WorldWideScience

Sample records for china coastal city

  1. Strategic Environmental Assessment: A New Tool for Ecological Urbanization of Coastal Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Qinhua; Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Jiang Yuwu; Chen Bin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concerns about environmental issues related to urbanization in China. The intense natural resources utilization and increasing population has brought great pressure,especially in coastal areas, consequently affecting the sustainable development of coastal cities. In 2002,Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA Act) was enacted in China. Environmental impact assessment targeted at planning, one level of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), thus became a legislative requirement.This paper considers SEA to be one of the important approaches not only to control coastal pollution, but also to conserve coastal ecosystems and finally to achieve sustainable development during urbanization, thus it will be a set an example for other areas of China. The experience of SEA in Xiamen, a coastal city in southeast China, illustrates the potentials of SEA. This paper first briefly introduces the concept and potentials of SEA,then compares two SEA cases and a project EIA case in Xiamen, and finally identifies the key characteristics of SEA.

  2. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at b...

  3. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-03-02

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100-200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  4. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people. Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  5. Scenario prediction of emerging coastal city using CA modeling under different environmental conditions: a case study of Lingang New City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The world's coastal regions are experiencing rapid urbanization coupled with increased risk of ecological damage and storm surge related to global climate and sea level rising. This urban development issue is particularly important in China, where many emerging coastal cities are being developed. Lingang New City, southeast of Shanghai, is an excellent example of a coastal city that is increasingly vulnerable to environmental change. Sustainable urban development requires planning that classifies and allocates coastal lands using objective procedures that incorporate changing environmental conditions. In this paper, we applied cellular automata (CA) modeling based on self-adaptive genetic algorithm (SAGA) to predict future scenarios and explore sustainable urban development options for Lingang. The CA model was calibrated using the 2005 initial status, 2015 final status, and a set of spatial variables. We implemented specific ecological and environmental conditions as spatial constraints for the model and predicted four 2030 scenarios: (a) an urban planning-oriented Plan Scenario; (b) an ecosystem protection-oriented Eco Scenario; (c) a storm surge-affected Storm Scenario; and (d) a scenario incorporating both ecosystem protection and the effects of storm surge, called the Ecostorm Scenario. The Plan Scenario has been taken as the baseline, with the Lingang urban area increasing from 45.8 km(2) in 2015 to 66.8 km(2) in 2030, accounting for 23.9 % of the entire study area. The simulated urban land size of the Plan Scenario in 2030 was taken as the target to accommodate the projected population increase in this city, which was then applied in the remaining three development scenarios. We used CA modeling to reallocate the urban cells to other unconstrained areas in response to changing spatial constraints. Our predictions should be helpful not only in assessing and adjusting the urban planning schemes for Lingang but also for evaluating urban planning in coastal

  6. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  7. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study for Fuzhou city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under the combined effect of multivariable variables, such as heavy rainfall, high sea level and large waves. For better assessment and management of flood risk the combined effect and joint probability should be considered. This paper aims to study the joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk by estimating the combined risk degree of flood and the joint flood probability. The area of case study is a typical coastal city in China, which has a complex river system. The flood in this city is mainly caused by inundation of river system. In this paper, the combined risk degree of flood is assessed by analyzing the behavior of the complex river network of the city under the combined effect of rainfall and tidal level with diverse return periods. The hydraulic model of the complex drainage network is established using HEC-RAS and verified by comparing the simulation results with the observed data during Typhoon "Longwang". The joint distribution and combined risk probability of rainfall and tidal level are estimated using the optimal copula function. The work carried out in this paper would facilitate assessment of flood risk significantly, which can be referred for the similar cities.

  8. Coastal city subsidence in Shenzhen (China), monitored using multi-frequency radar interferometry time-series techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Yongsheng; Singleton, Andrew; Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Jingfa; Li, Zhenhong

    2014-05-01

    In just 26 years, the coastal city of Shenzhen (Southern China) has been transformed from a small fishing village to a modern city with a population exceeding 8.5 million people. Following its designation as a Special Economic Zone in the 1980s, the city became a test bed for China's economic reforms and currently leads many new practices in urban planning. The rapid economic development was matched by a sharp increase in the demand for usable land and consequently, extensive coastal reclamation has been undertaken by piling rock fragments from nearby hills onto the seabed. However, it has recently been reported that new apartments, offices and transport networks built on the reclaimed land have become unusable due to ground subsidence. The additional threat of coastal inundation from sea-level rise also requires serious consideration. InSAR time-series techniques (such as Persistent Scatterer and Small Baseline InSAR) are capable of detecting sub-centimetre elevation changes of the Earth's surface over large areas and at a density far exceeding the capabilities of a GPS network - particularly for such an urban environment as Shenzhen. This study uses numerous independent tracks of SAR data (two ENVISAT C-band tracks and two ALOS L-band tracks) to determine the surface movements between 2004 and 2013. Quantitative comparative analyses are carried out in the overlapping area between two adjacent tracks, and thus no ground data is required to validate InSAR results. The results show greatest subsidence in coastal areas with the areas of reclaimed land also predominantly undergoing subsidence. The combination of different ascending and descending tracks allows 2D velocity fields to be estimated and it will be important to determine whether the subsidence from the recently reclaimed land is consolidation or part of a longer-term trend. This ability to provide accurate measurements of ground stability for the city of Shenzhen will help focus investigations into areas of

  9. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  10. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  11. Size distribution and mixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol from a coastal city in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Tie, Xuexi; Han, Yongming; Zhuang, Mazhan; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jieru; Zhang, Xuemin; Dusek, Uli; Cao, Junji

    2016-11-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the coastal city of Xiamen, China to investigate the size distribution and mixing state of the refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol. The average rBC concentration for the campaign, measured with a ground-based single particle soot photometer (SP2), was 2.3 ± 1.7 μg m- 3, which accounted for ~ 4.3% of the PM2.5 mass. A potential source contribution function model indicated that emissions from coastal cities to the southwest were the most important source for the rBC and that shipping traffic was another likely source. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles was mono-modal and approximately lognormal, with a mass median diameter (MMD) of ~ 185 nm. Larger MMDs (~ 195 nm) occurred during polluted conditions compared with non-polluted times (~ 175 nm) due to stronger biomass burning activities during pollution episodes. Uncoated or thinly-coated particles composed the bulk of the rBC aerosol, and on average ~ 31% of the rBC was internally-mixed or thickly-coated. A positive matrix factorization model showed that organic materials were the predominant component of the rBC coatings and that mixing with nitrate increased during pollution conditions. These findings should lead to improvements in the parameterizations used to model the radiative effects of rBC.

  12. 5-Year study of rainwater chemistry in a coastal mega-city in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiang; He, Ling-Yan; Feng, Ning; Hu, Min; Niu, Yu-Wen; Zeng, Li-Wu

    2010-07-01

    South China is one of the major regions suffering from acid rain in the world, especially for its urban environments. However, long-term and comprehensive studies on rainwater chemistry in this region have been scarce in the literature. In order to characterize the current acid rain status in South China, a total of 208 rainfall events were collected and measured systematically at an urban site in Shenzhen, a mega-city on the southeast coast of China, from 2005 to 2009. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was observed to be 4.56 during the five years, with an acid rain frequency of 84.6%. SO 42- was the most abundant ionic species, followed by Ca 2+, NH 4+, H +, NO 3-, Cl -, Na +, Mg 2+, K + and F - in sequence. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids together contributed 2.32% to the total organic carbon (TOC) content and 2.86% to the total free acidity. SO 42-, NO 3-, Ca 2+, NH 4+ and TOC presented a seasonal trend of being lower in summer and higher in winter, while the other species did not show clear seasonal patterns. Based on the dataset, the sources of the species in rainwater in Shenzhen were explored using different statistical techniques, which indicated strong impact of anthropogenic pollution on the rainwater chemistry in this area.

  13. A comparative Study of manufacturing industrial Competitiveness in eastern coastal provinces and cities of China based on shift-share analysis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Aizhi

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing industry is an important symbol which weighs a local economy comprehensive strength and modernized level, and a mighty manufacturing industry is a reliable guarantee which realizes the industry modernization.The manufacturing industry in eastern coastal provinces and cities of China, including Shandong, Jiangsu Zhejiang, Shanghai and Guangdong, holds a quite high proportion, and is competitive.But as to the interior, the manufacturing industry competitiveness of five provinces and cities actually has obviously gradient difference.The concrete profession's competitiveness also has the characteristic respectively.This paper analyzes the competitiveness of manufacturing industry in five provinces and cities by the shift-share analysis, obtains a conclusion that Shandong and Zhejiang have the competitive advantage in the traditional manufacturing industry, that Jiangsu's and Guangdong's competitiveness lies in capital, technology-intensive industry, but that Shanghai manufacturing industry's competitive advantage is not obvious, and then proposes strategy to promote the manufacturing industry in the eastern coastal provinces and cities.

  14. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  15. Temporal trend and determinants of river water quality across urbanization gradients in a coastal city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Zhu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Water contamination in rivers embedded in urbanizing areas is increasingly affected by anthropogenic factors. The impacts may vary with location, time and water variables particularly in rapidly growing areas with clear urbanization gradients. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible divers to water quality changes in areas with different urbanization intensity could greatly improve our knowledge about human-water interactions. We employed geographically weighted regression (GWR) to interpret the determinants of river water quality changes in four urban development zones, i.e. central urban, suburban, central county and rural areas. Monitoring data of 8 variables- permanganate (CODMn), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium (NH3-N), petroleum (oil), volatile phenol (VP), phosphorus (TP), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) from 33 stations were collected from 2004, 2008 and 2010. Five determinants were identified: urban land use intensity, environmental policies, industrial zone expansion, land use composition, and gross domestic product (GDP). Relationships between these identified determinants and water quality changes showed great variations due to their different nature and sensitivity. Typically, for zones with higher urbanization intensity located in central cities and central counties, urban land use had positive impacts on river water quality improvement. However, in less urbanized areas, rapid urban expansion indicated rapid river water degradation. Environmental policies had distinct influences on river pollution control in highly-urbanized areas, but led to unexpected negative impacts in areas beyond the management priorities. Industrial activities were the major contributor to heavy metal pollution in suburban areas while boosted N, P decrease in central cities. Our study highlighted the importance of "local" management instead of one-size-fits-all system in mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  16. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132, r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284, r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children.

  17. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study of Fuzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under multivariable conditions, such as heavy precipitation, high sea levels, and storms. The combined effect of multiple sources and the joint probability of extremes should be considered to assess and manage flood risk better. This paper aims to study the combined effect of rainfall and the tidal level of the receiving water body on flood probability and severity in Fuzhou City, which has a complex river network. Flood severity under a range of precipitation intensities, with return periods (RPs of 5 yr to 100 yr, and tidal levels was assessed through a hydrodynamic model verified by data observed during Typhoon Longwang in 2005. According to the percentages of the river network where flooding occurred, the threshold conditions for flood severity were estimated in two scenarios: with and without working pumps. In Fuzhou City, working pumps efficiently reduce flood risk from precipitation within a 20-yr RP. However, the pumps may not work efficiently when rainfall exceeds a 100-yr RP because of the limited conveyance capacity of the river network. Joint risk probability was estimated through the optimal copula. The joint probability of rainfall and tidal level both exceeding their threshold values is very low, and the greatest threat in Fuzhou comes from heavy rainfall. However, the tidal level poses an extra risk of flood. Given that this extra risk is ignored in the design of flood defense in Fuzhou, flood frequency and severity may be higher than understood during design.

  18. Marginal cost pricing for coal fired electricity in coastal cities of China:The case of Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By developing a GDMOD model to estimate the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation, this project provides a detailed analysis of the damages and costs caused by different pollutants at varying distances from the Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen, China. The major findings of this study can be summarized that (1) environmental damages caused by electricity production are large and are mainly imposed on regions far away from the electricity plant; (2) air pollution is the most significant contributor to the total damages, and SO2, NOx, and particulate matter are the three major pollutants with highest damages; (3) the damages caused per unit of particulate, NOx, and SO2 emissions are much higher than pollution treatment and prevention costs. The research results of this project showed that China needs to have a more effective levy system on SO2, and a more manageable electricity tariff mechanism to internalize the environmental externalities. The results have also implications for pollution control strategies, compensation schemes as well as emission trading arrangements.

  19. Chemical composition, structural properties, and source apportionment of organic macromolecules in atmospheric PM10 in a coastal city of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanting; Du, Wenjiao; Chen, Jinsheng; Hong, Youwei; Zhao, Jinping; Xu, Lingling; Xiao, Hang

    2017-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with the fractions of organic macromolecules, including humic acid (HA), kerogen + black carbon (KB), and black carbon (BC), was determined during summer and winter at urban and suburban sites in a coastal city of southeast China. The organic macromolecules were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their sources were identified by using stable carbon/nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C/δ(15)N) and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model. The results showed that HA, kerogen (K), and BC accounted for the range of 3.89 to 4.55 % in PM10, while they were the dominant fractions of total organic carbon (TOC), ranging from 64.70 to 84.99 %. SEM analysis indicated that BC particles were porous/nonporous and consisted of spherical and non-spherical (i.e., cylindrical and elongate) structures. The FTIR spectra of HA, KB, and BC exhibited similar functional groups, but the difference of various sites and seasons was observed. HA in PM10 contained a higher fraction of aliphatic structures, such as long-chain fatty and carbohydrates with a carboxylic extremity. The C/N ratio, SEM, and δ(13)C/δ(15)N values provided reliable indicators of the sources of HA, K, and BC in PM10. The results suggested that HA and K majorly originated from terrestrial plants, and BC came from the mixture of combustion of terrestrial plants, fossil fuel, and charcoal. The air masses in winter originated from Mongolia (4 %), the northern area of China (48 %), and northern adjacent cities (48 %), suggesting the influence of anthropogenic sources through long-range transport, while the air masses for the summer period came from South China Sea (34 %) and Western Pacific Sea (66 %), representing clean marine air masses with low concentrations of organic macromolecules.

  20. Physico-Chemical Properties and Laboratory Hyperspectral Reflectance of Coastal Saline Soil in Shangyu City of Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZHOU; HUANG MINGXIANG; LI YAN

    2003-01-01

    45 and 50 composite soil samples were collected, respectively, from two agricultural fields, that wereenclosed and reclaimed fron coastal tidal-flat areas in 1996 and 1984 respectively, in Shangyu of ZhejiangProvince, China, to investigate the physico-chemical properties and the hyperspectral characteristics of thesaline soils and to make an assessment on their relationships. The reflectance spectra of saline soils weremeasured using a spectroradiometer in laboratory. The mean spectral curves of the saline soils from thetwo sites different in reclamation year showed that the saline soil taken from the recently reclaimed landwith higher salinity demonstrated a lower reflectance intensity in the spectral region from about 550 nm to2300 nm. In addition, nine absorption bands, i.e., 488 nm, 530 nm, 670 nm, 880 nm, 940 nm, 1400 nm,1 900 nm, 2 200 nm and 2 300 nm, were chosen as the spectral bands to investigate the relationships betweensoil physico-chemical properties by means of Pearson correlation analysis. Finally, the first two principalcomponents were calculated from nine absorption bands and used to discriminate the saline soil samplestaken from two sampled fields. The results indicate that it is feasible to detect physico-chemical propertiesof saline soils from fields reclaimed for varying time periods on the basis of the hyperspectral data.

  1. Losses Assessment of Crops due to Typhoon Disaster in China Coastal Areas —— A Case Study of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, W.; Fang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability which quantifies the loss ratio under different hazard intensity is an important feature of the natural disaster system and has important significance to natural disaster risk assessment. Agriculture is an outdoor industry with high risk of meteorological disasters. The strong winds, heavy rain and storm surge are main typhoon hazard factors to crops. To provide a quantitative research method for the loss evaluation of crops due to typhoon disaster we first revised two vulnerability curves for crops under comprehensive intensity of typhoon based on the simulated hazard data and loss data related to historical typhoon events landing on China from 1949 to 2014;and then established a storm surge vulnerability matrix of crops regarding Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province as the study area ; finally, we put forward three storm surge fragility curves for crops representing different states of loss. The results can effectively describe the typhoon vulnerability for crops in China coastal areas so as to provide the input to post-disaster loss assessments and catastrophe modeling applications.

  2. Pattern of atmospheric mercury speciation during episodes of elevated PM2.5 levels in a coastal city in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Chen, Jinsheng; Deng, Junjun; Tong, Lei; Xu, Lingling; Niu, Zhenchuan; Yin, Liqian; Chen, Yanting; Hong, Zhenyu

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of atmospheric mercury speciation was conducted in a coastal city of the Yangtze River Delta, China from July 2013 to January 2014, in conjunction with air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The mean concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate bound mercury (HgP) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were 3.26 ± 1.63 ng m(-3), 659 ± 931 pg m(-3), and 197 ± 246 pg m(-3), respectively. High percentages of HgP during haze days were found, due to the increase in direct emissions and gas-particle partitioning of RGM. The average gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) during moderate or severe haze days (PM2.5 > 150 μg m(-3)) were obviously decreased. GEM and HgP were positively correlated with PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO, suggesting a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources. Elevated HgP concentrations in cold seasons and in the morning were observed while RGM exhibited different seasonal and diurnal pattern. The ratio of HgP/SO2 and Pearson correlation analysis suggested that coal combustion was the main cause of increasing atmospheric Hg concentrations. The monitoring site was affected by local, regional and interregional sources. The back trajectory analysis suggested that air mass from northwest China and Huabei Plain contributed to elevated atmospheric Hg in winter and autumn, while southeast China with clean air masses were the major contributor in summer.

  3. Gender and Job Mobility in Postsocialist China: A Longitudinal Study of Job Changes in Six Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Hu, Chiung-Yin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in job mobility in urban China. Conceptualizing China's postsocialist transition as a multi-faceted process, we argue that the emergence of labor markets, gendered role differentiation within the family, and the state's declining involvement in promoting women's rights lead to widened gender gaps in job…

  4. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a coastal city in South China using a single particle soot photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Tian-Le; Zeng, Li-Wu; Yu, Guang-He; Luan, Sheng-Ji

    2012-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the dominant light-absorbing aerosol component in the atmosphere and plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and climate change. The light-absorbing properties of BC rely on particle size, shape, composition, as well as the BC mixing state with other aerosol components, thus more thorough exploration of BC aerosol characteristics is critical in understanding its atmospheric sources and effects. In this study, a newly-developed Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was deployed in Shenzhen, China, for continuous BC measurements to obtain the important information about size distribution and mixing state of BC under severe air pollution conditions of China. The mean BC mass concentrations were found to be 6.0 and 4.1 μg m-3 at an urban site (UT) in the fall and winter, respectively, while it is much lower (2.6 μg m-3) at a rural site (BG) in the fall. The mass size distributions of BC in volume equivalent diameter (VED) at the three sites showed a similar lognormal pattern, with the peak diameter at BG (222 nm) slightly larger than at the UT (210 nm) site. As to mixing state, the average percentage of internally mixed BC at the UT site was detected to be 40% and 46% in the fall and winter, respectively, while that at the BG site in the fall was only a slightly higher (47%), which implies that fresh local fossil fuel combustions were still significant at this rural site. The analysis of extremely high BC concentrations (>20 μg m-3) at UT indicates that they were a complex of comparable contributions from both local fresh emissions and regional transport under unfavorable meteorology. Other characteristics of BC aerosol and their influencing factors in Shenzhen were also discussed.

  5. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  6. Egyptian coastal regions development through economic diversity for its coastal cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek AbdeL-Latif

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the structure of the coastal cities industry, the main types, the impacts (economic, environmental, and social of coastal cities, and the local trends in development in the Egyptian coastal cities and its regions. It will also analyze coastal and marine tourism in several key regions identified because of the diversity of life they support, and the potential destruction they could face. This paper confirms that economic diversification in coastal cities is more effective than developments in only one economic sector, even if this sector is prominent and important.

  7. Wasted cities in urbanizing China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Guizhen; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is a characteristic of the 21st century, especially in countries with developing economies and a large amount of rural-to-urban migration. In China, the emergence of "wasted cities and towns" has paralleled urban expansion; large newly built areas that remain unpopulated and have

  8. ESTUARINE AND COASTAL CHALLENGES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉余; 陈沈良

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries and coasts are conjunctions of four spheres (atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere) and important matter and energy convergence/divergence zones, where developed economy, dense population and highly intensive exploitation induce adverse environmental changes and serious destruction of resources, which have great impacts on coastal sustainable development, especially as the highly intensive development in river basins has direct and pronounced effects on estuaries and their adjacent coasts. In the new century, China's estuaries and coast are faced with four main challenges: sharp decrease of sediment discharge into the sea, rapid increase of pollution matter into the sea, loss of coastal wetland, and the impacts of global sea level rise on the coastallowlands of China. Therefore, it is undoubtedly very important and urgent to carry out studies on estuarine and coastal environmental changes, in order to resolve the issue of national sustainable development, especially that of rational use of coastal zone resources. ``

  9. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  10. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors of this paper induced five principles of geographical symmetry based on the space distributions of cities and towns in China. There is a symmetry distribution of cities and towns. The symmetry characteristics are the following: (i) the average coordination number of the cities (including large cities, medium cities and county towns) is 6 ( i.g. rotation symmetry); (ii) the distribution of large and medium cities are shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two main tectonic ones in China, respectively; (iii) the distribution of county towns of a province is also shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two tectonic ones in this province (i. g. two-dimensional translation ) and (iv) the concentric circle distribution of cities (CCDC) is centered round a large city (i. g. rotation symmetry).

  11. Introduction to China City Planning Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    China City Planning Review(CCPR)was firstly published in 1985 right after China initiated its policies of reform and opening up.Its worldwide publication was resumed by the Urban Planning Society of China in 2006 after a suspension of several years.Up to now,CCPR is the only English periodical in the area of urban planning in China.It is

  12. Introduction to China City Planning Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    China City Planning Review(CCPR)was firstly published in 1985 right after China initiated its policies of reform and opening up.Its worldwide publication was resumed by the Urban Planning Society of China?in 2006 after a suspension of several years.Up to now,CCPR is the only English periodical in the area of urban planning in China.It is

  13. Introduction to China City Planning Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    China City Planning Review(CCPR)was firstly published in 1985 right after China initiated its policies of reform and opening up.Its worldwide publication was resumed by the Urban Planning Society of China in 2006 after a suspension of several years.Up to now,CCPR is the only English periodical in the area of urban planning in China.It is

  14. China-DPRK Friendship Cities Conference Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The China-DPRK Friendship Cities Conference cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries of DPR Korea (CCRFCK) was held in Pyongyang on May 12. A 36-member delegation

  15. Crescent City, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  19. Integrated Assessment of Risk Reduction for Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, G.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal cities are among the world's most vulnerable communities and as their populations grow and the sea level rise, their vulnerability is increasing. Recent examples include the Japanese earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the typhoons in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Taiwan and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper will discuss the exposure, vulnerability and hazards affecting large coastal cities and the role of a changing climate in their modification. A key question is what lessons have been learned and where future research should lay its emphasis. Through START and the new Canadian-funded project for Bangkok, Manila, Lagos and Vancouver, Coastal Cities at Risk research is advancing and an integrated assessment approach is being proposed to analyse options for risk reduction and will be described in this paper.

  20. CHANGCHUN:Spring City of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Although Changchun has been more than 200 years old,it is still a young city compared with other historical cities in China.It is located at the central oart of Songliao Plain,covering a total area of 20,571 square kilometers (about 8,012 square miles).Being the capital city of Jilin province,Changchun is the political,economic and cultural center.

  1. Introduction to China City Planning Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    China City Planning Review(CCPR)was firstly published in 1985 right after China initiated its policies of reform and opening up.Its worldwide publication was resumed by the Urban Planning Society of China in 2006 after a suspension of several years.Up to now,CCPR is the only English periodical in the area of urban planning in China.It is published by the Urban Planning Society of China,under the administration of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-

  2. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  3. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  4. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-08

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  5. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  6. 基于河南省劳动力供给状况的我国东南沿海"民工荒"问题研究%On the Shortage of Migrant Workers in Southeastern Coastal Cities of China Based on the Labor Supply Status of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶在青

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of labor supply in Henan province the paper probes into the problems and countermeasures of labor shortage in southeastern coastal cities, and puts forward the view that the economic development of China has not yet reached the Lewis turning point.%从河南省劳动力供给状况角度探讨东南沿海部分城市出现的"民工荒"问题的原因及解决对策,并提出我国经济发展尚未到达"刘易斯拐点"的观点.

  7. Dalian: A Beautiful City of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dalian is a young city with only a 100-year history. Situated at the tip of China's Liaodong Peninsular, it is a trading and financial center in northeastern Asia and has gained the name the "Hong Kong of Northern China". The old name of Dalian was first used by an official in his memorial to Emperor Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty referring to the present Dalian Gulf. In the early 20th century, the gulf area developed quickly and Dalian expanded into a city of significant size and importance.

  8. Regime shifts and resilience in China's coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Regime shift often results in large, abrupt, and persistent changes in the provision of ecosystem services and can therefore have significant impacts on human wellbeing. Understanding regime shifts has profound implications for ecosystem recovery and management. China's coastal ecosystems have experienced substantial deterioration within the past decades, at a scale and speed the world has never seen before. Yet, information about this coastal ecosystem change from a dynamics perspective is quite limited. In this review, I synthesize existing information on coastal ecosystem regime shifts in China and discuss their interactions and cascading effects. The accumulation of regime shifts in China's coastal ecosystems suggests that the desired system resilience has been profoundly eroded, increasing the potential of abrupt shifts to undesirable states at a larger scale, especially given multiple escalating pressures. Policy and management strategies need to incorporate resilience approaches in order to cope with future challenges and avoid major losses in China's coastal ecosystem services.

  9. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  10. Shifting paradigms in coastal restoration: Six decades' lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezheng; Cui, Baoshan; He, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    With accelerating degradation of coastal environment worldwide, restoration has been elevated as a global strategy to enhance the functioning and social services of coastal ecosystems. While many developing countries suffer from intense coastal degradation, current understanding of the science and practice of their coastal restorations is extremely limited. Based on analysis of >1000 restoration projects, we provide the first synthesis of China's coastal restorations. We show that China's coastal restoration has recently entered a rapidly developing stage, with an increasing number of restoration projects carried out in multiple types of coastal ecosystems. While long-term, national-level restorations enforced by the government appear promising for some coastal ecosystems, especially mangroves, restorations of many other coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, seagrasses and coral reefs, have been much less implemented, likely due to under-appreciation of their ecosystem services values. Furthermore, the planning, techniques, research/assessment, and participation models underlying current restorations remain largely inadequate for restoration to effectively halt rapid coastal degradation. To promote success, we propose a framework where paradigms in current restorations from planning to implementation and assessment are transformed in multiple ways. Our study has broad implications for coastal environmental management policies and practices, and should inform sustainable development of coupled human-ocean systems in many countries.

  11. Study on the Characteristics and Impacts of the Spatial-temporal Urban Sprawl in Chinese Coastal Cities using Ocelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Lo Seen, D.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The urban population is expected to rise 67% in developing countries and 86% in developed regions by 2050. As the most populous country in the world, China has been experiencing a remarkable urbanization process since the initialization of the reform and opening-up policies in the late 1970s. During the past several decades, the coastal zone undergone the highest urbanization and motst rapid economic development in China. Accurately understanding the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl is helpful for urban planning on optimal land use in the future. Ocelet is an interactive visual interpretation and dynamic coding method that has been designed for studying issues related to space, time and multiple scales that are raised when dynamic landscapes are modelled. Using Ocelet, we aim to study the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities and how urban sprawl affects the surrounding land changes. Landsat MSS/TM/ETM/OLI, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Chinese HJ-1A data are adopted to acquire urban built-up areas and their dynamic changes from 1979 to 2013. The results show that the urban built-up area increased gradually from 1979 to 2002 (~105 km²/yr), then accelerated about four times from 2002 to 2010 (~396 km²/yr) in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities. Although the expansion slowed down since 2010, the urban built-up area still increased at a fairly high rate (~210 km²/yr) from 2010 to 2013. The urban sprawl speed and pattern in each coastal city has also been analyzed, and has been grouped in three costal zones geographically. As a result of urban sprawl, large areas of arable land, rural settlements and forests were lost in these coastal cities. The lost non-urban land types and areas are different in the three costal zones and quantified respectively.

  12. MY FAVOURITE CITY IN CHINA- QINGDAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATRICIA JOHNSON

    2011-01-01

    I have lived and worked in China since April 2009. During this time I have enjoyed living and working in three cities, each has its own charm, Wendeng, Weihai and Qingdao. My husband and I have also traveled to many fascinating places; QuFu, Jinan, Weifang, Yantai, Dalian, Shenyang, Chifeng, Keqi in Inner Mongolia, Beijing, Luoyang, Xi'an, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, Shanghai (several times and for EXPO),

  13. Joint probability analysis of extreme precipitation and storm tide in a coastal city under changing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    Full Text Available Catastrophic flooding resulting from extreme meteorological events has occurred more frequently and drawn great attention in recent years in China. In coastal areas, extreme precipitation and storm tide are both inducing factors of flooding and therefore their joint probability would be critical to determine the flooding risk. The impact of storm tide or changing environment on flooding is ignored or underestimated in the design of drainage systems of today in coastal areas in China. This paper investigates the joint probability of extreme precipitation and storm tide and its change using copula-based models in Fuzhou City. The change point at the year of 1984 detected by Mann-Kendall and Pettitt's tests divides the extreme precipitation series into two subsequences. For each subsequence the probability of the joint behavior of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated by the optimal copula. Results show that the joint probability has increased by more than 300% on average after 1984 (α = 0.05. The design joint return period (RP of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated to propose a design standard for future flooding preparedness. For a combination of extreme precipitation and storm tide, the design joint RP has become smaller than before. It implies that flooding would happen more often after 1984, which corresponds with the observation. The study would facilitate understanding the change of flood risk and proposing the adaption measures for coastal areas under a changing environment.

  14. Joint probability analysis of extreme precipitation and storm tide in a coastal city under changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Ma, Chao; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding resulting from extreme meteorological events has occurred more frequently and drawn great attention in recent years in China. In coastal areas, extreme precipitation and storm tide are both inducing factors of flooding and therefore their joint probability would be critical to determine the flooding risk. The impact of storm tide or changing environment on flooding is ignored or underestimated in the design of drainage systems of today in coastal areas in China. This paper investigates the joint probability of extreme precipitation and storm tide and its change using copula-based models in Fuzhou City. The change point at the year of 1984 detected by Mann-Kendall and Pettitt's tests divides the extreme precipitation series into two subsequences. For each subsequence the probability of the joint behavior of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated by the optimal copula. Results show that the joint probability has increased by more than 300% on average after 1984 (α = 0.05). The design joint return period (RP) of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated to propose a design standard for future flooding preparedness. For a combination of extreme precipitation and storm tide, the design joint RP has become smaller than before. It implies that flooding would happen more often after 1984, which corresponds with the observation. The study would facilitate understanding the change of flood risk and proposing the adaption measures for coastal areas under a changing environment.

  15. Preliminary investigation on the coastal rogue waves of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As an eye-catching issue, rogue waves have been undergoing different stages from theory to practice gradually, whose occurrence always brings about severe threat to not only ships and sailors but also coastal structural integrity. Due to the scarce wave observations in coastal zone and meager study in Mainland China, the discussion specifically aimed at observed coastal rogue waves in China was at elementary stage. Based on the measured data from Xiangshui station of Jiangsu, China, the characteristics including occurrence probability and nonlinearity are investigated, which is a supplement to the previous research works. Surprisingly, the outcomes tend to refute rather than confirming some of the traditional conceptions about rogue waves. A new concept for the classification of coastal rogue waves is proposed afterwards.

  16. System Analysis of Disaster Prevention Design Criteria for Coastal and Estuarine Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    -In China, estuarine and coastal cities are mostly regional economic development centers. The disasters by combined effect of upper reach flood, storm surge and typhoon waves are primary obstacles to the economic development of such cities. Thus the risk analysis and system analysis of flood-storm surge-wave disaster, economic loss and flood-storm surge control measures play a very important role in the sustainable development of coastal cities. There are three types of coastal cities for consideration. The first type of city is like Tianjin. The most significant damage is from the upper reach flood. The effect of storm surge is negligible, because in the estuary of the Haihe River, tidal locks are built. The Grey Markov Model (GMM) is used to forecast the flood peak level GMM combines the Grey system and the Markov theory into a high-precision model The predicted flood peak levels are close to the measured data. A synthetic model is established for economic assessment, risk analysis and flood-control benefit estimation. As a new contribution, a stochastic simulation technique is used to compute risk probability. At the same time, consideration is given to the effect of correlation between variables on risk probability. The second type of city is like Shanghai, where sometimes the combined effect of river flood peak and set storm surge is the most severe disaster. The water level of a 1000 yr. return period of the Huangpu river is used as the design criterion. The simulated combined water level of flood peak, storm surge and maximum astronomical tidal level of a 400 yr. return period is close to the conventional design water level of a return period of 1000 years. The third type of city is like Qingdao, where the combined effect of the maximum astronomical tide, storm surge and waves bring about the most significant damage. With the stochastic simulation technique, different combinations of storm surge and waves at the 1% and 2% joint probability level are

  17. Extracting information on urban impervious surface from GF-1 data in Tianjin City of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Meng, Qingyan; Wu, Jun; Gu, Xingfa

    2015-09-01

    The urban impervious surface, an important part in the city system, has a great influence on theecologicalenvironment in urban areas. The coverage of it is an important indicator for the evaluation ofurbanization. TheRemotesensing data has prominent features such as information-rich and accurate and it can provide data basis for large area extraction of impervious surface. GF-1 satellite is the first satellite of high-resolution earth observation system in China. With the homemade GF-1 satellite remote sensing image date as a resolution, this research, by the combination of V-I-S model and linear spectral mixture model, has first made estimation on the impervious surface of Tianjin City and then employed the remote sensingimage date with high resolution to test the precision of the estimated results. The results not only show that this method will make high precision available, but also reveal that Tianjin City has a wide coverage of impervious surface in general level, especially a high coverage rate both in the center and the coastal areas. The average coverage of impervious surface of the Tianjin city is very high and the coverage of impervious surface in the center and the coastal areas of Tianjin city reach seventy percent.City managers can use these data to guide city management and city planning.

  18. Coastal Waste Transport in Catbalogan City, Philippines and Nearby Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Orale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half of Catbalogan barangays (villages are situated along the Maqueda Bay, the primary source of food for Samariños (people of Samar. Sixty percent of these coastal barangays have no direct access to waste disposal facilities such as garbage trucks and landfill. Almost 50% of domestic waste from these barangays is thrown directly to the sea, while 22% partly dispose their waste into Maqueda bay or a total of 7201 kg of waste daily. An improvised 3-dimensional micro-model shows how wastes are transported from one barangay to the other. The waste transport goes beyond barangay boundaries for many of waste travel to the coast of other municipalities and probably to other provinces. Approximately about 33% of fresh wastes float and are transported to other places, most of the remaining waste rot onsite making the site dark, dirty and has foul smell. Waste disposal practices of coastal towns/cities affects each other, therefore proper waste disposal practices must be widely practiced.

  19. City Development in a Global Context——2013 China International Cities Cooperation Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The 2013 China International Cities Cooperation Forum co-sponsored by the CPAFFC,the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA)and the People’s Government of Jilin Province was held in the provincial capital of Changchun from September6 to 7.It attracted over 400 participants,including 93 local government officials,heads of local government organizations and city associations from 20

  20. 中国东部沿海省市风暴潮经济损失风险区划%Risk zoning of economic loss caused by storm surge in coastal provinces and cities of china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵领娣; 陈明华

    2011-01-01

    风暴潮是我国沿海省市面临的重大自然灾害之一,给这些地区造成了难以估量的损失。选取1989—2008年沿海11省、市、自治区风暴潮的历史数据作为研究样本,运用因子得分基础上的聚类分析和熵值评价等方法,对这些地区风暴潮灾害经济损失的风险进行了评估,最终按风暴潮灾害的经济损失程度将沿海省市划分为3个区域:即上海为第1区,表示风暴潮经济损失风险最小;海南、福建、浙江、广东4省为第3区,风险最大;其他省、市、自治区为第2区,表示经济损失风险居中。3个区域的灾害区划,为我们从更深层次上认识风暴潮的发生及是造成的损失情况提供了新的视角。%Storm surges is one of the major natural disasters in coastal area of China, which has caused incalculable loss. In this paper, we selected 11 coastal provinces ( municipalities, autonomous regions, ) ' storm surge data from the year 1989 to 2008 as a research sample, while the cluster analysis based on factor scores and evaluation of en- tropy methods were used to evaluate the disaster risk of storm surge in these areas. According to extent of loss, these areas can be divided into three kinds: Shanghai has the smallest risk of storm surge disaster as the First District; the provinces of Hainan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guangdong have the greatest risk as the Second District; the other provinces( municipality, autonomous region) have the medial risk as the Third District. This result gives us a new perspective to understand the occurrence of storm surge and the loss caused by it.

