along the Red River Fault Zone (RRFZ, collision-extrusion) and the size of the proto-SCS (subduction-slab pull and counter-clockwise rotation of Borneo). That neither of these tectonic models fit all observations is not surprising. In a region of weak heterogeneous crust with ancestral structural fabrics, vertical movements and internal deformation of intra-plate blocks in response to far-field stresses preclude use of rigid plate methods. When discerning cause from effect, we are confronted with the conundrum that everything appears related to something by everything else. In the context of recently available and new data (isotope signatures of Neogene volcanic rocks, paleomagnetic sites from Sabah, 2D-seismic across the West Baram Line, whole lithosphere stretching factors derived via inversion of gravity data) the following aspects of the region's evolution are highlighted: 1. Suturing of the DGs with a Mesozoic convergent margin: size of the DGs terrane inclusive of the Palawan micro-continent and nature of the proto-SCS. 2. Widespread Eocene to Early Oligocene rifting with areas of hyper-extended crust that

  9. The current situation analysis and strategy research of iron ore overseas investment by China%我国铁矿石海外投资现状分析及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红梅

    2013-01-01

    10年来,我国海外铁矿投资活动不断增多,在澳大利亚、西非等地开展了大规模的勘探、投资工作,海外铁矿投资初见成效。但同时也存在很多问题,例如我国权益矿份额偏低、投资区域过于集中、投资成本过高、民营企业参与度不够、企业管理混乱等问题。针对这些问题,本文提出了完善境外矿业投资管理机制体制、将西非地区列为重要投资区域、鼓励民营企业大胆“走出去”、缩短企业投资回报时间等对策建议。%In recent 10 years ,as China's overseas investment on iron ore is continually expanding ,many companies have started full-scale exploration and investment programs in Australia ,West Africa and other areas ,and have made a active effect .However ,numerous problems emerged during the progress of these programs ,such as the low share of mineral rights ,the over-concentrated investment location ,the prohibitive investment cost ,the lack of engagement for private enterprises ,and the disarray in business management . This article analyzes the current situation of China's overseas investment programs on iron ore ,proposes corresponding countermeasures ,and comes up with a better set of the mining investment's system and mechanism .For example ,it would be helpful to focus investment on West Africa ,to shorten the period of return on investment ,to encourage more private enterprises to invest overseas ,and to improve preparatory work for new programs .

  10. Reviews on Current Situation of and Pharmacoeconomic Researches on Multiple Myeloma Treatment in China%我国多发性骨髓瘤治疗现状及药物经济学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱水清; 张琛; 马朱林; 胡晓寒; 宣建伟; 高悦

    2015-01-01

    目的:系统地综述中国多发性骨髓瘤(MM)的治疗现状及药物经济学研究。方法:通过检索国内数据库,对现有已公开发表的相关文献和出版物,从治疗现状和药物经济学研究方面进行汇总、梳理、分析。结果与结论:现有已公开发表的文献均显示随着MM治疗指南的发展和新药的上市,我国MM治疗也有了很大进展。但由于目前诊断及预后评估体系缺乏广泛应用,MM流行病学、疾病负担、新药以及自体移植应用之后生存获益的具体数据和相应的药物经济学研究数据缺乏,中国MM治疗仍面临较大挑战。%Objective: To systematically review on the current situation of and pharmacoeconomic researches on multiple myeloma (MM) treatment in China. Methods: Based on literatures and publications, this study employed a descriptive research to summarize and analyze the related data. Result and Conclusion: With updated NCCN clinical practice guidelines and new medicines coming into markets, a great progress has been made in the treatment of MM in China. But it is still facing signifi cant challenges because of lacking widely used diagnosis and prognosis evaluation system, epidemiological data, disease burden analysis, survival benefit and corresponding cost effectiveness evaluation on new drugs and autologous stem cell transplantation, and high-quality and comprehensive pharmacoeconomic researches.

  11. The Predicament and Route Exploration of Medical Reform in Current China%当前我国医疗改革的困境分析及路径探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红

    2015-01-01

    医改是一项重大惠民工程,与13亿人民群众的生命健康休戚相关。面对医改这一世界性难题,我国始终坚定不移地深入推进医疗改革,旨在促进社会公正、增进人民福祉。在2015年3月召开的两会上,李克强总理提出,推动医改向纵深发展,为医改在攻坚时期的进一步深入指明了前进的方向。通过透视我国当前医疗改革所处的时代背景,揭示其面临的困境,并提出一些崭新的思路以期为我国医疗改革的发展提供建议。%Health care reform is a major benefiting project, which is closely related to the national welfare and the 1.3 billion people's livelihood.In the face of reform, which is a worldwide difficult problem, China has always been unswervingly further promote health care reform, so as to promote social justice and improve people's well-being.In 2015 March meeting of the NPC and CPPCC, prime minister Li Keqiang proposed to promote the reform to develop in depth,which pointed out the advancing direction for the further reform in the crucial period.This pa-per, through the perspective of China's current health care reform in the background, reveals the dilemma and puts forward some new ideas to improve our health care system.

  12. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development. PMID:27074723

  13. Numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children with MID on a symbolic (digits) and a non-symbolic (dot-arrays) comparison task with the performance of two control groups of typically developing children: one group matched on chronological age and one group matched on mathematical ability level. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their typically developing chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, while their performance did not substantially differ from the ability-matched control group. These findings suggest that the development of numerical magnitude representation in children with MID is marked by a delay. This performance pattern was observed for both symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, although difficulties on the former task were more prominent. Interventions in children with MID should therefore foster both the development of magnitude representations and the connections between symbols and the magnitudes they represent. PMID:21645990

  14. Changes in the timing and magnitude of floods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the global climate change will have significant impacts on the regime of hydrologic extremes. An increase in both the frequency and magnitude of hydrologic extremes is anticipated in the near future. As a consequence, the design and operation of water resource systems will have to adapt to the changing regime of hydrologic extremes. This study explores trends in the timing and magnitude of floods in natural streamflow gauging stations in Canada. The seasonality of floods is analyzed and the selected streamflow stations grouped into five flood seasonality regions. A common 30-year long observation period from 1974 to 2003 is used in the analysis to eliminate the effect of hydro-climatic variability in the timing and magnitude of floods resulting from different observation periods. The timing of floods is described in terms of directional statistics. A method is developed for analyzing trends in directional dates of flood occurrence that is not affected by the choice of zero direction. The magnitude of floods is analyzed by the annual maximum and peak-over-threshold methods. Trends in the timing and magnitude of floods are identified in each flood seasonality region using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test, with a modification for auto-correlated data. The results show a good correspondence between the identified flood seasonality regions and the main terrestrial zones in Canada. Significant changes in the timing and magnitude of floods are found in the flood seasonality regions. (author)

  15. Analysis and Development Trend of Current Situation of Cultivation Mode of Nursing Talents in China%我国护理人才培养模式现状与发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳华

    2015-01-01

    现今医学模式、健康观念转变,对护理专业的发展提出了新的要求,对护理人才的需求日渐增长。而加强护理人才的培养,培养出一批高素质、高能力的护理人才则显得十分重要。因此加强护理人才培养质量,突出护理专业特色,是护理管理者重点关注问题。本文就分析我国护理人才培养模式现状,并总结其发展趋势,以此满足现今护理发展要求。%The transformation of current medical model, health concept, put forward new requirements for the development of nursing specialty, the growing demand for nursing personnel. And strengthen the training of nursing talents, cultivate nursing talents in a number of high-quality, high ability is very important. Therefore to strengthen the training of nursing talents quality, highlight the characteristics of the nursing profession, nursing managers focus on the problem is. This paper analysis current situation of cultivation mode of nursing talents in China, and summarizes its development trend, to meet the requirements of the development of modern nursing.

  16. On the Testing of Ground--Motion Prediction Equations against Small--Magnitude Data

    CERN Document Server

    Beauval, Céline; Laurendeau, Aurore; Delavaud, Elise; Cotton, Fabrice; Guéguen, Philippe; Kuehn, Nicolas; 10.1785/0120110271

    2012-01-01

    Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) are essential in probabilistic seismic hazard studies for estimating the ground motions generated by the seismic sources. In low seismicity regions, only weak motions are available in the lifetime of accelerometric networks, and the equations selected for the probabilistic studies are usually models established from foreign data. Although most ground-motion prediction equations have been developed for magnitudes 5 and above, the minimum magnitude often used in probabilistic studies in low seismicity regions is smaller. Desaggregations have shown that, at return periods of engineering interest, magnitudes lower than 5 can be contributing to the hazard. This paper presents the testing of several GMPEs selected in current international and national probabilistic projects against weak motions recorded in France (191 recordings with source-site distances up to 300km, 3.8\\leqMw\\leq4.5). The method is based on the loglikelihood value proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2009). The ...

  17. Earthquake rate and magnitude distributions of great earthquakes for use in global forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2016-04-01

    We have obtained new results in the statistical analysis of global earthquake catalogs with special attention to the largest earthquakes, and we examined the statistical behavior of earthquake rate variations. These results can serve as an input for updating our recent earthquake forecast, known as the "Global Earthquake Activity Rate 1" model (GEAR1), which is based on past earthquakes and geodetic strain rates. The GEAR1 forecast is expressed as the rate density of all earthquakes above magnitude 5.8 within 70 km of sea level everywhere on earth at 0.1 by 0.1 degree resolution, and it is currently being tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability. The seismic component of the present model is based on a smoothed version of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog from 1977 through 2013. The tectonic component is based on the Global Strain Rate Map, a "General Earthquake Model" (GEM) product. The forecast was optimized to fit the GCMT data from 2005 through 2012, but it also fit well the earthquake locations from 1918 to 1976 reported in the International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model (ISC-GEM) global catalog of instrumental and pre-instrumental magnitude determinations. We have improved the recent forecast by optimizing the treatment of larger magnitudes and including a longer duration (1918-2011) ISC-GEM catalog of large earthquakes to estimate smoothed seismicity. We revised our estimates of upper magnitude limits, described as corner magnitudes, based on the massive earthquakes since 2004 and the seismic moment conservation principle. The new corner magnitude estimates are somewhat larger than but consistent with our previous estimates. For major subduction zones we find the best estimates of corner magnitude to be in the range 8.9 to 9.6 and consistent with a uniform average of 9.35. Statistical estimates tend to grow with time as larger earthquakes occur. However, by using the moment conservation principle that

  18. Earthquake rate and magnitude distributions of great earthquakes for use in global forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    We have obtained new results in the statistical analysis of global earthquake catalogues with special attention to the largest earthquakes, and we examined the statistical behaviour of earthquake rate variations. These results can serve as an input for updating our recent earthquake forecast, known as the `Global Earthquake Activity Rate 1' model (GEAR1), which is based on past earthquakes and geodetic strain rates. The GEAR1 forecast is expressed as the rate density of all earthquakes above magnitude 5.8 within 70 km of sea level everywhere on earth at 0.1 × 0.1 degree resolution, and it is currently being tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability. The seismic component of the present model is based on a smoothed version of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalogue from 1977 through 2013. The tectonic component is based on the Global Strain Rate Map, a `General Earthquake Model' (GEM) product. The forecast was optimized to fit the GCMT data from 2005 through 2012, but it also fit well the earthquake locations from 1918 to 1976 reported in the International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model (ISC-GEM) global catalogue of instrumental and pre-instrumental magnitude determinations. We have improved the recent forecast by optimizing the treatment of larger magnitudes and including a longer duration (1918-2011) ISC-GEM catalogue of large earthquakes to estimate smoothed seismicity. We revised our estimates of upper magnitude limits, described as corner magnitudes, based on the massive earthquakes since 2004 and the seismic moment conservation principle. The new corner magnitude estimates are somewhat larger than but consistent with our previous estimates. For major subduction zones we find the best estimates of corner magnitude to be in the range 8.9 to 9.6 and consistent with a uniform average of 9.35. Statistical estimates tend to grow with time as larger earthquakes occur. However, by using the moment conservation

  19. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  20. Deep photometry and integral magnitudes of 8 nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ts. B.

    2016-02-01

    We estimated integral magnitudes of galaxies trying to include the contribution of the brightest part of their halos. We performed surface photometry based on (i) concentric elliptical rims, corresponding to the peripheral ellipticity of the image, (ii) median estimation of the mean value of the rim pixels, (iii) apparent radial brightness profiles, corresponding to the rim medians, and (iv) magnitude curves of growth, derived by numerical integrations of the apparent rim profiles, without preliminary background estimation and removal. Furthermore, we used the magnitude curves of growth to determine the integral magnitudes (limited by size and deepness of our frames) and compared them with the total magnitudes in the data base HyperLeda. Also, we used the rim-profiles to estimate the background level far enough from the galaxy center and we build (here—only for trial) the intrinsic radial profiles (with background removal). We apply this photometry on 8 nearby galaxies, observed with CCD in the system BVRC IC by the 50 cm Schmidt telescope of the Rozhen NAO in 2003-2004. We build radial profiles which occur to be as average 1.8 times (1.2-2.5 times) larger than in data base NED and of integral brightness that occurs to be about 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 times) higher than in data base HyperLeda. The relative brightness additions, found here, correlate with the color index and anti-correlate with the luminosity of the galaxy.

  1. Maximum magnitude estimation considering the regional rupture character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan P.; Bajaj, Ketan; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S. N.

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is to develop a new method to estimate the maximum magnitude ( M max) considering the regional rupture character. The proposed method has been explained in detail and examined for both intraplate and active regions. Seismotectonic data has been collected for both the regions, and seismic study area (SSA) map was generated for radii of 150, 300, and 500 km. The regional rupture character was established by considering percentage fault rupture (PFR), which is the ratio of subsurface rupture length (RLD) to total fault length (TFL). PFR is used to arrive RLD and is further used for the estimation of maximum magnitude for each seismic source. Maximum magnitude for both the regions was estimated and compared with the existing methods for determining M max values. The proposed method gives similar M max value irrespective of SSA radius and seismicity. Further seismicity parameters such as magnitude of completeness ( M c ), " a" and " b " parameters and maximum observed magnitude ( M {max/obs}) were determined for each SSA and used to estimate M max by considering all the existing methods. It is observed from the study that existing deterministic and probabilistic M max estimation methods are sensitive to SSA radius, M c , a and b parameters and M {max/obs} values. However, M max determined from the proposed method is a function of rupture character instead of the seismicity parameters. It was also observed that intraplate region has less PFR when compared to active seismic region.

  2. Magnitude corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1969, a consistent discrepancy in seismic magnitudes of nuclear detonations at NTS compared with magnitudes of detonations elsewhere in the world has been observed. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of a relatively high seismic attenuation for compressional waves in the upper mantle beneath the NTS and in certain other locations. A correction has been developed for this attenuation based on a relationship between the velocity of compressional waves at the top of the earth's mantle (just beneath the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the seismic attenuation further down in the upper mantle. Our new definition of body-wave magnitude includes corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle at both ends of the teleseismic body-wave path. These corrections bring the NTS oservations into line with measurements of foreign events, and enable one to make more reliable estimates of yields of underground nuclear explosions, wherever the explosion occurs

  3. Modeling of magnitude distributions by the generalized truncated exponential distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Raschke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The probability distribution of the magnitude can be modeled by an exponential distribution according to the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Two alternatives are the truncated exponential distribution (TED) and the cut-off exponential distribution (CED). The TED is frequently used in seismic hazard analysis although it has a weak point: When two TEDs with equal parameters excepting the upper bound magnitude are mixed, then the resulting distribution is not a TED. Inversely, it is also not possible to split a TED of a seismic region in TEDs of sub-regions with equal parameters excepting the upper bound magnitude. This weakness is a principal problem as seismic regions are constructed scientific objects and not natural units. We overcome it by the generalization of the above-mentioned exponential distributions: the generalized truncated exponential distribution (GTED). Therein, identical exponential distributions are mixed by the probability distribution of the correct cut-off points. This distribution model is fle...