  1. China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R

    1992-01-01

    China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel

  2. Analysis on the Effects of Flood Damage Mitigation in Coastal City according to Coastal Structure Construction : focusing on Busan-Si Marin City in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park

    2017-04-01

    Recently, as sea level rise and rainfall increase due to climate change, Urban development in the coastal area has caused multiple flood damages in coastal cities with a mixture flood mitigation as well as wave overtopping. flood damage of coastal floods that occur continuously in the coastal area is the main cause of flood mitigation rather than wave overtopping when a typhoon occurs. coastal structures that can reduce the flood damage of coastal cities due to wave overtopping include breakwaters and tetraport located near the coast. but, tetraport are facilities to reduce the impact of waves, it is not a facility to reduce flood damage. in this study, the reduction effects of depending on flood damage area and expected damages cost before and after installation of breakwaters were analyzed for Marine City located on the coast of Busan Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-77] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  3. 2010 China International Friendship Cities Conference Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2010 China International Friendship Cities Conference under the theme of "City Cooperation Leads to a Better Life" convened in Shanghai September 8-10,co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship-Cities Association(CIFCA) and hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government.A total of 427 representatives from local governments,local governments’ organizations,friendship-city organizations and friendship associations in 47 countries as well as 144 Chinese local government officials from 31 provinces(autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) participated.

  4. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininskii Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  5. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  6. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  7. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  8. China-Hungary Friendship City Conference Held in Budapest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Hungary, the China-Hungary Friendship City Conference was held in Budapest from February 18 to 21.

  9. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  10. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002. This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  11. Climate extremes and challenges to infrastructure development in coastal cities in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmen Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the coastal cities in Bangladesh are situated on the riverbanks of low-lying tidal zones at an average elevation of 1.0–1.5 m from the sea level. Construction and management of buildings, roads, power and telecommunication transmission lines, drainage and sewerage and waste management are very difficult and vulnerable to climate change disasters. Cyclonic storms associated with tidal floods impact seriously the infrastructures and thus the livelihoods. Although coastal cities are the ultimate shelters of the coastal people during the extremes events, the coastal cities are not safe and cannot support them due to poor infrastructure. This study analyses the challenges coastal urbanization faces under different situations like cyclones, floods and water-logging, salinity, land-sliding and erosion etc. during the disasters and their effects on city lives for water supply and sanitation, power and electricity and waste management etc., and puts forward recommendations towards sustainable planning of coastal cities.

  12. Impact of the China Healthy Cities Initiative on Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dahai; Ruan, Shiman; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue

    2016-12-28

    The China Healthy Cities initiative, a nationwide public health campaign, has been implemented for 25 years. As "Healthy China 2030" becomes the key national strategy for improving population health, this initiative is an important component. However, the effects of the initiative have not been well studied. This paper aims to explore its impact on urban environment using a multiple time series design. We adopted a stratified and systematic sampling method to choose 15 China healthy cities across the country. For the selected healthy cities, 1:1 matched non-healthy cities were selected as the comparison group. We collected longitudinal data from 5 years before cities achieved the healthy city title up to 2012. We used hierarchical models to calculate difference-in-differences estimates for examining the impact of the initiative. We found that the China Healthy Cities initiative was associated with increases in the proportion of urban domestic sewage treated (32 percentage points), the proportion of urban domestic garbage treated (30 percentage points), and the proportion of qualified farmers' markets (40 percentage points), all of which are statistically significant (P Healthy Cities initiative was associated with significant improved urban environment in terms of infrastructure construction, yet had little impact on green space and air quality.

  13. Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91μg/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces.

  14. STUDY ON URBAN LAND SAVING IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPED COASTAL REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the initial period of industrialization a great deal of land is needed for Chinese industry development as well as land resource per person of China is much lower than the average value in the world, thus it is necessary to save land in Chinese urban construction. This paper mainly discussed the features of urban land use in economic developed coastal cities: one is that the index of urban land per person in middle-small cities was higher than in large cities; another is that urban land has not been used highly and strongly; the third is that the industrial land occupied an irrationally large percentage of whole urban land; the final is that rural enterprises took up a quantity of land. Thereafter, this paper put forward five land-saving measures: first, to adopt the idea of saving land; next, to adjust the land-use structure when redeveloping the old city and alternate some land use when adjusting the industry structure of the city; the third, to develop the system of payment for using land and the management of urban planning; finally to enhance the effective regional plan and the urban landuse plan.

  15. Spatial variation and distribution of urban energy consumptions from cities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Yang, Z. [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Liang, J. [Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037 (China); Cai, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China. However, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07), and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets. (authors)

  16. Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Cai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China, however, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07, and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets.

  17. Study on the green total factor productivity in main cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiansheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate China’s urban green total factor productivity (TFP under the background of progressing urbanization and intensifying environmental pollution, and found out its main influencing factors. In this paper, green TFP of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2012 was estimated through Malmquist productivity index. Results showed that the annual growth of green TFP in main cities in China is 3.5% and the overall growth declines gradually. Viewed from decomposition of green TFP, technical progress is the main contributor of green TFP growth. Furthermore, the northern coastal region has achieved the highest annual growth of green TFP (4.5% and the northwest region achieved the lowest growth of green TFP (1.24%, indicating the great regional differences of green TFP and economic growth quality in China. According to analysis on influencing factors of green TFP in main cities, it has been concluded that per-capita urban road area, number of Internet users, proportion of fiscal expenditures, environmental regulation level and technical input are significantly positively correlated with green TFP, while industrial structure and foreign direct investment (FDI are significantly negatively correlated. Finally, policy suggestions to improve urban green TFP in China were proposed.

  18. Discrimination on the Concept of Historic City in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinghui; LI Caige

    2012-01-01

    In 1982,the State Council announced a list of historic cities in China,aiming to set up a conservation measure to conserve the cultural heritages from the perspective of a city.The historic city is a concept in relation to urban administrative governance.Its conservation scope and specific contents should be defined in conservation planning.Since the conservation planning of historic city is a part of the city master planning,its planning area should be the same as that in the master planning,with focus on the central urban area.The conservation planning of a historic city should define its objects in view of the interconnection between city history and culture and thus specify its conservation scope and contents accordingly.

  19. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie

    2015-06-01

    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  20. Atlantic City, New Jersey Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Morehead City, North Carolina Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Morehead City, North Carolina Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. First China ocean reflection experiment using coastal GNSS-R

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; SUN Qiang; ZHANG XunXie; LU DaRen; SHAO LianJun; HU Xiong; RUFFINI Giulio; DUNNE Stephen; FRANCOIS Soulat

    2008-01-01

    It is a new way for oceanographic remote sensing using the GNSS-Reflection technique. Sea waves, tides and sea surface wind can be obtained by analyzing the direct and reflected GPS signals from sea surface. It has become an advanced field concerned by many researchers. In this paper the first China Ocean Reflection Experiment (CORE) with the coastal GNSS-R in the southeast is reported and the method to retrieve oceanographic parameters with the direct and reflected GPS signals is studied. The primary retrievals of Significant Wave Height (SWH) are presented and also compared with the meas-urements from Ultrasonic Wave Gauge (UWG) in situ.

  4. A Climate Change Vulnerability Index and Case Study in a Brazilian Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Baccarin Zanetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change, particularly to sea-level rise and extreme rainfall events, resulting in increased social and environmental vulnerabilities. In this context, the need for predictive planning instruments, especially in densely populated coastal areas, is a critical management priority. A number of indexes has been developed to assess coastal vulnerability. However, coastal vulnerability indexes are yet to simultaneously consider inland (e.g., landslides and flooding and ocean (sea-level rise and coastal erosion hazards in conjunction. To help fill this gap, we developed the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index for Coastal Areas. The proposed index is a diagnostic tool to assess the socio-environmental vulnerability of coastal regions in the context of climate change. Applied to the city of Santos, a coastal municipality in São Paulo state, Brazil, the index revealed that most of the city are in areas highly vulnerable to sea-level rise and floods related to extreme rainfall events. Findings show that, in fact, approximately 70% of the area of Santos (27.5 km2 consists of high vulnerability areas mostly located close to urban drainage channels, residential, and other built-in areas. Another 0.12% (0.05 km2 were classified as very high vulnerability areas compromising port and industrial infrastructure. These results highlights the susceptibility of the urban insular area of Santos to climatic change hazards. This study might prove relevant to support local decision-makers in preparing adaptation plans and responding to climate-related risks in vulnerable coastal cities.

  5. Coastal erosion in China under the condition of global climate change and measures for its prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Cai; Xianze Su; Jianhui Liu; Bing Li; Gang Lei

    2009-01-01

    The general characteristics of coastal erosion in China are described in terms of the regional geography,the form of erosion,the causes of erosion,and the challenges we are facing.The paper highlights the relationship between coastal erosion and sea level rises,storm waves and tides,and the influence of global climate changes on coastal erosion along the coastal zone of China.The response of the risk of coastal erosion in China to climate changes has obvious regional diversity.Research into and the forecasting of the effects of climate changes on coastal erosion are systemic work involving the natural environment,social economy,and alongshore engineering projects in the global system.Facing global warming and continual enhancement of coastal erosion,suggestions for basic theoretical study,prevention technology,management system assurance,and strengthening the legal system are presented here.

  6. PetroChina, Wuhan City Signs Natural Gas Supply Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ In mid-November 200 1, PetroChina and Wuhan City, the capital of Hubei Province, signed a contract for natural gas sales and transmission via ZhongxianWuhan pipeline to provide natural gas for the city that is the largest gas consumer of the pipeline. The contract is in line with the "take or pay" clause of the international convention on natural gas marketing.

  7. Optimal Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers Near Beihai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater resources occur in a multi-aquifer system in the alluvial coastal plain near Beihai, China. The aquifers receive recharge from precipitation, canal and reservoir infiltration, and discharge through subterranean drainage into the sea and through artificial pumping. A quasithree-dimensional finite element model has been used to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater levels in the aquifers. Various input parameters were considered in the simulation model. A linear optimization model has been developed for groundwater development within the coastal aquifers. The objective function of the model is to maximize the total groundwater pumpage from the confined aquifer. The control of sea water intrusion is examined by the restriction of the water levels at points along the coast and of the pumping rates in coastal management cells. The response matrix used in the optimization model was generated from the simulation model by forecasting drawdown produced by pumping at a unit impulse discharge. Groundwater development can be primarily optimized by the alteration of the pumping rates of the existing wells.

  8. Biomimicry for coastal eco-cities: towards a carbon neutral Dover, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Anjali; Goh, Aik Ling; Goossens, Adriaan; Javdani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the 30-year update to the 1972 report ‘The Limits to Growth’ has reiterated the Malthusian proposition that current industrial practices could lead to a sudden and uncontrollable decline in population and industrial capacity. Today, rising sea levels, biological extinction rates and soil degradation all point towards the world being in a state of overshoot. The most vulnerable cities are those on coastlines, which face flooding risks. As such, it is imperative that coastal cities dev...

  9. Atmospheric correction for China's coastal water color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The space satellite programs, such as CZCS/Nimbus- 7, VHRSR/FY - 1, OCTS/ADEOS and SeaWiFS/SeaStar, have demonstrated and proven that remote sensing is a powerful tool for understanding the spatial and temporal ocean color distribution. In general, there are two main techni cal keys in the processing ocean color satellite data. They are the atmospheric correction and the inver sion of water-leaving radiance into water constituents (such as chlorophyll, suspended material and yel low substance) quantitatively. The SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) atmospheric correc tion algorithm for China's coastal waters is discussed.First, the major advantages of SeaWiFS are introduced. Second, in view of the problems of the SeaDAS algorithm applying in China' s coastal waters, the local atmospheric correction algorithms are discussed and developed. Finally, the advantages of the loc al algorithms are presented by the compari son of the results from two different algorithms.

  10. Towards Sustainable Urban Environmental Management in Jiangyin city, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dan; Wang Rusong; Yuan Shaojun

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic economic and social changes have taken place in Jiangyin city due to rapid and uneven urbanization and industrialization. The environmental degradation has followed driven by these changes since the 1980's. With the pressures and effects of environmental deterioration, the city has implemented environmental management to hold back the trends of negative environmental changes.From the viewpoint of systems, DPSER is a good model for urban environmental changes to understand the causes, pressure, state, effect, existing responses and future action strategies. We took Jiangyin city,a developed city in South Jiangsu province, East China, as an example, and analyzed the characteristics of environmental changes and urban responses using DPSER model. Some operational strategies have been put forward to direct the city environmental management towards a sustainable road step by step.

  11. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities: what are the limits to adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Reeder, T.; Brown, S.; Haigh, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period raising important challenges for the future. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). City abandonment due to sea-level rise is widely discussed in the media, but most of the discussion is speculative. The limits to adaptation and abandonment of cities are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment or a defence upgrade. Several types of potential adaptation limits can be recognised: (1) physical/engineering limits; (2) economic/financial limits; and (3) socio-political limits. The latter two types of limits are much less understood, and yet issues such as loss of confidence rather than a simple engineering failure may be instrumental in the future of a coastal city. There are few studies which quantify the sea-level rise threshold at which cities will be challenged, especially for large rises exceeding a metre or more. Exceptions include London and the Thames Estuary and the Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) where adaptation to a rise of sea level of up to 4 m or more appears feasible. This lack of knowledge on sea-level rise thresholds for coastal cities is of concern, and similar

  12. Wind energy input in coastal seas east of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Nan; WU Dexing

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the wind energy input,an important source of mechanical energy,in the coastal seas east of China.Using the wind field from the high-resolution sea surface meteorology dataset in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea,and East China Sea,we studied the wind energy input through surface ageostrophic currents and surface waves.Using a simple analytical formula for the Ekman Spiral with timedependent wind,the wind energy input through ageostrophic currents was estimated at ~22 GW averaged from 1960 to 2007,and through use of an empirical formula,the wind energy input through surface waves was estimated at ~169 GW.We also examined the seasonal variation and long-term tendency of mechanical energy from wind stress,and found that the wind energy input to the East China Sea decreased before the 1980s,and then subsequently increased,which is contrary to what has been found for the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea.More complicated physical processes and varying diffusivity need to be taken into account in future studies.

  13. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  14. Eranno carrerai sp. nov., a new polychaete worm (Lumbrineridae) from coastal waters of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wenqian; LI Xinzheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new polychaete species, Eranno carrerai sp. nov. from coastal areas of China, is described based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, collected during 1957 to 1976 from the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea at depths of 9-210 m.

  15. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  16. Municipal wastewater treatment plants in Mediterranean coastal cities [electronic resource]: inventory of treatment plants in cities of between 2,000 and 10,000 inhabitatnts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The present document contains information on the municipal wastewater treatment plants in Mediterranean coastal cities with population between 2,000 and 10,000 inhabitants, respective to the MAP Technical Report Series...

  17. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  18. Climate Change Adaption Measures in the Coastal City of Semarang, Indonesia: Current Practices and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrohman Wijaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara yang sangat rawan terhadap perubahan iklim dikarenakan oleh garis pantainya yang panjang, adanya konsentrasi penduduk dan kegiatan ekonomi di kawasan pesisir. Selain itu, dampak perubahan iklim telah memberikan akibat yang serius terhadap aspek lingkungan, sosial dan ekonomi. Untuk mengurangi dampak yang terjadi, maka diperlukan suatu proses dan intervensi tambahan melalui beberapa tindakan adaptasi. Beberapa upaya adaptasi terhadap perubahan iklim telah dilaksanakan di kota-kota pesisir di Indonesia. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji praktik dan kinerja dari tindakan adaptasi perubahan iklim pada tingkat lokal di kota pesisir Semarang. Tindakan adaptasi tersebut yaitu integrasi strategi ketahanan iklim dengan perencanaan kota, serta strategi adaptasi fisik dalam penanggulangan bencana banjir. Temuan studi ini menyatakan bahwa kinerja tiap tindakan adaptasi memberikan hasil yang berbeda tergantung pada tipologi adaptasi. Kerjasama dan komitmen yang kuat di antara pemangku kepentingan serta peningkatan kapasitas adaptasi masyarakat lokal adalah hal yang dibutuhkan.Kata kunci. Tindakan adaptasi, perubahan iklim, kota pesisir, SemarangAbstract. Indonesia is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to its coastlines, high concentration of population and economic activity in coastal areas. In addition, the impacts of climate change have had severe environmental and socio-economic consequences. Adaptation measures are required to minimize the impacts. Some climate change adaptation measures have been practiced in the coastal cities of Indonesia. This article aims to examine the current practices and performance of local adaptation measures in the coastal city of Semarang City. The current adaptation practices include an integration of climate resilience strategy into city planning and a physical adaptation strategy for the tidal flood hazard. It is found that the performance of each

  19. Impact of subtropical climate on frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqiang; Lai, Yucheng; Ke, Jiajie; Chen, Yuefeng; Xu, Yuling; Ma, Yuqin; Yuan, Jiayin; Liang, Tian; Mai, Pengzhan; Lin, Changmin; Xie, Yang; Huang, Keng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the impact of subtropical maritime monsoon climate on the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal region in China. Statistical analysis of data on ambulance use from the 120 Emergency Command Center in Shantou City, Guangdong Province, from January to December 2012 as well as daily meteorological data from a Shantou observatory was performed to determine how climatic factors (seasons, time, and weather) affect the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients. The daily ambulance use for trauma patients differed between spring and summer or autumn (pambulance use for trauma patients (R² =0.103, pambulance use between good and bad weather (pambulance use for trauma patients is affected by the subtropical maritime monsoon climate in the coastal region. Better weather contributes to increased daily frequency of ambulance use, which is the highest in autumn and lowest in spring.

  20. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Wenting; Yang, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-03-01

    The reclamation of coastal land for agricultural, industrial, and urban land use-a common worldwide practice-has occurred extensively in the coastal region of China. In recent decades, all coastal provinces and metropolises in China have experienced severe coastal reclamation related to land scarcity caused by rapid economic growth and urbanization. However, the value of coastal wetlands and ecosystems has not been well understood and appreciated until recent development of advantageous methods of restoring reclaimed land to coastal wetlands in many developed countries. The overall objective of this study is to provide detailed spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation; analyze drivers such as coastal economy, population growth, and urbanization; and understand the relationships among the drivers and land reclamation. We used long-term Landsat image time series from 1985 to 2010 in 5-year intervals, in combination with remotely sensed image interpretation and spatial analysis, to map the reclamation status and changes across the coastal region of China. The Landsat images time-series analysis was also conducted to evaluate the effects of the economy, population, and urbanization drivers on coastal reclamation. The analysis results indicated that 754,697 ha of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed across all coastal provinces and metropolises from 1985 to 2010, and the trend increased sharply after 2005. High-intensity coastal reclamation was mainly driven by the booming economy, especially after 2000, associated with urbanization and industrial development in China's coastal region; this was closely correlated with the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The continuous large-scale coastal reclamation of its coastal region now means China is facing a great challenge, including the enormous loss of vegetated coastal wetlands, negative environmental effects, and potential disaster risks related to coastal flooding under future change climate

  1. Green and sustainable City will become the development objective of China's Low Carbon City in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Qun, Liu; Chun-Xia, Liu; Yun-Guang, Gao

    2014-01-14

    Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming significant environmental issues in China, thus the sustainable development and revival of the country is impossible using the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. In response to the global warming, the prices of the traditional energy rise considerably, and a series of environmental problems, China must improve its own mode of economic development. Hundreds of Chinese cities have billions of square meters of buildings and most industry and the annual energy demand is an astronomical figure. China's government is facing increasing pressure in the low carbon international backdrop, and the low carbon city becomes the inevitable developmental direction of Chinese city in the foreseeable future. The description is first centered on energy structure/energy consumption per unit/urbanized status, and urban energy consumption status, and then concerned with the efforts and measures of Chinese government, to realize the energy saving. Finally, we present the developmental prospect and barriers and the promotion measures related to the low carbon city under the government policy, financial incentives and funding supports, etc.

  2. The Protection of China's Ancient Cities from Flood Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzhou, W

    1989-09-01

    Over many centuries, the repeated and serious flooding of many of China's ancient cities has led to the development of various measures to mitigate the impact of floods. These have included structural measures, such as the construction of walls, dams and dykes, with tree planting for soil consolidation; installation of drainage systems and water storage capacity; the raising of settlement levels and the strengthening of building materials. Non-structural measures include warning systems and planning for emergency evacuation. Urban planning and architectural design have evolved to reduce flood damage, and government officials have been appointed with specific responsibilities for managing the flood control systems. In view of the serious consequences of modern neglect of these well-tried methods, this paper examines China's historical experience of flooding and demonstrates its continuing relevance for today. A brief historical survey is followed by a detailed discussion of various flood prevention measures. The paper is illustrated by city plans from ancient local chronicles.

  3. China International Friendship Cities Association Delegation Visits Brazil and Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the UNALE (National Union of Legislative Assemblies of Federated States of Brazil) and the State Legislative Assembly of Santa Catarina, the CPAFFC sent a delegation from the China International Friendship Cities Association (CIFCA) to attend the 15th National Conference of State Legislative Assemblies and the Meeting of Chinese and Brazilian Local Governments in Florianopolis, the state capital from May 16 to 21.

  4. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Arezou; Manteghi, Golnoosh; Keyvanfar, Ali; Bin Lamit, Hasanuddin; Saito, Kei; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz

    2016-05-01

    Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI) defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27) factors within three clusters; 1) geometry factors, 2) meteorological factors, and 3) streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC) which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta) (DoC = 18 out of 28) is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load) have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28). The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM) method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %), streetscape cluster (86 %), and geometry cluster (85 %) have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user's satisfaction, user's thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  5. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaghat Arezou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27 factors within three clusters; 1 geometry factors, 2 meteorological factors, and 3 streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta (DoC = 18 out of 28 is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28. The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %, streetscape cluster (86 %, and geometry cluster (85 % have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user’s satisfaction, user’s thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  6. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Danian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  7. Estimating nitrogen oxides emissions at city scale in China with a nightlight remote sensing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Yangwei; Zhang, Chunlong; Tian, Guangming

    2016-02-15

    Increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over the fast developing regions have been of great concern due to their critical associations with the aggravated haze and climate change. However, little geographically specific data exists for estimating spatio-temporal trends of NOx emissions. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of NOx emissions, a spatially explicit approach based on the continuous satellite observations of artificial nighttime stable lights (NSLs) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) was developed to estimate NOx emissions from the largest emission source of fossil fuel combustion. The NSL based model was established with three types of data including satellite data of nighttime stable lights, geographical data of administrative boundaries, and provincial energy consumptions in China, where a significant growth of NOx emission has experienced during three policy stages corresponding to the 9th-11th)Five-Year Plan (FYP, 1995-2010). The estimated national NOx emissions increased by 8.2% per year during the study period, and the total annual NOx emissions in China estimated by the NSL-based model were approximately 4.1%-13.8% higher than the previous estimates. The spatio-temporal variations of NOx emissions at city scale were then evaluated by the Moran's I indices. The global Moran's I indices for measuring spatial agglomerations of China's NOx emission increased by 50.7% during 1995-2010. Although the inland cities have shown larger contribution to the emission growth than the more developed coastal cities since 2005, the High-High clusters of NOx emission located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta should still be the major focus of NOx mitigation. Our results indicate that the readily available DMSP/OLS nighttime stable lights based model could be an easily accessible and effective tool for achieving strategic decision making

  8. Market Feasibility of Burberry and Gucci in Zhang Jiagang City, P.R China : Case: Introduce a New Luxury Brand into Kelly Mall

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Youran

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese economy, wealth has spread from largest coastal cities to smaller cities and luxury stores have started to follow. Kelly Mall is the largest high-end department store situated in Zhang Jiagang City, Jiangsu Province, P.R China. This research aims to figure out if Kelly Mall should introduce a new luxury brand, help-ing Kelly Mall’s board members make decision on taking either Burberry or Gucci or both of them into its luxury department. Theoretical framew...

  9. The Changing Risk of Coastal Flooding in New York City from 850 CE to 2300 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andra; Mann, Michael; Emanuel, Kerry; Kopp, Robert; Lin, Ning; Alley, Richard; Horton, Benjamin; DeConto, Robert; Donnelly, Jeffrey; Pollard, David

    2017-04-01

    In a changing climate, the risk of future coastal flooding depends on both storm surges and rising sea levels. We combine probabilistic sea-level rise projections and large sets of synthetic tropical cyclones downscaled from RCP 8.5 runs of three CMIP5 models to assess the impact of changing tropical storm characteristics and sea-level rise on future coastal inundation in New York City in 2100 and 2300 CE. We compare these future results to a historical analysis of flood risk in New York City based upon synthetic tropical cyclone data sets downscaled from Last Millennium runs of CMIP5 models and proxy sea-level records. Modeling results indicate that there will be minimal change in modeled storm surge heights from 2010 to 2100 or 2300, because the predicted strengthening of the strongest storms will be compensated by storm tracks moving offshore at the latitude of New York City. However, projected sea-level rise causes overall flood heights associated with tropical cyclones in New York City in coming centuries to increase greatly compared to historical or present flood heights. Our projected sea-level rise includes an ensemble of Antarctic projections generated for RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. We find that the 1 in 500-year flood event has increased from 2.25 m above mean tide level (MTL) during the period 850-1800 to 3.4 m MTL during 1970-2005 to 3.9 - 4.8 m MTL by 2080-2100, and to 13.1 m MTL by 2280-2300. Results from this study provide a framework for future risk assessments of coastal flooding in New York City and surrounding communities.

  10. Persistent perfluorinated acids in seafood collected from two cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkowska, Anna; Jiang, Qinting; So, Man Ka; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2006-06-15

    As an initial survey of human exposure to perfluorinated acids through food consumption in China, seven types of seafood collected from fish markets in two coastal cities were analyzed. Nine perfluorinated compounds were determined using HPLC coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant fluorochemical and was found in all 27 seafood samples, including fish, molluscs, crabs, shrimp, oysters, mussels, and clams. Concentrations of PFOS in seafood samples ranged from 0.3 to 13.9 ng/g wet weight, with the highest concentration in mantis shrimp. The hazard ratios of noncancer risk through seafood consumption based on PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were calculated and were less than unity.

  11. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2014-05-01

    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  12. Technical foundation research on high resolution remote sensing system of China's coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaomei; LAN Rongqin; DU Yunyan; CHEN Xiufa

    2004-01-01

    China's coastal zone is a region with a highly developed economy that contrasts clearly with the slow paced regular investigation on its natural environment,which cannot keep pace with the requirement of economic development and modem management. Laying a theoretical foundation for the modem management of China's costal zone is aimed at.This research focuses on the following processing and analyzing technologies for coastal zone high-resolution remote sensing data: organization and management of large amounts of high-resolution remote sensing data, quick and precise spatial positioning system,algorithms for image fusion in feature level and coastal zone feature extraction. They will form a technical foundation of the system. And, ifcombined with other research results such as coastal zone remote sensing classification system and its mapping subsystem, an advanced technical frame for remote sensing investigation of coastal zone resource will be constructed.

  13. Temporal Variability of Source-Specific Solvent-Extractable Organic Compounds in Coastal Aerosols over Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an analysis of ambient aerosols in a southeastern coastal city of China (Xiamen in order to assess the temporal variability in the concentrations and sources of organic aerosols (OA. Molecular-level measurements based on a series of solvent extractable lipid compounds reveal inherent heterogeneity in OA, in which the concentration and relative contribution of at least three distinct components (terrestrial plant wax derived, marine/microbial and fossil fuel derived organic matter (OM exhibited distinct and systematic temporal variability. Plant wax lipids and associated terrestrial OM are influenced by seasonal variability in plant growth; marine/microbial lipids and associated marine OM are modulated by sea spill and temperature change, whereas fossil fuel derived OM reflects the anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuels originated from petroleum-derived sources and its temporal variation is strongly controlled by meteorological conditions (e.g., the thermal inversion layer, which is analogous to other air organic pollutions. A comparative study among different coastal cities was applied to estimate the supply of different sources of OM to ambient aerosols in different regions, where it was found that biogenic OM in aerosols over Xiamen was much lower than that of other cities; however, petroleum-derived OM exhibited a high level of contribution with a higher concentration of unresolved complex matters (UCM and higher a ratio between UCM and resolved alkanes (UCM/R.

  14. Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Coastal Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Xue Xiongzhi; Liu Yan; Chen Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The mistakes made in the decision-making process would result in more serious environmental problems than in the project process. How to reduce or avoid the negative environmental impacts that may be created in the decision-making process,and push the decision-making towards sustainability, strategic environmental assessment ( SEA ) was considered one of the most effective approaches and tools. Although SEA has been in existence for over ten years, it should be noted that there are still some shortcomings involving the framework,methodology, procedure and review methods.Based upon three SEA case studies in the coastal zone of Xiamen, China, this paper systematically compares and analyzes targets, contents, methodologies, and effects of SEA. The results showed that the higher the level of the target, the larger the effect of SEA; and the earlier SEA is involved in the decision-making process, the more effective SEA is in influencing decision-making. The conceptual framework for environmental protection principles proposed at the beginning of the decision-making process was developed. It was proven a very efficacious methodology for SEA.

  15. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment.

  16. City Green Economy Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from 15 Sub-Provincial Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City green economy plays an important role in the development of low-carbon economy and the achievement of sustainable development of economy, society and ecological environment. From the perspective of economy, society, environment and resources, the evaluation of the green economy in urban areas tends to offer us a new insight into the green economy of cities. This paper is about the creation of a novel urban green economy evaluation model and its application. First of all, we established a city green economy evaluation index system based on R cluster analysis and coefficient of variation. Secondly, based on the nonlinear weighted utilizing entropy weight method, a city green economy evaluation model is established based on inferior constraints. Thirdly, by comparing the differences between evaluation rankings under inferior constraints and non-inferior constraints, the advantageous factors and the disadvantageous ones in urban green economy development are obtained. The proposed model has been verified with the data on 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Empirical analysis results show that: (1 The proposed approach can accurately find out the advantageous and disadvantageous factors for each sub-provincial city; (2 In the evaluation of green economy development, the order of importance of the three criterion layers is X1 Economy development > X2 Social livelihood of the people > X3 Resources and environment; (3 Local governments should implement differential, reasonable policies in order to improve their green economy development. Moreover, our research is not only significant for developing green economy in China’s sub-provincial cities, but also serves as a reference for the development of green economy in other cities in the world.

  17. Increasing risk of compound flooding from storm surge and rainfall for major US coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Thomas; Jain, Shaleen; Bender, Jens; Meyers, Steven; Luther, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is a well-known facet of natural hazards along the US coastline where nearly 40% of the population resides in coastal counties. Given the heavy reliance on the coastal zone for natural resources and economic activity, flood preparedness and safety is a key element of long-term resilience. A clear understanding of the various flood types and changes in the frequency of their occurrence is critical towards reliable estimates of vulnerability and potential impacts in the near-term as well as into the future. When the two main flood drivers for coastal areas storm surge and heavy precipitation occur in tandem the potential for significant flooding is much greater than from either in isolation. Exploring the probability of these 'compound events' and understanding the processes driving them is essential to mitigate the associated high impact risks. For the contiguous US the likelihood of the joint occurrence of the two phenomena is largely unknown. Here we show - using storm surge and precipitation records spanning the last century - that the risk of compound flooding is higher for the US east and Gulf coasts, relative to the west coast. We also show that the number of compound events has increased significantly over the last century along large coastline stretches including many of the major coastal cities. For New York City - as an example - this increase is attributed to a shift towards storm surge weather patterns also favouring high precipitation. Preliminary analyses reveal that these synoptic scale changes are closely linked to large scale and low frequency climate variations. Our results demonstrate the importance of assessing the risk of compound flooding within the design process of coastal and urban infrastructure in a non-stationary framework and to explore the potential effects of climate change on these high impact events.

  18. Past, Present, and Future Threat of Tropical Cyclones and Coastal Flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A. J.; Mann, M. E.; Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.; Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Alley, R. B.; Kopp, R. E.; Pollard, D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States' Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges associated with tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea-levels on which those surges occur. We seek to analyze the risk of future coastal inundation for New York City in the context of a long-term historical analysis of storm surge events and sea level rise. In order to overcome the limitation of a short and incomplete observational record of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic, we use proxy sea-level records, and downscale three CMIP5 models to generate large synthetic tropical cyclone data sets for the north Atlantic basin; driving climate conditions span from AD 850 to AD 2005. Combining results from a storm surge model with relative sea-level data, we find that mean flood heights for the region have increased by ~1.24 m from ~AD 850 to the present, a result that is significant at the 99% confidence level. In addition, changes in tropical cyclone characteristics have led to increases in the extremes of the types of storms that create the largest storm surge events for the New York City region. These results indicate that storm surge risk for the New York City region has increased considerably over the past millennium; as sea-levels continue to rise and storms possibly become more active, the risk of coastal inundation for the region is also likely to increase significantly in coming centuries. Thus, we combine future sea level rise projections with modeled storm surge heights for synthetic tropical cyclones downscaled from CMIP5 models. Results from this work will allow us to investigate the potential for future coastal inundation in the New York City region in the context of our historical analysis.

  19. Coastal wetland in South China: Degradation trends,causes and protection countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Qiuying; HUANG Xiaoping; SHI Ping; ZHANG Qiaomin

    2006-01-01

    There are abundant coastal wetlands in South China and their main characters are the tidal flats, mangroves and coral reefs. In this paper, the status quo of coastal wetlands in South China is introduced and their degradation trends in the last decades are analyzed based on the existing literatures and information. Their degradation trends are characterized by reduction of coastal wetlands' area,pollution of seawater environment, degeneration of ecological environment, sharp decrease of biodiversity in the wetlands and so on. At the same time, the causes resulting in the above-mentioned degradations are discussed, mainly concluding imperfect systems of management and legislation, deficient property and assessment systems of the wetlands,weak consciousness of protecting coastal wetlands,shortage of basic study and backward management level and so on. Some countermeasures are put forward for the sake of a sustainable use of the coastal wetlands of South China, mainly including establishing and perfecting administrative and legal systems for the coastal wetlands, developing the study on assessment of coastal wetland, heightening the consciousness of public participation, and strengthening scientific research and establishment of wetland nature reserves.

  20. Assessment of Sustainable Development System in Suihua City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a complex and systemic issue. It is essential to study it by the component analysis method from the view of system science. The urban developmental sustainability is one of focuses that people has paid more attention to, however, little common understanding how to measure and evaluate the sustainability has been gotten. In this paper, a framework is designed to evaluate the developmental sustainability of Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province in China from the aspects of economy, society, population, resources and environment. We adopt the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to decrease dimensions and simplify the original indexes into 12 indexes. Also, the hierarchy and comprehensive multiple-criterion evaluative methods are employed to assess the sustainable development system in Suihua City. Then, the weights of indexes are attained by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method.Furthermore, urban comprehensive development level, developmental sustainability, coordinate degree are calculated and analyzed. By analyzing, we know the fluctuation of development level of subsystem, especially resources and environment subsystem, is acute. The comprehensive development level of sustainable development system in Suihua has been on the rise since 1999. That results from the effect of traditional economic development mode with high energy-consumed being decreased in the city after 1999. At the same time, it is obvious that there was an instability of development level in Suihua City during 1990-2002, with a turn in 1998, and the development could be sustainable,the status trend was more harmonious in 1999-2002.

  1. The application of environmental economics in marine functional zoning and coastal city conceptual planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are a lot of functions of marine resources.The various and competing conflicts between different users and different sectors in th euse of marine resources will cause the disorderly development of marine resources,and even destroy the marine ecosystem.Marine functional zoning is an effective tool to solve the conflicts.However,there are some shortcomings in the current understanding on marine functional zoning and its practice.In this paper,a case study on the resource-oriented marine functional zoning of Xiangshan Port is introduced.By the prmeiples of resource-oriented and public participation,Xiangshan Pon is divided into seven zones.and the main function of the whole port and seven zones are determined by the environmental economics analysis.A case study of Xiamen is also introduced for how to integrate marine functional zoning into a coastal city conceptual planning.Under the conservation prmciple,resources-oriented principle and so on,the advantages and disadvantages of natural ecosystem,social ecosystem and econnomic ecosystem are holistically analyzed,the urban orientation of Xiamen is determined as a regional international tourism ciif,and the whole city is divided into five function zones according to its leading industry-tourism.Resource-oriented marine functional zoning has a long-term guidance for sustainable use of marine resources and development strategy of a coastal city.And environmental economics analysis is an effective tool for resource-orientation.

  2. A multi-dimensional integrated approach to assess flood risks on a coastal city, induced by sea-level rise and storm tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilai, Xu; Yuanrong, He; Wei, Huang; shenghui, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to increasing flood risks caused by the combination of sea-level rise (SLR) and storm tides (STs), due to their low-lying topography and densely distributed assets. Faced with this challenge, comprehensive and integrated flood risk information is vital and fundamental for the planning, implementation and optimization of coastal risk adaptation and management. The goal of this study is to propose an integrated assessment approach to sea-level rise- and storm tide-induced flood risks on a coastal urban system by employing a wide range of indicators across ecological, physical and socio-economic dimensions. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. The results show that this approach is applicable for assessing the specific flood risks on urban ecological, physical and socio-economic system, respectively. Under 4.75 ∼ 5.86 m extreme sea-level, 11 600 ∼ 17 100 ha land and 440 000 ∼ 720 000 population will be flooded in Xiamen City, with flood risks—measured by monetary—of 858 ∼ 1134 million, 4744 ∼ 10 590 million and 2537 ∼ 4175 million RMB of ecological, physical and economic systems, respectively. Coastal ecosystem will suffer flood risks on ecological services, mainly regulation service; and wetland is the dominant ecosystem that will be affected, which imply urgent needs to wetland conservation. Indirect risk on economy accounts for a large proportion of total risks, and should be given adequate weight in the decision-making process.

  3. 2014 China International Friendship Cities Conference and Guangzhou International Urban Innovation Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 China International Friendship Cities Conference and the Guangzhou International Urban Innovation Conference co-sponsored by the CPAFFC,China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA),and the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government,and hosted by the latter’s Foreign Affairs Office were held in the Guangzhou Baiyun International Convention Center last November 28-29.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  5. Architectural Landscape Organization of TouristCities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the current problem in field studies of architectural landscape organization of tourist cities Suzhou andZhouzhuang in China. Levels of the general construction plan and the individual components of the landscape, such as the relief,soft cape and water areas, are investigated. The results of the earlier urban field studies in Europe, America, Australia, Asia andmany others countries are presented.The results show that the structures of the cities are split by river channels, which allows to organize additional hiking tours byfloating facilities within a year and to improve the ecological environment. This is facilitated by favorable climatic conditions withwarm climate, which also helps to make gardens with artificial stone structures and reservoirs. The gardens have paths made ofsmall pebbles and stone slabs forming the national ornaments and small architectural forms. Arch bridges are constructed throughthe river channels and some building facades have vertical gardening. Temples, pagodas and other structures distinguish their traditionalChinese architectural style with curved roof coatings.The ancient Chinese cities of Suzhou and Zhouzhuang have highly artistic microlandscape. This is unique feature of Chinese citiesknown as landscape art has brought them the international fame.

  6. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  7. Construction and implementation of multisource spatial data management system of China's coastal zone and offshore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yunyan; WANG Jinggui; WANG Zuoyong; YANG Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of national spatial database infrastructureconstruction and application, a concept modelof China' s coastal zone scientific data platform is established based on the information feature analysis of a compounddataset, consisting of remote sensing data and conventional data. Based on this concept model, the detailed logicaldatabase structure and the storage strategy of remote sensing data and their metadata using ArcSDE are designed. Thecomplicated technology of multisources data combination in this research is crucial to the future coastal zone andoffshore database construction and practical nmning, which will provide intelligent information analysis andtechnological service for coastal zone and offshore investigation, research, development and management.

  8. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  9. Determination of coastal areas of recreational activities in the city of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Özdemir Işık

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The size of the areal use in planning allows for increase in recreational diversity. When considered that recreational needs are the times that people spend to make use of their spare time, it is obvious that the decisions taken based on the user will lead the planner to more accurate planning targets. While determining the recreational planning decisions, decisions should be evaluated in an integrated approach and in accordance with the requests and demands of users. This study aimed at taking planning decisions required for the recreational connections which are on the coast and for the improvement of people's social life between the coastal city and coastal users. Within the study, the diversity of Trabzon coastal area in terms of recreational activity based on measurement and observation was revealed. In the study, subclasses determined for Trabzon coast were formed by sticking to CORINE classification system, and the coast was divided into 9 sections considering the size and clarity of the area. In CBS environment, each section was digitized according to separate layers and areas with ArcCIS program in terms of recreational area usages. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the diversity of activity was more intense in sections where areal use was more intense depending on the size of the area.

  10. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios. We also analyzed the effect of the current policy plans aiming at "Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020" (the CP scenario). We used the MARINA (a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model to quantify dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers to the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea and the associated coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was used as a basis. GO projects increases in river export of dissolved N and P (up to 90%) between 2000 and 2050 and thus a high potential for coastal eutrophication (ICEP>0). In contrast, the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in optimistic scenarios (ICEPexport by rivers from urbanized areas. The CP scenario, on the other hand, shows that current policy plans may not be sufficient to avoid coastal eutrophication in the future. Our study may help policy makers in formulating strategies to ensure clean coastal waters in China in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of harmonious development for economy-environment system in coastal cities: a case study of Tianjin Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Zhang Yuan; Zheng Binghui; Wang Xiqin

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of the harmonious development of economy-environment system in coastal cities in China, an index system used to evaluate the economy-environment system is built up in this paper, which includes four aspects: economy,environment, resources, and ocean industry. Based on the analysis on present condition and future trends of economic development in Tianjin and the quantification of various evaluation indices, the author applies integrated index valuation model to valuate the harmonious development of economy-environment of Tianjin. The results show that the coordinated degree of economy-environment would drop down in the future, from 0.95(superior level of harmonious development) in 2000 to 0.59(inferior level of harmonious development) in 2015, under the circumstance of the current economic development mode. The level of comprehensive development of Tianjin also presents to descend. Based on the analyzing of status and future trends of environment-economy coordinated development, the paper puts forward the countermeasures such as industry structure adjustment, increasing the level of environmental protection investment, strengthening the enforcement of environmental policies to improve the coordinated development of environment-economy in Tianjin municipality.

  12. Environmental Effects of Groundwater Development in Xuzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Xuzhou City is located in the most northwestern portion of Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. Karst groundwater in the Ordovician and Cambrian Limestone aquifers is the main source of water supply. There are 527 wells in urban areas to exploit the karst groundwater, yielding up to 35 000 m3 per day. After 1978, urbanization and industrialization of Xuzhou City have continued at a greatly accelerated pace; the population increased from 670 700 (1978) to 1 645 500 (2002), its GDP from 0.71 × 109$ to 42.7×109$ and the urban area from 184 km2 to 1,038 km2 (built-up city area from 41.3 km2 to 81.9 km2). The volume of karst groundwater withdrawal increased yearly before the operation of a supply plant of surface water in 1992, from 3.85×107 m3 (1978) to 1.34×108 m3 (1991) and now maintained at 0.1×109 m3 (2002). Intensive overexploitation of karst groundwater has caused a continuous descending of the piezometric level and the area of the depression cone increases year after year. These changes have increased the vulnerability of the karst groundwater system and have induced environmental problems such as depletion of water resources, water quality deterioration, groundwater contamination and karst collapse. The largest buried depth of karst groundwater is up to 100 m in the dry season in some areas, while 66 exhausted wells have been abandoned. A change in the thickness of the unsaturated zone due to the drawdown of the piezometric level has caused a change of the chemical environment which has an impact on the physical state and major chemical compositions in groundwater. The contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl- in karst groundwater has increased significantly, total hardness (CaCO3 content) rises annually in most pumping wells and exceeds the Standard of Drinking Water of P.R. China. Point source pollution and belt-like pollution along the rivers has caused water quality deterioration. The sudden loss of buoyant support due to rapid drawdown of the

  13. The urban heat island of a tropical coastal city: the case of Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat, the capital of the Sultanate of Oman (23° 25'N and 57°00 E), it extended along a coastline that runs around 200 km along the Gulf of Oman. By virtue of its position astride the Tropic of Cancer, Muscat city is located in an arid environment with scanty rainfall, and a dry, hot climate with high evaporation rate. The study area is exposed regularly to sea breeze circulation during day time, while very weak land breeze turning to calm conditions at night. The city is situated in complex and varying topography; the Mountains and hills of the eastern Hajar chain border the city from the south and west and, sometimes, they join the sea in the form of rough slopes and coarse cliffs particularly alongside the eastern coastal fringe. Muscat city witnessed a spectacular socioeconomic development since 1970, stimulated by oil exploration and production. The primacy given to the capital triggered an unprecedented demographic rush. The new developments led to the growth of population size from 56 to 236 thousand in one decade (1970-1980) with an enormous annual growth rate of 12.3 %. This sustained growth raised the population of Muscat to more than 549 thousand in 1993 to 796 thousand in 2007 constituting, thus, 27 % of the total population in Oman. Most of Muscat built-up area is characterized by a high sky-view factor, even in the city centre, except for the CDB area of Riwi, where some of the buildings are over ten stories high. The old city of Muscat and Mutrah is extremely compact with very low sky-view factor. The buildings are two to three stories high. The streets are narrow and cut deep canyons through the old city. The street net work is irregular which increases the mutual shading by buildings. The specific attributes of Muscat, has motivated the elaboration of a multidisciplinary research in sultan Qaboos University (Sultanate of Oman), about the urban climate and air pollution in Muscat city: Multi-scale approach. This paper presents the results of the

  14. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  15. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  16. nirS-Encoding denitrifier community composition, distribution, and abundance along the coastal wetlands of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juan; Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen; Sun, Xiuru

    2016-10-01

    For the past few decades, human activities have intensively increased the reactive nitrogen enrichment in China's coastal wetlands. Although denitrification is a critical pathway of nitrogen removal, the understanding of denitrifier community dynamics driving denitrification remains limited in the coastal wetlands. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and community composition of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were analyzed to reveal their variations in China's coastal wetlands. Diverse nirS sequences were obtained and more than 98 % of them shared considerable phylogenetic similarity with sequences obtained from aquatic systems (marine/estuarine/coastal sediments and hypoxia sea water). Clone library analysis revealed that the distribution and composition of nirS-harboring denitrifiers had a significant latitudinal differentiation, but without a seasonal shift. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the community structure of nirS-encoding denitrifiers was significantly related to temperature and ammonium concentration. The nirS gene abundance ranged from 4.3 × 10(5) to 3.7 × 10(7) copies g(-1) dry sediment, with a significant spatial heterogeneity. Among all detected environmental factors, temperature was a key factor affecting not only the nirS gene abundance but also the community structure of nirS-type denitrifiers. Overall, this study significantly enhances our understanding of the structure and dynamics of denitrifying communities in the coastal wetlands of China.

  17. Aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China: temporal features, size dependencies and source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaping; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Hong Kong is a typical coastal city adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China, which is one of the regions suffering from severe air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols can affect the earth's radiative balance by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Black Carbon (BC) aerosol is a particularly emphasized component due to its strong light absorption. Aerosol transported from different source areas consists of distinct size distributions, leading to different optical properties. As the byproducts of the incomplete oxidation, BC and CO both have relatively long life time, their relationship is a good indicator for distinguishing different pollutant sources. In this study, temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and concentrations of BC and CO at a coastal background station in Hong Kong were investigated. Transport characteristics and origins of aerosol were elucidated by analyzing backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) results, together with related parameters including the relationships between optical properties and particle size, BC-CO correlations, ship location data and meteorological variables. From February 2012 to September 2013 and March 2014 to February 2015, continuous in-situ measurements of light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle size distribution and concentrations of BC and CO were conducted at Hok Tsui (HT), a coastal background station on the southeast tip of Hong Kong Island (22.22°N, 114.25°E, 60 m above the sea level) with few local anthropogenic activities. Affected by the Asian monsoon, this region is dominated by continental outflow in winter and by marine inflow from the South China Sea in summer, which is an ideal station for identifying the transport characteristics of aerosol and their effects on optical properties from different anthropogenic emission sources. 7-day backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling was performed for source identification. Three

  18. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  19. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  20. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  1. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  2. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients

  3. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients increas

  4. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005–2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingquan Bai; Jianzhong Chen; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu; Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide.The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands.Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region.Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites,as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites,between September 2005 and December 2013.Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1 % population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site.The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20 % of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan(Cygnus olor),Siberia Crane(Grus leucogeranus),Far Eastern Oystercatcher(Haematopus osculans),Bar-tailed Godwit(Limosa lapponica),Spotted Greenshank(Tringa guttifer),Great Knot(Calidris tenuirostris),Spoon-billed Sandpiper(Calidris pygmeus),Saunders’ s Gull(Larus saundersi),Relict Gull(Larus relictus),Great Cormorant(Phalacrocorax carbo),Eurasian Spoonbill(Platalea leucorodia),Black-faced Spoonbill(Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican(Pelecanus crispus).A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the1 % criterion.Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta,Shandong;29 at the Cangzhou coast,Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast,Jiangsu.Conclusions:The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds.This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  5. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Jianzhong Chen; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands. Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region. Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites, as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites, between September 2005 and December 2013. Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1%population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site. The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20%of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), Siberia Crane (Grus leucogeranus), Far Eastern Oystercatcher (Haematopus osculans), Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica), Spotted Greenshank ( Tringa guttifer), Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Calidris pygmeus), Saunders’s Gull (Larus saundersi), Relict Gull (Larus relictus), Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus). A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the 1 % criterion. Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong; 29 at the Cangzhou coast, Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast, Jiangsu. Conclusions: The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds. This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  6. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  7. Sidelights of China-Japan Friendship Cities Junior Middle School Students Table Tennis Friendship Tournament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The China-Japan Friendship Cities Junior Middle School Students Table Tennis Friendship Tournament,jointly organized by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC), the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA), the China Table Tennis Association (CTTA), the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA), and the Japan Table Tennis Association(JTTA), was held in Beijing from August 16 to 21 on the occasion of the 40th

  8. Holocene coastal sea surface temperature changes in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Kong, D.; Wei, G.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) changes in the northern South China Sea (SCS) coastal region are affected by complex factors. Previous studies have identified a long-term cooling trend, attributed to coastal mixing and intensified East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), yet spatial patterns of coastal cooling along the southern China are still not well established. Here we reconstructed a Holocene Sea Surface Temperature (SST) record, derived from long-chain alkenone unsaturation index - UK'37, in the northern SCS. Our result reveals that a gentle cooling trend dominates the mid-late Holocene. The gradual warming trend occurring during the early Holocene might have resulted from the rising sea level or the rebound of "8.2 ka cold event". Besides, the C37-content also shows an extremely-low level before 8 ka. Later, both alkenone-derived SST and C37-content reach their highest levels during approximately 7-4.5 ka, corresponding to the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO). Consistent with previous studies, the long-term cooling trend identified in coastal regions, but not offshore ones, presumably indicates intensified EAWM toward present. Further, during the late Holocene, coastal SST changes in the northern SCS show heterogeneous responses to global climatic conditions. In the Mirs Bay, SST was warmer during the Little Ice Age (LIA) than the Medieval Warm Period (WMP) and the current warm period, interpreted as reflecting intensified coastal mixing, due to strengthened East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during warmer periods. However, SST records at other coastal sites, as well as offshore regions, show fluctuations consistent with global/northern hemisphere temperature changes, suggesting that these regions are less influenced by the EASM-induced coastal mixing, probably with the aid of Pearl River freshwater input.

  9. Explanatory analysis of the relationship between atmospheric circulation and occurrence of flood generating events in a coastal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, H.

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. To describe the atmospheric circulation we used the Lamb circulation type (LCT) classification and re-grouped it into Lamb circulation classes (LCC). The daily LCCs/LCTs were connected with rare precipitation and water level events in Aarhus, a Danish coastal city. Westerly and cyclonic LCCs (W...

  10. Explanatory analysis of the relationship between atmospheric circulation and occurrence of flood generating events in a coastal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, H.;

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. To describe the atmospheric circulation we used the Lamb circulation type (LCT) classification and re-grouped it into Lamb circulation classes (LCC). The daily LCCs/LCTs were connected with rare precipitation and water level events in Aarhus, a Danish coastal city. Westerly and cyclonic LCCs (W...

  11. Monitoring of shoreline changes using remote sensing (case study: coastal city of Bandar Abbas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamassoki, E.; Amiri, H.; Soleymani, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Shoreline change is one of the most common natural processes that prevail upon coastal areas. The most important aspect of managing coastal areas is identifying the location and change over time of shoreline. This requires frequent monitoring of the shoreline using satellite imagery over time. We have used imagery from the Landsat TM-5 sensor from 1984,1998 and 2009 in order to monitor shoreline changes using the Max Likelihood Classification method (MLC) in Bandar Abbas city. Monitoring showed that during the period from 1984 to 1998 the area of coastline of Bandar Abbas increased 804.09 hectares. The increase over the next 11-year period was as less, at only 140.81 hectares. In 2009 there was a drastic decrease in shoreline, with the total length of shoreline decreasing from 330 km to 271 km during the period from 1984 to 2009.Results showed that in each period in which the area of coastline advanced, changes in length of shoreline had been less prominent.

  12. Ho Chi Minh City adaptation to increasing risk of coastal and fluvial floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Coastal megacities in southeast Asia are a hotspot of vulnerability to floods. In such contexts, the combination of fast socio-economic development and of climate change impacts on precipitation and sea level generates concerns about the flood damage to people and assets. This work focuses on Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for which we estimate the present and future direct risk from river and coastal floods. A model cascade is used that comprises the Saigon river basin and the urban network, plus the land-use-dependent damaging process. Changes in discharge for five return periods are simulated, enabling the probabilistic calculation of the expected annual economic damage to assets, for differnt scenarios of global emissions, local socio-economic growth, and land subsidence, up to year 2100. The implementation of a range of adaptation strategies is simulated, including building dykes, elevating, creating reservoirs, managing water and sediment upstream, flood-proofing, halting groundwater abstraction. Results are presented on 1) the relative weight of each future driver in determining the flood risk of Ho Chi Minh, and 2) the efficiency and feasibility of each adaptation strategy.

  13. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the Full City accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

    2011-06-01

    Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important decision support system (DeSS) useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models is of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the Full City accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws but including an analysis based on a higher resolution model (1.5 km resolution) for the area the model system show results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble using three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  14. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution), the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  15. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Broström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution, the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  17. Atmospheric Fossil Fuel CO2 Traced by Δ(14)C in Beijing and Xiamen, China: Temporal Variations, Inland/Coastal Differences and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Wu, Shugang; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Xiong, Xiaohu; Du, Hua; Fu, Yunchong; Wang, Gehui

    2016-06-07

    One year of atmospheric Δ(14)CO2 were observed in 2014 in the inland city of Beijing and coastal city of Xiamen, China, to trace temporal CO2ff variations and to determine the factors influencing them. The average CO2ff concentrations at the sampling sites in Beijing and Xiamen were 39.7 ± 36.1 ppm and 13.6 ± 12.3 ppm, respectively. These contributed 75.2 ± 14.6% and 59.1 ± 26.8% to their respective annual ΔCO2 offsets over background CO2 concentrations. Significantly (p < 0.05) high CO2ff values were observed in winter in Beijing. We did not find any significant differences in CO2ff values between weekdays and weekends. Diurnal CO2ff variations were plainly evident, with high values between midnight and 4:00, and during morning and afternoon rush hours. The sampling site in the inland city of Beijing displayed much higher CO2ff inputs and overall temporal variations than the site in the coastal city of Xiamen. The variations of CO2ff at both sites were controlled by a combination of emission sources, topography, and atmospheric dispersion. In particular, diurnal observations at the urban site in Beijing showed that CO2ff was easily accumulated under the southeast wind conditions.

  18. Compact Without Crowd: Reflection on Application of Compact City Theory in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. Research Aims1.1 Theory of Compact City caught great attention During the rapid urbanization process, the Central Government of China has felt that it is more and more difficult to control the

  19. Impact of subtropical climate on frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiang Chen; Yucheng Lai; Jiajie Ke; Yuefeng Chen; Yuling Xu; Yuqin Ma; Jiayin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:To explore the impact of subtropical maritime monsoon climate on the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal region in China.Method:Statistical analysis of data on ambulance use from the 120 Emergency Command Center in Shantou City,Guangdong Province,from January to December 2012 as well as daily meteorological data from a Shantou observatory was performed to determine how climatic factors (seasons,time,and weather) affect the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients.Results:The daily ambulance use for trauma patients differed between spring and summer or autumn (p < 0.05),between sunny and rainy days (p < 0.05),and between cloudy and lightly or moderately rainy days (p < 0.05).We found a linear correlation between daily maximum temperature and daily ambulance use for trauma patients (R2 =0.103,p < 0.05).In addition,there was significant difference in ambulance use between good and bad weather (p < 0.05).Conclusion:Frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients is affected by the subtropical maritime monsoon climate in the coastal region.Better weather contributes to increased daily frequency of ambulance use,which is the highest in autumn and lowest in spring.

  20. Effects of Urban Configuration on Human Thermal Conditions in a Typical Tropical African Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.

  1. Temporal-spatial variations and driving factors analysis of coastal reclamation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Hu, Beibei; He, Mengxuan; Liu, Baiqiao; Mo, Xunqiang; Li, Hongyuan; Wang, Zhongliang; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Coastal reclamation is the gain of land from the sea or coastal wetlands for agricultural purposes, industrial use or port expansions. Large-scale coastal land reclamation can have adverse effects on the coastal environment, including loss of marine habitats and deterioration of coastal water quality. In recent decades, coastal land reclamation has occurred extensively to meet the increasing needs of rapid economic development and urbanization in China. The overall objective of this study is to understand the coastal reclamation status of China from 1979 to 2014 and analyzed its driving factors for mitigating negative ecological effects. The data of coastal reclamation were done with the ERDAS Imagine V9.2 platform and ArcGIS software based on remote images including Landsat, SPOT, ZY-2 and ZY-3. Potential driving factors for sea reclamation were selected based on statistics bulletins and the knowledge of experts in coastal management. In order to understand the relationships among possible impact factors and coastal reclamation, the Partial Least-Squares Regression models was constructed. The analysis results indicated that the total area of reclamation was 11162.89 km2 based on remote sensing images between 1979 and 2014. Shandong Province is the largest reclamation area, reaching 2736.54 km2, and the reclamation is mainly concentrated in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Liaoning, where the reclamation areas were all more than 1000 km2. According to the remote sensing images, there are three coastal reclamation hotspot regions including Bohai bay (in which is located Liaoning, Tianjin and Hebei), Jiangsu province coastal area and Hangzhou bay (in Zhejiang province). A large scale land reclamation plan of more than 5880 km2 has been made by local government and 2469 km2 has approved by the State Council. From the analyzed results, there is a significant collinearity between these indicators, and no significant correlation between the area of reclamation and selected

  2. A new town for 350.000 inhabitants. ECO City Tianjin, China; Eine neue Stadt fuer 350.000 Einwohner. ECO City Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Christian [Schaller/Theodor Architekten und Stadtplaner BDA, Koeln (Germany); Schmitz, Stefan [Stefan Schmitz, Buero fuer Architektur und Stadtplanung BDA, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Migration from the land makes the People's Republic of China to the largest building site of the world. It is assumed at least 60 per cent of humans will live in cities up to the year 2030. Already today, in the urban education centres 75 % of the energy are used and caused 80 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions. The sustainable development of cities and their efficient power supply are of central importance for the future of China. The urbanization forces to a completely new invention of urban centres under ecological aspects concerning town construction and structural aspects - with orders at architects and town planners acting world-wide.

  3. Annual Conference of China City Planning 2012 & First Meeting of Second Editorial Board of China City Planning Review Held in Kunmin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Fang

    2012-01-01

    <正>On Oct. 17, 2012, the Annual Conferenceof China City Planning 2012 that was cohosted by Urban Planning Society of China (UPSC) and Kunming Municipal Government, in collaboration with the Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Yunnan, and sponsored by Kunming Planning Bureau was launched in Yunnan Convention Center, with the theme of "Di-versity and Inclusiveness" WANG Guang-tao, Chairman of Environment Protection and Resources Conservation

  4. China's Development of Low-Carbon Eco-Cities and Associated Indicator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    China's urban population surpassed its rural population historically in 2011, when the number of Chinese living in towns and cities reached about 690 million1. In the years to come, cities in China will face major challenges as their rapidly increasing populations burden already crowded infrastructure systems and exacerbate environmental and climate change issues, threatening public health and quality of life. Low-carbon cities may be key to addressing those challenges, especially as regards mitigating and adapting to climate change. Government entities at both the central and local level have moved aggressively on building low-carbon eco-cities. According to statistics reported by the Chinese Society for Urban Studies, by February of 2011, China will have 230 cities at the prefecture-and-above level that have proposed to establish themselves as “eco-cities,” accounting for 80.1% of the 287 such cities nationally. Of those 230 cities, 133, or 46.3%, have established targets to develop specifically as “lowcarbon cities” (Chinese Society for Urban Studies 2011). Given the proposed scale of the effort, China’s potential success or failure in demonstrating and implementing low-carbon eco-cities could greatly affect how the world addresses both the climate change impacts of urbanization and the sustainable development of cities. Despite the multiple guidelines that have been developed, it remains unclear what defines a low-carbon eco-city. Additionally, although more than 100 indicators have been used or proposed for assessing such cities, few relate directly to energy use or carbon emissions. Nonetheless, policy makers and leaders continue to demand comprehensive toolboxes to facilitate development of low-carbon eco-cities. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review of the development of low-carbon eco-cities in China. The paper also qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes 11 major indicator systems that researchers, planners

  5. Learning Cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to…

  6. The Path Selections of the Resource-based Cities Transformation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhuang Mao

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of resource-based cities, a worldwide problem, is a broad, cross-cutting and complex issue, which involves many fields of economics, sociology, geography, mining science and ecology. Therefore, the development of resource-based cities in China has been a top priority among researchers. In this paper, the author will work out the best pattern and path of resource-based cities by researching on transition modes, approaches and policies.

  7. ~(15)N Isotope Used for Study of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution in Shijiazhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shijiazhuang City is the capital of Hebei province, China. Groundwater is the major water supply source for living and industry need of the city. Due to a rapid increase of population and development of industry and agriculture, a series of groundwater environmental problems are created. In the paper, the situation of groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is reported. Based on the groundwater chemical data and ~(15)N measurement results both on groundwater and soils, the reason of groundwater nitra...

  8. Strategic Thinking for Sustainable Development of Mining-Based Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shouxiang; Dai Xichao; Wang Yafen

    2004-01-01

    Cities based on mining are distinctive from other cities in China. Their heavy dependence on minerals, a relatively undiversified industrial structure, seriously damaged ecological environment and the rather low degree of openness have all reduced their competitiveness, and severely constrained and hindered their sustainable development. In this paper the authors will study mining-based cities from the perspective of sustainable development, first by having a critical review of their features, and then by researching into strategic options to support their sustainable development.

  9. AN INSTRUCTURAL SYSTEM MODEL OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT TO THE WATER RELATED HAZARDS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Coastal lowlands have large areas of hazard impact and relativelylow capacity of prevention to the water related hazards,which have been indicated by the wide-spread flood hazards,high percentages of land with high flood vulnerability.Increasing population pressure and the shift of resources exploitation from land to sea will force more and more coastal lowlands to be developed in the future,further enhancing the danger of water-related hazards.In this paper,the coastal lowlands in the northern Jiangsu province,China,were selected as a case study.The Interpretation Structural Model (ISM) was employed to analyze the direct and indirect impacts among the elements within the system,and thereby,to identify the causal elements,middle linkages,their expressions,and relations.

  10. Construction of Refinery Planned in China's Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNOOC plans to build a 12-million-ton-per-year oil refinery in Southeast China's Guangdong Province in the next three years to tap the lucrative oil market in the southern part of the nation. Investment in the project, which was approved by the central government in mid-July, will total at least 16 billion yuan (US$1.93 billion).

  11. Monitoring Crustal Movement of the Coastal Zone in Eastern China with GPS Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, various dominating factors affecting crustal movement of the coastal zone in eastern China are analyzed, and major characteristics of crustal movement are summarized. Subduction of the pacific plate and Philippine plate and southeastward "escape" of Qinghai-Tibet plateau are believed to be dominating factors affecting crustal movement of that zone. Undoubtedly, it is a best way to monitor this kind of large-scale crustal movement with GPS technique. The feasibility of monitoring crustal m...

  12. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  13. Trends in thermal discomfort indices over western coastal cities of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manasi S.; Dhorde, Amit G.

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed at analyzing temporal trends in thermal discomfort indices for a period of 46 years from 1969 to 2014 over western coastal region of India for seven urban centers during the months of pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Direct thermal discomfort indices employed for this purpose were thermo-hygrometric index (THI) and heat index (HI). Statistical techniques applied for obtaining temporal trends were linear regression model and Mann-Kendall (MK) rank test. Statistical significance of the obtained trends was evaluated at 95% confidence level. Sequential MK (SQ-MK) test was used for change point detection. To investigate actual incidences of thermal discomfort, daily index values were averaged for standard meteorological weeks (SMWs) over the study period and decadal percentage of thermal discomfort during SMWs was estimated. Trend analysis of selected meteorological parameters such as dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) were investigated, which might be responsible for variation in thermal discomfort over the period. The results obtained depicted significant increase in thermal discomfort over the cities located on the southern part of west coast, while significant increase was observed during monsoon season months compared to pre-monsoon season. Decadal variation in percentage of SMWs falling in various discomfort categories was studied. At majority of the stations, moderate and high-risk SMWs have increased over the last two decades. The results of change point detection for THI and HI denoted significant increase at most of the stations after 1990s. The study validates increase in thermal discomfort vulnerability, particularly at thriving urban centers of western coastal region of India.

  14. Evaluating Regional Emissions Trading Pilot Schemes in China's Two Provinces and Five Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Huizhi, Wang

    2016-01-01

    With the highest energy use and greenhouse gas emissions around the world, China has begun to adopt comprehensive approaches to control its CO2 emissions and fight climate change. China has committed to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% to 45% compared to 2005 levels by 2020. In 2011, China initiated the development of seven regional carbon trading scheme (ETS) pilots in two provinces (Guangdong and Hubei) and five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen) and has embarked ...

  15. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Wenting; Yang, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-03-01

    Driven by rapid economic development, population growth, and urbanization, China has experienced severe coastal land reclamation over the last decades, which resulted in significant loss of coastal wetland and wildlife habitat, and degradation of marine ecosystems. This study used advanced remote-sensing techniques to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation in China and investigated the relationships between coastal land reclamation and coastal economy, population growth, and urbanization. Analysis of long-term Landsat images time series from 1985 to 2010 in 5-year intervals, in combination with remotely sensed image techniques, indicated a sharp increasing trend of land reclamation after 2005, which accounted for over 35% of China’s total reclamation during the 25-year period since 1985. High-intensity coastal reclamation in China was mainly driven by the booming economy associated with urbanization and industrial development in the coastal region. Analysis indicated that coastal land reclamation is closely correlated with the GDP per capita in China. Study results of Landsat images showed that 754,697 ha of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed across all coastal provinces and metropolises from 1985 to 2010, at an annual rate of 5.9%. Coastal areas within the three major economic zones (Bohai Bay, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) were found to generally have higher reclamation rates. For example, the built-up area in Shanghai, which is located in the Yangtze River Delta, increased more than five times from 1985 to 2010. Approximately 35% of the reclamation occurred in Bohai Bay, in which the CRI between 2005 and 2010 was three times higher than the average CRI over the 25-year period.

  16. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  17. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...... based on the industrial symbiosis concept. Firstly, an investigation on the panoramic view, challenges, transiting policies of China's resource dependent cities' project has been carried out. Subsequently, Guiyang city in Guizhou province of China, as a typical resource dependent city, has been chosen...... as example of industrial and regional symbiosis focusing on the integration and symbiosis of coal, electricity, aluminum, phosphor chemical, iron/steel industry and urban. Then, a quantitative assessment on the environmental benefits has been conducted based on material flow analysis approach. Results...

  18. History as a guide to the future for cities: coastal storms and Jamaica Bay in New York City as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Orton, P. M.; Giampieri, M.; Spagnoli, C.

    2015-12-01

    History can provide a guide to the future by revealing the physical climatic and geomorphological dynamics with which cities must contend. We used historical maps from the U.S. Coast Survey and the Stevens Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM) to simulate how and where coastal flooding from storm surge affected the Jamaica Bay region of southeastern New York City at different points in time. This area, which houses approximately 1.2 million people today and the John F. Kennedy International Airport, was heavily impacted by coastal flooding during Hurricane Sandy. Historical analysis showed that the Rockaway Peninsula was an active barrier island system up until the early twentieth century, growing approximately 70 meters per year to the west between 1844 - 1891. Older historical maps made by American and European cartographers from 1524 - 1844 suggest that Jamaica Bay may have been a much more open system, with few or no interior marsh islands, at the time of European discovery. From these studies, we constructed digital terrain models and land cover maps for two historical periods: ca. 1870s and ca. 1609, and today. Storm simulations of hurricanes over the historical and present-day landscapes showed how a smaller inlet, shallower channel depths, and larger floodplains all can reduce the height of flooding inside the bay, and suggested a series of leverage experiments that test the efficacy of present-day green infrastructure interventions to lessen peak flood heights while maintaining tidal flushing. By combining history, modelling, and policy-relevant scenarios, we believe we have developed a reshreshing and accessible toolkit for policymakers thinking about resilience measures in coastal cities like New York.

  19. [Assessment of ecological environment effects of coastal development in Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Tuo; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Through the analysis of the development activities and the ecological environment in coastal of Hebei Province, China, an index system for evaluating the ecological environment effect, composed of 28 indices, was set up by the pressure, state and response subsystems. Using the comprehensive index evaluation method, the integrated effects of ecological environment index (EI) was calculated and its grading criterion was founded. The results showed that the ecological environment effect of Hebei Province coastal development varied from being relatively small, normal and then relatively large from 1984 to 2010, and its acceptance degree evolved from being acceptable to being unacceptable. Because the resource and environment pressures caused by coastal development were serious and a delay existed in the state relative to the response, the improvement of various measures in the response subsystem did not show a positive effect on the state, and the environmental quality of ocean showed a degrading trend. Due to the differences in coastal development pattern and strength, the ecological environment effect of development activities showed some spatial differences. The ecological environment effect of Qinhuangdao coastal development was the minimum, followed by Cangzhou and Tangshan. Cangzhou and Tangshan had reached unacceptable levels and needed to further strengthen the restoration and protection of ecological environment.

  20. Ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol in coastal waters of China based on species sensitivity distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei; Li, Zhengyan; Gibson, Mark; Gao, Huiwang

    2014-06-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor and causes feminization and carcinogenesis in various organisms. Consequently, the environmental distribution and ecological risks of NP have received wide concern. China accounts for approximately 10% of the total NP usage in the world, but the water quality criteria of NP have not been established in China and the ecological risks of this pollutant cannot be properly assessed. This study thus aims to determine the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of NP and to assess the ecological risks of NP in coastal waters of China with the PNEC as water quality criteria. To obtain the HC5 (hazardous concentration for 5% of biological species) and PNEC estimates, the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) models were built with chronic toxicity data of NP on aquatic organisms screened from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ECOTOX database. The results showed that the PNEC for NP in freshwater and seawater was 0.48 μg L(-1) and 0.28 μg L(-1), respectively. The RQ (risk quotient) values of NP in coastal waters of China ranged from 0.01 to 69.7. About 60% of the reported areas showed a high ecological risk with an RQ value ≥ 1.00. NP therefore exists ubiquitously in coastal waters of China and it poses various risks to aquatic ecosystems in the country. This study demonstrates that the SSD methodology can provide a feasible tool for the establishment of water quality criteria for emergent new pollutants when sufficient toxicity data is available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased threat of tropical cyclones and coastal flooding to New York City during the anthropogenic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Andra J; Mann, Michael E; Emanuel, Kerry A; Lin, Ning; Horton, Benjamin P; Kemp, Andrew C; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2015-10-13

    In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States' Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges during tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea levels on which those surges occur. However, the observational record of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin is too short (A.D. 1851 to present) to accurately assess long-term trends in storm activity. To overcome this limitation, we use proxy sea level records, and downscale three CMIP5 models to generate large synthetic tropical cyclone data sets for the North Atlantic basin; driving climate conditions span from A.D. 850 to A.D. 2005. We compare pre-anthropogenic era (A.D. 850-1800) and anthropogenic era (A.D.1970-2005) storm surge model results for New York City, exposing links between increased rates of sea level rise and storm flood heights. We find that mean flood heights increased by ∼1.24 m (due mainly to sea level rise) from ∼A.D. 850 to the anthropogenic era, a result that is significant at the 99% confidence level. Additionally, changes in tropical cyclone characteristics have led to increases in the extremes of the types of storms that create the largest storm surges for New York City. As a result, flood risk has greatly increased for the region; for example, the 500-y return period for a ∼2.25-m flood height during the pre-anthropogenic era has decreased to ∼24.4 y in the anthropogenic era. Our results indicate the impacts of climate change on coastal inundation, and call for advanced risk management strategies.

  2. Optimal scale of China's cities under the maximization of economic benefits and environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Wu, Sanmang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jiabin; Yan, Dan

    2017-07-09

    The cities are the consumption concentration of energy, resources, and the concentration of CO2 emissions. The cities' area only accounted for 2% in the world's surface; however, their population accounted for about 50% of the total population, and CO2 emissions accounted for about 80% of the total emissions. The cities lie in a key position in solving the global climate change. China's urbanization level was just exceeding by 50%, which was in the intermediate stage of urbanization. The rapid development of the urbanization process and the expansion of city scale have brought economic growth and all kinds of environmental issues. Therefore, is there an optimal city scale which can make cities maintain economic growth and can also reduce or even avoid the environmental problems in the meantime? The question deserves deep research. Based on the background, the data from 1998 to 2014, and the goals of the cities' economic and environmental benefits, this paper builds the optimal scale model for the cities, and obtain two conclusions: (1) in a certain period and range, the cities have the optimal scale; (2) for the cities in China, the optimal scale is about 1.78 million people.

  3. Assessing coastal reclamation suitability based on a fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation framework: A case study of Lianyungang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Coastal reclamation suitability evaluation (CRSE) is a difficult, complex and protracted process requiring the evaluation of many different criteria. In this paper, an integrated framework employing a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to the suitability evaluation for coastal reclamation for future sustainable development in the coastal area of Lianyungang, China. The evaluation results classified 6.63%, 22.99%, 31.59% and 38.79% of the coastline as suitable, weakly suitable, unsuitable and forbidden, respectively. The evaluation results were verified by the marine pollution data and highly consistent with the water quality status. The fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation method (FACEM) was found to be suitable for the CRSE. This CRSE can also be applied to other coastal areas in China and thereby be used for the better management of coastal reclamation and coastline protection projects.