  4. Determination of magnitude and epicenter of historical earthquakes on the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, G.; Jiménez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Two large earthquakes occurred in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) in the XXth century. A Mw 6.9 earthquake took place near the town of Acambay in 1912 and in 1920 an event near the city of Jalapa had a magnitude of Mw 6.4. Both events took place in the crust and reflect the tectonic deformation of the TMVB. In addition to these two instrumental earthquakes, the historical record in Mexico, which spans approximately the past 450 years, has a large volume of macroseismic information suggesting the presence crustal earthquakes similar to those that took place in 1912 and 1920. The catalog of macroseismic data in Mexico was carefully reviewed, searching for the presence of crustal events in the TMVB. In total, twelve potential earthquakes were identified. The data was geo-referenced, a magnitude was assigned in the Modified Mercalli Scale (MMS) and events were collated based on the dates reported by the references. The method developed by Bakun and Wentworth (1997) was used to estimate the magnitude and epicentral location of these historical earthquakes. Considering that only two instrumental earthquakes of similar magnitudes exist, it was not possible to construct an attenuation calibration curve of magnitude versus distance. Instead, several published attenuation curves were used. The calibration curve determined for California yielded the best results for both magnitude and epicentral location for the XXth century events. Using this calibration curve, the magnitude and location of several historical events was determined. Our results indicate that over the past 450 years, at least six earthquakes larger than magnitude M 6 have occurred on the TMVB. Three of these, the earthquakes of 1568, 1858 and 1875, appear to have a magnitude larger than M 7. Furthermore, the distribution of these historical earthquakes spans the TMVB in its entirety, and is not restricted to specific areas. The presence of these relatively large, crustal events that take place near the

  5. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  6. India China Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Danendran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    This research report addresses the topic of India China supply chain. This study would be looking at the existing policies among the China India trade and a real life scenario of this trade will be analysed. By conducting this study, the current situation of trades can be put forward and it will give an idea to what extent trade policies are useful when it comes to trading and to what extent the policies aid the bottlenecks faced by a trader. The objectives of the research are to understa...

  7. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  8. Meteor fluxes and visual magnitudes from EISCAT radar event rates: a comparison with cross-section based magnitude estimates and optical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pellinen-Wannberg

    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars (ISR are versatile instruments for continuous monitoring of ionisation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. EISCAT, The European Incoherent Scatter facility has proven effective also in meteor studies. The time resolution of the radar can be reduced to a few milliseconds, sufficient to resolve the passage of individual meteors through the narrow ISR beam. Methods for group and phase velocity determination of the meteoroids and the discrepancy between the results related to the target behaviour are presented. The radar cross sections of echoes associated with moving meteoroids ("meteor head echoes" are very small and increase with decreasing wavelength. The parent meteoroids are found to have visual magnitudes far below the detection limit of most optical observations. The equivalent visual magnitude limit of the smallest objects observed by EISCAT in the current experiments has been estimated by two different methods, both from the cross-section measurements and from the measured event rates. Both methods give a limit value of +10 for the smallest objects while the upper limit is +4. The lower limit of the visual magnitude for the collocated optical measurement system is +4. Thus the two detection systems observe two different meteor size ranges, with the radar almost reaching micrometeorite population. Meteor fluxes estimated from the event rates and the radar system parameters agree well with previous extrapolated values for this size range.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionization mechanisms. Radio science (ionospheric physics. Space plasma physics (ionization processes

  9. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Materials and methods: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were...

  10. 我国儿童孤独症药物治疗的现状分析%Current Situation Analysis of Drug Therapy on Childhood Autism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵应华; 魏玲; 刘世林

    2014-01-01

    Childhood autism is a serious broad developmental disorders starting in early childhood. The clinical characteristics of this disease mainly include social communication disorders,language communication obstacles and repeat stereotyped behavior,which associate with different degrees of mental retardation,abnormal perceptual mood and emotional abnormalities such as performance.Childhood autism often have poor prognosis.Comprehensive treatment has been mainly adopted for the disease,including special education training,behavior modification,auxiliary physical and drug therapy.There is no specific drug treatment for the disease. Antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs, drugs treated for mood stabilizing and children attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder,etc.are currently used,which mainly used for symptomatic treatment of children with mental symptoms,so as to improve the quality of life.The author summarizes the usage and mechanism of drugs for childhood autism and their curative effect,in order to provide reference to further explore the drug therapy of childhood autism.%儿童孤独症是起病于婴幼儿时期的一种严重的广泛性发育障碍。该病以社会交往障碍、语言交流障碍和重复刻板行为的三联征为临床特点,并伴有不同程度的智力低下、感知觉障碍和情绪、情感异常等表现,常预后不良。儿童孤独症主要采用综合性治疗,包括特殊教育训练、行为矫正、辅助性物理治疗及药物治疗。该病尚无特异性药物治疗方案,目前采用的治疗药物包括抗精神病药物、抗抑郁药物、心境稳定剂和儿童注意缺陷及多动障碍治疗药物等。上述药物主要针对患儿的伴随精神症状进行对症治疗,从而提高患儿生存质量。笔者通过归纳我国儿童孤独症的治疗药物及其作用机制和应用疗效,旨在为进一步探索儿童孤独症的药物治疗提供参考。

  11. Application of nuclear instruments in China`s industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan-xiao [China Nuclear Information Center, Beijing (China); Cai Shan-yu; Wang Yi-shan; Lun Xiao [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-31

    The progress of nuclear instruments and their applications in China`s industries have been greatly dependent on the development of social economy. In recent years, the economy in China demands an increasing application of industrial nuclear instruments. The reliability of system performance and its adaptability are prerequisites to ensure widespread application in industry. Through the efforts over 40 years, a sound foundation for the development of nuclear instruments and their application has formed in China with the establishment of a comprehensive nuclear industrial system and skilled technical teams. The international cooperation and technical exchange between China and other countries has provided more opportunities to absorb new concepts, new ideas and new technology for upgrading current products and shorten the gap with the developed countries.

  12. Prediction of magnitude of the largest potentially induced seismic event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hallo, M.; Opršal, I.; Eisner, Leo; Ali, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 421-431. ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2451 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : magnitude * seismic moment * b value * induced events Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  13. Magnitude Estimation with Noisy Integrators Linked by an Adaptive Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurley, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect). Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims toward answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural) integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes. PMID:26909028

  14. Sea ice inertial oscillation magnitudes in the Arctic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong link between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant pluri-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  15. Robust Computation of Error Vector Magnitude for Wireless Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The modulation accuracy described by an error vector magnitude is a critical parameter in modern communication systems — defined originally as a performance metric for transmitters but now also used in receiver design and for more general signal analysis. The modulation accuracy is a measure of how...

  16. Severity of Depression and Magnitude of Productivity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Arne; Crain, A. Lauren; Solberg, Leif I.; Unützer, Jürgen; Glasgow, Russell E.; Maciosek, Michael V; Whitebird, Robin

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Depression is associated with lowered work functioning, including absences, impaired productivity, and decreased job retention. Few studies have examined depression symptoms across a continuum of severity in relationship to the magnitude of work impairment in a large and heterogeneous patient population, however. We assessed the relationship between depression symptom severity and productivity loss among patients initiating treatment for depression.