  4. Mercury concentration in hair samples from Chinese people in coastal cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojie; CHENG Jinping; Song Yuling; HONDA Shun'ichi; WANG Li; LIU Zheng; SAKAMOTO Mineshi; LIU Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made to estimate current normal concentrations of total mercury in the hair of Chinese coastal people. Hairsamples were collected from 659 healthy inhabitants in the areas along the coast and the rivers (such as Shanghai, Ningbo, Dalian,Xiamen, and Zhoushan) of China from Feb. 2005 to June 2006. Total mercury concentrations in the samples were analyzed by the coldvapor atomic adsorption spectrometry method (CVAAS). The results showed the geometric mean concentration of total mercury in thehair of the total population (N=659) was 0.83 μg/g, and the geometric mean of the concentrations of total mercury in the hair of themale (0.94 μg/g, 338 inhabitants with an average age of 35.2, age 2-93) was higher than that of the female (0.72 μg/g, 321 inhabitantswith an average age of 39.1, age 1-90). In both the male and female, the mean concentrations of total mercury in hair increased withage, and then gradually decreased. There was a significant correlation between the total hair mercury and the place of residence (p<0.01), and total hair mercury was the highest in volunteers who lived in Zhoushan. Over half of all sample concentrations were belowthe USEPA-recommended 1 μg/g. In Zhoushan (males, 2.44 μg/g; females, 1.94 [μg/g) and Ningbo (males, 1.06 μg/g; females, 1.02μg/g), it exceeded the recommended level. Very little females (0.3%) of reproductive age showed hair mercury levels close to 10 μg/g.It was thus concluded that fish consumption was a major current route for mercury exposure in China.

  5. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  6. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China.

  7. Study on detection of coastal water environment of China by ocean color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Coastal water environment is essentially enhanced by ocean color which is basically decided by substances concentration in water such as chlorophyll, suspended material and yellow substance. It is very difficult, even not possible, to detect water color by expensive ship routing, because of its temporal and spatial variety of feature and scales in the very complicated dynamical system of coastal water. With the development of satellite technique in the last 20 a, space sensors can be applied to detect ocean color by measuring the spectra of water-leaving radiance. It is proven that ocean color remote sensing is a powerful tool for understanding the process of oceanic biology and physics. Since the 1980s, great attention has been paid to the advanced remote sensing technique in China, especially to development of satellite programs for the coastal water environment. On 7 September 1988, China launched her first polar orbit satellite FY- 1A for meteorological and oceanographic application (water color and temperature) and the second satellite FY- 1B two years later. In May 1999, China launched her second generation environment satellite FY- 1C with higher sensitivies,more channels and stable operation. The special ocean color satellite HY - 1 is planned to be in the orbit in 2001, whose main purpose is to detect the coastal water environment of China seas. China is also developing a very advantageous sensor termed as Chinese moderate imaging spectra radiometer (CMODIS) with 91 channels, which will be a good candidate of the third generation satellite FY-3in 2003.The technical system of ocean color rermote sensing was developed by the Second Institute of Oceanography (SIO), State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in 1997. The system included data receiving, processing, distribution, calibration, validation and application units. The Hangzhou Station of SIO, SOA has the capability to receive FY- 1 and AVHRR data since 1989. It was also a SeaWiFS scientific research station

  8. Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Luis Maria; Galarraga, Ibon; Sainz de Murieta, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    A quantification of present and future mean annual losses due to extreme coastal events can be crucial for adequate decision making on adaptation to climate change in coastal areas around the globe. However, this approach is limited when uncertainty needs to be accounted for. In this paper, we assess coastal flood risk from sea-level rise and extreme events in 120 major cities around the world using an alternative stochastic approach that accounts for uncertainty. Probability distributions of future relative (local) sea-level rise have been used for each city, under three IPPC emission scenarios, RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. The approach allows a continuous stochastic function to be built to assess yearly evolution of damages from 2030 to 2100. Additionally, we present two risk measures that put low-probability, high-damage events in the spotlight: the Value at Risk (VaR) and the Expected Shortfall (ES), which enable the damages to be estimated when a certain risk level is exceeded. This level of acceptable risk can be defined involving different stakeholders to guide progressive adaptation strategies. The method presented here is new in the field of economics of adaptation and offers a much broader picture of the challenges related to dealing with climate impacts. Furthermore, it can be applied to assess not only adaptation needs but also to put adaptation into a timeframe in each city.

  9. Vulnerability Assessment: The Role of Coastal Informal Settlement Growth to Social Vulnerability in Genuk Sub-District, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariffuddin; Dwi Astuti, Khristiana; Farhaeni, Gustika; Wahdah, Lutfiyatul

    2017-02-01

    Tidal, land subsidence and flooding in Semarang City brought many consequences to the city’s economic and social conditions. In the economic sector, the largest contributor to GDP derives from industries that are located in the coastal area. The environmental problems also affect the ability of social adaptation and vulnerability. This issue encourages the efforts of the public and the government. City conditions are constantly changing force people to adapt for survival, through endogenous. At the same time, the government is trying to help for the same goal, through a variety of urban development. Although it has the same goal, many found gaps, which, if not followed could increase the vulnerability of society and lead social dysfunction. According to of the phenomenon, this article is based on questionnaire surveys, observation, and previous studies in Semarang City. Quantitative data obtained from questionnaire surveys of 133 respondents of the household. The questionnaire distributed in 3 villages in Genuk sub-district, i.e. Terboyo Kulon, Terboyo Wetan, and Trimulyo. Industrialisation in the coastal area is main caused informal settlement hyper growth in the coastal area. For the present study sought to find out how the process of adaptation that naturally affects the vulnerability of communities using qualitative methods. The results showed the social, economic condition is strongly influenced adaptability of society.

  10. Introduction to the China Jellyfish Project——The Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Shiwei; SUN Song

    2011-01-01

    @@ As a National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China, the Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters led by Prof.SUN Song from Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) was endorsed by the Ministry of Science and Technology.Recently, the kick-off meeting of this five-year (2011-2015) program was held on January 15-16 in Qingdao,China.More than 120 participants attended the meeting.

  11. Chongqing:A Tale of Two Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H.Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is known more for its hot and spicy boiling food than for its cotton textile industry which is almost nothing when it compares with those cotton spinning giants in China's coastal provinces. Coupled with both old culture and modern textile industry, Chcongqing has both roles to perform. "A Tale of Two Cities" continues its story in a scenario of China's southwestern land...

  12. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  13. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of urban litter in Mar del Plata, the major coastal city of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Becherucci, Maria Eugenia

    2012-02-01

    Urban littering is considered an important environmental and public issue globally. This problem is growing considerably within coastal communities of the southern region of South America. The goals of this study were to assess (1) the abundance and composition of urban litter; (2) the spatial and temporal variations of its abundance; and (3) the relationship between the abundance of litter and three anthropogenic variables (i.e. abundance of pedestrians, of parked vehicles, and of trash bins) in Mar del Plata, the most populated coastal city in Argentina. Eighty-eight transects, each covering 1425 m(2), were sampled along four sites from April 2008 to March 2009. Results showed 20,336 items (ca. 14 items per m(2)) of which cigarette butts (33%), papers (31%), and plastics (22%) were the most commonly littered items. Higher amounts of litter were found in an industrial area (city's harbor), while the abundance of litter appeared relatively even throughout the year. Redundancy analysis techniques indicated a high abundance of all three anthropogenic variables associated with the central business district area of the city and an area in close proximity to a major seaside resort, where cigarette butts and papers dominated. This is the first study that has examined spatial and temporal variations of urban litter in a high-density coastal city in Argentina. Our results showed that addressing the problems associated with urban litter must include intensive educational and advertising campaigns directed at pedestrians and owners of parked vehicles, but waste reduction, clean-up operations and law enforcement should be also considered.

  15. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  16. Land subsidence of coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, China: historical review and present situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface faults related to land subsidence have been observed in coastal cities, such as Nantong, Yancheng, and Lian Yungang, in Jiangsu Province (CAJS since the early 1970s. Nowadays, increases flooding and rising sea levels are attributed to subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. In this work we present a brief description of land subsidence in CAJS, we examine the mechanisms of land subsidence induced mainly by groundwater pumping and its evolution and economic implications as well as the implemented measures by the local government to prevent new damage.

  17. Submicron aerosol size distribution measurements in the city of Seoul, and coastal and marine environments around South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, S. S.; Kim, J.; Han, D.; Oh, S.; Nam, J.

    2005-12-01

    Submicron aerosol size distributions and total particle (i.e., condensation nuclei, CN) concentrations were measured continuously from September 2004 at the campus of Yonsei University located at the central part of Seoul. The instruments, TSI SMPS-3936L10 and CPC-3010, were installed at an office in the sixth floor of a building and the sample air was drawn from a window. The height of the building and the relatively low traffic in the campus may qualify these measurements as a background aerosol distribution in a highly urbanized city. The highest monthly average CPC (total particle) concentration was 37000 cm-3 in February 2005. The trend of wintertime increase was also obvious in the SMPS integrated concentrations but these were only 60-70 percent of the CPC concentrations. There was rather clear diurnal trend of near dawn (~4 AM) minima and morning peak (~8 AM) and a secondary peak in the evening (~8 PM) for both CPC and SMPS data. As a part of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds East Asian Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX2005), measurements were also made on board the research vessel Kisang 2000 during the cruise from March 2 to March 10, 2005 over the South Sea of Korea and over the Korean sector of the Yellow Sea. Ship track was 60 km or more away from the coast. After the ship measurements the instruments were placed at the Gosan ABC Observatory in Jeju Island, for almost four weeks starting from March 11, 2005 to measure coastal aerosol distributions and inter-comparisons with other instruments. The average CPC and SMPS concentrations were 6700 cm-3 and 4400 cm-3, respectively, for the ship measurements, and 6000 cm-3 and 4000 cm-3 for the same two measurements at Gosan. However, when remote marine environments near Jeju Island were segregated from the ship measurements, the CPC and SMPS concentrations were 3600 cm-3 and 2400 cm-3, respectively. CPC and SMPS measurements will also be made over the South China Sea during another ship cruise from Jeju Island to

  18. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  19. A study on sustainable urban water management in small and medium sized cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Along with the implementation of national urbanization and modernization strategy in China, the urban scale and quantity are increasing systematically. In this process, the role of water is irreplaceable. Urban water system is a multipurpose and integrated system. Considering China's economic and social development requirements, there are many rigorous problems in exploitation, utilization, operation and management of urban water resources comparing with some developed cities in the world. Cu...

  20. Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Blake, Reginald; Bowman, Malcolm; Faris, Craig; Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Jacob, Klaus; LeBlanc, Alice; Leichenko, Robin; hide

    2010-01-01

    While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be beyond the range of current capacity because an extreme event might cause flooding and inundation beyond the planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region s stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation approach and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

  1. 2012 China International Friendship Cities Conference Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2012-01-01

    <正>International friendship-city activities are an important bridge for cities to enhanc eunderstanding and friendship and conduct exchanges and cooperation.We should adhere to the principle of mutual respect and win-win cooperation, carry forward traditional friendship, strengthen cultural and personnel exchanges and make joint efforts to create a better future for the cause. Lu Yongxiang, Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the

  2. Rise and Fall of Recent Chinese Coastal Resort Development:Case of Beihai Silver Beach, Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; BAO Jigang

    2012-01-01

    Based upon a case study of Silver Beach coastal resort of Beihai,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this article examines the rise and fall of Chinese coastal tourist resort development since the 1980s.It explores the causes for and responses to the decline of Chinese coastal resorts.The data were collected through in-depth interviews with twelve local key information providers,and secondary information sources such as government archives,survey reports,and resort plans.It was found that the rise and fall of Chinese coastal resorts in the last three decades is closely linked to the transitional reform from a central planned economy to a market economy.Three stages of coastal tourism development were identified in a sequence of rapid growth,decline and redevelopment.It was government financial funds and high local government involvement that promoted the rapid expansion of coastal resorts during the 1980s.However,coastal resort decline occurred when transitional reform was intensified and deflationary policy executed after 1992.Institutional failure is found to be the main reason of Chinese coastal resorts decline since the mid-1990s.The government-dominated pattern could not be sustained and should be restructured in forthcoming coastal tourism development in China.Revival strategies should emphasize enhancing market-oriented reform in the declining resorts on both supply and demand sides.

  3. Coupled modeling of storm surge and coastal inundation: A case study in New York City during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Lin, Ning; Yu, Dapeng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method of modeling coastal inundation arising from storm surge by coupling a widely used storm surge model (ADCIRC) and an urban flood inundation model (FloodMap). This is the first time the coupling of such models is implemented and tested using real events. The method offers a flexible and efficient procedure for applying detailed ADCIRC storm surge modeling results along the coastal boundary (with typical resolution of ˜100 m) to FloodMap for fine resolution inundation modeling (Hurricane Sandy was simulated at both the city (New York City) and subregional (lower Manhattan) scales with various resolutions. Results obtained from the ADCIRC and coupled ADCIRC-FloodMap simulations were compared with the recorded (high water marks) and derived (inundation extent based on the planar method) data from FEMA. At the city scale, coupled ADCIRC-FloodMap modeling demonstrates improved prediction over ADCIRC modeling alone for both the extent and depth of inundation. The advantage of the coupled model is further illustrated in the subregional modeling, using a mesh resolution of 3 m which is substantially finer than the inland mesh resolution used by ADCIRC (>70 m). In further testing, we explored the effects of mesh resolution and roughness specification. Results agree with previous studies that fine resolution is essential for capturing intricate flow paths and connectivity in urban topography. While the specification of roughness is more challenging for urban environments, it may be empirically optimized. The successful coupling of ADCIRC and FloodMap models for fine resolution coastal inundation modeling unlocks the potential for undertaking large numbers of probabilistically based synthetic surge events for street-level risk analysis.

  4. Study on copper complexing ligand concentrations in several China's coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Copper complexing ligand concentrations in the Daya Bay, Qingdao coast, Jiaozhou Bay, South China Sea and Huanghe Estuary waters were determined by the anodic stripping voltammetry technique. The distribution regularity and the relationship with other parameters were discussed. The results were as follows: Copper complexing ligand concentrations of the South China Sea were a little higher than those of other sea areas, and they were apparently higher than those of the ocean. Compared with the subsurface layer (SSL) in the sea surface microlayer copper complexing ligand concentrations showed an enrichment phenomenon, of which the mechanism is similar to dissolved organic matter. The metal complexing ligand concentration profiles of the South China Sea showed that the value in the sea surface was the highest, then it decreased with depth accruing, and a higher value appeared at the bottom. Copper complexing ligand concentrations were higher than those of cadmium and lead. Ligands in each sea area exhibited a complicated property. In short, the distribution regularity of copper complexing ligand concentrations in China' s coastal waters was consistent with that of other regions in the world. Meanwhile, the positive relationship between the copper complexing ligand concentrations and biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and viscosity were found clearly.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Nutrient and Phytoplankton Dynamics in Guangxi Coastal Bays, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xudong; WANG Baodong; SUN Xia; LIANG Shengkang

    2014-01-01

    The increasing riverine pollutants have resulted in nutrient enrichment and deterioration of water quality in the coastal water of Guangxi Province, China. However, the quantitative relationship between nutrient loads and water quality responses, which is crucial for developing eutrophication control strategies, is not well studied. In this study, the riverine fluxes of nutrients were quan-tified and integrated with nutrient cycling and phytoplankton dynamics by using box models for Guangxi coastal bays. The model concepts and biogeochemical equations were the same; while most model parameters were specific for each bay. The parameters were calibrated with seasonal observations during 2006-2007, and validated with yearly averaged measurements in 2009. The gen-eral features of nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics were reproduced, and the models were proved feasible under a wide range of bay conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen was depleted during the spring algal bloom in Zhenzhu Bay and Fangcheng Bay with relatively less nutrient inputs. Phosphorus concentration was high in spring, which decreased then due to continuous phytoplankton consumption. Chlorophyll-a concentration reached its annual maximum in summer, but was the minimum in winter. Eutrophication was characterized by both an increase in nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass in Lianzhou Bay. Either about 80%re-duction of nitrogen or 70%reduction of phosphorus was required to control the algal bloom in Lianzhou Bay. Defects of the models were discussed and suggestions to the environmental protection of Guangxi coastal bays were proposed.

  6. Hydrodynamics and Associated Sediment Transport over Coastal Wetlands in Quanzhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-jun

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes represent an important coastal wetland system.In order to understand the differences between boundary layer parameters of vegetated and unvegetated areas,as well as the mechanisms of sediment transport,several electromagnetic current meters(AEM HR,products of Alec Electronics Co.Ltd.)were deployed in coastal wetlands in Quanzhou Bay,China,to measure current velocity.During the low tide phase,the surficial sediment was collected at 10 m intervals.In situ measurements show that the current velocities on the bare flat were much higher than those in the Spartina alterniora marsh.Current velocity also varied with distance from marsh edge and plant canopy height and diameter.Around 63% of the velocity profiles in the tidal creek can be described by a logarithmic equation.Over the bare flat and Spartina alterniglora marsh,a logarithmic profile almost occurs during the flood tide phase.Sediment analysis shows that mean grain size was 6.7(D along the marsh edge,and surface sediments were transported from bare flat to marsh;the tidal creeks may change this sediment transport pattern.The hydrodynamics at early flood tide and late ebb tide phases determined the net transport direction within the study area.

  7. Fractal Determination of Coastal Types Based on GIS--A Case Study of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaohua; Wu Xiuqin; Wang Jian

    2002-01-01

    The probability of fractal determination of coastal types based on GIS is preliminarily discussed with China as an example. Finally, some significant conclusions are drawn: (1) The fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast is larger than that of the plain coast on the same scale map; (2) As far as the bedrock coast is concerned, the larger fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast on the same scale map indicates that the bedrock coast is probably not typical; (3) As far as the plain coast is concerned, the smaller fractal dimension of coastline of the plain coast on the same scale map indicates that it is probably the silt plain coast; (4) The different substantial compositions affect the fractal dimensions of coastlines of different coastal types. In general, the coast which lies in the north of the Hangzhou Bay consists of sand mainly, its surface is flat, and it is connected with the coastal plain, its landform is broad shoal, its total change is comparatively homogenous in the tidal dynamic process, and thus, the relatively smaller fractal dimension of coastline results from this. For the bedrock coast, there is more bedrock, the coastline is comparatively smooth and straight, being affected by the faults and ocean dynamic process, which result in the larger fractal dimension.

  8. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Yu; Liu Zhang; Qiu Liu; Xiaohui Qi; Ying Ji; Beom Seok Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. Methods:Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycets from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16S rDNA. Results:A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause’s Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates (26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93%belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis. Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  9. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; Yu; Liu; Zhang; Qiu; Liu; Xiaohui; Qi; Ying; Ji; Beom; Seok; Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics.Methods: Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycets from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16 S r DNA.Results: A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause’s Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates(26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93% belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis.Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  10. Vulnerability and Sustainable Development Mode of Coal Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Lianjun

    2008-01-01

    In this study,by carrying on the spot investigation to the seven coal cities in Northeast China and interviewing with the local authority and the residents,the authors definite the vulnerability that is closed to exposure,sensitivity and resilience,and set up vulnerability model of coal cities in Northeast China.At the same time,the authors broadly illustrate how the components of natural-social-economic system act in the coal area,so as to probe the ways to reduce vulnerability more effectively,such as preferential national policy and so on.Furthermore,the article studies the relationship between vulnerability and sustainable development.Vulnerability is a spatio-temporal function of sustainable development.The regional sustainable development refrains the spiral ascending of vulnerability.And the regional vulnerability and sustainable development appear in turn.Then the article analyzes the natural vulnerability,social vulnerability and economic vulnerability of coal cities in Northeast China.At last,combing vulnerability model and situation of coal cities in Northeast China,the authors put forward regional technology innovation mode,multi-dimension structure transformation mode,attracting investment mode and recycling economy mode to reduce vulnerability.

  11. Bioremediation and fodder potentials of two Sargassum spp. in coastal waters of Shenzhen, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Yuelu; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun

    2014-08-30

    In this study, the bioremediation potentials of two seaweeds (Sargassum hemiphyllum and S. henslowianum) against pollution in a coastal mariculture area of Shenzhen, South China, were investigated by comparing the growth, nutrient bioaccumulation capacity of plants from the seaweed bed (control site) with plants from the fish farm. Results indicated that both species are potential candidates for bioremediation in the fish farm areas in terms of their high growth rates and high bioaccumulation capacities on inorganic nutrients. Both Sargassum spp. contain high levels of crude protein (11.7-14.0%) and crude fat (2.2-2.7%), suggesting high nutritional values. The S. hemiphyllum may serve as a good aquaculture fodder with high nutritional compositions and low heavy metal contents. However, heavy metals (Cr, Pb and Cd) of S. henslowianum exceed the maximum allowable concentrations as aquatic feed, which restricts its fodder application. In general, the results of this study may contribute to the marine pollution bioremediation in the coastal areas of South China, especially in mariculture zones.

  12. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water.

  13. Breach of Contact: An Intercultural Reading of China Miéville's 'The City and The City'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Elizabeth Hanna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available China Miéville’s 2009 'Weird' detective novel The City and The City is a tale of two city states, culturally distinct, between which unpoliced contact is forbidden. While residents of each city can learn about the other’s history, geography, politics, see photographs and watch news footage of the other city, relations between the two are tightly monitored and any direct contact requires a series of protocols, some of which might seem reasonable, or at least familiar: entry permits, international mail, international dialing codes, intercultural training courses. What complicates these apparently banal measures is the relative positioning of the two cities, each one around, within, amongst the other. The two populations live side by side, under a regime which requires ostentatious and systematic disregard or 'unnoticing' of the other in any context but a tightly regulated set of encounters. For all that interculturality is endemic to everyday life in the 21st century, what is striking is that critical and popular uptake of this novel so frequently decries the undesirability, the immorality even, of the cultural separation between the two populations, framing it as an allegory of unjust division within a single culture, and thus by implication endorsing the erasure of intercultural difference. We propose an alternative reading which sees this novel as exploring the management of intercultural encounters, and staging the irreducibility of intercultural difference. We examine how the intercultural is established in the novel, and ask how it compares to its representations in prevalent theoretical models, specifically that of the Third Place.

  14. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  15. Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi Wu; NORBACK Dan; GJESING Birgitte; ZHONG Nan Shan; SPANGFORT DMichael; LAI Xu Xin; ZHAO De Yu; ZHANG Chun Qing; CHEN Jian Jun; ZHANG Luo; WEI Qing Yu; CHEN Shi; LIU En Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households. Methods Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA. Results HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from Conclusion HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.

  16. [Factors related to awareness on tobacco advertisement and promotion among adults in six cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Jiao, Shu-fang; Li, Xun; Li, Xin-jian; Zhu, Guo-ping; Du, Lin; Zhao, Jian-hua; Jiang, Yuan; Feng, Guo-ze

    2009-04-01

    To know the situation of tobacco advertisement, promotions and related factors in six cities in China. 4815 adults (above 18 years), selected form Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan through probability proportionate sampling and simple random sampling, were investigated through questionnaires. The most commonly reported channels that smokers noticed tobacco advertisements were billboards (35.6%) and television (34.4%). The most commonly reported tobacco promotional activities that were noticed by smokers were free gifts when buying cigarettes (23.1%) and free samples of cigarettes (13.9%). Smokers in Changsha were more likely to report noticing tobacco advertisement on billboards (chi2 = 562.474, P advertisement and promotion. It was universal to see tobacco advertisement and promotions in cities in China but the laws and regulations about tobacco-control were not uniformly executed in different cities. It is necessary to perfect and uniform related laws and regulations.

  17. Land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Suzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongxi; Pei, Shunping; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2002-09-01

    Suzhou City, located at the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southeastern Jiangsu Province, is one of the few cities in China which suffer from severe ground settlement. A research project was carried out to investigate this problem. Geological and hydrogeological studies show that there is a multi-layered aquifer system with three distinct, soft mud layers of marine and lagoonal origins. An examination of historical records of groundwater extraction, water levels, and ground settlement shows that the ground subsidence is associated with the continuously increasing groundwater extraction in the deep, confined aquifer. It is believed that the consolidation of the soft mud layers, especially the third layer which is thick and close to the main pumped aquifer, contributes to the ground settlement. A three-dimensional finite difference numerical model representing the multi-layered aquifer system was developed to study the ground settlement in response to groundwater extraction. By calibrating the model with both the measured groundwater level and ground settlement, the aquifer parameters were estimated. The model outputs fit reasonably well with the observed results, which indicates that the numerical model can reproduce the dynamic processes of both groundwater flow and soil consolidation. The hydraulic conductivity of the third mud layer near the center of the ground settlement has been reduced by over 30% in the last 14 years. The gradual deterioration in the hydraulic conductivity of the mud may have significant adverse effect on the sustainable groundwater resource of the deep confined aquifer, since the recharge from the shallow aquifers through the mud layer is the only source of water to the deep aquifer. An analysis of the spatial distributions of groundwater drawdown and ground settlement shows that the area with maximum drawdown is not necessarily the area with maximum ground settlement due to the occurrence of the soft mud layer. A simple reallocation

  18. Diversity and distribution of bacterial community in the coastal sediments of Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liping; ZHENG Binghui; LEI Kun

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the diversity and distribution of the bacterial community in the coastal sediment of the Bohai Bay, China, high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the sediment samples, and was sequenced using a 454 GS FLX Titanium system. At 97%similarity, the sequences were assigned to 22 884 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which belonged to 41 phyla, 84 classes, 268 genera and 789 species. At the different taxonomic levels, both the dominants and their distribution varied significantly among the six coastal sediments. Proteobacteria was the first dominant phylum across all the six coastal sediments, representing 57.52%, 60.66%, 45.10%, 60.92%, 56.63% and 56.59%, respectively. Bacteroidetes was the second dominant phylum at Stas S1, S2 and S4, while Chloroflexi was the second dominant phylum at Stas S3, S5 and S6. At class level,γ-Proteobacteria was the first dominant class at Stas S1, S2, S4 and S6, whileδ-Proteobacteria became the first dominant class at Stas S3 and S5. In addition, a large proportion of unclassified representatives have distributed at the different taxonomic levels. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results indicated that the sediment texture, water depth (D), dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN) and nine EPA priority control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were the important factors in regulating the bacterial community composition. Those results are very important to further understand the roles of bacterial community in the coastal biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Decomposition Analysis on Direct Material Input and Dematerialization of Mining Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Fangdao; TONG Lianjun; ZHANG Huimin; ZHANG Na

    2009-01-01

    Material dematerialization is a basic approach to reduce the pressure on the resources and environment and to realize the sustainable development. The material flow analysis and decomposition method are used to calculate the direct material input (DMI) of 14 typical mining cities in Northeast China in 1995-2004 and to analyze the demateri-alization and its driving factors in the different types of mining cities oriented by coal, petroleum, metallurgy and multi-resources. The results are as follows: 1) from 1995 to 2006, the increase rates of the DMI and the material input intensity of mining cities declined following the order of multi-resources, metallurgy, coal, and petroleum cities, and the material utilizing efficiency did following the order of petroleum, coal, metallurgy, and multi-resources cities; 2) during the research period, all the kinds of mining cities were in the situation of weak sustainable development in most years; 3) the pressure on resources and environment in the multi-resources cities was the most serious; 4) the petro-leum cities showed the strong trend of sustainable development; and 5) in recent years, the driving function of eco-nomic development for material consuming has continuously strengthened and the controlling function of material utilizing efficiency for it has weakened. The key approaches to promote the development of circular economy of min-ing cities in Northeast China are put forward in the following aspects: 1) to strengthen the research and development of the technique of resources' cycling utilization, 2) to improve the utilizing efficiency of resources, and 3) to carry out the auditing system of resources utilization.

  20. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent.

  1. Observations of aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaping; Virkkula, Aki; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Cui, Long; Ding, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Temporal variations in aerosol optical properties were investigated at a coastal station in Hong Kong based on the field observation from February 2012 to February 2015. At 550 nm, the average light-scattering (151 ± 100 Mm-1) and absorption coefficients (8.3 ± 6.1 Mm-1) were lower than most of other rural sites in eastern China, while the single-scattering albedo (SSA = 0.93 ± 0.05) was relatively higher compared with other rural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Correlation analysis confirmed that the darkest aerosols were smaller in particle size and showed strong scattering wavelength dependencies, indicating possible sources from fresh emissions close to the measurement site. Particles with Dp of 200-800 nm were less in number, yet contributed the most to the light-scattering coefficients among submicron particles. In summer, both ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC peaked, indicating the impact of nearby combustion sources on this site. Multi-year backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and potential source contribution (PSC) analysis revealed that these particles were mainly from the air masses that moved southward over Shenzhen and urban Hong Kong and the polluted marine air containing ship exhausts. These fresh emission sources led to low SSA during summer months. For winter and autumn months, contrarily, ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC were relatively low, showing that the site was more under influence of well-mixed air masses from long-range transport including from South China, East China coastal regions, and aged aerosol transported over the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan, causing stronger abilities of light extinction and larger variability of aerosol optical properties. Our results showed that ship emissions in the vicinity of Hong Kong could have visible impact on the light-scattering and absorption abilities as well as SSA at Hok Tsui.

  2. Internal Migration and Citizenship Education in China's Shenzhen City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wangbei

    2016-01-01

    Migration's influences on citizenship education were widely discussed in the literature. However, most studies were based on international migration that drew experience from, for example, North America and Europe. Less attention was paid to internal migration or developing areas. This article takes China as an example, which is a country that has…

  3. Internal Migration and Citizenship Education in China's Shenzhen City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wangbei

    2016-01-01

    Migration's influences on citizenship education were widely discussed in the literature. However, most studies were based on international migration that drew experience from, for example, North America and Europe. Less attention was paid to internal migration or developing areas. This article takes China as an example, which is a country that has…

  4. Measles vaccination and prevention in big cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Meina, Li; Xiaodong, Liu; Lulu, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in controlling measles in China, there was measles outbreak in Beijing which was a result of cluster of unvaccinated people or people failure to vaccinate. In order to accelerate measles control efforts and achieve and high levels of measles immunity, it is helpful to implement more targeted management strategy.

  5. Estimation methods and monitoring network issues in the quantitative estimation of land-based COD and TN loads entering the sea: a case study in Qingdao City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin; Li, Keqiang; Liang, Shengkang; Qian, Guodong; Jin, Hong; Dai, Aiquan

    2014-09-01

    At present, the monitoring network of China cannot provide sufficient data to estimate land-based pollutant loads that enter the sea, and estimation methods are imprecisely used. In this study, the selection of monitoring stations, monitoring frequency, and pollutant load estimation methods was studied in Qingdao City, a typical coastal city in China, taken as an example. Land-based pollutant loads from Qingdao were estimated, and load distribution, density, and composition were analyzed to identify the key pollution source regions (SRs) that need to be monitored and controlled. Results show that the administrative land area of Qingdao can be divided into 25 sea-sink source regions (SSRs). A total of 14 more rivers and 62 industrial enterprises should be monitored to determine the comprehensive pollutant loads of the city. Furthermore, the monitoring frequency of rivers should not be less than three times/year; a monitoring frequency of five or more times is preferable. The findings on pollutant load estimation with the use of different estimation methods substantially vary; estimation results with the use of ratio-based methods were 10 and 22 % higher than those with the use of monitoring-based methods in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN), respectively. None-point sources contributed the majority of the pollutant loads at about 70 % of the total COD and 60 % of the total TN.

  6. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on

  7. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  8. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  9. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  10. Study on mobility-disadvantage group' risk perception and coping behaviors of abrupt geological hazards in coastal rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Anping

    2016-07-01

    China is a country highly vulnerable to abrupt geological hazards. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of abrupt geological disasters (such as rock avalanches, landslide, mud-rock flows etc) in mobility-disadvantage group living in coastal rural area of China. This research is to take into account all factors regarding disasters and to design the questionnaires accordingly. Two debris flow vulnerable townships are selected as study areas including Hedi Township in Qinyuan County and Xianxi Township in Yueqing City which are located in East China's Zhejiang Province. SPSS was applied to conduct descriptive analysis, which results in an effective empirical model for evacuation behavior of the disable groups. The result of this study shows mobility-disadvantage groups' awareness on disaster prevention and mitigation is poor and their knowledge about basic theory and emergency response is limited. Errors and distortions in public consciousness on disaster prevention and mitigation stimulate the development of areas with frequent disasters, which will expose more life and property to danger and aggravate the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. In conclusion, before drafting emergency planning, the government should consider more the disable group's expectations and actual evacuation behavior than the request of the situation to ensure the planning is good to work.

  11. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  12. Building an image of Villages-in-the-City: a clarification of China's distinct urban spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Him

    2010-01-01

    Villages-in-the-city (chengzhongcun) as distinct urban spaces in Chinese cities have attracted a lot of scholarly attention, and the term has been variously interpreted. The term "urban village" was initially borrowed and applied to describe this urban phenomenon. While the term in a Western context refers to a planned neighbourhood that features good urban planning and design, the question posed in this essay is: are villages-in-the-city the Chinese equivalent of urban villages? Furthermore, within China, villages-in-the-city are always regarded as migrant enclaves, no different from Zhejiang village or Xinjiang village in Beijing. Are they the same kind of settlement? A primary aim of this essay is to reassert the differences between villages-in-the-city and urban villages that have developed in the United Kingdom. A secondary objective is to explore the variations between villages-in-the-city and Zhejiang village. Through investigating the variations between these urban morphologies, this study attempts to fill gaps in the current literature and hence clarify the misconceptions and confusion about Chinese villages-in-the-city.

  13. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  14. Evaluation of regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the DPSIR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; SHEN Lei

    2012-01-01

    The DPSIR assessment method,which implies the relationships among driving force (D),pressure (P),status (S),impact (I),and response (R),is widely applied by scholars.This paper aims to establish a comprehensive assessment system for regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the above model using different indicators.Factor analysis and the SPSS statistical analysis software were used to carry out scientific and quantitative assessments.The results indicated that contradictions of energy supply and demand as well as environmental pollution are the critical factors that present great challenges to regional energy security in this area.The authors argued that a sustainable,stable,and safe supply energy supply is crucial in solving the aforesaid dilemma,and improving the energy use efficiency is one of the best choices.Some countermeasures and suggestions regarding regional energy supply stability and utilization security were pointed out.

  15. Construction and implementation of RS integrated application information system of China's coastal zone and offshore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓梅; 蓝荣钦; 周成虎; 骆剑承; 苏奋振; 杜云艳; 刘宝银

    2003-01-01

    The coastal zone and offshore are clearly of major economic and social importance, in the same time it causes a series of problems of resources and ecosystem too. The research on and develop-ment of integrated application techniques for remote sensing provide not only a microcosmic and dynamicand synchronous technical means to the monitor, but also an integrated technical scheme to harmonicallysolve the ecological environment problem. The system is designed to focus on the application techniquesof multi-sources remote sensing data. By developing remote sensing information extraction module, inte-grated user platform, and application module objected to the real ocean procedure for China' s coastalzone and offshore, the information system consists of the management of prodigious amount of data, dis-play, analysis, simulation and output will be constructed and implemented. The final objective is totransform the research on ocean remote sensing into application.

  16. Development of a New Generation of Flood Inundation Maps—A Case Study of the Coastal City of Tainan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jiing Doong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management has become a growing priority for city managers and disaster risk prevention agencies worldwide. Correspondingly, large investments are made towards data collection, archiving and analysis and technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS and remote sensing play important role in this regard. GIS technologies offer valuable means for delineation of flood plains, zoning of areas that need protection from floods and identification of plans for development and scoping of various kinds of flood protection measures. Flood inundation maps (FIMs are particularly useful in planning flood disaster risk responses. The purpose of the present paper is to describe efforts in developing new generation of FIMs at the city scale and to demonstrate effectiveness of such maps in the case of the coastal city of Tainan, Taiwan. In the present work, besides pluvial floods, the storm surge influence is also considered. The 1D/2D coupled model SOBEK was used for flood simulations. Different indicators such as Probability of Detection (POD and Scale of Accuracy (SA were applied in the calibration and validation stages of the work and their corresponding values were found to be up to 88.1% and 68.0%, respectively. From the overall analysis, it came up that land elevation, tidal phase, and storm surge are the three dominant factors that influence flooding in Tainan. A large number of model simulations were carried out in order to produce FIMs which were then effectively applied in the stakeholder engagement process.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  18. Simulation of groundwater-seawater interaction in the coastal surficial aquifer in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lixin; Ma, Bo; Liu, Lingling; Tang, Guoqiang; Wang, Tianyu

    2016-08-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates groundwater-seawater interactions and explores the annual variations and spatial distributions in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and seawater intrusion (SWI) in the Bohai Sea coastal zone in Tianjin, China. A three-dimensional finite element model, FEMWATER in the GMS environment, is developed to simulate density-dependent flow and transport in coastal groundwater aquifers. A sensitivity analysis is used to explore how the model output varies with the hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions. The results suggest that both SGD and SWI occur across the sea-aquifer interface. Along the modeled 45 km stretch of coastline, the annual SGD and SWI rates are 4.23 × 107 m3/yr and 0.86 × 107 m3/yr, respectively. The results also indicate that SGD is highest in the winter and lowest in the summer, and SWI exhibits the opposite trend. This change in flow direction across the sea-aquifer interface corresponds to seasonal changes in sea level. SGD mainly occurs in the southern and northern parts of the study area, and SWI primarily occurs in the central part. The results of the sensitivity analysis suggest that the SGD and SWI model outputs are most sensitive to sea level and the hydraulic conductivity in the top layer.

  19. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  20. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  1. A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S.F.; Wright, N.G.; Van der Meulen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, there is a need to enhance our understanding of vulnerability and to develop methodologies and tools to assess vulnerability. One of the most important goals of assessing coastal flood vulnerability, in particular, is to create a readily understandable link between the theoretical

  2. Characterizing Coastal Ecosystem Service Trade-offs with Future Urban Development in a Tropical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2017-08-23

    With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore. A range of biological, biophysical, and cultural indicators, including carbon, charcoal production, support for offshore fisheries, recreation, and habitat quality for a threatened species were quantified using field-based, remote sensing, and expert survey methods. The shape of the trade-off Pareto frontiers was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of environmental indicators for development. When traded off individually with urban development, four out of five environmental indicators were insensitive to development, meaning that relatively minor degradation of the indicator occurred while development was below a certain threshold, although indicator loss accelerated once this threshold was reached. Most of the pairwise relationships between the five environmental indicators were synergistic; only carbon storage and charcoal production, and charcoal production and recreational accessibility showed trade-offs. Trade-off analysis and land use optimization using Pareto frontiers could be a useful decision-support tool for understanding how changes in land use and coastal management will impact the ability of ecosystems to provide environmental benefits.

  3. Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2011-05-01

    Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84).

  4. China Domestic Travel Fair Finshed in 2004 Hangzhou City Was Awarded the Special Contribution Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China Domestic Travel Fair2004 sponsored by China Nation-al Tourism Administration andZhejiang Provincial Governmentand held by Zhejiang Tourism Ad-ministration and Hangzhou Mu-nicipal Government.finished inHangzhou on June 6 afternoon.The organizing committeeawarded 16 units the best organizing praise, 23 units excellent organizingpraise, 10 units the best exhibition praise, 21 units excellent exhibitionprize, 2 units the best advertisement praise and 5 units excellent advertise-ment praise. The Zhejiang Tourism Administration and Hangzhou People’sGovernment were awarded the special contribution prize.The next domestic travel fair will be held in Gulling City. The flag of do-mestic travel fair was handed over solemnly to Pan Jianmin,the deputymayor of Guiling City, on the June 6 afternoon.

  5. Prospects of coastal engineering technology in China%我国海岸工程技术展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左其华; 窦希萍; 段子冰

    2015-01-01

    The existing problems in coastal engineering in China and the progress in foreign countries are analyzed in nine aspects,such as dynamic monitoring system, estuarine and coast erosion and protection, deepwater and offshore trend of coastal engineering,coastal engineering structures safety under extreme conditions, development technology of island and reef engineering, coast management and digital coast, hydrophilic engineering, utilization and development of ocean energy technology and coastal engineering research. The key problems and development trend of coastal engineering in China are pointed out.%从海岸动力监测体系、河口海岸侵蚀及防护、海岸工程深水和离岸趋势、极端条件下海岸工程结构安全、岛礁工程开发技术、海岸管理与数字海岸、亲水工程、海洋能技术利用开发和海岸工程研究等九个方面对我国海岸工程中面临的问题,以及国外相关工程技术进展情况进行了分析,并指出我国未来海岸工程领域需要加以关注的重点问题和发展趋势。

  6. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Liu

    Full Text Available In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007 by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents.

  7. Changing urban phosphorus metabolism: Evidence from Longyan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Su; Huang, Wei; Bai, Xuemei; Huang, Yunfeng; Li, Guilin

    2015-12-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization calls for a better understanding of phosphorus (P) metabolism and the interaction of the physical, ecological and social drivers of P cycling in urban systems. We quantified the P metabolism in Longyan, a city with a major agricultural economy, and analyzed its long-term trends over the rapid urbanization period of 1985-2010. Both input P (from 4811 t P to 14,296 t P) and output P (from 4565 t P to 13,509 t P) increased significantly. The agricultural subsystem contributed most to the P metabolism, accounting for 85% of total P input. The share of P input lost to the environment, i.e. discharge to water, accumulation in the soil and landfill, increased from 66% to 72%, while food production efficiency decreased from 48% to 29%. Per capita P input showed linear relationships with the Human Development Index (HDI), S-curve relationship with the urbanization rate, and logistic curve relationship with per capita disposable income. A more meat-based diet shift both in Longyan and surrounding cities greatly affected Longyan's food production structure. Our results demonstrate that P metabolic quantity, configuration, and efficiency in production systems can change drastically in response to changes in consumer and producer behavior as well as in socioeconomic structure. A larger regional scale should be considered in urban P management, when trying to mitigate the increase in P use. The results also imply that sustainable urban P management will require a system-wide, cross-sector and cross-boundary approach.

  8. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yan-Min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, su...

  9. Let Basic Medical Insurance Reach Every Citizen——A showcase city in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN CHUN'AN

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On July 24, 2007, Premier Wen Jiabao announced at a meeting in Beijing that China is working hard to build a comprehensive,government-financed system of medical insurance that covers all citizens in cities. What does this mean for the average Chinese? What is being done to build this projected system? We hope that the report printed here may answer these questions.

  10. Hepatitis E virus serosurvey among pet dogs and cats in several developed cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huanbin; Chen, Jidang; Xie, Jiexiong; Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions.

  11. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  12. Contamination by persistent toxic substances in surface sediment of urban rivers in Chaohu City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feipeng Li; Haiping Zhang; Xiangzhou Meng; Ling Chen; Daqiang Yin

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the river sediment in Chaohu City,China were investigated.A total of nine surface sediments were collected and the selected PTS pollutants including six heavy metals and nineteen polybrorninated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed,The mean heavy metal concentrations (in mg/kg,dry weight) ranged within 0.18-1.53 (Hg),50.08-200.18 (Cu),118.70-313.65 (Zn),50.77-310.85 (Cr),37.12-92.72 (Pb) and 13.29-197.24 (As),and Cu,Zn and As have been regarded as the main metal pollutants.The levels of PBDEs (1.2-12.1 ng/g) and BDE-209 (2.4-30.5 ng/g) were at the middle level of the global range.BDE-209 was the predominant congener (67.0%-85.7%),which agrees with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are the dominant PBDE formulation in China.The relative high level of PTS pollutants in the western part of the city is probably owing to the intensive agricultural activities and lack of sewerage system there.The ecological risk assessment with the sediment quality guidelines (SOGs) indicates that the urban river sediments in the city have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals with probable ecotoxicological impacts on freshwater organisms and the main toxic pollutants are Hg and As.The results of current study imply that the city,and perhaps many other small cities in China as well,requires immediate pollution control measures with emphasis on not only conventional organic pollutants but also on PTS such as heavy metals and PBDEs.

  13. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  14. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among children from six cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS in childhood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in adulthood, which is of increasing concern in transitional and advanced economies. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence of MetS among children from six cities of China. Methods A total of 8,764 children (4,495 boys, 4,269 girls aged 7-11 years were randomly selected from 6 cities of China. MetS was mainly defined by the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Results The overall prevalence of MetS for children older than 10 years was 0.8% by IDF definition. Obese children had significantly higher MetS prevalence compared with their counterparts with overweight (6.6% vs. 0.9%, p p Conclusions The early onset of MetS among children and relatively high proportions of children with at least one or two metabolic abnormalities in cities of China can increase the risk of developing MetS. It implies the necessity to take effective actions to control and prevent the rapid development of obesity among children in developing countries, especial those undergoing transition to a Western lifestyle.

  15. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  16. Social Effect of Environmental Pollution on Valley-cities in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Tao; ZHANG Yun; LIU Ran; DONG Mali

    2009-01-01

    Accompanied with the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the large and medium-scale valley-cities in the western China are facing environmental problems at respective levels in common. The urban environmental pollution causes economic losses, and also brings out negative effects on urban society. Based on the social investigation method, this paper aims to study the harms to urban society brought by environmental pollution. After the investigation to the inhabitants of six typical valley-cities: Lanzhou, Xining, Chongqing, Baiyin, Luzhou and Zigong, we found that the urban environmental pollution has resulted in negative influences with different levels on residents' physical, psychological, work, recreations, studies and social activities. The problem of environmental pollution has become a serious restriction to sustainable development of cities mentioned above. Herewith, it has become urgent to strengthen the government regulations for controlling urban environmental pollution.

  17. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi’an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers. PMID:27886137

  18. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi'an City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-11-24

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index's weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem's service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi'an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.

  19. Relationship between urban heat island effect and land use in Taiyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu Ting

    2016-01-01

    2015 years in Taiyuan, China. The mono-window algorithm is used to remove the influence of the atmosphere. The land surface thermal radiation intensity is obtained by the mono-window algorithm. Then the land surface true temperature is converted by the land surface thermal radiation intensity. At the same time, the remote sensing images of Taiyuan city in three time periods are classified by supervised classification method. Finally, the relationship between different years of Taiyuan land surface temperature and land use change is analysed. The results show that Taiyuan city land surface temperature is positively correlated with land use. The land surface temperature is higher when the land is frequently used. Taiyuan city land surface temperature is negatively correlated with vegetation coverage. The land surface temperature is lower when the higher vegetation is covered in the area.

  20. Towards global scale coastal flood hazard in Delta Cities with 30-meter SRTM and 3D_i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Verhoeven, Govert; Van Leeuwen, Elgard; Van der Klis, Hanneke; Van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Cumiskey, Lydia; Verlaan, Martin; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Kwadijk, Jaap

    2015-04-01

    Most attempts to globally simulate inundation at the land-coast interface rely on maximum flood level GIS-based flood spreading models. These are generally not mass conservative, do not account for the genesis of tidal and surges in time, and do not include channel geometry and surface roughness. Furthermore, these methods cannot be used to study the impact of hazard reducing intervention measures that increase roughness at the land-coast interface. These measures include breakwaters and coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests and shell fish and coral reefs. Recently, new datasets and models are becoming available that allow us to greatly improve simulation of inundation in global deltas in a rapid and computationally feasible way. In this poster we demonstrate the feasibility of modelling all global deltas with strongly urbanised areas explicitly using these datasets and models. This will allow initiatives such as the 100 resilient cities (Rockefeller foundation) and the 'making cities resilient' campaign (UNISDR) to tackle the issue of coastal flood risk efficiently. We propose to use the following materials: A subgrid enabling 1D-2D model code Outputs from a global tidal and storm surge model Open topographical data We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by modelling the Mississippi delta with: a) a lidar derived topography dataset (www.gis.ms.gov/); and b) the recently released 30 meter elevation dataset from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. We use the new 3Di subgrid code to rapidly schematise the vast delta area with a quadtree mesh. We force the model at the boundaries with water level estimates during the Katrina cyclone. We invite scientists working on global scale inundation modelling to visit our poster in order to discuss possibilities and limitations of the proposed methods related to model codes, data quality and calibration.

  1. Short-term forecasting through intermittent assimilation of data from Taiwan and mainland China coastal radars for Typhoon Meranti (2010) at landfall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kun Zhao; Xinfeng Li; Ming Xue; Ben Jong-Dao Jou; Wen-Chau Lee

    2012-01-01

      Radial velocity (Vr) and reflectivity (Z) data from eight coastal operational radars of mainland China and Taiwan are assimilated for the first time using the ARPS 3DVAR and cloud analysis package for Pacific Typhoon Meranti of 2010...

  2. Urban growth: Changes, management, and problems in large cities of Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Du

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with medium-sized cities, megacities play an increasingly important role in the rapid urbanization process in China. Owing to the expanding scale of large cities, urban sprawl leads to unsustainable practices that cause ecological, social, and environmental problems. Urban planning and land use planning are major driving forces of land use and land cover change in China. However, the goals of these two types of planning are different, and coordinating them is a challenge for local government decision makers. Thus, we use the SLEUTH model to simulate the implementation scenarios of future urban growth in Nanjing in the Jiangsu province of China. Using the scientific simulation data of the model, we contrasted the alternative futures of the two planning types for local government decision makers to achieve sustainable urban planning. The objective of our study is to explore the problems and possible solutions for urban management in the context of a megacity in China. The results of our study confirm the value of SLEUTH, which provides extensive exploratory knowledge in evaluating the effects of possible local government decisions.

  3. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  4. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  5. In quest of the origin of ancient northern city of China: An implication from the Book of Odes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fudong

    2007-01-01

    Sorting out some paragraphs in the Book of Odes (collection of the earliest poetry in China),this paper makes analysis of the formation,construction process and technology of the ancient northern city of China.Relevant important historical data and information about urban development history are collected.

  6. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  7. Changes in urban-related precipitation in the summer over three city clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Wu, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of urban surface expansion on the summer precipitations over three city clusters [Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD)] in eastern China under different monsoonal circulation backgrounds were explored using the nested fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 3.7 (MM5 V3.7), including the urban-related thermal and dynamical parameters. Ten-year integrations were performed using satellite image data from 2000 and 2010 to represent the urban surface distributions and expansions in China. Changes in the precipitation revealed obvious subregional characteristics, which could be explained by the influences of the vertical wind velocity and moisture flux. With urban-related warming, vertical wind motion generally intensified over urban surface-expanded areas. Meanwhile, the increase in impervious surface areas induced rapid rainwater runoff into drains, and the Bowen ratio increased over urban areas, which further contributed to changes in the local moisture fluxes in these regions. The intensities of the changes in precipitation were inconsistent over the three city clusters, although the changes in vertical motion and local evaporation were similar, which indicates that the changes in precipitation cannot be solely explained by the changes in the local evaporation-related moisture flux. The changes in precipitation were also influenced by the changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and the corresponding moisture flux, which are expressed in marked subregional characteristics. Therefore, the influence of urban-related precipitation over the three city clusters in China, for which changes in moisture flux from both the impacted local evaporation and EASM circulation should be considered, varied based on the precipitation changes of only a single city.

  8. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery.

  9. STUDY ON VARIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SST OBSERVED IN THE PAST 40 YEARS IN THE COASTAL REGION OF SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei-juan; QIAN Guang-ming; YU Ke-fu; CHEN Te-gu

    2007-01-01

    To study the variation characteristics of SST in coastal south China, observed SST was analyzed for the past 44 years. The results show that the monthly and yearly averaged SST have rising trends, the yearly averaged SST's linearity rising rate is 0.12-0.19 ℃/decade in the years, the rising extents in winter are higher than those in summer. The variability in winter is larger than that in summer, with the largest in February and March. A majority of significant cold or warm events occurred in winter. A wavelet multiresolution method was used to analyze periodical characteristics of SST in coastal south China, all timescale decomposition series are very similar, and high-frequency decompositions within the year are dominant. Low-frequency decompositions show rising trends since the mid-1970.

  10. THE EVALUATION OF LUNG CANCER PREVENTION IN BAOJI CITY OF SHAANXI PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of lung cancer prevention in Baoji city, one of the cities with high lung cancer morbidity in China. Methods To investigate the mortality of lung cancer from 1992 to 1996 in Baoji and compare it with the data of Baoji in 1970s and the current data in whole China. Information of lung cancer pa- tients was collected from the Malignant Tunout Monitoring Station in Baoji. To investigate by sampling survey the status of smoking of Baoji population based on the principle of clustering random sampling. Information about air pollution in 1980s and 1990s was obtained from the Environmental Monitoring Station in Baoji. Results Comparing with 1970s, the crude mortality rates of lung cancer in Baoji in 1992~ 1996 increased both in males and females,but the range was narrower than that in whole China. Ajusted mortality rates of lung cancer didn't change in females but decreased in males. However, either crude or adjusted mortality rate was lower than the average level of the whole country. The status of air pollution has been improved dramatically since the early 1980s in Baoji. So far, except to- tal suspended particles (TSP), NOx and SO2 levels have reached the Criteria of Air Quality of China. But the smoking rate was still higher. Conclusion The prevention of lung cancer in Baoji is effective, but the role of measures needs further study. Baoji should not be considered as a city with high lung cancer morbidity in our country at present.

  11. Features of Sand-dust Deposits in Harbin City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuanyun; ZHANG Yan; HE Kui; ZHOU Jia; KANG Chunguo

    2006-01-01

    From the sedimentologic view, this paper analyses the grain-size distribution and the chemical composition of the deposits from sand-dust storm, occurring in Harbin on March 20, 2002. The result indicates that there exist plentiful coarse matters in the sand-dust deposits in Harbin, and the sand-dust composition presents obvious three peak distribution characteristics, indicating that the sand-dust in Harbin is composed of multi-origin components. The grain-size composition consists of silt (4-8Φ), accounting for 71.18% of the total, sand (>4Φ), 21.70%, and clay (<8Φ), only 7.13%. The average grain size (Mz) is 5.14Φ. The chemical elements of the deposits are mainly SiO2 and Al2O3 and Fe2O3, totally occupying 77.8%. The enrichment factors (EF) of Mg, K, Si, Fe, Mn, P, Ti, Co, Ni and V elements are all about 1, which mainly come from lithosphere source, while parts ofCu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Se elements are from pollution sources out of lithosphere source, and As, Cd and Sb elements are mainly from pollution sources. Based on the comprehensive analysis of grain-size, chemical composition, enrichment factor (EF), discriminant function (DF) and matter source index (PI), this paper points out that the grain-size distribution and element composition of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin are evidently different from the loess and sand-dust in Lanzhou, and that matter source of the sand-dust in Harbin is different from the loess in Northwest China and the sand-dust in Lanzhou. The sand-dust deposits in Harbin are an admixture of coarse grains transmitted in short distance and fine grains transported in long distance. The plentiful coarse grains of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin origin from sand of local spot, and are the near-source deposits transported by low altitude airflow.

  12. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  13. DNA Barcoding Assessment of Green Macroalgae in Coastal Zone Around Qingdao,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guoying; WU Feifei; MAO Yunxiang; GUO Shenghua; XUE Hongfan; BI Guiqi

    2014-01-01

    An assessment with assistance of DNA barcoding was conducted on green macroalgae in coastal zone around Qingdao, China, during the period of April-December, 2011. Three markers were applied in molecular discrimination, including the plastid elongation factor tufA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal cistron and rubisco large subunit gene 3’ regions (rbcL-3P). DNA barcoding discriminated 8 species, excluding species of genus Cladophora and Bryopsis due to failures in amplification. We ascertained and corrected 4 species identified by morphological methods for effectively assisting the classification. The gene tufA presented more advantages as an appropriate DNA marker with the strongest amplification success rate and species discrimination power than the other two genes. The poorest sequencing success largely handicapped the application of ITS. Samples identified by tufA and rbcL as Ulva flexuosa were clustered into the clade of U. prolifera by ITS in the neighbor-joining tree. Confu-sion with discrimination of the complex of U. linza, U. procera and U. prolifera (as the LPP complex) still existed for the three DNA markers. Based on our results, rbcL is recommended as a preferred marker for assisting tufA to discriminate green macroalgae. In distinguishing green-tide-forming Ulva species, the free-floating sample collected from the green tide in 2011 was proved to be iden-tical with U. prolifera in Yellow Sea for ITS and rbcL genes. This study presents a preliminary survey of green macroalgae distrib-uted in the coastal area around Qingdao, and proves that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for taxonomy of green macroalgae.

  14. Exploration of Strategy Planning of Coastal Cities' Ocean Space Utilization with Special Reference to Tianjin Binhai New Area%滨海城市用海规划策略研究--以天津滨海新区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天; 贾梦圆; 臧鑫宇

    2015-01-01

    通过对当前我国滨海城市的用海现状调查,结合国内外城市用海的研究动态,以天津市滨海新区为例,分析其城市用海的生态安全、平面形态、用地布局以及专项规划与管理调控机制方面现存的主要问题,提出生态保护与复育、规划平面形态优化、规划用地布局优化、规划管理四方面的策略,为我国滨海城市的用海规划提供一定的借鉴和引导。%Researching the current situations of coastal cities's ocean space utilization in China and combing related analy-ses of them at home and abroad , this paper , with Tianjin Binhai New Area as an example , analyzes the primary problems existing in the ecological security, plane form, land layout, special planning, management and regulation mechanism.In addition, this paper also puts forward some strategies from four aspects , namely ecological protection and restoration , the optimization of plane form planning , the optimization of land layout and the management planning , providing some refer-ences and guidance for the planning of ocean space utilization in China ’ s coastal cities .

  15. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 in China based on ground-level observations for 190 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2016-09-01

    Whereas air pollution in many Chinese cities has reached epidemic levels in recent years, limited research has explored the spatial and temporal patterns of fine air particles such as PM2.5, or particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm, using nationally representative data. This article applied spatial statistical approaches including spatial interpolation and spatial regression to the analysis of ground-level PM2.5 observations for 190 Chinese cities in 2014 obtained from the Chinese Air Quality Online Monitoring Platform. Results of this article suggest that most Chinese cities included in the dataset recorded severe levels of PM2.5 in excess of the WHO's interim target and cities in the North China Plain had the highest levels of PM2.5 regardless of city size. Spatially interpolated maps of PM2.5 and population-weighted PM2.5 indicate vast majority of China's land and population was exposed to disastrous levels of PM2.5 concentrations. The regression results suggest that PM2.5 in a city was positively related to its population size, amount of atmospheric pollutants, and emissions from nearby cities, but inversely related to precipitation and wind speed. Findings from this research can shed new light on the complex spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 throughout China and provide insights into policies aiming to mitigate air pollution in China.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Hu, Wenyou; Jiao, Wentao; Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Distributions of arsenic and metals in surface sediments collected from the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China, were investigated. An ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in the sediments was evaluated by three approaches: the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the degree of contamination, and two sets of SQGs indices. Sediments from the estuaries of the Wuli and Yalu Rivers contain...

  17. Identification of necrophagous fly species from 12 different cities in China using ISSR and SCAR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueli Zheng; Jialin Hu; Santhosh Puthiya Kunnon; Chen Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify necrophagous fly speies from different regions in China using inter simple sequenc repeat (ISSR) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) melocular markers and to analyze their gene difference and genetic relationship. Methods:Five carrion fly species were collected from 12 cities and regions in China, including Musca domestica (M. domestica), Lucilia sericata (L. sericata), Chrysomya megacephala (C. megacephala), Helicophagella melanura (H. melanura), Boethcherisca peregrina, and they were studied using ISSR and SCAR markers. Results:Eight ISSR primers were used for amplification of 121 samples. 679 clear and stable bands were identified, of which 516 bands were polymorphic. Several species-specific ISSR fragment were cloned and sequenced as an initial effort to derive the SCAR markers. Using M. domestica SCAR specific primers, SCAR-PCR amplification was performed for 8 M. domestca population sample DNA from different regions in China as well as L. sericata, C. megacephala, H. melanura and Lucillia cupirina. The result showed only M. domestica produced specificalty 600 bp fragment, but L. sericata, C. megacephala, H. melanura and Lucillia cupirina did not produce the same specific fragment. Clustering analysis showed clustering of most flies of M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. sericata. M. domestica samples from different regions in China yielded different banding patterns. Conclusions:Application of ISSR-PCR and SCAR markers to identify necrophagous fly species from 12 cities and regions in China is first reported. ISSR-PCR and SCAR markers provide a quick reliable molecular marker technique for the identification of different species of necrophagous fly.

  18. Occurrence of Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water in Certain Cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG ZHOU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG; ZHAN-SHENG WANG

    2004-01-01

    Since haloacetic acids (HAAs), which are nonvolatile and of high carcinogenic risk, are common species of chlorinated disinfection by-products(DBPs) in drinking water, and little has been known in China, it is necessary to make a survey about the kinds and levels of HAAs in drinking water of the nation. Method HAAs were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture detector(GC/ECD) and relatively complex pretreatment process of sample was applied. Five main cities in different areas of China were chosen in the survey. Results Studies showed that the main species of HAAs in drinking water in China were DCAA and TCAA, ranging from 0.4 μg/L to 12.85 μg/L and from 0.56 μg/L to 10.98 μg/L, respectively. MBAA and DBAA were also detected in one city, ranging from 2.20 μg/L to 4.95 μg/L and 1.10 μg/L to 2.81 μg/L, respectively. Therefore, the contents of HAAs varied, usually no more than 25 μg/L. Based on the acquired data to date, it is known that the concentrations of HAAs in drinking water in China were surely under the limits of Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water Quality (China, 2001). Conclusion A wider survey of HAAs in drinking water should be conducted throughout the nation to get adequate data and information, the ultimate aim of which is to control HAAs pollution and keep the balance between microbiological safety insurance and chemical risk control, minimize the formation of DBPs and ensure the safety of water supply at the same time.

  19. Development and metabolism of the city of Khartoum (Republic of Sudan: spatial designing of the coastal territory of the Blue and White Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakurov Ilhomjeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article reveals the development of the metabolism of the city of Khartoum, the problems of influence on the microclimate improvement elements built up coastal territory of the Blue and White Nile in Khartoum. The study shows the microclimate formation factors of Khartoum, gives an assessment of the modern state of the microclimate of the coastal zone and its changes. The article indicates that, depending on the nature of use and planning organization of coastal territories microclimatic influence of water areas can propagate over appreciable distances to the city or limitation depth in a narrow strip along the coast. In urban areas the air temperature is considerably higher and the humidity is lower than in the coastal area especially in summer, this is due to differences in physical properties of water and land. Water has a higher heat capacity, high reflectivity, the wind speed increases and increasing the humidity of air masses passing over it. Thus, in order to improve microclimatic and hygienic conditions of coastal territories in Khartoum there is the need to use the favorable impact of the Blue and White Nile.

  20. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhu

    Full Text Available A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  1. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Pan, Guixia; Zhou, Shujie; Dai, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Tang, Jihai; Chen, Shuping; Zheng, Yilun; Song, Jie; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  2. The spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis in Linyi City, China, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health burden in many developing countries. China alone accounted for an estimated 12% of all incident TB cases worldwide in 2010. Several studies showed that the spatial distribution of TB was nonrandom and clustered. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial epidemiology of TB in Linyi City, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods The study was based on the reported cases of TB, between 2005 and 2010. 35,308 TB cases were geo-coded at the town level (n = 180. The spatial empirical Bayes smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan statistic were used in this analysis. Results Spatial distribution of TB in Linyi City from 2005 to 2010 was mapped at town level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of TB was nonrandom and clustered with the significant Moran’s I for each year. Local Gi* detected five significant spatial clusters for high incidence of TB. The space-time analysis identified one most likely cluster and nine secondary clusters for high incidence of TB. Conclusions There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant TB clusters in Linyi City, China. The result of this study may assist health departments to develop a better preventive strategy and increase the public health intervention’s effectiveness.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANDCOVER PATTERN AND SURFACE NET RADIATION IN AN COASTAL CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Liu, L.; X. Liu; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Taking Xiamen city as the study area this research first retrieved surface net radiation using meteorological data and Landsat 5 TM images of the four seasons in the year 2009. Meanwhile the 65 different landscape metrics of each analysis unit were acquired using landscape analysis method. Then the most effective landscape metrics affecting surface net radiation were determined by correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression method, etc. At both class and landscape ...

  4. Agroforestry and its Application in Amelioration of Saline Soils in Eastern China Coastal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianfeng; Xing Shangjun; Li Jiyue; F.Makeschin; Song Yumin

    2004-01-01

    Some environmental problems, especially soil salinity hinder the regional sustainable development of eastern China coastal region. Salinity mainly comes from tide weave, seawater flooding and seawater intrusion. Over exploitation of groundwater, which is the result of unfitful land use systems, leads to seawater intrusion and salt concentration increase. Agroforestry systems can enrich soil fertility and prevent soil salinization, furthermore help maintain biodiversity and enhance productivity. For the intergrated multiple ecosystems the most critical issue is to select optimum tree species and rationally arrange these plants. The basics of this multiple ecosystem is that different plants will occupy variable ecological niches within an area, both in space and in soil depth. Shelterbelts and trees intercropping with agricultural crops are major types of the multiple ecosystem. Shelterbelts can reduce wind speed and consequently lessen evaporation and erosion of the soil, increase pasture growth by up to 60% on exposed sites, increase crop yields by up to 25%. Besides intercropping with jujube, other agroforestry multiple ecosystem such as forestry plus agriculture, forestry plus agriculture plus fishery, and forestry plus animal husbandry are the most appropriate ways to utilise land resource in this region.

  5. Prediction of China's Submerged Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; YANG Yiqiu; ZHANG Jianli; CHEN Meixiang; XU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the simulation with the Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model CCSM and Ocean Model POP under the greenhouse gas emission scenario of the IPCC SRES A2 (IPCC,2001),and on the earth crust subsidence and glacier melting data,the relative sea level change is obtained along the coast of China in the 21 st century.Using the SRTM elevation data the submergence of coastal low land is calculated under the extreme water level with a 100-year return period.The total flooding areas are 98.3× 103 and 104.9× 103 km2 for 2050 and 2080,respectively.For the three regions most vulnerable to extreme sea level rise,i.e.,the coast of Bohai Bay,the Yangtze River Delta together with neighboring Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province,and the Pearl River Delta,the flooded areas are 5.0 × 103,64.1 × 103 and 15.3 × 103 km2 in 2050 and 5.2 × 103,67.8 × 103 and 17.2 × 103 km2 in 2080,respectively.

  6. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  7. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones with RapidIntensity Change over the Coastal Waters of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉斌; 姚秀萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the different thermodynamic mechanisms between rapid intensifying (RI) and rapid weakening (RW) tropical cyclones (TCs),the thermodynamic structures of two sets of composite TCs are analyzed based on the complete-form vertical vorticity tendency equation and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data.Each composite is composed of five TCs,whose intensities change rapidly over the coastal waters of China.The results show that the maximum apparent heating source Q1 exists in both the upper and lower troposphere near the RI TC center,and Q1 gets stronger at the lower level during the TC intensification period.But for the RW TC,the maximum Q1 exists at the middle level near the TC center,and Q1 gets weaker while the TC weakens.The maximum apparent moisture sink Q2 lies in the mid troposphere.Q2 becomes stronger and its peak-value height rises while TC intensifies,and vice versa.The increase of diabatic heating with height near the TC center in the mid-upper troposphere and the increase of vertical inhomogeneous heating near the TC center in the lower troposphere are both favorable to the TCs' rapid intensification; otherwise,the intensity of the TC decreases rapidly.

  8. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, Liangjun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, Fengfu

    2016-09-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future.

  9. Spatial pattern of spring phytoplankton community in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ran; Cai, Yanhong; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    The spatial pattern of phytoplankton community can indicate potential environmental variation in different water bodies. In this context, spatial pattern of phytoplankton community and its response to environmental and spatial factors were studied in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea using multivariate statistical techniques. Results showed that 94 species belonging to 40 genera, 5 phyla were recorded (the remaining 9 were identified to genus level) with diatoms being the most dominant followed by dinoflagellates. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), nonmetric multidimentional scaling (NMDS), and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) all demomstrated that the whole study area could be divided into 3 subareas with significant differences. Indicator species analysis (ISA) further confirmed that the indicator species of each subarea correlated significantly with specific environmental factors. Distance-based linear model (Distlm) and Mantel test revealed that silicate (SiO32-), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the most important environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community. Variation portioning (VP) finally concluded that the shared fractions of environmental and spatial factors were higher than either the pure environmental effects or the pure spatial effects, suggesting phytoplankton biogeography were mainly affected by both the environmental variability and dispersal limitation. Additionally, other factors (eg., trace metals, biological grazing, climate change, and time-scale variation) may also be the sources of the unexplained variation which need further study.

  10. Main seagrass beds and threats to their habitats in the coastal sea of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaoping; LIU Sheng; HUANG Liangmin; LI Yinghong; XU Zhanzhou; FONG C W; HUANG Daojian; HAN Qiuying; HUANG Hui; TAN Yehui

    2006-01-01

    The distribution, species, biomass,productivity of main seagrasses and their suffered main threats are introduced and discussed in this paper based on the field surveys in the offshore areas of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces.The seagrass beds distributed mainly in Liusha Bay,Donghai Island and Hailing Island of Guangdong Province; Hepu and Pearl Bay of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; Li'an Bay, Xincun Bay, Longwan Bay and Sanya Bay of Hainan Province and so on. The total area of seagrass beds in the coastal sea of South China is about 2400 ha. There are about 8 species, such as Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis,Halophila beccarii, Zostera japonica, Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemperichii, Ruppia martime and Cymodocea rotundata. These seagrasses have high biomass and productivity. However, they are subjected to some threats resulting from artificial and natural factors, especially anthropogenic causes,such as culture of shrimps and fishes, shellfish collection, fishing by means of poisons, electric power and explosives as well as trawling, artificial pollution,dredging channels, and typhoons natural disaster.

  11. 1Phosphorus forms and distribution in Zhejiang coastal sediment in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min CONG; Tao JIANG; Yu-zao QI; Hong-po DONG; De-qiang TENG; Song-hui LU

    2014-01-01

    Surface and core sediment samples were collected from Zhejiang coastal waters of the East China Sea to study phosphorus (P) forms and understand the potential release of P as well as adsorption. The sediments were extracted sequentially to determine four phosphorus fractions, and non-sequentially for total phosphorus (TP). The total concentration of phosphorus in the surface sediments ranged from 527.2 to 680.5 mg kg-1. Inorganic P was the major form and accounted for 84-94%of TP. Among the four forms, P-Detrital was dominant (58.6-73.2%), followed by P-CDB (10.5-20.9%), P-Organic (6.1-15.9%), and P-CFA (5.9-16.3%). The distribution pattern of TP in the surface sediments was similar to that of P-Detrital and P-Organic, but different from P-CDB and P-CFA. A relatively high level of phosphorus was observed in estuarine sediments, reflecting the influence from terrestrial input. Phosphorus in all forms in core sediments at each station decreased with depth. In addition, potentially bio-available phosphorus accounted for 20-34%of TP.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN URBAN SOIL AND ITS POTENTIAL RISK IN SHENYANG CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-da; REN Hui-min; LIU Jing-shuang; YU Jun-bao; ZHANG Xue-lin

    2006-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics of Pb in urban soil of Shenyang City, China were investigated in this study. The range of Pb concentration in the soil was 22.02-2910.60mg/kg. The standard dev iation was443.07mg/kg, and coefficient of variation was 1.64. Tiexi District was seriously contaminated by lead. In general, Pb concentration in the soil decreased with distance from pollution source. Lead concentration varied in different functional areas with the order of industrial area>commercial area>residential area>suburb>reference area. Pb concentration decreased with the depth of soil profile. Both geo-accumulation index and ecological risk index were used to estimate the potential risk of soil Pb pollution in Shenyang City. The results showed that the high potential risk area included Tiexi District and traffic roads.

  13. Equilibrium-oriented housing supply: A case study of Chengdu City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern regarding housing supply management because of soaring housing prices consequent to recent market failure in China. This study is aimed at presenting an equilibrium-oriented housing supply management model that integrates housing supply and demand with time lag and reasonable vacancy area. For validity test of the model, Chengdu City was selected as a sample. The study establishes the feasibility of this model by demonstrating that optimized housing supply can narrow the gap between housing supply and demand. The implication of this finding is that planning of housing supply is an important management tool and that in applying this tool, local government should intervene in housing market to ensure scientific consideration of city's development position, economic growth and housing demand.

  14. Changing Trend and Sustainable Development of Farmland Resources in Pingdingshan City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The grey forecast and the sustainable use evaluation are conducted on the data of farmland resources from 2010 to 2020 in Pingingshan City by using the area of farmland land from 1999 to 2010 and by applying the grey forecast and land pressure system.The results show that from 2010 to 2020 the quantity of farmland resources maintains balance;the minimum per capita farmland in Pingdinshan stays around the lower limit of per capita amount of farmland in China;the pressure of farmland is rather huge and the farmland protection is not so optimistic.Therefore,in order to realize the sustainable use of land resources in Pingdinshan City,the government should try to improve the efficiency of farmland use and implement stricter land protection system.as well as the requisition-compensation balance of farmland resources,land consolidation and land reclaimation and so on.

  15. Character and Causes of Population Distribution in Shenyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guoming; ZHANG Shuwen; ZHANG Youquan

    2006-01-01

    Character of population distribution is one of the focuses studied by urban geography. Using the fifth national census data as basic data and using areal interpolation method, this paper analyzes character of urban population distribution of Shenyang City, Northeast China, in terms of three aspects of statistical character, spatial auto-correlation and spatial structure. Furthermore, this research analyzes the factors affecting the population distribution of the city. The main conclusions include: 1) There is an obvious structure character of population distribution in the grid with a grain of 300m, which is appropriate scale when researching population distribution in Shenyang City. 2) Urban population distribution has the character of assembling while population density distribution takes on variability in Shenyang City. 3)Population density distribution shows spatial auto-correlation within 7.36km. Spatial heterogeneity of population density is low. 4) Urban center, population distribution barycenter and population density maximum points separate each other.Population density distribution has multi-cores character. 5) Layout of governments, primary schools, middle schools,colleges, hospitals and marketplaces affects population distribution directly. With the increase of distance to these factors,population density decreases as logarithm.