  17. Milli-Magnitude Time-Resolved Photometry with BEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Rauer, H.; Erikson, E.; Voss, H.

    We present a comparative test of different photometry algorithms. The test has been made in order to optimize the number of stars for which light curves with milli-magnitude precision can be achieved in observations made by the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST), a small wide-angle telescope...

  18. Passive seismic monitoring at the ketzin CCS site -Magnitude estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Steeghs, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to allow quantification of the strength of local micro-seismic events recorded at the CCS pilot site in Ketzin in terms of local magnitude, earthquake data recorded by standardized seismometers were used. Earthquakes were selected that occurred in Poland and Czech Republic and that were det

  19. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  20. Magnitude estimation with noisy integrators linked by an adaptive reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eThurley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect. Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims towards answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes.

  1. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  2. Bayesian Predictive Distribution for the Magnitude of the Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershock sequences, which follow large earthquakes, last hundreds of days and are characterized by well defined frequency-magnitude and spatio-temporal distributions. The largest aftershocks in a sequence constitute significant hazard and can inflict additional damage to infrastructure. Therefore, the estimation of the magnitude of possible largest aftershocks in a sequence is of high importance. In this work, we propose a statistical model based on Bayesian analysis and extreme value statistics to describe the distribution of magnitudes of the largest aftershocks in a sequence. We derive an analytical expression for a Bayesian predictive distribution function for the magnitude of the largest expected aftershock and compute the corresponding confidence intervals. We assume that the occurrence of aftershocks can be modeled, to a good approximation, by a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a temporal event rate given by the modified Omori law. We also assume that the frequency-magnitude statistics of aftershocks can be approximated by Gutenberg-Richter scaling. We apply our analysis to 19 prominent aftershock sequences, which occurred in the last 30 years, in order to compute the Bayesian predictive distributions and the corresponding confidence intervals. In the analysis, we use the information of the early aftershocks in the sequences (in the first 1, 10, and 30 days after the main shock) to estimate retrospectively the confidence intervals for the magnitude of the expected largest aftershocks. We demonstrate by analysing 19 past sequences that in many cases we are able to constrain the magnitudes of the largest aftershocks. For example, this includes the analysis of the Darfield (Christchurch) aftershock sequence. The proposed analysis can be used for the earthquake hazard assessment and forecasting associated with the occurrence of large aftershocks. The improvement in instrumental data associated with early aftershocks can greatly enhance the analysis and

  3. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  4. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  5. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Tang; Benjamin C. McLellan; Simon Snowden; Baosheng Zhang; Mikael Höök

    2015-01-01

    China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory†, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, a...

  6. 现行国际货币体系与我国货币供给内生性%Study of the Endogencity of China's Money Supply in the Current International Monetary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宪; 余丹

    2009-01-01

    基于后凯恩斯主义的内生货币供给理论,本文重点从基础货币的角度分析了我国货币供给的内生性,主要结论是:1994年以前,"对金融机构债权"项目的变动是导致我国基础货币投放具有内生性的主要原因,而从1994年开始特别是在2002年以后,则由"国外资产净额"项目即外汇占款的增加主导了我国基础货币的被动投放.进而影响了中央银行对货币供应量的控制能力,使我国货币政策的传导在起点上就缺乏有效性.在现行的国际货币体系下,为减轻货币内生性带来的影响、提高货币政策的有效性,我国应加速人民币国际化进程和建立更具弹性的汇率制度.%Based on the endogenous money supply theory of Post-Keynesian Economics, this paper studies the endogencity of China's money supply from the perspective of base monetary. Our results show that before the year 1994, "Claim to Financial Institutions" was the main source of endogenous base monetary, while beginning from 1994 especially after the year 2002, the increase of " Net Foreign Assets" directs the passive supply of base monetary in China, which affects the effectiveness of the transmission of monetary policy from the starting point. We hold that in the current international monetary system, in order to reduce the negative effects brought by endogenous money supply and improve the effectiveness of monetary policy, we should increase the process of internationalization of RMB and establish a more flexible exchange rate system.

  7. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  8. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey of the new experimental data on weak neutral currents is given, followed by a comparison with modern theoretical models. Cross sections of the anti νsub(e)e → anti νsub(e)e, anti νsub(μ)e→ νsub(μ)e, νp → νp and anti νp → anti νp elastic scattering as well as inclusive cross sections of the ν+N → ν+X and anti ν+N → anti ν+X deep inelastic scattering are presented. On the basis of the comparison the Weinberg-Salam model is concluded to be in a good agreement with the shape of the cross sections. Six-quark vector models appear to be ruled out. The five-quark model due to Achiman, Koller and Walsh and two versions of the Gursey-Sikivie model satisfactorily account for the observed data in shape and in magnitude

  9. Current status and prospects of ex situ cultivation and conservation of plants in China%中国植物引种栽培及迁地保护的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏文; 张征

    2012-01-01

    本文在概要总结我国植物引种驯化和迁地保育的历史基础上,全面综述了中国植物园迁地保育植物的现状和特点、中国农作物种质资源保护现状、野生植物种子库的进展.我国植物园迁地栽培植物约396个科、3,633个属,23,340个种;我国农作物资源保存数量达到41.2万份,涉及作物种及近缘种1,890个;我国野生生物种质资源库收集植物种子5.4万份、7,271种植物.文章同时阐述了我国植物迁地保护存在的问题并对相关领域的未来发展进行了展望:(1)启动《中国迁地栽培植物志》编研计划;(2)部署迁地保护与就地保护的整合研究;(3)加强我国特有植物类群的迁地保育原理和方法研究;(4)促进基于迁地保育濒危植物的野外回归:(5)拓展重要植物资源的评价及发掘利用.%This review paper summarizes the history of plant introduction and acclimatization in China, and reviews the current status and progress of plant ex situ conservation. Overall, a total of 23,340 species belonging to 3,633 genera, and 396 families are maintained in botanical gardens, whereas 412,000 accessions of 1,890 crop or crop relatives species are preserved in Chinese national crop germplasm banks and 54,000 accessions of 7,271 wild plants in Chinese germplasm bank of wild species. The paper also discussed problems and challenges in plant ex situ conservation and outlooked further development in future: (1) Initiation of "Ex situ Cultivated Flora of China project"; (2) development of integrating research of ex situ and in situ plant conservation; (3) enhancing research in ex situ conservation theory and methodology for endemic plants of China; (4) facilitating restoration and recovery of rare and endangered plants into wild on basis of ex situ conservation; and (5) strengthening evaluation and utilization of economic important plants.

  10. Lifting China's water spell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  11. High sensitivity giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) magnetic transducer: magnitude versus phase sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of investigations recently done by our research group that lead to a new and much better approach to the design of GMI (giant magnetoimpedance) magnetic transducers, which considers the changes in the impedance phase characteristics of GMI sensors due to varying low-intensity magnetic fields, instead of the usual impedance magnitude characteristics considered in the GMI literature. The development process of this new class of magnetic field transducers is discussed, beginning with the definition of the ideal conditioning of the GMI sensor elements (the dc level and frequency of the excitation current and the sample length), proceeding to compare the differences observed between the impedance magnitude and phase of GMI sensors and closing with the electronic circuits that condition ribbon-shaped GMI sensors and read their phase or magnitude variation as a function of the longitudinal magnetic field. Simulation studies, including the full electronic circuit and based on the experimental data obtained from measured GMI curves, have shown that an improvement in the sensitivity of GMI magnetometers larger than ten times can be expected when phase-based transducers are used instead of magnitude-based transducers. Finally, it is also shown that phase-based transducers are highly adequate for miniaturization purposes

  12. Recalibration of the H$_{-0.5}$ magnitudes of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tormen, G

    1994-01-01

    The H magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al. collaboration over a 10-year period is collected into a homogeneous data set of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. 96\\% of these galaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (de Vaucouleurs et al. 1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available. The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematically different from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs, de Vaucouleurs and Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al. for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turn leads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducial H magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infrared Tully Fisher relationship. New optically-normalized H magnitude growth curves are defined for galaxies of types S0 to Im, from which new values of fiducial H magnitudes, H\\rm _{-0.5}^g, are measured for the 665...

  13. Current starus of headache in China (summary)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-zuo, Wang

    2000-01-01

    @@ Studies of the prevalence of migraine in Chinese population have been limited. A few studies indicated that the prevalence of migraine in Chinese population is very low (0.63% - 1%). These studies showed no difference in clinical features between Chinese migraineurs and in other races, expect that food was not the main trigger factor, which might be attributed to low consuming of chocolate and cheese. In comorbidity, migraineurs and their families were more likely to have migraine, and vice versa.

  14. On the Frequency-magnitude Law for Fractal Seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Molchan, G

    2004-01-01

    Scaling analysis of seismicity in the space-time-magnitude domain very often starts from the relation N(m,L)=a(L)*10**(-bm)*L**c for the rate of seismic events of magnitude M>m in an area of size L. There are some evidences in favor of multifractal property of seismic process. In this case the choice of the scale exponent 'c' is not unique. It is shown how different 'c''s are related to different types of spatial averaging applied to lambda(m, L) and what are the 'c''s for which the distributions of a(L) best agree for small L. Theoretical analysis is supplemented with an analysis of California data for which the above issues were recently discussed on an empirical level.

  15. On the frequency-magnitude law for fractal seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaling analysis of seismicity in the space-time-magnitude domain very often starts from the relation λ(m, L = aL10-bm Lc for the rate of seismic events of magnitude M > m in an area of size L. There are some evidences in favor of multifractal property of seismic process. In this case the choice of the scale exponent 'c' is not unique. It is shown how different 'c's are related to different types of spatial averaging applied to λ (m, L) and what are the 'c's for which the distributions of aL best agree for small L. Theoretical analysis is supplemented with an analysis of California data for which the above issues were recently discussed on an empirical level. (author)

  16. An Empirical Procedure for Rapid Magnitude Estimation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Schweitzer, J.; NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Rapid estimates of source parameters are needed for reasons of civil protection in regions where destructive events often occur. This information can prevent further damage and casualties. A relation between the first seconds of a P- wave onset and the local magnitude ML of the earthquake has been developed for the Italy region following results obtained in Japan and Southern California. The proposed dominant period estimate has been used in the present work and i...

  17. What determines the magnitude of carbon cycle-climate feedbacks?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, H Damon; Eby, Michael; Ewen, Tracy; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hawkins, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Positive feedbacks between climate change and the carbon cycle have the potential to amplify the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide and accelerate future climate warming. However, both the magnitude of and the processes which drive future carbon cycle- climate feedbacks remain highly uncertain. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon model to investigate how the response of vegetation photosynthesis to climate change contributes to the overall strength of carbon cycle-climate feedbac...

  18. Understanding the timing and magnitude of advertising spending patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsenberg, Maarten; van Heerde, Harald J.; Dekimpe, Marnik; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M.; Vincent R. Nijs

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that advertising is one of the most used marketing tools, little is known about what is driving (i) the timing and (ii) the magnitude of advertising actions. Building on normative theory, the authors develop a parsimonious model that captures this dual investment process. They explain advertising spending patterns as observed in the market, and investigate the impact of company, competitive, and category-related factors on these decisions, thereby introducing the n...

  19. Millennial scale variability in high magnitude flooding across Britain

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, N

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), in...

  20. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  1. Modeling the Color Magnitude Relation for Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Noelia; Castelli, Analia Smith; Bassino, Lilia P

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the colour-magnitude relation (CMR) observed in cluster galaxies by using a combination of a cosmological N-body simulation of a cluster of galaxies and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The departure of galaxies in the bright end of the CMR with respect to the trend denoted by less luminous galaxies could be explained by the influence of minor mergers

  2. The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Meikle, W P S

    1999-01-01

    The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves...

  3. The changing hues of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-07-15

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs.

  4. The changing hues of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs

  5. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  6. Hybrid Modelling of the Economical Consequences of Extreme Magnitude Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Garcia, S.; Emerson, D.; Perea, N.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid modelling methodology is proposed to estimate the probability of exceedance of the intensities of extreme magnitude earthquakes (PEI) and of their direct economical consequences (PEDEC). The hybrid modeling uses 3D seismic wave propagation (3DWP) combined with empirical Green function (EGF) and Neural Network (NN) techniques in order to estimate the seismic hazard (PEIs) of extreme earthquakes (plausible) scenarios corresponding to synthetic seismic sources. The 3DWP modeling is achieved by using a 3D finite difference code run in the ~100 thousands cores Blue Gene Q supercomputer of the STFC Daresbury Laboratory of UK. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is validated for Mw 8 magnitude subduction events, and show examples of its application for the estimation of the hazard and the economical consequences, for extreme Mw 8.5 subduction earthquake scenarios with seismic sources in the Mexican Pacific Coast. The results obtained with the proposed methodology, such as those of the PEDECs in terms of the joint event "damage Cost (C) - maximum ground intensities", of the conditional return period of C given that the maximum intensity exceeds a certain value, could be used by decision makers to allocate funds or to implement policies, to mitigate the impact associated to the plausible occurrence of future extreme magnitude earthquakes.

  7. Urban Health Service in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Li; Heng-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform and development, China's healthcare system has not improved as well as the economy has. Instead, it has deteriorated in many aspects, both in rural and urban areas. The present situation can be briefly summarized as "Low accessibility and high prices in healthcare service". In terms of quality, efficiency, and fairness of health care, China's urban health care system is far behind the current economic status and people's demands. There are a lot of complaints...

  8. China takes to the roads.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, I.

    1995-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...

  9. Problems and Challenges in the Management System of Early Childhood Education in Current China%当前我国学前教育管理体制面临的主要问题与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽娟; 范明丽

    2012-01-01

    学前教育管理体制在学前教育事业发展中起着领导、组织、协调、监控、保障、推动等重要作用,是保障学前教育事业健康发展的关键。当前我国学前教育管理体制存在着政府职责定位不清晰、职能转变不到位、各级政府与政府各部门间职权责划分不尽合理、管理机构和人员设置不健全等问题,已成为制约学前教育事业健康发展的体制性障碍。随着经济社会发展和宏观政策形势的变化,当前我国学前教育管理体制面临着前所未有的挑战,学前教育管理体制改革势在必行。%The management system plays an important role in the development of early childhood education; it leads, organizes, coordinates, monitors, guarantees, and promotes the early childhood education, and therefore is a key factor in the development of early childhood education. There are some problems in the management system of early childhood education in current China, such as the ill defined functions and responsibilities of government, the unreasonable dispounsoundness of organization establishment and personnel allocation, which have been system obstacles in the development of early childhood education. The development of society and the change of situation have posed challenges to the management system of early childhood education, and its reform is under the circumstances.