  16. Relationship Between Social Economic Agglomeration and Labor Productivity of Core Cities in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; YANG Qingshan; ZHAO Yichun

    2012-01-01

    Dalian,Shenyang,Changchun and Harbin are the four core cities which play an essential role in terms of promoting the economic development in Northeast China.In this paper,the impact of urban agglomeration on labor productivity is explored by making comparisons among these four cities.The model used for analysis is a classical model derived from previous studies.Some indicators,such as population density and economic density,were selected to examine the impact of urban agglomeration on the labor productivity based on the time-series data for the four cities from 1990 to 2007.The four main conclusions are:1) The promotion from the growth rate of population density on the growth rate of labor productivity is limited.2) The negative relationship exists between the growth rate of employment density and the growth rate of labor productivity.3) Agglomeration effect exists in the four cities,the highest one is Dalian,Shenyang takes the second place,followed by Changchun and Harbin,and the predominant promotion exerted on the labor productivity is the output density.

  17. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforced concrete.

  18. Rare earth elements stratigraphic significance in late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong; BAO Miao

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are good geological indicators. In order to understand REEs stratigraphic significance, REEs m Late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, western Guizhou Province, China were studied. The results showed that the contents of both light rare earth element (LREE) and ∑ REE were sharply increased in the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which resulted from the gyration and discontinuity eruption of Emeishan basalt (REEs source) and frequent transgression-regression during forming coal. The coal measure and strata could be subdivided and correlate, and the sea-level change could be under stood by studying REEs content variation in coal measure.

  19. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Zibo City, China, 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in mainland China, where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Zibo City is one of the most serious affected areas in Shandong Province China with the HFRS incidence increasing sharply from 2009 to 2012. However, the hotspots of HFRS in Zibo remained unclear. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial, spatial-temporal and seasonal patterns of HFRS in Zibo from 2009 to 2012, and to provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. METHODS: The study was based on the reported cases of HFRS from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Annualized incidence maps and seasonal incidence maps were produced to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of HFRS in Zibo City. Then spatial scan statistics and space-time scan statistics were conducted to identify clusters of HFRS. RESULTS: There were 200 cases reported in Zibo City during the 4-year study period. One most likely cluster and one secondary cluster for high incidence of HFRS were identified by the space-time analysis. And the most likely cluster was found to exist at Yiyuan County in October to December 2012. The human infections in the fall and winter reflected a seasonal characteristic pattern of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The secondary cluster was detected at the center of Zibo in May to June 2009, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. CONCLUSION: To control and prevent HFRS in Zibo city, the comprehensive preventive strategy should be implemented in the southern areas of Zibo in autumn and in the northern areas of Zibo in spring.

  20. Evaluation of 3-day smoking cessation training course for doctors from 38 cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-mei; XIAO Dan; Robert West; Susan Michie; Ronald Troughton; Peter Hajek; WANG Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization's “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” came into effect in China in 2006.Since then,a series of tobacco control measures has been undertaken,including the first step to establish a coordinated network of stop-smoking clinics in Chinese hospitals.Training for stop-smoking specialists has been traditionally provided via printed materials.This study evaluated the outcomes of the first two intensive 3-day courses in smoking cessation in China run in collaboration with experts who provide training to UK Specialist Stop Smoking Service.@@Methods Eighty-four doctors from 38 cities in China responsible for stop-smoking treatment in 20 provinces and four autonomous regions participated in the training courses.Participants' knowledge competencies and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the authentication training.@@Results The training significantly improved participants' knowledge,skills and self-efficacy across different domains.Forty-eight participants were finally certified as “smoking cessation specialist”.@@Conclusions The UK model of face-to-face training was acceptable and effective in China.A relatively brief intensive training program can generate significant improvements in skills,knowledge,and readiness to engage in smoking cessation activities.

  1. The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaoli; Li, Rui; Cubasch, Ulrich; Cao, Wenting

    2017-04-01

    The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years were comprehensively evaluated using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indicators. The PET and UTCI values were highly correlated with each other and presented similar thermal comfort pattern, although their sensitivities might differ slightly. The results showed that these cities covered, respectively, 4-8 and 6-8 thermal comfort classes of the PET and UTCI scale. On the whole, the annual cumulative number of pleasant days was more than 160 days/year. In terms of seasonal variations in thermal comfort conditions, the 31 provincial capital cities in mainland China can be classified into 5 types, which are, respectively, characterized by pleasant summer and severe cold winter (type-I); pleasant spring, autumn, winter, and severe hot summer (type-II); pleasant spring and autumn, slightly pleasant summer, and cold winter (type-III); pleasant spring and autumn, hot stress summer, and slightly cold winter (type-IV); and pleasant spring, summer, autumn, and cool winter (type-V). Type-II cities are rare winter resorts, while type-I cities are natural summer resorts. Type-V cities are the year round pleasant resorts. In the past three decades, the cities in mainland China had experienced increasing pleasant duration in late winter and early spring and intensifying heat stress in summer. The reduction in annual cumulative number of cold stress days in higher latitude/altitude cities outweighed the increase in duration of heat stress in subtropical cities. These may provide some references for urban planning and administration in mainland China.

  2. Quantitative Index of Physical and Social Vulnerability to Current and Projected Coastal Storm Surge Flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, L.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise throughout the 21st century will result in increased flood exposure as current flood levels are achieved more frequently and new flood levels result in more widespread inundation. To increase the resiliency of coastal communities and allow populations to respond and recover to these hazards, it is important to develop a place-based understanding of how storm surge exposure, impacts, and community vulnerability will change over time. This work uses a GIS-based methodology to develop and map a quantitative index of physical and social vulnerability for New York City populations within existing and predicted flood zones to assess overall risk at the intersection of exposure and vulnerability. This index may be used to inform decision makers about the heterogeneous landscape of community-level vulnerability in New York City. Both the physical and socio-economic impacts of flooding events are often unevenly distributed, with socially vulnerable groups most likely to experience a disproportionate share of the detrimental effects. When both physical and socio-economic vulnerability are present in combination, the risk to populations is exacerbated. The combination of social vulnerability, critical infrastructure at risk, and exposure to hazard provides a metric to rank neighborhood risk to flood hazards through a quantitative vulnerability index that characterizes site-specific levels of risk to flood hazard. Results show that a range of mitigation and hazard preparation strategies, and a variety of response and recovery assistance measures are required to address the diversity of local-level flood risks. For some locations the greatest threat is the physical exposure to floodwaters while in other areas social vulnerability compromises the ability of the community to recover from even low exposure flood events. In many locations several elements of vulnerability overlap to create a heightened overall risk to flood events. These areas may require more

  3. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  5. Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Runqiu; Jiao, Jiu J.; Chen, Kouping

    2007-09-01

    Coastal reclamation has been carried out along the coastal areas near Shenzhen, China in a large scale since 1980s by dumping fill materials over the marine mud at the sea bottom. Usually the area to be reclaimed is drained first and some of the mud is air-dried for a few weeks before it is buried by fill. After reclamation, the terrestrial groundwater, which is relatively acidic and with high dissolved oxygen, gradually displaces the seawater, which is alkaline with high salinity. The changes in the burial conditions of mud and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field survey confirms that the pH and salinity of the groundwater in the reclamation site are much lower than the seawater. Chemical analyses of mud and groundwater samples collected from the reclamation sites reclaimed in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are increased. The release of heavy metals into pore water due to reactivation of heavy metals in the mud is of environmental concern. To understand why some of the heavy metals can be released from the mud more easily than others, a sequential extraction method was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in the mud samples. Heavy metals can be presented in five chemical forms: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. Ni and Pb were mainly associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and carbonate fraction; Zn was mainly associated with organic fraction and Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Cd were associated with organic fraction and carbonate fraction, respectively. If the residual fraction can be considered as an inert phase of the metal that cannot be mobilized, it is the other four forms of heavy metal that cause the noticeable changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the mud. On the basis of the

  6. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  7. An Assessment of Metals (Pb and Cu Contamination in Bottom Sediment from South China Sea Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The accumulation of metal contaminants in sediments can pose serious environmental problems to the surrounding areas. Trace metal contamination in sediment could affect the water quality and the bio-assimilation and bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic organisms, resulting in potential long-term implications on human health and ecosystem. Approach: About 154 bottom sediment samples were collected using Smith McIntyre in a transect pattern from South China Sea East Coast coastal water (Terengganu, Pahang and Johor coastal area. The study focused on the levels of Pb and Cu in order to assess the extent of environment pollution and to discuss the origin of these contaminants in the sediment. Results: Results showed that the average concentration of Pb and Cu was 33.70 µg g-1 dry weights and 22.40 µg g-1 dry weights, respectively. Pb and Cu have relatively lower Enrichment Factors (EF value and geo-accumulation (Igeo indices in study area and these analysis validated that elevated heavy metals concentration in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Conclusion: Overall, geochemistry of the samples showed the effect of both natural and anthropogenic inputs to the catchment, however, natural processes were more dominant than anthropogenic inputs in concentrating metals. Results obtained would help to develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of coastal waters in the South China Sea.

  8. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  9. Capacity Building Resource Management Of Coastal Areas To Improve The Local Economic Based By Cross-Cutting Partnerships: Case Study on Panjang Beach Bengkulu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, Titi

    2017-02-01

    The western part of Bengkulu city is a coastal region approximately 525 km, along the coast lies the tourism object which become the flagship of Bengkulu province. Coastal tourism is made as the pre-eminent is Panjang beach. Management of two beaches has not been managed optimally, so that is not yet on the economy have implications for communities, the people majority are fishermen, the highest poverty levels of Bengkulu city. The purpose of this research is to examine the development capacity of resource management and coastal areas of Panjang beach should be able to increase income community along the coast. Research method is using qualitative research types with approach case studies, which can investigate and phenomena identify that occur, and explain how and why about the income community arround the beaches, using the instrumental case study. Determination of samples is done based on the purposes and research problems, primary data sources are collected by in-depth interviews, FGD, and secondary data source are collected by observation and documentation. Data relating to be interpreted set forth in proposition because the result of the organized with matching pattern competition. The study results indicate there has been no integrated and suitability management between province and the city; stakeholders participation in community empowerment on the coast has been optimal; leadership commitment related to enhance institutional capacity is too weak, and there has not been a policy of managing the Panjang beach Bengkulu based on information technology.

  10. Chemical composition, sources and secondary processes of aerosols in Baoji city of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Huang, R.-J.; Ni, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Q. Y.; Li, G. H.; Tie, X. X.; Shen, Z. X.; Huang, Y.; Liu, S. X.; Dong, W. M.; Xue, P.; Fröhlich, R.; Canonaco, F.; Elser, M.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; El Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Cao, J. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particulate air pollution is a severe environmental problem in China, affecting visibility, air quality, climate and human health. However, previous studies focus mainly on large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In this study, an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was deployed in Baoji, a middle size inland city in northwest China from 26 February to 27 March 2014. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was dominated by organics (55%), followed by sulfate (16%), nitrate (15%), ammonium (11%) and chloride (3%). A source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was performed with the Sofi (Source Finder) interface of ME-2 (Multilinear Engine), and six main sources/factors were identified and classified as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), which contributed 20%, 14%, 13%, 9%, 23% and 21% of total OA, respectively. The contribution of secondary components shows increasing trends from clean days to polluted days, indicating the importance of secondary aerosol formation processes in driving particulate air pollution. The formation of LO-OOA and MO-OOA is mainly driven by photochemical reactions, but significantly influenced by aqueous-phase chemistry during periods of low atmospheric oxidative capacity.

  11. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  12. Study on Residential Water Use in North China: Analysis of Nationwide Statistical Data and Case Study of Taiyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ji; Zhang Haiping; Imura Hidefumi

    2006-01-01

    Residential water use is gradually becoming the focus in China's municipal water supply planning and management in recent years. Little is known, however, about the residential water use in modem China due to the transition of economy and enhancement of management on water conservation. In order to better understand the characteristics of residential water use in North China, a model for identifying the determinants of residential water use was established and analyzed by using panel data and cross-section data methodologies. Then Taiyuan city, the capital city of Shanxi Province in Northern China was selected as a case study. Both the analyses and field investigation indicate that the relatively slow increase of residential water use in recent years may result from the implementation of strict laws and regulations on water conservation. And through the investigation,first-hand information about water consumption pattern, water reuse/conservation, people's attitude toward water quantity and quality, etc. have been obtained.

  13. Durban - A subtropical coastal paradise? Tourism dynamics in a post-apartheid city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Maharaj

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce document examine l'évolution des dynamiques touristiques de la ville de Durban dans un contexte post-apartheided. La ville de Durban s’est imposée comme l'une des destinations touristiques les plus populaires d’'Afrique du Sud. En accord avec les diktats de l'apartheid, pour satisfaire les souhaits d’une minorité blanche, l’organisation de la ville avait ignoré les besoin de la majorité noire. Aujourd’hui la ville de Durban se repositionne sur l’échiquier touristique, portée par les changements politiques intérieurs et les opportunités des marchés touristiques internationaux et nationaux. Afin de se positionner avec succèssur ce marché, la ville de Durban renforce son image autour de la promotion son front de mer, des sports nautiques, du tourisme de congrés, et des animations culturelles. La transition démocratique des années 1990 a fourni de nombreux défis et oppportunités dans la première sur le plan touristique fut de se positionner sur le nouveau marché touristique noir. Cal passe aussi par les urgence à résoudre sur le plan de la criminalité, de l’hygiène et de la résorption des disparités  sur le marché du travail, en particulier en termes de race et de l'égalité des sexes dans le secteur du tourisme. Les plus sérieuses limites pour le tourisme à Durban sont le chômage et la marginalisation de la majorité des African people.This paper examines the changing fortunes of Durban as a tourist city from the apartheid to the post apartheid eras.  Durban has long earned its prime position as one of South Africa’s most popular year‑round tourist destination. In keeping with the dictates of apartheid, the city catered largely for the needs of the white minority, while that of the black majority was largely ignored. With political changes and shifts in both the international and domestic markets, an effort had to be made to reposition tourism in the city.  In order to successfully promote its

  14. A Grand Session with the World in Name of Canals——Retrospect on China Yangzhou World Canal Cities Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Pei

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Grand Canal of China,an important record of the Chinese civilization,has been making significant contributions to the country’s economic development,national unity,social progress,and cultural exchange between the north and the south.As the only city that was born and grew along with a canal in China,Yangzhou gains its prosperity through this canal and in return enhances the beauty of the canal.People in Yangzhou call the

  15. Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpo ethnic communities in Ruili City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Shih

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, China and Myanmar signed their first Bilateral Memorandum of Understanding on human trafficking. The two countries cemented this agreement with the unveiling of the first Border Liaison Office in Ruili City, located in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province — one of the primary border crossing points between China and Myanmar. The government focus on human trafficking on this border intersects with decades of struggles to curb the border’s porousness to drugs and HIV/AIDS. This paper i...

  16. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As China continues its double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principal fuel for the country’s primary energy consumption and electricity generation. China’s dependence on coal in coming years makes its carbon emission intensity reduction targets more difficult to achieve, particularly given rising electricity demand from a growing number of Chinese cities. This paradox has led the government to pursue cleaner and more efficient development of the coal industry on the supply side and “low carbon” development of cities on the demand side. To understand and assess how China may be able to meet its energy and carbon intensity reduction targets, this report looks at the recent development of low carbon cities as well as new developments and trends in the coal industry. Specifically, we review low-carbon city and related eco-city development in China before delving into a comparison of eight pilot lowcarbon city plans to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in helping achieve national energy and carbon targets. We then provide insights into the future outlook for China’s coal industry by evaluating new and emerging trends in coal production, consumption, transport, trade and economic performance.

  17. Parameter sensitivity study of the biogeochemical model in the China coastal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xuanliang; LIU Guimei; GAO Shan; WANG Hui

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a coupled basin scale model of ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling, we present a biogeochemical model including 12 components to study the ecosystem in the China coastal seas (CCS). The formulation of phytoplankton mortality and zooplankton growth are modified according to biological characteristics of CCS.The four sensitivity biological parameters, zooplankton assimilation efficiency rate (ZooAE_N), zooplankton basal metabolism rate (ZooBM), maximum specific growth rate of zooplankton (μ20) and maximum chlorophyll to carbon ratio (Chl2C_m) are obtained in sensitivity experiments for the phytoplankton, and experiments about the parameterμ20, half-saturation for phytoplankton NO3 uptake ( KNO3 ) and remineralization rate of small detritusN (SDeRRN) are conducted. The results demonstrate that the biogeochemical model is quite sensitive to the zooplankton grazing parameter when it ranges from 0.1 to 1.2 d–1. The KNO3 and SDeRRN also play an important role in determining the nitrogen cycle within certain ranges.The sensitive interval of KNO3 is from 0.1 to 1.5 (mmol/m3)–1, and interval of SEdRRN is from 0.01 and 0.1 d–1. The observational data from September 1998 to July 2000 obtained at SEATS station are used to validate the performance of biological model after parameters optimization. The results show that the modified model has a good capacity to reveal the biological process features, and the sensitivity analysis can save computational resources greatly during the model simulation.

  18. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  19. Suspended sediment concentration mapping based on the MODIS satellite imagery in the East China inland, estuarine, and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianping; Sokoletsky, Leonid; Wei, Xiaodao; Shen, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the retrieval accuracy for the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) from in situ and satellite remote sensing measurements in turbid East China estuarine and coastal waters. For this aim, three important tasks are formulated and solved: 1) an estimation of remote-sensing reflectance spectra R rs(λ) after atmospheric correction; 2) an estimation of R rs(λ) from the radiometric signals above the air-water surface; and 3) an estimation of SSC from R rs(λ). Six different models for radiometric R rs(λ) determination and 28 models for SSC versus R rs(λ) are analyzed based on the field observations made in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The SSC images based on the above-mentioned analysis are generated for the area.

  20. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.

  1. [Sensitization to three species of mites in allergic patients from the coastal area of Havana city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarales, Raúl L Castro; Castelló, Mirta Alvarez; Díaz, Mercedes Ronquillo; Canosa, José S Rodríguez; Gómez, Iris García; León, Mayda González; Domínguez, Irene Enríquez; Rosado, Alexis Labrada; Viltre, Bárbara I Navarro; Díaz, Yunia Oliva; Morejón, Maytee Mateo

    2009-01-01

    Sensitization to three allergic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis) from house dust in Cuba has been reported in different studies. To assess allergic sensitization to these mites in a north coast area of Havana city. A total of 210 allergic patients were selected, classified in two groups: from 1 to 14 years, and from 15 to 55 years. Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed on all patients using standardized allergenic extracts VALERGEN-BT (B. tropicalis), VALERGEN-DS (D. siboney) and VALERGEN-DP (D. pteronyssinus) manufactured by BIOCEN, Cuba. The test was considered positive when the average wheal diameter was greater or equal to 3 mm. Both groups showed higher sensitization to D. pteronyssinus (>78%), while for the remaining mites it was below 60%. In patients older than 14 years, the sensitization was apparently higher, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the skin reactivity in this group was significantly greater (p < 0.05) for the three allergens. Unusually, mean wheal size in both groups was significantly superior toward B. tropicalis (p < 0.05). In spite of being D. pteronyssinus the mite showing the highest sensitization, Blomia tropicalis showed to be also an important aeroallergen with more than 50% sensitization and greater skin reactivity. Therefore, in our population it would be advisable to perform SPT with the three mites extracts, simultaneously and to combine it in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  2. Relationship Between Landcover Pattern and Surface Net Radiation in AN Coastal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Liu, L.; Liu, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Taking Xiamen city as the study area this research first retrieved surface net radiation using meteorological data and Landsat 5 TM images of the four seasons in the year 2009. Meanwhile the 65 different landscape metrics of each analysis unit were acquired using landscape analysis method. Then the most effective landscape metrics affecting surface net radiation were determined by correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression method, etc. At both class and landscape levels, this paper comprehensively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of the surface net radiation as well as the effects of land cover pattern on it in Xiamen from a multi-seasonal perspective. The results showed that the spatial composition of land cover pattern shows significant influence on surface net radiation while the spatial allocation of land cover pattern does not. The proportions of bare land and forest land are effective and important factors which affect the changes of surface net radiation all the year round. Moreover, the proportion of forest land is more capable for explaining surface net radiation than the proportion of bare land. So the proportion of forest land is the most important and continuously effective factor which affects and explains the cross-seasonal differences of surface net radiation. This study is helpful in exploring the formation and evolution mechanism of urban heat island. It also gave theoretical hints and realistic guidance for urban planning and sustainable development.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANDCOVER PATTERN AND SURFACE NET RADIATION IN AN COASTAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking Xiamen city as the study area this research first retrieved surface net radiation using meteorological data and Landsat 5 TM images of the four seasons in the year 2009. Meanwhile the 65 different landscape metrics of each analysis unit were acquired using landscape analysis method. Then the most effective landscape metrics affecting surface net radiation were determined by correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression method, etc. At both class and landscape levels, this paper comprehensively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of the surface net radiation as well as the effects of land cover pattern on it in Xiamen from a multi-seasonal perspective. The results showed that the spatial composition of land cover pattern shows significant influence on surface net radiation while the spatial allocation of land cover pattern does not. The proportions of bare land and forest land are effective and important factors which affect the changes of surface net radiation all the year round. Moreover, the proportion of forest land is more capable for explaining surface net radiation than the proportion of bare land. So the proportion of forest land is the most important and continuously effective factor which affects and explains the cross-seasonal differences of surface net radiation. This study is helpful in exploring the formation and evolution mechanism of urban heat island. It also gave theoretical hints and realistic guidance for urban planning and sustainable development.

  4. Growth Scenarios for the City of Guangzhou, China: Transferability and Confirmability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Wei, C.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the development of urban growth scenarios and the prevision of the spatial distribution of built-up area and population for the urban area of the city of Guangzhou in China. Using freely-available data, including remotely sensed data as well as census data from the ground, expenditure of time and costs shall remain low. Guangzhou, one of the biggest cities within the Pearl River Delta, has faced an enormous economic and urban growth during the last three decades. Due to its economical and spatial characteristics it is a promising candidate for urban growth scenarios. The monitoring and prediction of urban growth comprises data of population and give them a spatial representation. The model, originally applied for the Indian city Ahmedabad, is used for urban growth scenarios. Therefore, transferability and confirmability of the model are evaluated. Challenges that may occur by transferring a model for urban growth from one region to another are discussed. With proposing the use of urban remote sensing and freely available data, urban planners shall be fitted with a comprehensible and simple tool to be able to contribute to the future challenge Smart Growth.

  5. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  6. GROWTH SCENARIOS FOR THE CITY OF GUANGZHOU, CHINA: TRANSFERABILITY AND CONFIRMABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lehner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of urban growth scenarios and the prevision of the spatial distribution of built-up area and population for the urban area of the city of Guangzhou in China. Using freely-available data, including remotely sensed data as well as census data from the ground, expenditure of time and costs shall remain low. Guangzhou, one of the biggest cities within the Pearl River Delta, has faced an enormous economic and urban growth during the last three decades. Due to its economical and spatial characteristics it is a promising candidate for urban growth scenarios. The monitoring and prediction of urban growth comprises data of population and give them a spatial representation. The model, originally applied for the Indian city Ahmedabad, is used for urban growth scenarios. Therefore, transferability and confirmability of the model are evaluated. Challenges that may occur by transferring a model for urban growth from one region to another are discussed. With proposing the use of urban remote sensing and freely available data, urban planners shall be fitted with a comprehensible and simple tool to be able to contribute to the future challenge Smart Growth.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Weedy Rice in Taizhou City,Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Juan; Nilda R. BURGOS; MA Kun; ZHOU Yong-jun; GENG Rui-mei; YU Liu-qing

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite markers and morphological charactedstics were used to explore the genetic diversity and possible origin of weedy dce in Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Fifty-two weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions were compared with two wild rice, four hybdd rice and five cultivars using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. A total of 107 fragments were amplified, averaging 5.6 alleles per primer pair. The polymorphic index content (PIC) values ranged from 0.3077 to 0.7951, averaging at 0.5870. The average genetic distance of all samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.46 with an average of 0.262. The genetic distance among Taizhou weedy rice ranged from 0.03 to 0.44 with an average of 0.224. Cluster analysis showed that all the weedy rice accessions from Taizhou City were indica, and could be subdivided into different genotypes. The majority (86%) of weedy rice was most closely related to hybrid rice. The Taizhou weedy dce accessions were morphologically similar, but still could be delineated into indica or japonica group by some morphological traits. it is suggested that the levels of genetic and morphological diversities of weedy rice in Taizhou City are low and these weedy rice plants originated from the segregating progenies of hybrid rice that had naturally introgressed with cultivated rice.

  8. Impact of meteorological changes on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhang, Qi; Dang, Yue-wen; Wang, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Studies on scarlet fever with meteorological factors included were few. We aimed to illustrate meteorological factors' effects on monthly incidence of scarlet fever. Cases of scarlet fever were collected from the report of legal infectious disease in Hefei City from 1985 to 2006; the meteorological data were obtained from the weather bureau of Hefei City. Monthly incidence and corresponding meteorological data in these 22 years were used to develop the model. The model of auto regressive integrated moving average with covariates was used in statistical analyses. There was a highest peak from March to June and a small peak from November to January. The incidence of scarlet fever ranges from 0 to 0.71502 (per 105 population). SARIMAX (1,0,0)(1,0,0)12 model was fitted with monthly incidence and meteorological data optimally. It was shown that relative humidity ( β = -0.002, p = 0.020), mean temperature ( β = 0.006, p = 0.004), and 1 month lag minimum temperature ( β = -0.007, p City, China. Besides, the ARIMA model could be useful not only for prediction but also for the analysis of multiple correlations.

  9. New observations on PAH pollution in old heavy industry cities in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Ma, Junhua; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Yingxia

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the distinctive PAHs adsorbed on street dust near various industries in the three typical industrialized cities of Daqing (DQ), Harbin (HEB) and Jilin (JL) in northeastern China. The mean ∑PAHs concentrations in street dust of DQ, HEB and JL were 1.84, 4.87, 12.38 μg/g, respectively. Typical petroleum resource city DQ had higher proportions of low and medium ringed PAHs with higher proportions of phenanthrene (Phe), naphthalene (Nap), fluoranthene (Flua) and chrysene (Chr) at industrial sites. Typical chemical processing city JL had higher proportions of medium and high ringed PAHs with higher proportions of Flua, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at industrial sites. Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were four major PAHs from most studied industries. The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. BaA and BaP concentrations decreased by 90% at sites more than 2 km away from the ferroalloy plant.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City,Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Xin; Liu; Shuai; Wang; Li-Qun; Wang; Jun; Xing; Wen-Jue; Gao; Guo-Fang; Liu; Bin; Zhao; Hai-Bin; Zhang; Li-Hua; Gao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii(T.gondii) infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City,Jiangsu Province.Eastern China,and to evaluate the main associated risk factors relating to exposure to 71 gondii in this region.Methods:Sera from 160 clogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T.gondii antibodies using EUSA.The seropositivity by area of activity,sex and age was analyzed.Results:Overall.21 dogs(13.l%) and 24 cats(20.7%) had antibodies to T.gondii.The infection rate in stray dogs(38.7%) and cats(28.6%! was significantly higher(P<0.05) than in household dogs(6.9%) and cats(18.2%).The seroprevalence in male clogs(14.8%) and cats(21.05%) were slighlly higher than their female counterparts(11.4%in dogs and 20.0%in cats),but were not significantly differenent(P>0.05).A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T.gondii(20.0%)while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age(33.3%).Conclusions:The prevalence of T.gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high,which is probably the main source of T.gondii infection in this area.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Xin Liu; Shuai Wang; Li-Qun Wang; Jun Xing; Wen-Jue Gao; Guo-Fang Liu; Bin Zhao; Hai-Bin Zhang; Li-Hua Gao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China, and to evaluate the main associated risk factors relating to exposure to T. gondii in this region. Methods:Sera from 160 dogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using ELISA. The seropositivity by area of activity, sex and age was analyzed. Results: Overall, 21 dogs (13.1%) and 24 cats (20.7%) had antibodies to T. gondii. The infection rate in stray dogs (38.7%) and cats (28.6%) was significantly higher (P0.05). A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T. gondii (20.0%) while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age (33.3%). Conclusions:The prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high, which is probably the main source of T. gondii infection in this area.

  12. Assessing coastal flooding hazard in urban areas: the case of estuarian villages in the city of Hyères-les-Palmiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Sylvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted on the city of Hyéres-les-Palmiers (French Riviera to guide the future land use planning, aimed to evaluate how sea level rise could modify coastal flooding hazards in urban areas located near small estuaries in a microtidal context. A joint probability approach allowed establishing typical storm parameters for specific return periods (30, 50 and 100 years, integrating offshore conditions (sea level and significant wave height and the river level. Storm scenarios have been established from these parameters and the chronology of the most impacting recent storm. Sea level rise has been integrated (20 cm for year 2030 and 60 cm for year 2100, and the coastal flooding has been simulated with a non-hydrostatic non-linear shallow-water model (SWASH. The calculations have been realized on high resolution DEM (1 to 5 m mesh size, integrating buildings and coastal protections. The approach has been validated by reproducing a recent flooding event. Obtained results show the importance of wave overtopping in current coastal flooding hazard in this area. Nevertheless, if Hyéres-les-Palmiers is currently little exposed to coastal flooding, these simulations highlight an increasing role of overflowing due to sea level rise, leading to significant flooding in 2100, even for quite frequent events.

  13. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles from a Mining City in Southwest China Using Electron Probe microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Huang, Y.; Lu, H., III; Liu, Z., IV; Wang, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Xin Cheng1, Yi Huang1*, Huilin Lu2, Zaidong Liu2, Ningming Wang21 Key Laboratory of Geological Nuclear Technology of Sichuan Province, College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; E-mail:chengxin_cdut@163.com 2 College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; *Corresponding author: E-mail: huangyi@cdut.cn Panzhihua is a mining city located at Pan-Xi Rift valley, southwest China. It has a long industrial history of vanadium-titanium magnetite mining, iron and steel smelting, and coal-fired power plants. Atomospheric environment has been seriously contaminated with airborne paticles, which is threatening human health.The harmful effects of aerosols are dependent on certain characteristics such as microphysical properties. However, few studsies have been carried out on morphological information contained on single atmospheric particles in this area. In this study, we provide a detailed morphologically and chemically characterization of airborne particles collected at Panzhihua city in October, 2014, using a quantitative single particle analysis based on EPXMA. The results indicate that based on their chemical composition, five major types of particles were identified. Among these, aluminosilicate particles have typical spherical shapes and are produced during the high-temperature combustion; Fe-containing particles contains high level of Mn, and more likely originated from mineralogical and steel industry; Si-containing particles can originate from mineralogical source; V-Ti-Mn-containing particles are also produced by steel industry; Ca-containing particles,these particles are CaCO3, mainly from the mining of limestone mine. The results help us on tracing and partitioning different sources of atomospheric particles in the industrial area. Fig.1 Fe-rich shperical particles

  14. Prevalence of self-reported allergic rhinitis in eleven major cities in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luo; Han, Demin; Huang, Dan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dong, Zhen; Xu, Geng; Kong, Weijia; Bachert, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Data on the current prevalence of AR in China, one of the biggest countries in the world, with a population of around 1.3 billion citizens, are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported AR in Chinese citizens. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, telephone interviews were conducted in 11 major cities in China after sampling target telephone numbers through the approach of random digital dialing. The questions for the telephone interviews were based on validated questionnaires. A total of 38,203 telephone interviews were conducted from September 2004 to May 2005. The response rate was 63.7%. After adjustment for age and gender, the self-reported prevalence of AR was lowest in Beijing (8.7%) and highest in Urumqi (24.1%). Among the subjects with self-reported AR, 25.6% were diagnosed with persistent AR and 74.4% suffered from intermittent AR. Less than half of the subjects with self-reported AR had presented at a health clinic. In 37.3% AR had previously been diagnosed by physicians, and 33.1% of subjects with self-reported AR had been treated. Comorbidities reported were asthma (9.2%), rhinosinusitis (13.3%) and atopic dermatitis (16.4%). This study demonstrates that the self-reported prevalence of AR in 11 cities across Mainland China has wide variations, ranging from 20%; 26% of the self-reported AR subjects were classified as suffering from persistent AR. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Health insurance coverage and impact: a survey in three cities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuangnan Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China has one of the world's largest health insurance systems, composed of government-run basic health insurance and commercial health insurance. The basic health insurance has undergone system-wide reform in recent years. Meanwhile, there is also significant development in the commercial health insurance sector. A phone call survey was conducted in three major cities in China in July and August, 2011. The goal was to provide an updated description of the effect of health insurance on the population covered. Of special interest were insurance coverage, gross and out-of-pocket medical cost and coping strategies. RESULTS: Records on 5,097 households were collected. Analysis showed that smaller households, higher income, lower expense, presence of at least one inpatient treatment and living in rural areas were significantly associated with a lower overall coverage rate. In the separate analysis of basic and commercial health insurance, similar factors were found to have significant associations. Higher income, presence of chronic disease, presence of inpatient treatment, higher coverage rates and living in urban areas were significantly associated with higher gross medical cost. A similar set of factors were significantly associated with higher out-of-pocket cost. Households with lower income, inpatient treatment, higher commercial insurance coverage, and living in rural areas were significantly more likely to pursue coping strategies other than salary. CONCLUSIONS: The surveyed cities and surrounding rural areas had socioeconomic status far above China's average. However, there was still a need to further improve coverage. Even for households with coverage, there was considerable out-of-pocket medical cost, particularly for households with inpatient treatments and/or chronic diseases. A small percentage of households were unable to self-finance out-of-pocket medical cost. Such observations suggest possible targets for further improving

  16. Trend of childhood blood lead levels in cities of China in recent 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Shuaiming; Tan, Zangwen; Dai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The adverse effects of lead on human especially childhood have been well established. Largely due to the phase out of lead in gasoline, blood lead levels (BLLs) had declined substantially all over the world including China. In 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013, we conducted a continuous project including 47,346 children aged 0-6 years old from 11 cities all over China to show how the decline happened and to explore what to do next to improve the BLLs of children of China. Our data shown the BLLs of Chinese children decreased from 46.38, 43.58, 38.95 to 37.17 μg/L, but the decline was not enough. These decline was mainly because of the number decrease of children with high BLLs. Integrated strategy should be used to promote the BLLs of Chinese children, like striving to improve the environment, setting new cutoff for high BLLs, and establishing routine blood lead screening.

  17. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  18. The Impact of Rob Flood and Community Adaptation in Coastal Area of Medan Belawan, Medan City, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riki Rahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of rob flood and adaptation of coastal communities in Medan Belawan District Medan City. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research method. The direct location of flooding review is at Jalan Serdang which belongs to Belawan I urban village. The result shows that the rob flood that hit Medan Belawan District has varying height. Several villages affected by the flood were Belawan I, Belawan II, Belawan Bahagia, Belawan Bahari, Belawan Sicanang and Bagan Deli. Rob flood occurs twice a day at around 02.00 am and 13.00 pm to 16.00 pm. Rob floods give impacts of damage to buildings especially shelter, increased salinity of water resources, damage to pond land, damage to work equipment or vehicles used by everyday people. Rob floods also disrupt the activities of fishers and traders because when the floods occur, fishers are forced to stop while fishing and income is reduced, as well as the supply of fish to the market. Community adaptation to rob floods in Medan Belawan District is adaptation to residential buildings and adaptation to the availability of clean water sources. Key words: coastal communities, rob flood, adaptation Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui  dampak banjir rob dan adaptasi masyarakat kawasan pesisir di Kecamatan Medan Belawan Kota Medan. Metode penelitian yang  digunakan adalah metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif . Lokasi langsung peninjauan banjir ialah di Jalan Serdang yang termasuk kedalam Kelurahan Belawan I. Hasil penelitian menunjukkna bahwa banjir rob yang melanda Kecamatan Medan Belawan mempunyai ketinggian yang bervariasi. Beberapa kelurahan yang terkena banjir rob antara lain Kelurahan Belawan I, Kelurahan Belawan II, Kelurahan Belawan Bahagia, Kelurahan Belawan Bahari, Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang dan Kelurahan Bagan Deli. Banjir rob terjadi dua kali dalam sehari yakni sekitar pukul 02.00 pagi dan 13.00 siang hingga pukul 16.00 sore hari. Banjir rob

  19. Shihezi, Pearl of Gebi Desert, the Largest Cotton Textile City in China's West-Song Yunfeng,Director General of Economy and Trade Committee of Shihezi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The following information is taken from the speaker who intended to give his speech at the Sixth China International Cotton Textile Conference (2009) in Xinjiang.But the meeting was called off on short notice.There should have been a good opportunity for local governments at various levels to introduce Xinjiang and its different cities for investment-inviting purpose.Shihezi is one of those beautiful cities and has become the largest cotton textile town in China's west.To keep his original speech intact,the editor did not make any redaction even though some sentences sound out of place now.But the information inside is true to fife and might be interesting to business peers and investors.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions are enhanced by wastewater discharge into New York City coastal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of untreated wastewater from sewer overflow from New York City (NYC) and other urban areas. These inputs deliver large, concentrated pulses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) into the estuary primarily during storm events. We hypothesized that sewage inputs would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) efflux from the HRE via two mechanism: (1) direct input of these gases into estuarine surface waters from NYC's wastewater treatment system; and (2) indirect in-situ microbial production in response to the C and N additions. To test these hypotheses, CO2, CH4, dissolved organic C and inorganic N concentrations were measured in both sewage outflow and in estuarine waters. Efflux of CO2 and CH4 were also quantified from sediment cores sampled from Flushing Bay (FB), which is in close proximity to sewage delivery outlets. Wastewater discharge was found to be both a direct input in wastewater and an indirect source of CO2 and CH4 via microbial respiration. Effluent concentrations of CH4 (125 ppm), CO2 (2200 ρCO2), dissolved organic C, ammonium, and nitrate surface water concentrations, were a minimum of 3 times greater than in estuarine surface water adjacent to the sewage delivery area and up to 20 times greater than concentrations found in regional HRE surface waters. Incubation experiments with FB sediment demonstrated that acetate additions stimulated CO2 efflux by + 1.25 and CH4 efflux by +10 times, compared with unamended controls. The magnitude of CH4 produced was +40 times greater than from sediments incubated from a non-sewage affected area with similar salinity levels. However, total C mineralization (6 µg C day-1 g-1 of dry soil) was a small portion of the C amendment indicating negligible priming. These data warrant study on larger regional scales to assess the broader climate impact likely driven by CH4 efflux that results from discharge of untreated wastewater into urban estuaries.