  10. 我国急性冠状动脉综合征诊疗的现状和挑战%Current situation and challenge of diagnosis and therapy of acute coronary syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童珊珊; 陈宇; 李田昌; 曹丰

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinical syndrome due to thrombosis after the rupture or invasion of coronary atherosclerotic plaque .It includes ST elevation myocardial infarc-tion ( STEMI ) , non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ( NSTEMI ) and unstable angina ( UA ) . Nowadays , the mortality of ACS decreased significantly with the improvement of its diagnosis and therapy .However , it still exists some questions such as:low level of diagnosis , undesirable situation of following guidelines and poor patient ’s compliance .This article is a review about the current situa-tion and challenge of diagnosis and therapy of ACS in China .%急性冠状动脉综合征( acute coronary syndrome ,ACS)是以冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块破裂或侵袭,继发完全或不完全性血栓形成为病理基础的临床综合征,包括急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死、急性非ST段抬高型心肌梗死和不稳定型心绞痛。近年来随着诊治水平的提高,ACS患者的病死率明显降低,但我国依然存在诊断水平低、指南实施不理想、患者依从性不高等问题。作者就目前国内ACS诊治的现状和挑战进行综述。

  11. Scientific and Technical Demand and Current Situations of Cassava Biomass Energy Industry in China%我国木薯生物质能源产业发展现状与科技需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦昌联; 卢柳忠; 黎贞崇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of current situations of cassava biomass energy industry in China and the relative advances in science and technology,the major existed problems in this industry were put forward.Furthermore,scientific and technical demands for further development of cassava biomass energy industry were discussed covering the following aspects:strengthening the research on the culture and the matching cultivation technology of new varieties of high-yield high-starch cassava,launching the development of cassava full-process automated manufacturing equipments,strengthening the research on cassava comprehensive utilization and the development of new cassava products,and strengthening the research on the recycle use of cassava waste and the relative techniques.%在分析我国木薯生物质能源产业现状和科技发展进展的基础上,指出了当前木薯生物质能源产业科技发展存在的主要问题。提出了下一步产业发展的科技需求,重点是加强高产高粉木薯新品种培育和配套栽培技术研究,开展木薯全程机械化系列产品的研发,加强木薯综合利用技术和产品攻关及木薯废弃物的资源化利用技术的研发力度。

  12. 宣传者、营利者和传播者——中国新闻从业者的角色认知%Propagandist, Merchant, and Communicator: The Roles of Journalists in Current China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏林森

    2012-01-01

    The paper concludes the roles of journalists in current China into propagandist, merchant, and communicator from political, market, and professional perspectives respectively. Based on questionnaire research, the article found the role of merchant is over the roles of propagandist and communicator. The journalists who are under employment system, young, male, or working in the TV stations prefer to the role of merchant, and those who are old, female, long worked, or working in the radio stations or party organs prefer to the role of communicator. There are no significant differences among the agreement upon the role of propagandist, besides the practitioners with higher education prefer to be propagandists. More and more journalists identify themselves as merchants.%本论文将新闻从业者的角色归纳为宣传者、营利者和传播者,分别对应政治取向、市场取向和专业主义取向。调查显示,新闻从业者营利者的角色认同度显著高于传播者和宣传者,聘用制、年轻、电视台、男性从业者较认可营利者角色,党报/台、电台、女性、年长、从业年限长的新闻从业者较认可传播者角色,而除高学历者对宣传者角色认同度较低外,从业者对宣传者角色的认可度较一致,总的来看,新闻从业者越来越认同市场的力量。

  13. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  14. Nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation will discuss the role of nuclear energy in China. It will commence with a summary of the overall situation for electricity generation and the importance of nuclear energy, outlining the major electrical power entities, why nuclear power currently only provides 1.9% of the electricity generated in China, why nuclear power has a major future in China along with coal and hydro power, and the roles of the China National Nuclear Corporation. It will then provide more information on the 11 operating NPPs, the 11 reactors under the construction in China, and the plans for the future. The current plan for 2005-2020 is to reach 40 GWe for NP by 2020, but the Chinese government is modifying this plan to increase the nuclear power target to 70 GWe along with other 30 GWe under the construction. Is it dream or will be implemented in the future? The total drilling footage finished in last two years reached 950 000 meters (450 000 meters in 2007 and 500 000 in 2008) including the 700 000 meters focused on the sedimentary basins in the northern China. The uranium resource and reserve in the northern China are dramatic increased. The new discovery resulted three large uranium deposits named Mengqiguer deposit located in the southern margin of Yili basin in Xinjiang, Sunjialiang deposit located in northern part of Erdos basin and Nuheting deposit og Erlain basin located in Inner Mongolia, two medium size deposits called Subeng deposit located in Erlain basin and Baixingtu deposit located in Songliao basin of Inner Mongolia respectively. And the potential areas such as Ciyaobo of Erdos basin, Shazhaoquan of Badanjilin basin in Inner Mongolia, Honghaigou of Yili basin are localized to make sure of future targets and prospects. Those prove that the future exploration focus will be given to the basins located in the northern China to discover more uranium resources. Meanwhile the progress to find more uranium resources in the southern China achieved and a

  15. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  16. Study on current staffmg of nurses and need of hospital nursing human resources in China%我国医院护理人力资源配置与需求的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莹; 蒋晓莲; 颜君; 郑晶; 朱晓雯; 尤黎明; 刘可; 刘华平; 李小妹; 李小寒; 何国平; 尚少梅; 胡雁

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解我国医院护理人力资源的配置与教育现状及医院对护理人力资源的需求情况.方法 采用问卷调查法对我国内地181所三级、二级医院及9774名护士进行调查.结果 三级、二级医院的平均医护比分别为1∶1.39和1∶1.31,均低于卫生部编制标准.164所占97.6%医院的医护比和105所占61.8%医院的护士人数占卫生技术人员总数的比例不达标.6050人占62.3%的护士的起始学历是中专.2003年至2007年医院招聘中专生的构成比下降而大专/高职生、本科生的构成比均上升.合同制已成为医院聘用护士的主要形式,从2003年占新入职护士的60%上升到2007年的78%,有的地区已超过90%.2009年至2013年医院对中专生和大专/高职生的需求量及构成比均呈下降趋势,而对本科生和硕士生的需求呈上升趋势.结论 我国医院护理人员配置不足,起始学历偏低,新入职护士聘用形式主要为合同制.我国医院对护理人员的需求总量增加,其中对中专生的需求量呈减少的趋势,大专/高职生是需求的主体但需求量呈先增加后减少的趋势,对本科生及研究生的需求量呈增加的趋势.建议合理配置护理人员数量,重视合同制护士的就业环境与职业前景,改善我国护理专业起始教育的层次结构.%Objective To investigate the current staffing of nurses and need of hospital nursing human resources in China.Methods Data were collected from 181 secondary and tertiary hospitals and 9774 nurses in mainland China by questionnaires.Results The average doctor-nurse ratio was 1 ∶ 1.39 in tertiary hospitals and 1 ∶ 1.31 in secondary hospitals.The doctor-nurse ratios in 164 hospitals (97.6%) and the proportion of nurses in health care staff in 105 hospitals (61.8%) had not reached the standard set by the Ministry of Health of China.62.3% nurses held secondary diploma for their initial nursing education.The constituent

  17. Event sponsorship in China

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Fan; Pfitzenmaier, N

    2002-01-01

    Event marketing is currently at the infant stage in China, but holds a great potential in future. This is concluded from an Internet-based survey. The respondents believe that event marketing provides international companies with a viable alternative to the increasingly cluttered mass media, and plays a key role in the integrated marketing communications (IMC). Sponsoring sports and music events is found particularly effective in reaching the opinion leaders and innovators, and establishing f...

  18. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  19. Unexpected downshifts in reward magnitude induce variation in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Stokes, Patricia D; Paterniti, Anthea; Balsam, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    We investigated how changes in outcome magnitude affect behavioral variation in human volunteers. Our participants entered strings of characters using a computer keyboard, receiving feedback (gaining a number of points) for any string at least ten characters long. During a "surprise" phase in which the number of points awarded was changed, participants only increased their behavioral variability when the reward value was downshifted to a lower amount, and only when such a shift was novel. Upshifts in reward did not have a systematic effect on variability. PMID:23884690

  20. A Psychological Model for Aggregating Judgments of Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Steyvers, Mark

    In this paper, we develop and illustrate a psychologically-motivated model for aggregating judgments of magnitude across experts. The model assumes that experts' judgments are perturbed from the truth by both systematic biases and random error, and it provides aggregated estimates that are implicitly based on the application of nonlinear weights to individual judgments. The model is also easily extended to situations where experts report multiple quantile judgments. We apply the model to expert judgments concerning flange leaks in a chemical plant, illustrating its use and comparing it to baseline measures.

  1. La pobreza en México. II. Magnitud

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Boltvinik

    1995-01-01

    Este artículo contiene la primera de dos partes de un trabajo sobre la evolución y magnitud de la pobreza en México. Aquí se presentan las metodologías utilizadas en ambas partes, así como la evolución de la pobreza. Se explica someramente la metodología de Línea de Pobreza (LP), en su variante de Canasta Normativa de Satisfactores Esenciales, utilizada para calcular los datos de esta evolución. Se destacan dos problemas en la definición de los requerimientos normativos: el de sus bases de su...

  2. First magnitude a book of the bright sky

    CERN Document Server

    Kaler, James B

    2012-01-01

    "First Magnitude" is an entry-level book for readers with brightly lit skies. Its purpose is to show them that all is not lost, that they can still enjoy personal astronomy and have an appreciation of the heavens no matter where they live. It concentrates on the Sun, Moon, the five bright planets, and on the 23 brightest stars, which are visible from just about anywhere. The book concludes with bright ephemeral phenomena: meteors, comets, and exploding stars. The concept is a platform for introducing the reader to the wonders of the nighttime and daytime skies and serves as an introduction to

  3. A Brief Introduction of China English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永仙

    2016-01-01

    China English does exist. The recognition and knowledge of China English can not only empower English learners of the English variety they are using in their surroundings, but it also can enhance learners' communicative competence in cross-cultural communities. This paper overviews the current situation of China English in terms of its definition and linguistic features at four levels: phonology, lexicon, syntax and discourse pragmatics.

  4. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  5. Current Situation of Standardization of Engineering Risk Management and Development Trend in China%风险管理标准现状及我国工程风险管理标准化发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety risk have been at a more and more high level in engineering construction.The economic development and social stability are affected by the key factor of high frequency accidents now;therefore,in order to realize pre-control and management of quality and safety risk management of engineering construction actively,a normal risk management system should be established.According to the current situa-tion analysis of risk management in engineering construction of Australia & New Zealand,England,Interna-tional Standardization Organization and China,the main contents,structure system,rating criterion,applica-tion scope,key points and the difference among the different standards are discussed.The analysis and discus-sion results will provide some guide and reference to establish the system and consummate the technical stand-ards for risk management standardization of the engineering construction in China to some extent.Moreover, the development trend of risk management standardization in engineering construction field is discussed;and some suggestion on the development trend and main tasks of risk management standardization are proposed.%随着我国城镇化发展的进一步推进,工程建设质量安全风险越来越高,工程风险事件频发已经成为制约我国经济建设可持续发展和社会稳定的关键因素,因此,有必要通过系统化、标准化、规范化的风险管理标准体系,实现“主动控制、主动管理”建设工程的施工质量安全风险。本文通过对澳大利亚/新西兰、英国、国际标准化组织以及我国的工程相关风险管理标准现状分析,探讨了各国风险管理标准的主要内容、结构体系、等级标准、适用范围、主要特点及不同之处,为我国工程建设风险管理标准体系的构建、相关技术标准的完善提供一定的借鉴和参考。同时,本文探讨了我国工程建设领域的风险管理标准化发展趋势

  6. Current Status and Prospect of Environmental Safety Legislations and Policies for Forming Lands in China%我国农产品产地环境安全法规和政策的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学军; 龙文静

    2014-01-01

    Although laws, regulations, policies, plans and standards concerning the environmental safety of forming lands have been devel-oped and adopted in related areas in China, they are not as perfect as we expected, and couldnˊt be operated effectively. This is one of the most important reasons causing quality and safety problems for agricultural products, and need to be settled. In this paper, the authors summa-rized the history, development and current status of legislations and policies for environmental safety of farming lands in China. With the re-view of domestic experiences and learning from international experiences, the authors put forward legislation and policy recommendations. The authors suggested that, a systematic and complete legislation and policy system for environmental safety of farming land should be creat-ed. In this system, a few key issues should be paid great attention, including prevention of soil pollution, remediation of contaminated soil, as well as establishing early warning and emergency response system for farming land and agricultural products. The subjects of responsibilities for environmental safety of farming lands should be clarified, including government agencies, enterprises and individuals, which could help implement the laws and policies more effectively. The environmental monitoring ability and related information collection and dissemination abilities should also be strengthened.%尽管我国在与农产品产地相关的许多领域已经形成了一些相关的法规、政策、规划和标准,但总体上来看还十分不完善,更缺乏体系,操作性也比较差,这是近年来农产品质量安全问题时有发生的重要原因之一,这种现状急需改变。本文回顾了我国农产品产地环境安全领域法规和政策的现状,并在借鉴发达国家经验的基础上,提出了强化我国农产品产地环境安全法规和政策的建议。应形成完整的农产品产地环境安全的

  7. Study on the current status of adolescent-parent communication on sex-related issues in China%中国青少年与父母交流性相关话题的状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左霞云; 廉启国; 涂晓雯; 程艳; 程静; 白铁玲; 王金桃; 沈会懿; 楼超华

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解目前我国家庭性教育开展状况及存在的主要问题,为进一步发挥家庭在青少年性与生殖健康教育中的作用提供依据.方法:采用分阶段抽样,对全国6个省城市和农村地区的5 709例不同类型的青少年进行计算机辅助的自填问卷调查,调查青少年与父母交流性话题的状况及存在的障碍,并分析其影响因素.结果:50%的被调查青少年与父母亲交流过性话题,交流的内容主要为男孩女孩适宜的举止、友情、爱情与婚姻及人体生理知识.不与父母交流性话题的最大原因是感到不好意思,相当比例是父母在面对性话题时敷衍了事、避而不答或没有能力回答.多因素分析显示青少年与父母的性别、父母的文化程度、家庭结构、家庭氛围等因素影响了亲子间性话题的交流.结论:青少年与父母交流性相关话题非常有限,父母的观念和能力阻碍了亲子交流,应加强对父母的指导和培训,对不同特征父母培训的重点应有所侧重.%Objective: To investigate the current status of adolescent - parent communication on sex - related topics in China and its influencing factors, and to provide basic information on how to involve parents well in adolescent sexual and reproductive health education. Methods: A total of 5,709 adolescents of different characteristics from both urban and rural areas in six provinces were investigated anonymously with the method of computer assisted self - interview ( CASI). Questions about the status of adolescent - parent communication on sex - related issues and its main obstacles were asked and the influencing factors were analyzed. Results: About half of the male and female adolescents had communicated sex - related topics with their fathers, while about hahf of the male adolescents and three fourths of female adolescents had communicated with their mothers. Their communication was mainly on the appropriate behaviors

  8. A Study of LFE Magnitudes in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive suite of ~250 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing spatially distinct tremor sources on or near the plate boundary in northern Cascadia from northern Vancouver Island to southern Washington. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing a total of over 200,000 independent detections spanning a selection of episodic-tremor-and-slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. On the basis of empirical evidence and analytical arguments, these templates can be considered as band-limited, empirical Green's functions excited from shallow-thrust point sources to station locations corresponding to a collection of temporary and permanent network sites. The high fidelity of template match-filtered detections enables precise alignment of individual LFE time series and analysis of LFE amplitudes. Upon correction for geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve for station-channel amplification factors and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a given ETS episode. We will present a spatio-temporal analysis of LFE magnitudes including their variability across different ETS events, their dependence in along-dip location, and their expression in different rupture modes, i.e. main front versus rapid tremor reversals of Houston [2011] versus small scale reversals of Rubin and Armbruster [2013].