  1. Nucleation events at a coastal city during the warm period: Kerbside versus urban background measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakavaras, D.; Samara, C.; Petrakakis, M.; Biskos, G.

    2016-09-01

    Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles were simultaneously measured at a kerbside and an urban background site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, from June to October 2009. New particle formation events were observed ca. 27% of the days at the urban kerbside site and 29% of the days at the urban background site. In almost all the cases the events started between 10:00 and 12:00, and continued for several hours. The total number concentration (TNC) of the particles having diameters from 10 to ca. 500 nm during the events increased from 1.4 × 104 to 6.5 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban kerbside site, and from 0.2 × 104 to 2.4 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban background site. At the urban kerbside site, 9% of the days exhibited class I events (i.e., events followed by a clear growth of the newly formed particles), 10% class II (i.e., events during which the concentration of nucleation mode particles were high but their growth was not continuous), 67% were characterised as non-event days, and 14% of the days exhibited no clear particle formation pattern (undefined). At the urban background site, 15% of the days were classified as class I, 5% as class II, 75% of the days showed no nucleation, whereas only 5% of the days were undefined. While the fraction of event days (both class I and class II) at both sites was similar (ca. 20%), the higher fraction of class I events observed at Eptapyrgio can be attributed to the cleaner environment of the urban background site that allows better identification of the particle concentration increase. The nucleation bursts show a similar pattern at both sites, with the newly formed particles reaching a final size of ca. 80-100 nm. A distinct difference between the two stations was that the smallest particles observed during the new-particle formation events had a diameter of ca. 10 nm (i.e., the smallest particles we could observe) at the kerbside site and ca. 20 nm at the urban background site. This is an indication that

  2. China's urban transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration

  3. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  4. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  5. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  6. Health effects of manganese exposures for welders in Qingdao City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiang; Xu, Chunsheng; Wang, Honglin; Frank, Arthur L

    2017-03-30

    To document if manganese from welding causes health effects including neurological symptoms associated with manganese exposure. An anonymous questionnaire survey for a total of 505 welders at 3 welding facilities in Qingdao City, China was administered and analyzed. Numerous symptoms were reported by the welders including difficulty with eyes for 43% of them, sore throat for 30% of them, and tremors were reported by over 18% of them. Tremors were associated with longer periods of work as a welder and correlated with the relative cleanliness at the 3 different facilities. Tremors did not correlate with smoking. Manganese-exposed welders reported a variety of symptoms related to work and showed neurological disturbances that correlated with amount of exposure. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2):241-247.

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation on Urban Sustainable Development of Harbin City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunmiao; SHANG Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    It is an effective way in realizing urban coordinated and sustainable development to establish a series of indicators and to evaluate urban environmental and socioeconomic development. According to the characteristics of Harbin City in Northeast China, an indicator system including five subsystems and 37 indicators was established for comprehensive evaluation on urban sustainable development. The development indexes of all urban subsystems and complex system were calculated quantitatively using the comprehensively integrated methods composed of Principle Component Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process and weighed index method, and then the comprehensive level of urban sustainable development and the degree of urban interior coordination were analyzed. The results indicated that 1) the overall urban development presented an uptrend, however, the interior development was not well balanced from 1996 to 2006; 2) the development in each subsystem presented a strong fluctuation; and 3) the development in resources subsystem showed a downtrend. Based on those results, the suggestions of urban sustainable development were put forward at the end.

  8. Temporal patterns of emergency calls of a metropolitan city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yuan, Ning; Pan, Lin; Jiao, Pengfei; Dai, Weidi; Xue, Guixiang; Liu, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human communication behavior, one of the fundamental human activities, is of great value in many practical problems, ranging from urban planning to emergency management. Most of the recent studies have focused on human communication under normal situations. Here, we study the temporal patterns of emergency calls, which is a special kind of human communication activity under emergency circumstances, by analyzing a dataset of emergency call records that collected from a metropolitan city in China during a five year period. We find that most individuals rarely make emergency calls. The distribution of inter-call durations decays as double power law along with an exponential tail. We also discover that, comparing with the normal communication activities, the activity of calling the emergency number shows more significant characteristics of burstiness and memory. We further demonstrate that the behavior of calling the emergency number when people encounter extreme events could be explained by an event-driven memory process.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in magnetic properties of street dust in Lanzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guan; XIA DunSheng; LIU XiuMing; CHEN FaHu; YU Ye; YANG LiPing; CHEN JianHui; ZHOU AiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental problems are of increasing concern. Lanzhou is a large industrial city in North-west China. Street dust samples representing different temporal and spatial scales were collected for magnetic properties study. Magnetic measurements indicate a high concentration of magnetic minerals in Lanzhou street dust, dominated by pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite. The concentration of magnetic materials is distinctly high in winter and spring, low in autumn. Similarly, higher concentra-tions associated with heavy industry, concentrated residential development, and vehicular traffic sug-gest mixed contributions of magnetic material from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Xif and SOFT% are effective magnetic parameters that denote seasonal differences among magnetic proper-ties in street dust, convenient and economical methods for monitoring street dust pollution.

  10. Driving forces in energy-related CO2 emissions in south and east coastal China: commonality and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Liu, Y.; Jin, J.; Wei, T.

    2015-12-01

    East and south coastal China contributes to respectively about 30% and 8% of CO2 emissions in China and the world, and therefore play a critical role in achieving the national goal of emission reduction to mitigate the global warming. It also serves as a benchmark for the less developed regions of China, in terms of achieving the developed world's human development standard under lower per capita emissions. We analyze the driving forces of emissions in this region and their provincial characteristics by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. Our findings show that emissions have been doubled during the period from 2000 to 2012, along with three and two folds increase in economy and energy consumption, respectively. This suggests a persistent lock between economic growth and emissions, even in this socioeconomically advanced region in China. Provincial difference in annual emission growth reveals three distinguished low-carbon developmental stages, owning mainly to the effectiveness of energy efficiency in reducing emission growth. This may explain why previous climate policies have aimed to reduce carbon intensity. These results indicate that targeted measures on enhancing energy efficiency in the short term and de-carbonization of both the economic and energy structure in the long term can lower the emission growth more effectively and efficiently. They also suggest that factor-driven emission reduction strategies and policies are needed in the geographically and socioeconomically similar regions.

  11. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-07-20

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-), F(-), and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content in

  12. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  13. Nitrogen level changes the interactions between a native (Scirpus triqueter and an exotic species (Spartina anglica in Coastal China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-li Li

    Full Text Available The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high. S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline.

  14. Nitrogen Level Changes the Interactions between a Native (Scirpus triqueter) and an Exotic Species (Spartina anglica) in Coastal China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-li; Lei, Guang-chun; Zhi, Ying-biao; An, Shu-qing; Huang, He-ping; Ouyang, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Deng, Zi-fa; Liu, Yu-hong

    2011-01-01

    The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE) of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high). S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline. PMID:21998676

  15. Practice of Meteorological Services in Turpan Solar Eco-City in China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Chang, R.; He, X.; Jiang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Ma, J.

    2013-12-01

    Turpan Solar Eco-City is located in Gobi in Northwest China, which is one of the National New Energy Demonstration Urban. The city was planed and designed from October of 2008 and constructed from May of 2010, and the first phase of the project has been completed by October of 2013. Energy supply in Turpan Solar Eco-City is mainly from PV power, which is installed in all of the roof and the total capacity is 13.4MW. During the planning and designing of the city, and the running of the smart grid, meteorological services have played an important role. 1) Solar Energy Resource Assessment during Planning Phase. According to the observed data from meteorological stations in recent 30 years, solar energy resource was assessed and available PV power generation capacity was calculated. The results showed that PV power generation capacity is 1.3 times the power consumption, that is, solar energy resource in Turpan is rich. 2) Key Meteorological Parameters Determination for Architectural Design. A professional solar energy resource station was constructed and the observational items included Global Horizontal Irradiance, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at 30 degree, Inclined Total Solar Irradiance at local latitude, and so on. According these measured data, the optical inclined angle for PV array was determined, that is, 30 degree. The results indicated that the annual irradiation on inclined plane with optimal angle is 1.4% higher than the inclined surface with latitude angle, and 23.16% higher than the horizontal plane. The diffuse ratio and annual variation of the solar elevation angle are two major factors that influence the irradiation on inclined plane. 3) Solar Energy Resource Forecast for Smart Grid. Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model was used to forecast the hourly solar radiation of future 72 hours and the measured irradiance data was used to forecast the minutely solar radiation of future 4 hours. The forecast results were submitted to smart grid and used to

  16. Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics.

  17. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  18. Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuncheng; Shi, Longyu

    2017-02-01

    Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes.

  19. Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China Seven Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Koprowski, Carol; Zhou, Dunjin; Palmer, Paula; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Duan, Lei; Sun, Xiufa; Anderson Johnson, C

    2007-11-23

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency. A self-administered questionnaire that included the perceived stress scale, the depression scale and dietary intake was used in the baseline survey of a cohort study of 2579 local college students over 7 cities in China. Gender and city differences were found in perceived stress scores and depression scores. There were also significant differences among diverse smoking levels and among perceived weight categories in perceived stress and depression scores. Stepwise logistic regression models found that frequency of consumption of fresh fruit, ready-to-eat food and snack food had apparently independent effects on perceived stress, whereas the intake level of fresh fruit, ready-to-eat food and fast food was significantly associated with depression. The link between food consumption frequency, perceived stress and depression suggests that diet intervention may be considered a mediate strategy integrated in psychology prevention program among normal population of the college.

  20. Space-Time Variability and Prognosis of Soil Salinization in Yucheng City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Jian; YANG Jing-Song; LIU Guang-Ming; YANG Xiao-Ying

    2005-01-01

    This research used both geostatistics and GIS approach to compare temporal change of soil salt between 1980 and 2003, to analyze the spatial distribution of surface soil salt, to developed methods for predicting soil salinization potential based on recent improvements to the Dempster-Shafer theory, and to develop probability maps of potential salinization in Yucheng City, China. A semivariogram model of soil salt content was developed from the spherical model, and then employing kriging interpolation the spatial distribution of salt content in 2003 was obtained utilizing data from 100soil sampling points. Potential salinization distribution was mapped using an approach that integrated soil data of the second general survey in 1980 in Yucheng City, which included groundwater salinity, groundwater depth, soil texture, soil organic matter content, and geomorphic maps. With the support of Dempster-Shafer theory and fuzzy set technique the factors that affected potential soil salinization were characterized and integrated; and then soil salinization was predicted.Finally a prognosis map of potential salinization distribution in the research area was obtained, with higher probability values indicating higher hazards to salinity processes. The distribution of the potential soil salinization probability was a successive surface.

  1. Evaluation of heritage trees for conservation and management in Guangzhou City (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y

    2004-01-01

    The recent fast pace of urbanization in China and other developing countries has exerted pressure on urban trees, which constitute a key urban environmental asset. The most outstanding trees should be treated as natural-cum-cultural heritage. Guangzhou City's growth has threatened its rich urban-tree endowment, a diversified assemblage of 200,000 trees represented by 254 species and located in three major habitats: roadside, park, and institutional grounds. Mainly based on age and performance, 348 trees were officially designated as heritage specimens. They were evaluated in the field for tree dimensions, habitat, performance, and landscape contribution, to establish enhanced conservation and management strategies. With only 25 species, heritage trees were dominated by five cultivated natives and encompass some of the city's rare species; some common urban-forest species were not represented. Older districts and roadside habitats, despite their compact town plan and limited growing space, had the largest tree dimensions and largest share of heritage trees. Many heritage trees were large with long life expectancy and the potential for biomass expansion, and had pivotal cityscape impacts where they occur. Old neighborhoods, traditional haven for the arborescent treasure, are being changed by construction activities and periodic typhoon and windstorm damages. Increasing development density could degrade the heritage trees and their growing space, and reduce tree quality and life span. Upgrading the statutory-administrative systems and arboricultural care can enhance long-term survival of the precious natural-cum-cultural heritage. The experience of Guangzhou in identifying and preserving its high-quality urban trees can provide management strategies for other cities.

  2. A Survey on Injury Incidence in School Children in Shantou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PING LI; SHENG WANG; GE HUANG; JIA-YI LUO

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To study incidence characteristics and causes of injury, and its medicalconsequences in school children of China. Methods A total of 2 553 school children aged 7-16years were recruited from Shantou City in Gunagdong by cluster sampling method, and wereinvestigated with questionnaires on cases of injuries occurred among them from October 1, 1996 toSeptember 30, 1997. Results Injuries tended to increase with children's age, with an overallincidence rate of 37.96%, higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05); and 38.1% of children had more thantwo episodes of injury during this period. Falls took leading place of injury incidence both in boys andgirls and in all age groups. Most injuries occurred when they were playing, sporting, riding andwalking at home or in school. Self-inflicted injury ranked the first place of all injuries, followed byhurt caused by others (classmates, sibling or others). Moderate and serious injuries accounted for 8%of the total with a disability rate of 121.4/100 000. Conclusions Currently, injury has become oneof the serious public health problems in China. For the improvement of children survival, it is crucialto reduce their injury to strengthen research on child safety and to implement safety-promotionprograms.

  3. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China.

  4. Speed enforcement in China: National, provincial and city initiatives and their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; King, Mark; Watson, Barry; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Fleiter, Judy

    2013-01-01

    China is motorizing rapidly, with associated urban road development and extensive construction of motorways. Speeding accounts for about 10% of fatalities, which represents a large decrease from a peak of 17.2% in 2004. Speeding has been addressed at a national level through the introduction of laws and procedural requirements in 2004, in provinces either across all road types or on motorways, and at city level. Typically, documentation of speed enforcement programmes has taken place when new technology (i.e. speed cameras) is introduced, and it is likely that many programmes have not been documented or widely reported. In particular, the national legislation of 2004 and its implementation was associated with a large reduction in fatalities attributed to speeding. In Guangdong Province, after using speed detection equipment, motorway fatalities due to speeding in 2005 decreased by 32.5% comparing with 2004. In Beijing, the number of traffic monitoring units which were used to photograph illegal traffic activities such as traffic light violations, speeding and using bus lanes illegally increased to 1958 by April 1, 2009, and in the future such automated enforcement will become the main means of enforcement, expected to account for 60% of all traffic enforcement in Beijing. This paper provides a brief overview of the speeding enforcement programmes in China which have been documented and their successes.

  5. Characterization of the Candida parapsilosis complex in East China: species distribution differs among cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yi P; Boekhout, Teun; Zhan, Ping; Lu, Gui X; Shen, Yong N; Li, Min; Shao, Hai F; Liu, Wei D

    2012-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which was previously considered to be a complex of three genetically distinct groups, has emerged as a significant agent of nosocomial infections. Recently, this complex was separated into three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. In China, data pertaining to these fungi are limited. In this study, we examined 57 isolates of members of the C. parapsilosis complex collected from four cities in East China, i.e., Nanjing (n = 22), Nanchang (n = 20), Shanghai (n = 12) and Jinan (n = 3). C. parapsilosis sensu stricto represented 71.9% of all isolates, while C. metapsilosis accounted for the remaining 28.1%. C. orthopsilosis could not be identified. A significantly high prevalence of C. metapsilosis was observed in strains recovered from Nanchang, 60% (12/20) of the isolates were C. metapsilosis. Sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer region revealed two unevenly distributed genotypes among the C. metapsilosis strains. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was described for rapid identification. The strains were susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphoterincin B and micafungin. Six (15%) isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and three (18.8%) of C. metapsilosis were found to be dose-dependent susceptible to itraconazole. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were less susceptible to micafungin than C. metapsilosis.

  6. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  7. Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

    2015-03-01

    Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was significantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans.

  8. Regional Financial Development and Regional Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis of Suzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; LI Weiping

    2010-01-01

    There are many defects in researches on the relationship of the regional financial development(FD)and economic growth of China,such as simply assuming the causality direction,not highlighting financial institution,us-ing incomplete financial indicator,etc.This article,taking Suzhou City of Jiangsu Province,China as a case,builds a simple model to study the level of FD from three aspects of financial scale,structure and institution.Three original in-dicators of PRIVY(private investment/aggregate investment),DEPTH(aggregate loan/GDP)and FDIVG(FDI/GDP)are used to construct the FD economic indicator through Principal Component Analysis approach.Then we use Granger method to analyze the relationship between the FD and the economic growth of Suzhou.Empirical test results show that the FD of Suzhou is the Granger reason of economic growth,while economic growth is not the reason for FD,because the relationship between the FD and the economic growth of Suzhou is just in the"supply-leading"period.In terms of Suzhou experiences,the local government should strengthen the protection of private investment,improve the institutional environment,and establish the reasonable financial structure.So we can concluded that FD could play a great role in promoting economic growth at the economy takeoff stage.

  9. Quantifying the Impact of Floods on Bacillary Dysentery in Dalian City, China, From 2004 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-04-01

    Studies quantifying relationships between floods and diarrheal diseases have mainly been conducted in low-latitude regions. It's therefore increasingly important to examine these relationships in midlatitude regions, where they may have significant public health implications. This study aimed to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery in the city of Dalian, China. A generalized additive mixed model was applied to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery. The relative risk (RR) of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was estimated. A total of 18,976 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Dalian during the study period. Two weeks' lagged effect was detected from the impact of floods on bacillary dysentery. The RR of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Floods have significantly increased the risk of bacillary dysentery in Dalian. More studies should focus on the association between floods and infectious diseases in different regions. Our findings have significant implications for managing the negative health impact of floods in the midlatitude region of China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:190-195).

  10. Impact of Argo Observation on the Regional Ocean Reanalysis of China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas: A Twin-Experiment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Caixia Shao; Lili Xuan; Yingzhi Cao; Xiaojian Cui; Siyu Gao

    2015-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system of China coastal waters and adjacent seas, called CORA (China ocean reanalysis), has been recently developed at the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). In this study, based on CORA, the impact of Argo profiles on the regional reanalysis is evaluated using a twin-experiment approach. It is found that, by assimilating Argo observations, the reanalysis quality is much improved: the root mean square (RMS) error of temperature and salinity can b...

  11. Spending Power on the rise in China’s Smaller Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s big spenders now far-flung by Yu Nan WIDELY recognized as one of the most beautiful cities in China,the coastal port of Dalian is a perfect example of a lowertier city becoming a growth hub for multinationals, owing to stronger purchasing power. That trend inspired Boston Consulting Group(BCG) to release a report,advising businessmen to look beyond the familiar mega-cities to the fast-growing smaller

  12. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p China in 2012 and with the highest in east China in 2013. In 2012, 5 (4%) of the 120 cities had ≥60 days with API >100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality

  13. Vulnerability assessment of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Ge, Zhenming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on the low-lying coastal zone. The coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, with their low elevation, are particularly sensitive to SLR. In this study, the potential impacts of SLR on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence) model. Based on the SPRC model and IPCC vulnerability definition, an indicator system for vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands to SLR was developed, in which the rate of SLR, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, mean daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A spatial assessment method based on a GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. Vulnerability assessment, based on the projection of SLR rates from the present trend (0.26 cm/yr) and IPCC's A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm/yr), were performed for three time periods: short-term (2030s), medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results indicated that in the 2030s, 6.6% and 9.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2050s, the percentage of coastal wetlands within the grades of low and moderate vulnerability increases to 9.8% and 0.2%, 9.5% and 1.0% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2100s, 8.1% and 3.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability, 0.8% and 2.8% were within the grade of moderate vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The percentage of coastal wetlands within the grade of high vulnerability increases significantly, amounting to 2.3% and 6.9% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The application of the SPRC model, the methodology developed and the results could assist

  14. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p 100 (defined as “slightly polluted”), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as “severely polluted”). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4–7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country. PMID:27486572

  15. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past 3 decades. However, the economic boom came at the cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p100 (defined as ‘slightly polluted’, however, it increased to 21 cities (18% that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13% in 2012 and 35 (29% in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as ‘severely polluted’. API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4% to 7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution vary by seasons and regions, and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country.

  16. Measuring Polycentricity of Mega-City Regions in China Based on the Intercity Migration Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  17. MEASURING POLYCENTRICITY OF MEGA-CITY REGIONS IN CHINA BASED ON THE INTERCITY MIGRATION FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Mu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  18. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Luo

    Full Text Available With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita, the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2 and the air pollution index (API from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC, that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  19. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  20. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Wei, M.

    2015-01-01

    temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda...

  1. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  2. Emergence of ancient cities in relation to geopolitical circumstances and climate change during late Holocene in northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guanghui; Liu, Honggao; Yang, Yishi; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Aifeng; Wang, Zhongxin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2016-09-01

    The study of the history of human activities in ancient cities has provided valuable evidences for understanding the evolution of human-land relations during the late Holocene. Numerous ancient cities were discovered through archaeological surveys of the east Qinghai Province, located on the northeastern border of the Tibetan Plateau, China; however, the mystery of when or why these cities were built remains unsolved. As recorded in this paper, we sampled reliable dating materials from 47 ancient cities in the area, determined their ages by radiocarbon dating, and compared the dating results with historical documents and high resolution paleoclimate records to explore the influencing factors for the development of these ancient cities. The 54 radiocarbon dates indicated that most of these cities were built or repaired during the Han Dynasty (202 BC‒AD 220), Tang Dynasty (AD 618‒AD 907), the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (AD 907‒AD 960), the Song dynasty (AD 960‒AD 1279), and the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368‒AD 1644). The radiocarbon dates correspond well with historical records of the area. Our work suggests the ancient cities in east Qinghai Province were likely built primarily for military defense, and may have also have been affected by climate change.

  3. Emergence of ancient cities in relation to geopolitical circumstances and climate change during late Holocene in northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guanghui; Liu, Honggao; Yang, Yishi; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Aifeng; Wang, Zhongxin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2016-12-01

    The study of the history of human activities in ancient cities has provided valuable evidences for understanding the evolution of human-land relations during the late Holocene. Numerous ancient cities were discovered through archaeological surveys of the east Qinghai Province, located on the northeastern border of the Tibetan Plateau, China; however, the mystery of when or why these cities were built remains unsolved. As recorded in this paper, we sampled reliable dating materials from 47 ancient cities in the area, determined their ages by radiocarbon dating, and compared the dating results with historical documents and high resolution paleoclimate records to explore the influencing factors for the development of these ancient cities. The 54 radiocarbon dates indicated that most of these cities were built or repaired during the Han Dynasty (202 BC‒AD 220), Tang Dynasty (AD 618‒AD 907), the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (AD 907‒AD 960), the Song dynasty (AD 960‒AD 1279), and the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368‒AD 1644). The radiocarbon dates correspond well with historical records of the area. Our work suggests the ancient cities in east Qinghai Province were likely built primarily for military defense, and may have also have been affected by climate change.

  4. Nationwide prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and viral genotype distribution in 37 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Wisman, G Bea A; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zeng, Zheng-Yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2015-07-04

    Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based screening and vaccination programs in China, we investigated the most recent HPV prevalence and genotypic distributions in different female age groups and geographical regions in China. In 2012, a total of 120,772 liquid-based cytological samples from women enrolled for population- or employee-based cervical screening in 37 Chinese cities were obtained by the Laboratory of Molecular Infectious Diseases of Guangzhou KingMed. A total of 111,131 samples were tested by Hybrid Capture II and the other 9,641 were genotyped using the Tellgenplex™ HPV DNA Assay. The total positive rate for hrHPV was 21.07 %, which ranged from 18.42 % (Nanchang) to 31.94 % (Haikou) and varied by region. The regions of Nanchang, Changsha, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Fuzhou, Guangdong, and Guiyang could be considered the low prevalence regions. Age-specific prevalence showed a "two-peak" pattern, with the youngest age group (15-19 years) presenting the highest hrHPV infection rate (30.55 %), followed by a second peak for the 50-60-year-old group. Overall, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV16 (4.82 %) and HPV52 (4.52 %), followed by HPV58 (2.74 %). Two genotypes HPV6 (4.01 %) and HPV11 (2.29 %) were predominant in the low-risk HPV (lrHPV) type, while the mixed genotypes HPV16 + 52 and HPV52 + 58 were most common in women with multiple infections. This study shows that HPV infection in China has increased to the level of an "HPV-heavy-burden" zone in certain regions, with prevalence varying significantly among different ages and regions. Data from this study represent the most current survey of the nationwide prevalence of HPV infection in China, and can serve as valuable reference to guide nationwide cervical cancer

  5. Resource and Environmental Quality Changes and Adjustment Principles for Sustainable evelopment in Rapidly Developing Coastal Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Problems in water-land resources and environmental quality increase with the fast economic development in the coastal region of southeastern China. This region has the highest density in population, industry and towns in China, and the large export-oriented economy makes itself a strategic importance while China enters into international markets. The problems facing to this region include arable land reduction, land degradation aggravation, high percentage of built-up land with high rate of expansion, expanded non-point pollution, deteriorated water quality, decreasing biodiversity, destroyed ecosystems, severe air pollution, frequently occurred acid rain, and multi-pollutants. The important research fields in the near future should include a) influence of high-intensity exploitation of resources on changes of environment quality and its feedback; b) interface processes, key mechanisms and adjustment principles for degradation of water-, land-, and air-resources and environmental quality; c) evolvement processes and nurturing theory of biodiversity and ecological resources; and d) spatio-temporal variation and human-induced effects on regional resources and environment quality. Strategies for sustainable development in the region are as follows: a) controlling to ensure basic cultivated land area; b) enforcing remediation of polluted water environment, and controlling non-point pollution; c) strengthening ecological construction and ecological security; and d) controlling multipollution and preventing trace toxic pollutants.

  6. Changes of rural area in the outer urban fringe of beijing city, china : a case study of zhangge village

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pengfei

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the author tried to analyze the process of rural area changes in the outer urban fringe of Beijing City and made clear conditions of changes after the policy of economic reform and opening to outside world in China since 1978. Based on field survey analysis of changes of Zhangge Village, the author shows that changes of rural area in Beijing City were divided into three periods after reform and opening: the period of people's communes (before 1984), the period of reform and ope...

  7. Long-term remote sensing monitoring coal mining activity in resource-based cities: a case study of Qitaihe City, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activity has strongly impacted the sustainable socioeconomic development of resource-based cities. The systematic monitoring of the change in mining activity can provide evidence for the transition and future development of resource-based cities. This paper chose Qitaihe, one of the four coal mining cities in northeastern China as the study area. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technique, as well as methods on landscape pattern analysis were used to study the evolution of mining activity from 4 different periods over 58 years’ time. Results showed that the area of land used in mining increased by about six times during the study period with cultivated land the main type that contributed to this increase. Mining activity showed an eastward trend, developing from one concentration circle to four circles, from a disordered system to a relatively integrated system. It was also suggested that differentiated policies should be adopted in different mining circles. This study also provides a framework for future city planning and sustainable development.

  8. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  10. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Redwood City, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  11. Fertilization Affects Biomass Production of Suaeda salsa and Soil Organic Carbon Pool in East Coastal Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-feng; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; LIU Guang-ming; YU Shi-peng

    2013-01-01

    Land use practice significantly affects soil properties. Soil is a major sink for atmospheric carbon, and soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as an essential indicator of soil quality. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of N and P applied to Suaeda salsa on biomass production, SOC concentration, labile organic carbon (LOC) concentration, SOC pool and carbon management index (CMI) as well as the effect of the land use practice on soil quality of coastal tidal lands in east coastal region of China. The study provided relevant references for coastal exploitation, tidal land management and related study in other countries and regions. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, consisting of four N-fertilization rates (0 (N0), 60 (N1), 120 (N2) and 180 kg ha-1 (N3)), three P-fertilization rates (0 (P0), 70 (P1) and 105 kg ha-1 (P2)) and bare land without vegetation. N and P applied to S. salsa on coastal tidal lands significantly affected biomass production (above-ground biomass and roots), bulk density (ρb), available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool and CMI. Using statistical analysis, significantly interactions in N and P were observed for biomass production and the dominant factor for S. salsa production was N in continuous 2-yr experiments. There were no significant interactions between N and P for SOC concentration, LOC concentration and SOC pool. However, significant interaction was obtained for CMI at the 0-20 cm depth and N played a dominant role in the variation of CMI. There were significant improvements for soil measured attributes and parameters, which suggested that increasing the rates of N and P significantly decreasedρb at the 0-20 cm depth and increased available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool as well as CMI at both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth, respectively. By correlation analysis, there were significantly positive correlations between biomass (above-ground biomass and roots) and SOC as well as LOC in

  12. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  13. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  14. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Lili

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods: Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results: There were 253 males (72.49% and 96 females (27.51%, with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21 ± 17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS of 15.34 ± 9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions: This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced.

  15. [Knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking among hospitality patronage in five cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ling; Yang, Yan; Liu, Xiu-Rong; Chang, Ai-Ling; Gong, Jie; Zhao, Bai-Fan; Liu, Tao; Jiang, Yuan; Hyland, Andrew; Li, Qiang

    2008-05-01

    To understand the knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking (SHS) among restaurant or bar patronage in five cities in China. 405 restaurants and bars were conveniently selected in 5 cities as Beijing, Wuhan, Xi'an, Kunming and Guiyang. From each of these hospitality venues, at least 3 patrons, including one smoker, one female non-smoker and one male nonsmoker were asked to answer a questionnaire on their knowledge and attitudes towards SHS and smoking policies in public places. 43.1% of the respondents had good knowledge on SHS hazards. 65% reported that those who smoked around them had never asked for their permission, and about 60% admitted that they had never asked others to stop smoking in front of them. There were almost two thirds of patrons reporting that they once felt discomfort of SHS in restaurants or bars, nearly half of whom chose to leave the venue to avoid exposure to SHS. Though majority of patrons supported '100% smoke-free hospitals, schools and public vehicles' initiations, the proportions of patrons that supporting '100% smoke-free restaurants and bars' initiations were only 30.0% and 19.8%, respectively. In Beijing, logistic regression model analyses showed that those who supporting 100% smoke-free restaurants and bars tended to be non-smokers, aged 25 years or older and to have had at least college education. Also in Beijing, those being female, having at least college education or non-smokers were more likely to choose restaurants and bars with smoking restrictions. Though knowledge on SHS hospitality patronage was still not high or popular for the public to refuse SHS exposure, banning smoking in hospitality venues was public's inclination and would become a trend in public health endeavor.

  16. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  17. Occurrences of nitrosamines in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in three representative cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2012-10-15

    An investigation of the occurrence of nine nitrosamines in drinking water following different water treatment processes was conducted using samples from seven drinking water treatment plants in three cities and tap waters in one city in China. The total nitrosamine levels ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 43.45 ng/L. The species and concentrations of the nine nitrosamines varied with disinfection methods and source waters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is the nitrosamines of greatest concern, was identified in raw water, disinfecting water, finished water and tap water samples, ranging from 0.8 to 21.6, 0.12 to 24.2, n.d. to 8.8, and n.d. to 13.3 ng/L, respectively. Chloramination alone produced the most significant amounts of NDMA, while ozonation followed by chloramination led to moderately reduced levels. Additionally, chlorination produced relatively less NDMA, while low pressure ultraviolet radiation followed by chlorination could also significantly reduce them. Total organic carbon is one of the most important factors influencing nitrosamines formation in disinfecting water. In contrast, the addition of chlorine following any other disinfection was found to increase the formation of the other eight species of nitrosamines. The three nitrosamines recommended for monitoring by the US EPA were detected in the tap water samples, but most were present at levels below those that pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, the occurrence and concentration of nitrosamines regulated in the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List could cause some potential human effects and therefore warrant attention.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  19. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maiden Outbreak of Chikungunya in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China: Epidemiological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinguang, Zhong; Haojie, Zhong; Fan, Ding; Zhiquan, Liu; Shiwen, Wang; Zhenyu, Huang; Yonghui, Zhang; Changwen, Ke; Dakang, Yuan; Wenjia, Liang; Deqiong, Li; Pinghua, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify epidemiological characteristics of the first documented CHIK fever outbreak in China and evaluate the effect of the preventive measures taken. Methodology/Principal Findings From September 1 to October 29, 2010, China's first documented outbreak of CHIK fever occurred in the Xincun community of Wanjiang District of Dongguan city, Guangdong province; 253 case-patients were recorded, of which 129 were laboratory confirmed, with an attack rate of 1%. Before September 18th the number of CHIK fever cases remained relatively low in the Xincun community; from September 19th onwards, the number of cases increased drastically, with an outbreak peak on October 4th. Cases were distributed across nine small village groups in the Xincun community, with an attack rate of 0–12% at the village level. The household attack rates ranged between 20% and 100%. No significant difference was found in the attack rate between males and females. There was a significant difference in the attack rate in different age groups (chi-square = 18.35, p = 0.005); highest in patients aged 60 years or older and the lowest in patients aged under 10. The major clinical characteristics of patients are fever (100%), joint pain (79%) and rash (54%). Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene on the five earliest confirmed cases showed that the strains of CHIKV isolated from their sera were highly homologous (up to 99%) with isogeneic strains isolated in Thailand in 2009. After control measures were taken, including killing adult mosquitoes and cleaning breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes, the Breteau index and Mosq-ovitrap index decreased rapidly, and the outbreak ended on October 29. Conclusion/Significance The infection source of the outbreak was imported. Cases showed obvious temporal, spatial, and population aggregation during the outbreak. Comprehensive control measures based on reducing the density of Aedes mosquitoes were effective in controlling

  1. Maiden outbreak of chikungunya in Dongguan city, Guangdong province, China: epidemiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiaoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify epidemiological characteristics of the first documented CHIK fever outbreak in China and evaluate the effect of the preventive measures taken. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From September 1 to October 29, 2010, China's first documented outbreak of CHIK fever occurred in the Xincun community of Wanjiang District of Dongguan city, Guangdong province; 253 case-patients were recorded, of which 129 were laboratory confirmed, with an attack rate of 1%. Before September 18(th the number of CHIK fever cases remained relatively low in the Xincun community; from September 19(th onwards, the number of cases increased drastically, with an outbreak peak on October 4(th. Cases were distributed across nine small village groups in the Xincun community, with an attack rate of 0-12% at the village level. The household attack rates ranged between 20% and 100%. No significant difference was found in the attack rate between males and females. There was a significant difference in the attack rate in different age groups (chi-square=18.35, p=0.005; highest in patients aged 60 years or older and the lowest in patients aged under 10. The major clinical characteristics of patients are fever (100%, joint pain (79% and rash (54%. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene on the five earliest confirmed cases showed that the strains of CHIKV isolated from their sera were highly homologous (up to 99% with isogeneic strains isolated in Thailand in 2009. After control measures were taken, including killing adult mosquitoes and cleaning breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes, the Breteau index and Mosq-ovitrap index decreased rapidly, and the outbreak ended on October 29. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The infection source of the outbreak was imported. Cases showed obvious temporal, spatial, and population aggregation during the outbreak. Comprehensive control measures based on reducing the density of Aedes mosquitoes were effective in

  2. Quantifying Land Use Change in Zhejiang Coastal Region, China Using Multi-Temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images in 1985, 1986, 1993, 1994and 2001 were used to quantify the land use and land cover changes (LUCC) in the Zhejiang coastal region with a stratified unsupervised classification technique in conjunction with visual interpretation and to attempt an identification of the socioeconomic driving forces. In level Ⅰ an overall accurate classification was achieved using a modified Anderson's Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ-level classification scheme. The overall accuracy of the land use classification at Anderson level I were 89.7%(1985), 91.6% (1993), and 90.4% (2001). The most rapid land use change was a dramatic increase in urban or built-up areas, which quadrupled from 1985 to 2001. Over 90% of this newly expanded built-up area was originally paddy fields or other croplands. In different parts of the Zhejiang coastal region, urban land expansion was spatially uneven. Temporally,land use development did not stabilized, and the two study periods of time (1985-1993 and 1993-2001) had different transition styles. Socioeconomic factors, such as gross domestic product, total population, and financial expenditure, were all highly correlated with the expansion of urban or built-up areas. Based on the degree of urban sprawl and socioeconomic factors, cities and towns were further divided into six subgroups, which may help decision makers improve land use for the region.

  3. Sustainability of Land Use Promoted by Construction-to-Ecological Land Conversion: A Case Study of Shenzhen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Peng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and rapid urban growth present great challenges to the sustainable utilization of land resources. This paper discusses the on-going process of construction-to-ecological land conversion (CELC in terms of three aspects: land use, environmental effects, and system responses. CELC is compared to other current land conversion strategies in China. Taking Shenzhen City as an example, this paper introduces five areas in which CELC has been implemented since 2009, including basic farmland protection zones, mining areas, ecological corridors, inefficient industrial zones, and urban villages. This paper argues that Shenzhen’s CELC model can improve the ecological environment, control urban sprawl, and promote sustainable land use and, thus, serve as an example for other cities in China.