  9. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  10. Constraining explosive volcanism: subjective choices during estimates of eruption magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, Malin; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Don; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wessel, Paul; Wolfe, Cecily J.

    2014-01-01

    When estimating the magnitude of explosive eruptions from their deposits, individuals make three sets of critical choices with respect to input data: the spacing of sampling sites, the selection of contour intervals to constrain the field measurements, and the hand contouring of thickness/isomass data, respectively. Volcanologists make subjective calls, as there are no accepted published protocols and few accounts of how these choices will impact estimates of eruption magnitude. Here, for the first time, we took a set of unpublished thickness measurements from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki pyroclastic fall deposit and asked 101 volcanologists worldwide to hand contour the data. First, there were surprisingly consistent volume estimates across maps with three different sampling densities. Second, the variability in volume calculations imparted by individuals’ choices of contours is also surprisingly low and lies between s = 5 and 8 %. Third, volume estimation is insensitive to the extent to which different individuals “smooth” the raw data in constructing contour lines. Finally, large uncertainty is associated with the construction of the thinnest isopachs, which is likely to underestimate the actual trend of deposit thinning. The net result is that researchers can have considerable confidence in using volume or dispersal data from multiple authors and different deposits for comparative studies. These insights should help volcanologists around the world to optimize design and execution of field-based studies to characterize accurately the volume of pyroclastic deposits.

  11. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kwan Tun Lee; Jen-Kuo Huang

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude andwatershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfallrunoffdynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peakdischarge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was firstdemonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation ofthe watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak dischargeand time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intentionof deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast,the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensitywithout relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity.Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainagearea was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate thatthe scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting toa small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively greatdrainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scalingrelationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  12. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  13. The conference on magnitude of deviatoric stresses in the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Raleigh, C. Barry

    1980-11-01

    The magnitude of deviatoric stresses in the earth's crust and uppermost mantle, and especially the magnitude of shear stresses that resist plate motions across the major plate boundaries, is a matter of central importance to solid earth geophysics. Since currently available estimates vary by at least a factor of 10, even when the same features or set of observations are involved, such fundamental issues as the driving mechanism(s) of plate tectonics and the energetics of crustal faulting are entirely unresolved. More generally, there is very little in the study of active geologic processes of geophysical interest that does not involve material deformation of some kind or another; in understated terms the analysis of material deformation to reveal causative processes is poorly constrained when the magnitude of the deviatoric stresses involved is so uncertain. Apart from the obvious problem of our inability to measure directly deviatoric stresses in the earth's crust and uppermost mantle through all but a small fraction of its depth—or sample directly this region in any other way at the present time—a confounding difficulty exists in the great range of time scales involved in geophysical processes of interest, from fractions of seconds for the spontaneous failure of small crustal earthquakes to billions of years for the relaxation of certain topographic and gravimetric features of the continental crust. It is probably naive then to expect that the same magnitude of deviatoric stresses should exist for all these geologic processes, given the great range of time scales over which they operate. Moreover, the earth's crust and uppermost mantle are heterogeneous enough, especially in continental regions, that significant spatial variations probably exist as well. Certainly, an important problem is whether the actual variations in space and time of deviatoric stresses in the earth's crust and uppermost mantle can be large enough to accommodate the order of magnitude

  14. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  15. 从兽用生物制品企业角度看我国SPF鸡质量控制现状%Veterinary Bioproducts Enterprises' View On Current Situation of the Quality Control of SPF Chicken in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海蓉; 王正春; 刘文峰; 刘玉云; 张勇强

    2011-01-01

    SPF鸡和鸡胚是兽用生物制品生产和检验环节的主要原材料,直接影响到产品质量和检验结果,2010年版《中国兽药典》(三部)附录《生产、检验用动物标准》明确要求,用于禽类制品毒种制备与鉴定、病毒活疫苗生产与检验、灭活疫苗检验的鸡和鸡胚应符合国家无特定病原体(SPF级)动物标准.SPF鸡的质量控制包括遗传、微生物、环境和营养四个方面,本文主要从兽用生物制品生产企业的角度,分析国内SPF鸡质控指标,结合禽用活疫苗生产和检验实践,提出对SPF鸡质量控制的思考和建议.%Results of quality control test and even the quality of the products are directly affected by SPF chickens and SPF embryos,which are the main raw materials of production and quality inspection in veterinary biological products. Chickens and embryos must meet the national SPF animal standards requirement from the animal standards in production and inspection in the veterinary pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China(2010) , in the seed lots and biological products preparation and quality inspection. The quality control of SPF chicken includes four tests, namely inheritance, microorganism , environment and nutrition respectively. The current standards for quality control of SPF chickens are reviewed in the perspective of bioproducts enterprises. In this article, critical ideas and practical proposals for quality control of SPF chickens based on the practice of production and quality inspect in poultry live vaccine are presented.

  16. Commentary: China Will Change Our Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    The current spurt in life science activity in China has been driven by repatriating researchers trained in the prestigious institutions of the world. China's publications show a clear concentration in the physical sciences and technology, with materials science, chemistry, and physics predominant. Also clear is that the growth areas include…

  17. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  18. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjit Das; H R Wason; M L Sharma

    2012-02-01

    Northeast India region is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. Events data for the period 1897–2010, used in this study has been largely compiled from global ISC, NEIC and GCMT databases. Historical seismicity catalogue of Gupta et al (1986) and some events data from the bulletins of India Meteorological Department are also used. Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978–2006 have been derived. An Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) relationship has also been obtained for scaling of intensity estimates to w,NEIC using 126 global intensity events with intensity VI or greater during the period 1975–2010. Magnitude of completeness and Gutenberg–Richter (GR) recurrence parameter values have been determined for the declustered homogenized catalogue pertaining to four different time periods namely, 1897–1963, 1964–1990, 1964–2000 and 1964–2010. The c and `' values are observed to decrease and increase, respectively, with addition of newer data with time. The study region has been subdivided into nine seismogenic zones keeping in view the spatial variations in earthquake occurrence and prevalent tectonics. c, `' and `' values have been estimated with respect to each zone, and the variations in the values of these parameters have been analysed.

  20. Long-Term Changes in Landscape Structure Within and Across China's Densely Populated Rural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E.

    2006-05-01

    China's densely populated agricultural village landscapes cover nearly 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia. Driven by industrialization, population growth and economic reform, this vast extent of intensively- managed anthropogenic landscapes has undergone unprecedented ecological changes over the past fifty years. Despite their potential global impacts, long-term changes in China's village landscapes are the cumulative result of multitudinous fine-scale changes in landscape structure and resource management by hundreds of millions of agricultural households acting locally. Here we present results from a five-year field study of long-term ecological changes, circa 1945 to 2002, across China's densely populated agricultural regions based on high-resolution landscape change measurements, land manager interviews, and soil and vegetation sampling at five field sites in environmentally distinct regions across China. Human population density nearly doubled across sites, driving increases in anthropogenic impervious surface area and landscape fragmentation, yielding a 5% net increase in impervious surfaces across China's village landscapes over the past fifty years, a change similar in magnitude to the total current area of China's cities (~0.1 × 106 km2). Surprisingly, woody vegetation and tree cover also increased substantially over time, by approximately 10% (~0.2 × 106 km2), driven by tree planting and regrowth around newly constructed buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture and improved forestry, and the abandonment of annual crop cultivation. These and other long-term changes in landscape structure have the potential to contribute substantially and in unforeseen ways to global and regional changes in biogeochemical and hydrological processes, surface albedo and heat balance.