  4. Determinants of electricity consumption intensity in China: analysis of cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X H; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well.

  5. A Comparison of the Bacterial Microflora between Coastal Sites in Qingdao, P.R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maclnnes, J.; Robertson, P.A.W.; Austin, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two sites located on the west coast of Scotland, were comparedto cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean sites in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P.R.China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching(SsM) and Jaccard coefficients (Sj) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacterjohnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacteriumsp., Vibrio sp., V. Campbellii, V. Mimicus and V. Hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However,the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of coastal Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Ziyuan-3 Multi-Spectral and Panchromatic Images Fusion Quality Assessment: Applied to Jiangsu Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive fusion quality assessment was proposed, which based on cross entropy and structure similarity with weighted value, it was used to evaluate the fusion effort of Chinese Ziyuan-3 multi-spectral and panchromatic images from coastal areas, Jiangsu province, China. Fusion algorithms were used, Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS), àtrous Wavelet Transformation (AWT), NonsubSampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), and combined NSCT with HIS. According to visual interpretation, the quality of fused imaged based on combined NSCT with HIS is better than another fusion methods, fusion quality results exploring our proposed image fusion quality assessment also illustrated that fused image of combined NSCT with HIS is the best, which is consistent with human- being subjective interpretation.

  7. Ziyuan-2 Multi-Spectral and Panchromatic Images Fusion Quality Assessment: Applied to Jiangsu Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive fusion quality assessment was proposed, which based on cross entropy and structure similarity with weighted value, it was used to evaluate the fusion effort of Chinese Ziyuan-3 multi-spectral and panchromatic images from coastal areas, Jiangsu province, China. Fusion algorithms were used, Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS), à trous Wavelet Transformation (AWT), Nonsub Sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), and combined NSCT with HIS. According to visual interpretation, the quality of fused imaged based on combined NSCT with HIS is better than another fusion methods, fusion quality results exploring our proposed image fusion quality assessment also illustrated that fused image of combined NSCT with HIS is the best, which is consistent with human-being subjective interpretation.

  8. Characterization of organic aerosol in fine particles in a mega-city of South China: Molecular composition, seasonal variation, and size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Dong-Lei; Lan, Zi-Juan; Feng, Ning; He, Ling-Yan; Yu, Guang-He; Luan, Sheng-Ji

    2012-10-01

    A one-year-long observation on major organic compounds in PM2.5 was performed in a coastal mega-city in South China, Shenzhen, in order to gain information of their ambient concentration levels and the implications for sources. The compounds identified included alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids, whose annual average concentrations during the year were 56.0, 14.8, 2.51, 253, and 25.2 ng m- 3, respectively. The seasonal molecular distributions of these organic compounds were discussed to explore their contributing sources in Shenzhen. Conclusively, alkanes and PAHs had the dominant source of fossil fuel combustion, although alkanes also had significant contribution from plant wax (~ 16%). The hopane series distributions further indicated that vehicle emissions were the dominant fossil fuel combustion source for PM2.5 in Shenzhen. Cooking emissions were inferred to be the most possible main source for fatty acids, while both primary and secondary origins were implied for azelaic acid, the dominant one in the dicarboxylic acids identified. Most of the organic compounds analyzed showed a size distribution pattern peaking at 0.32-0.56 or 0.56-1 μm in the accumulation mode, except that the cooking-related organic acids showed implication of a coarse mode-dominated pattern.

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  10. Natural Disaster Risk Assessment of Coastal Ports in China%沿海港口自然灾害风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静静; 刘敏; 权瑞松; 陆敏; 牛海燕; 许世远

    2012-01-01

    Natural disaster risk assessment is a process or application ofa methodology for quantitatively analyzing and evaluating the possibility of different intensity disasters and the possible consequence of the disasters.On the background of multi-disasters,the eight ports,namely Dalian port,Tianjin port,Qingdao port,Shanghai port,Ningbo-Zhoushan port,Xiamen port,Shenzhen port,Guangzhou port,which are the important infrastructure in the coastal cities of China,are selected as the study area.Based on the natural and social chara cteristics of the study area,three factors have been selected as indices for a quantitative evaluation,including the hazard,the exposure and the vulnerabilit y.At last,this paper establishes natural disaster risk assessment index system and evaluation model of the coastal ports.The analysis result shows that the integrated risk of coastal ports in China presents spatial disparities evidently,which can be rank as Yangtze River DeltaPearl River Deltaannulus Bohai Sea.Qingdao Port,Shanghai Port and Ningbo-Zhoushan Port should protect themselves from the wind caused by typhoon.Xiamen Port and Shenzhen Port should pay attention to the typhoon wind and typhoon storm surge.Tianjin Port and Guangzhou Port should give attention to the typhoon storm surge,because that both of them are seriously affected by the storm surge.The exposure of container and goods is high in Tianjin,Shanghai,Qingdao,Xiamen,Shenzhen and Guangzhou Port.When natural disaster is coming,they must move the container and goods in time.The goodsand the passengers highly exposed to the natural disaster in Dalian and Ningbo-Zhoushan Port.This must be concerned by related departments.At the same time,the disaster prevention facilities should be strengthened.When maintaining and expanding ports scale,administration departments should increase the number of anchorages and lighthouses to improve the ship's navigation according to relevant disaster prevention and mitigation requirements

  11. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Yu

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  12. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Olsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2–6.1 g CH4 m−2 y−1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low (4 m−2 h at soil temperatures 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (4 m−2 h−1 probably because methanogens were outcompeted by sulphate reducing bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  13. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Yu, X.; Wei, M.; Krauss, K. W.; Brix, H.

    2015-08-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2-6.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature, soil organic carbon and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed) water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low ( 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. Results The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3∙3% (95% Confidence interval (CI: 3∙1%, 3∙6%, 9∙8% (95% CI: 9∙4%, 10∙2% and 5∙5% (95% CI: 5∙2%, 5∙8%, respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. Conclusions There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  15. Sustainability of Land Use Promoted by Construction-to-Ecological Land Conversion: A Case Study of Shenzhen City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfei Peng; Jing Qian; Fu Ren; Wenhui Zhang; Qingyun Du

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and rapid urban growth present great challenges to the sustainable utilization of land resources. This paper discusses the on-going process of construction-to-ecological land conversion (CELC) in terms of three aspects: land use, environmental effects, and system responses. CELC is compared to other current land conversion strategies in China. Taking Shenzhen City as an example, this paper introduces five areas in which CELC has been implemented since 2009, including basic ...

  16. Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

    2009-06-01

    The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between

  17. Occurrences of nitrosamines in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in three representative cities, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn

    2012-10-15

    An investigation of the occurrence of nine nitrosamines in drinking water following different water treatment processes was conducted using samples from seven drinking water treatment plants in three cities and tap waters in one city in China. The total nitrosamine levels ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 43.45 ng/L. The species and concentrations of the nine nitrosamines varied with disinfection methods and source waters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is the nitrosamines of greatest concern, was identified in raw water, disinfecting water, finished water and tap water samples, ranging from 0.8 to 21.6, 0.12 to 24.2, n.d. to 8.8, and n.d. to 13.3 ng/L, respectively. Chloramination alone produced the most significant amounts of NDMA, while ozonation followed by chloramination led to moderately reduced levels. Additionally, chlorination produced relatively less NDMA, while low pressure ultraviolet radiation followed by chlorination could also significantly reduce them. Total organic carbon is one of the most important factors influencing nitrosamines formation in disinfecting water. In contrast, the addition of chlorine following any other disinfection was found to increase the formation of the other eight species of nitrosamines. The three nitrosamines recommended for monitoring by the US EPA were detected in the tap water samples, but most were present at levels below those that pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, the occurrence and concentration of nitrosamines regulated in the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List could cause some potential human effects and therefore warrant attention. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrosamines in disinfected drinking water in three Chinese cities were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some nitrosamines could be detected in raw water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advanced treatment affects nitrosamine levels both positively and negatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matters

  18. Measuring spatial accessibility of urban parks: a case study of Qingdao City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Song, Yongjun; Kong, Fanhua; Qi, Yi

    2007-06-01

    Urban parks are the important recreation site for citizens, viewed as basal green infrastructure and crucial amenities in urban areas, and usually perform important ecological and socio-economic functions. With socio-economic development, Chinese people and governments pay much more attention to urban green spaces, especially urban parks, and more and more citizens have the desire for contact with nature, and are willing to live and work close to urban parks. Consequently, governments plan to optimize urban parks allocation in order to meet citizens' increasing needs. Quantification of accessibility of urban parks is a prerequisite to appraise and allocate them with equity as a tool for decision-making in planning. In this paper, supported by Remote Sensing and GIS, the accessibility of urban parks based on high resolution data was analyzed with minimum nearest distance method at the house level and container method at block groups scale, through a case study of Qingdao city, China. The distances between houses (origins) and urban parks (destinations) are measured as the Euclidian (straight-line) distance. Four levels of access, very good, good, poor and very poor, were classified based on the distance between residence and the nearest urban park, and the area of urban park per capita. Results demonstrate that the spatial patterns of accessibility are consentaneous on the whole by using two different methods, for the spatial pattern is relation to the distribution of urban parks. However, the accurateness in results is quite different. The accessibility of urban parks acquired by the minimum nearest distance method is more accurate and appropriate than under the container method. The results calculated with the container measure show that 58.07 % of block groups have very poor or poor access level, which means the accessibility of urban parks is not good in Qingdao city as a whole. In addition, the spatial pattern of the accessibility is not equipoise. The southern

  19. Relative sea-level rising and its control strategy in coastal regions of China in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 郑铣鑫; 徐华; 应玉飞; 侯艳声; 谢晓程; 王世训

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese coastal regions are the high risk areas of natural disasters for their low land and weak and sensitive eco-evironment. The relative sea-level rising (RSLR), resulting from the piling of global sea-level rising and regional land subsidence, is to speed up in the 21st century. Certainly the RSLR will exacerbate the land submerging, the disaster from storm-tide and flood- waterlogging and the water shortage, and then affect urban withstanding function, construction safety and eco-resources. According to sustainable development theory, the sustainable utilization of resources and environment and sustainable development of economy and society can both be effectively achieved in coastal regions of China in the 21st century only by the implementation of controlling discharge of greenhouse gas, optimal exploitation of and artificial recharge of groundwater, systematic control of land subsidence, higher design standards for tide and flood control engineering, improving urban anti-disaster ability, a study on strategy and policy for RSLR and establishment of forecast and pre-warning institution.

  20. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  1. Communities of sediment ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along a coastal pollution gradient in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Manhua; Xiong, Jinbo; Wang, Kai; Ye, Xiansen; Ye, Ran; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Changju; Zhang, Demin

    2014-09-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) discharges has caused eutrophication in coastal zones. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) convert ammonia to nitrite and play important roles in N transformation. Here, we used pyrosequencing based on the amoA gene to investigate the response of the sediment AOB community to an N pollution gradient in the East China Sea. The results showed that AOB assemblages were primarily affiliated with Nitrosospira-like lineages, and only 0.4% of those belonged to Nitrosomonas-like lineage. The Nitrosospira-like lineage was separated into four clusters that were most similar to the sediment AOB communities detected in adjacent marine regions. Additionally, one clade was out grouped from the AOB lineages, which shared the high similarities with pmoA gene. The AOB community structures substantially changed along the pollution gradient, which were primarily shaped by NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, SO4(2)(-)-S, TP and Eh. These results demonstrated that coastal pollution could dramatically influence AOB communities, which, in turn, may change ecosystem function.

  2. Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingHu Pan; YanXing Hu

    2016-01-01

    The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, informatization and agricultural modernization (so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China, and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China. This paper evaluated the comprehensive, coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units, and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011. The effi-ciency evaluation index system was established. The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001–2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefec-ture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). Finally, the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Results indicate that the comprehensive, coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns. Overall, the efficiency is relatively low, and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies. The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001–2011, with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas. The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.

  3. Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment: First observation on sediment of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qiongxuan; Peng, Jinping; Yu, Xubiao; Chen, Fangchaizi; Wang, Jundong; Dong, Fenqiang

    2015-09-15

    Microplastics in sediments from the Beibu Gulf and the coastline of China Sea were investigated to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of microplastics in China for the first time. Microplastics (microplastics was counted by a fluorescence microscope, an instrument that is rarely used in the detection of microplastics in sediments. This instrument led to results that were satisfactory. Compared with other sampled areas, microplastics were found in massive concentrations in China. Four types of microplastics, HDPE, PET, PE and PS, were identified. The results will provide useful background information for further investigations.

  4. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  5. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  6. Utilizing the resource of twins reared apart: their distribution across nine provinces or cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenjing; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Twins reared apart provide a fascinating experiment to distinguish genetic from environmental influences. However, there is as yet no broad report on distribution of twins reared apart, especially in the Chinese population. In this study, information on 18,295 volunteer twin pairs of all age groups was compiled in nine provinces or cities of China, and questionnaires were used for zygosity determination. It was discovered that twins reared apart from 0 to 10 years of age accounted for 2.2% of all twin interviewees, with the proportion of this 0-10 group separated before 1, 2, and 5 years old, accounting for 65.3%, 76.1%, and 91.3%, respectively. The proportion of twins reared apart is not significantly related to zygosity or gender, but it is related to region and twin age. As the age of twins lowers, the proportion of those reared apart gradually decreases. Twins reared apart will become rarer in the future and therefore should be cherished as a resource.

  7. Simulation of water resource and its relation to urban activity in Dalian City, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T.; Sun, Y.; Geng, Y.

    2010-09-01

    The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was applied to the Biliu River catchment, northern China, to estimate the carrying capacity of the water resource there. The model reproduced well the water and heat budgets after the construction of a reservoir in the middle reach of the river. It also correctly backcasted the degradation of water resources such as river discharge and groundwater after the completion of the reservoir. Calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite data clearly showed vegetation degradation downstream of the reservoir. Statistical analysis of a decoupling indicator based on the simulated water carrying capacity and on the satellite data of vegetation index indicated that water-related stress in Dalian city, where the economy has grown rapidly after the completement of the reservoir, has increased in accordance with the environmental degradation below the reservoir. The results indicate a close relationship between water resource and economic growth, which has greatly affected ecosystem degradation and its serious burden on the environment in the catchment. The simulated results highlight the linkage between urban development in Dalian and sustainable water resource management.

  8. Forecasting influenza epidemics from multi-stream surveillance data in a subtropical city of China.

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    Pei-Hua Cao

    Full Text Available Influenza has been associated with heavy burden of mortality and morbidity in subtropical regions. However, timely forecast of influenza epidemic in these regions has been hindered by unclear seasonality of influenza viruses. In this study, we developed a forecasting model by integrating multiple sentinel surveillance data to predict influenza epidemics in a subtropical city Shenzhen, China.Dynamic linear models with the predictors of single or multiple surveillance data for influenza-like illness (ILI were adopted to forecast influenza epidemics from 2006 to 2012 in Shenzhen. Temporal coherence of these surveillance data with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases was evaluated by wavelet analysis and only the coherent data streams were entered into the model. Timeliness, sensitivity and specificity of these models were also evaluated to compare their performance.Both influenza virology data and ILI consultation rates in Shenzhen demonstrated a significant annual seasonal cycle (p<0.05 during the entire study period, with occasional deviations observed in some data streams. The forecasting models that combined multi-stream ILI surveillance data generally outperformed the models with single-stream ILI data, by providing more timely, sensitive and specific alerts.Forecasting models that combine multiple sentinel surveillance data can be considered to generate timely alerts for influenza epidemics in subtropical regions like Shenzhen.

  9. Quantity of plant leaf area on three major public squares in Kunming City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan; ZHAOLin-sen; ZHAOYu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Regressive formulae to calculate the quantity of plant leaf area for 13 species of ornamental plants were set up based on investigation data of 30 species on 3 major public squares (Dongfeng square, Shengli square and Guandu square) in Kunruing City, China, which were applied to calculate quantities of plant leaf area of these 13 species. The quantities of plant leaf area for the other 17 ornamental plant species on these squares were directly measured, and the total quantity of plant leaf area of each studied square was obtained individually. The results showed that the quantity of plant leaf area on Shengli square with ornamental plants structure composed of arbor tree species, shrub tree species and turf grass was highest among the three squares. It is believed that the design model of multi-storied vertical structure and proper tending of plant community could not only increase the quantity of plant leaf area, but also play an important role in generating ecological and landscaping benefits.Some corresponding suggestions were put forward on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the plant leaf area quantity of the three representative squares in Kunming urban area.

  10. Relationship Between Economic Growth and Water Environmental Quality of Anshan City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Kangkang; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the decomposition model of environmental quality and univariate regression model, the relationships of industrial wastewater drainage with economic scale, economic structure, and technological level in Anshan, a mining city in Northeast China, were studied. The results showed that, due to scale effect, the drainage of three important industrial wastewater pollutants (COD, NH3-N and petroleum) increased 8505t, 671t and 384t, respectively, and due to structure effect, those pollutants drainage increased 3996t, 174t and 120t from 2001 to 2006. While due to technological effect, the drainage of COD, NH3-N and petroleum reduced 4452t, 458t and 331t, and due to cross effect, those pollutants drainage reduced 7270t, 575t and 476t simultaneously. Meantime, the relationships between household consumption structure and domestic sewage discharge were analyzed, and domestic sewage discharges in different income levels were also compared. The results showed that, the domestic sewage discharges would increase 376t with 1000 yuan (RMB) increased in the traffic and communication consumption, and they would be 344t, 219t, 428t, 1873t, respectively, in housing consumption, food consumption, medical consumption, miscellaneous commodity consumption. The proportion of domestic sewage discharge increased for high income residents significantly, but reduced for lower income residents. The industrial wastewater pollutants drainage tends to be reduced by technical progress, while domestic sewage discharge will be a more important factor for urban water environment quality.

  11. Factors influencing disinfection by-products formation in drinking water of six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2009-11-15

    Based on the measured chemical and physical data in drinking water from six cities in China, the factors including total organic carbon (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)), pH, applied chlorine dosage, temperature, concentrations of bromide ion and several chemical elements which possibly affect the formation of trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) have been studied. The results showed that: in all factors, TOC and UV(254) have definite correlations with total THM, but have nonsignificant relationships with total HAA. In the studied pH range of 6.5-8.5 for drinking water, the total THM concentration increased with the increasing of pH value, but the total HAA concentration slightly decreased. A low but significant relationship (r=0.26, pwater temperature was low, the variation of THMs and HAAs was little, but in warmer water, the concentration of THMs and HAAs varied quickly. The extent of bromine incorporation into the DBPs increases with increasing bromide ion concentration. Based on the effect of chemical elements for the DBPs remove effect, the polyferric chloride could be a preferred flocculant agent in waterworks.

  12. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Beijing City, China and contribution to radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-10-27

    (222)Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their (222)Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  13. Acceptable Risk Analysis for Abrupt Environmental Pollution Accidents in Zhangjiakou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xi; Zhang, Zhijiao; Dong, Lei; Liu, Jing; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Liu, Renzhi

    2017-04-20

    Abrupt environmental pollution accidents cause considerable damage worldwide to the ecological environment, human health, and property. The concept of acceptable risk aims to answer whether or not a given environmental pollution risk exceeds a societally determined criterion. This paper presents a case study on acceptable environmental pollution risk conducted through a questionnaire survey carried out between August and October 2014 in five representative districts and two counties of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, China. Here, environmental risk primarily arises from accidental water pollution, accidental air pollution, and tailings dam failure. Based on 870 valid questionnaires, demographic and regional differences in public attitudes towards abrupt environmental pollution risks were analyzed, and risk acceptance impact factors determined. The results showed females, people between 21-40 years of age, people with higher levels of education, public servants, and people with higher income had lower risk tolerance. People with lower perceived risk, low-level risk knowledge, high-level familiarity and satisfaction with environmental management, and without experience of environmental accidents had higher risk tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that public satisfaction with environmental management was the most significant factor in risk acceptance, followed by perceived risk of abrupt air pollution, occupation, perceived risk of tailings dam failure, and sex. These findings should be helpful to local decision-makers concerned with environmental risk management (e.g., selecting target groups for effective risk communication) in the context of abrupt environmental accidents.

  14. Biostability in distribution systems in one city in southern China: characteristics, modeling and control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pinpin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Zhang, Chiqian; Niu, Zhangbin; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems receiving finished water from an advanced drinking water treatment plant in one city in southern China. Thirteen nodes in two water supply zones with different aged pipelines were selected to monitor water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloramine residual, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). Regression and principal component analyses indicated that HPC had a strong correlation with chloramine residual. Based on Chick-Watson's Law and the Monod equation, biostability curves under different conditions were developed to achieve the goal of HPC residual concentration under the condition of high AOC level. The simulation was also carried out to predict the scenario with a stricter HPC goal (residual. The biological regrowth control strategy was assessed using biostability curve analysis. The results indicated that maintaining high chloramine residual concentration was the most practical way to achieve the goal of HPC < or = 100 CFU/mL. Biostability curves could be a very useful tool for biostability control in distribution systems. This work could provide some new insights towards biostability control in real distribution systems.

  15. The association between meteorological factors and road traffic injuries: a case analysis from Shantou city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Chen, Xiaojun; Woodward, Alistair; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-11-01

    Few studies examined the associations of meteorological factors with road traffic injuries (RTIs). The purpose of the present study was to quantify the contributions of meteorological factors to RTI cases treated at a tertiary level hospital in Shantou city, China. A time-series diagram was employed to illustrate the time trends and seasonal variation of RTIs, and correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationships between meteorological parameters and RTIs. RTIs followed a seasonal pattern as more cases occurred during summer and winter months. RTIs are positively correlated with temperature and sunshine duration, while negatively associated with wind speed. Temperature, sunshine hour and wind speed were included in the final linear model with regression coefficients of 0.65 (t = 2.36, P = 0.019), 2.23 (t = 2.72, P = 0.007) and -27.66 (t = -5.67, P traffic management system in the future.

  16. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  17. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-min WU; Jia LIU; Wei-lian SUN; Li-li CHEN; Li-guo CHAI; Xiang XIAO; Zheng CAO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health.Methods:The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi,a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China.A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care.Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview.Clinical periodontal indices,such as bleeding on probing (BOP),probing depth (PD),and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination.Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed.Results:The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%).A significant association was found between the disease and educational level,pregnancy,taking oral contraceptives,stress,alcohol consumption,overweight,dental visit,and teeth brushing (P<0.05).Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD,obvious BOP,and clinical attachment loss.Among this population,pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress.Conclusions:The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently.Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted,especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness.

  18. The Perceptual Differences among Stakeholders in the Tourism Supply of Xi’an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stakeholders’ perceptual evaluations of the supply structure of destination tourism play an important role in promoting the sustainable development of regional tourism. However, the research on the structural perceptions of destination tourism supply is relatively insufficient in current research on the perceptions of tourism stakeholders. This paper analyzes the perceptual differences among inbound tourists, community residents and tourism practitioners from the core and auxiliary tourism supply dimensions. After having applied the structural equation model in this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the tourism supply of Xi’an, a famous tourist city in China, were identified. In addition, the findings of this paper are: the inbound tourists have high perceptual sensitivity over the factors of the urban core tourism supply; the community residents have high perceptual sensitivity over the auxiliary tourist supply factors; the tourism practitioners have similar perceptual sensitivity over the factors of urban core and auxiliary tourism supply. The advantageous factors involve tourist attractions, tourist shopping, tourist entertainment, hospitality environment and tourist information. Furthermore, the moderately stable supply factors of Xi’an include tourist transportation, tourist catering, tourist accommodation, marketing as well as safety and security, while the natural environment is the limiting factor. The results support sustainable development and the coordination of different stakeholders in the destinations.

  19. Genotypic distribution and phylogenetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in diarrheic chickens and pigs in multiple cities, China: potential zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated diarrheic broiler and layer chickens (60 days; n=64 for E. bieneusi genotypes in northeast China and evaluated the potential roles of chickens and pigs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. Two 45-day-old layer chickens in city Jixi, Heilongjiang province and one 23-day-old broiler chicken in city Songyuan, Jilin province were identified to harbor a human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV and a new genotype named CC-1, respectively, by nested PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS. Eleven of 64 (17.2% duodenal mucosal specimens from pigs in city Tianjin, city Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, cities Jilin and Songyuan of Jilin province, and cities Daqing, Harbin, and Suihua of Heilongjiang province, were positive for E. bieneusi, with the infection rates of weaned pigs (35%, 7/20 significantly higher than preweaned ones (3.6%, 1/28; P<0.05. Nucleotide sequences of the ITS were obtained from 6 pig specimens, belonging to 3 known genotypes CHN7, EbpC, and Henan-IV. That the previous reports have described the occurrence of genotypes EbpC and Henan-IV in humans and EbpC in wastewater in central China and the clustering of genotypes CC-1 and CHN7 into a major phylogenetic group of E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential indicated that chickens and pigs could be potential sources of human micorsporidiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in diarrheic chickens.

  20. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between

  1. 青岛市海岸侵蚀的原因与防治%The Origin and Countermeasures of Coastal Erosion of Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔猛; 牛茜如; 张绪良

    2012-01-01

    为了深入认识青岛市海岸带的资源、环境特征,为有效防治青岛市的海岸侵蚀灾害提供参考依据,综述了青岛市海岸侵蚀灾害的发生原因、现状特征和未来发展趋势,发现受气候变暖、台风和风暴潮强度增大、海面上升、入海河流输沙量减少、人工采砂、不合理的海岸工程建设等自然因素和人为因素影响,当前青岛市前海砂质海岸侵蚀比较严重,基岩港湾海岸侵蚀比较缓慢或相对稳定,未来海面上升将增大青岛市海岸侵蚀的强度.提出了建造丁坝、离岸堤、移沙造滩、生物护岸等防治青岛市海岸侵蚀的技术措施,以及加强立法监管、完善海岸带管理体系、加强宣传教育等管理措施.本研究的主要不足是由于受经费和所需仪器设备不足等条件的限制,未能获得对青岛市海岸侵蚀过程监测的原始数据,今后应建议有关部门加强对海岸侵蚀过程的监测.%To understand the coastal resources and environment characteristics and take effective measures to prevent and control the coastal erosion disaster of Qingdao City, the authors synthetically reviewed the cause, the present character and the future development trend of coastal erosion disaster of Qingdao City. The authors found that due to some natural factors and human factors, such as global climate wanning, typhoon and storm surge increase, sea level rise, sediment discharge decrease of rivers to sea, artificial sand mining, unreasonable coast project construction, the sand coast erosion was severe, the rock coast erosion of bay or harbor was slow relatively, and the sea level rise would aggravate the future coastal erosion of Qingdao City. Moreover, some relevant prevention countermeasures of coastal erosion were presented, such as strengthening the coastal zone exploration management, forbidding of digging sand in coast and beach, compensating sand to coast by human activity, constructing banks, groins

  2. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  3. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  4. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S.M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G.L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006–2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43−. High riverine concentrations of nitr...

  5. The Possible Physical Barrier and Coastal Dispersal Strategy for Japanese Grenadier Anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: Evidence from AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA and pairwise fixation index (FST revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  6. The possible physical barrier and coastal dispersal strategy for Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: evidence from AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-03

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  7. Analysis on inbound tourists satisfaction in China:an empirical study based on the investigation of 5 cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Rong; Wang Xueping

    2009-01-01

    In China,the tourism industry is regarded as one means of fostering local economic development.This paper tries to examine inbound tourism development in China in the last decade and analyze inbound tourism's satisfaction of their travel experience with tourist attractions,facilities,services and price by an empirical study based on the investigation of Lanzhou,Wuhan,Guangzhou,Shanghai and Beijing.This paper discusses the demographie characteristics of visitors from Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan,US,Korea and Japan by surveying a sample of 528 visitors in five different cities.The survey showed that four provinces/autonomous region in western China ranked the top 10 popular destinations.Chinese natural landscape,culture and food were highly regarded by the tourists.At the same time,tourists expressed less satisfaction with tourist language convenience,tourist facility and nightlife in China.It was also found that only 7.4% of the tourists thought travel in China was far more than what they had paid,that 6.5% regarded they got what they paid for,and that 34.9% thought the travel cost was reasonable.Most tourists were satisfied with their travel experience in China;many of them would like to return to China and would like to recommend China.For the sustainable development of tourism,Chinese tourism authorities should strengthen the construction,propaganda and management of scenic spots,improve tourist facility and tourist edueation,especially language convenience,and strengthen the supervision of tickets,souvenir and hotel prtce.

  8. Size distributions of elemental carbon in a coastal urban atmosphere in South China: characteristics, evolution processes, and implications for the mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhen Yu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), as one of the primary light-absorbing components in the atmosphere, has a significant impact on both regional and global climate. The environmental impacts of EC are strongly dependent on its particle size. Little is known about the size distribution characteristics of EC particles in the ambient environments of China. We here report size distributions of EC in the urban area of Shenzhen in South China. EC consistently exhibited two modes, a fine and a coarse mode. The majority of EC (~80%) in this coastal metropolitan city resided in particles smaller than 3.2 μm in diameter. The fine mode peaked at around either 0.42 μm or 0.75 μm. While the mode at 0.42 μm could be ascribed to fresh vehicular emissions in this region, the mode at 0.75 μm had to be a result of particle growth from smaller EC particles. We made a theoretical investigation of the particle growth processes that were responsible for EC particles to grow from 0.42 μm to 0.75 μm in the atmosphere. Our calculations indicate that the EC peak at 0.75 μm could not be produced through either coagulation or H2SO4 condensation; both were too slow to lead to significant EC growth. Hygroscopic growth was also calculated to be impossible. Instead, addition of sulfate through in-cloud processing was found to be able to significantly grow EC particles to explain the EC peak at 0.75 μm. We also estimated from the EC size distributions the mixing state of EC. In the droplet size, at least 45-60% of EC mass in the summer samples and 68% of EC mass in the winter samples was internally mixed with sulfate as a result of in-cloud processing. Such information on EC needs to be considered in modeling aerosol optical properties in this region. Our results also suggest that the in-cloud processing of primary EC particles could enhance light absorbing capacities through mixing EC and sulfate.

  9. Size distributions of elemental carbon in the atmosphere of a coastal urban area in South China: characteristics, evolution processes, and implications for the mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.-F.; Yu, J. Z.

    2008-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), as one of the primary light-absorbing components in the atmosphere, has a significant impact on both regional and global climate. The environmental impacts of EC are strongly dependent on its particle size. Little is known about the size distribution characteristics of EC particles in China's ambient environments. We report size distributions of EC particles in the urban area of Shenzhen in Southern China. In our samples, EC was consistently found in two modes, a fine mode and a coarse mode. The majority of EC mass (~80%) in this coastal metropolitan city resided in particles smaller than 3.2 μm in diameter. The fine mode peaked at around either 0.42 μm or 0.75 μm. While the mode at 0.42 μm could be ascribed to fresh vehicular emissions in the region, the mode at 0.75 μm was likely a result of particle growth from smaller EC particles. We theoretically investigated the particle growth processes that caused the EC particles to grow from 0.42 μm to 0.75 µm in the atmosphere. Our calculations indicate that the EC peak at 0.75 μm was not produced through either coagulation or H2SO4 condensation; both processes are too slow to lead to significant EC growth. Hygroscopic growth was also determined to be insignificant. Instead, addition of sulfate through in-cloud processing was found to cause significant growth of the EC particles and to explain the EC peak at 0.75 μm. We also estimated the mixing state of EC from the EC size distributions. In the droplet size, at least 45 60% of the EC mass in the summer samples and 68% of the EC mass in the winter samples was internally mixed with sulfate as a result of in-cloud processing. This information on EC should be considered in models of the optical properties of aerosols in this region. Our results also suggest that the in-cloud processing of primary EC particles could increase the light absorbing capacities through mixing EC with sulfate.

  10. Size distributions of elemental carbon in a coastal urban atmosphere in South China: characteristics, evolution processes, and implications for the mixing state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Huang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Elemental carbon (EC, as one of the primary light-absorbing components in the atmosphere, has a significant impact on both regional and global climate. The environmental impacts of EC are strongly dependent on its particle size. Little is known about the size distribution characteristics of EC particles in the ambient environments of China. We here report size distributions of EC in the urban area of Shenzhen in South China. EC consistently exhibited two modes, a fine and a coarse mode. The majority of EC (~80% in this coastal metropolitan city resided in particles smaller than 3.2 μm in diameter. The fine mode peaked at around either 0.42 μm or 0.75 μm. While the mode at 0.42 μm could be ascribed to fresh vehicular emissions in this region, the mode at 0.75 μm had to be a result of particle growth from smaller EC particles. We made a theoretical investigation of the particle growth processes that were responsible for EC particles to grow from 0.42 μm to 0.75 μm in the atmosphere. Our calculations indicate that the EC peak at 0.75 μm could not be produced through either coagulation or H2SO4 condensation; both were too slow to lead to significant EC growth. Hygroscopic growth was also calculated to be impossible. Instead, addition of sulfate through in-cloud processing was found to be able to significantly grow EC particles to explain the EC peak at 0.75 μm. We also estimated from the EC size distributions the mixing state of EC. In the droplet size, at least 45–60% of EC mass in the summer samples and 68% of EC mass in the winter samples was internally mixed with sulfate as a result of in-cloud processing. Such information on EC needs to be considered in modeling aerosol optical properties in this region. Our results also suggest that the in-cloud processing of primary EC particles could enhance light absorbing capacities through mixing EC and sulfate.

  11. Size distributions of elemental carbon in the atmosphere of a coastal urban area in South China: characteristics, evolution processes, and implications for the mixing state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Elemental carbon (EC, as one of the primary light-absorbing components in the atmosphere, has a significant impact on both regional and global climate. The environmental impacts of EC are strongly dependent on its particle size. Little is known about the size distribution characteristics of EC particles in China's ambient environments. We report size distributions of EC particles in the urban area of Shenzhen in Southern China. In our samples, EC was consistently found in two modes, a fine mode and a coarse mode. The majority of EC mass (~80% in this coastal metropolitan city resided in particles smaller than 3.2 μm in diameter. The fine mode peaked at around either 0.42 μm or 0.75 μm. While the mode at 0.42 μm could be ascribed to fresh vehicular emissions in the region, the mode at 0.75 μm was likely a result of particle growth from smaller EC particles. We theoretically investigated the particle growth processes that caused the EC particles to grow from 0.42 μm to 0.75 µm in the atmosphere. Our calculations indicate that the EC peak at 0.75 μm was not produced through either coagulation or H2SO4 condensation; both processes are too slow to lead to significant EC growth. Hygroscopic growth was also determined to be insignificant. Instead, addition of sulfate through in-cloud processing was found to cause significant growth of the EC particles and to explain the EC peak at 0.75 μm. We also estimated the mixing state of EC from the EC size distributions. In the droplet size, at least 45–60% of the EC mass in the summer samples and 68% of the EC mass in the winter samples was internally mixed with sulfate as a result of in-cloud processing. This information on EC should be considered in models of the optical properties of aerosols in this region. Our results also suggest that the in-cloud processing of primary EC particles could increase the light absorbing capacities through mixing EC with sulfate.

  12. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  13. Chemical Compositions of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Handan city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, P.; Yang, J.; Su, J.

    2013-12-01

    Handan, a industrial city located in the southern edge of Hebei Province, is listed in the top four polluted cities in China. In this study, atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) in the urban area were collected during the period of October13 to November 21,2012, and the chemical compositions were measured for water-soluble inorganic ions(WSII) and carbonaceous species. The mean concentration of PM2.5 in that period was 112 .81 μg m-3, and in almost 70.7% of those days the PM2.5 mass concentrations exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II (NAAQS), which illustrated that the PM2.5 pollution was extremely serious in Handan. The average concentration of WSII ions in PM2.5 was 69.57 μg m-3, accounting for 61.67% of PM2.5. NO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NH4+ were four major ions, accounting for about 54.45% of PM2.5 mass. The variation of the NO3- concentrations were the largest among all the WSII ions during the sampling period. The highest daily concentration of NO3- was 66 times higher than the lowest. The ratios of NO3-/SO42- were from 0.31 to 2.25 and the average was 1.19. Carbonaceous species, OC and EC, were another important abundant composition in aerosol, accounted for 19.65% and 5.58% in PM2.5, respectively. The OC/EC ratios varied from 1.52 to 6.22 with an average of 3.44 and the estimation on a minimum OC/EC ratio showed that the secondary organic carbon (SOC) was 8.78 μg m-3.SOC concentrations during sampling period were in the range of 0.34-33.75 μg m-3, accounting for 4.81% - 65.73% of OC. High OC/EC ratios and SOC level indicated the formation of SOC was occurred during haze days. Overall, the OC/EC ratios and NO3-/SO42- indicated that vehicle exhaust and coal combustion were the main sources of pollutants in Handan.

  14. Effect of isoprene emissions from major forests on ozone formation in the city of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Geng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient surface level concentrations of isoprene (C5H8 were measured in the major forest regions located south of Shanghai, China. Because there is a large coverage of broad-leaved trees in this region, high concentrations of isoprene were measured, ranging from 1 to 6 ppbv. A regional dynamical/chemical model (WRF-Chem is applied for studying the effect of such high concentrations of isoprene on the ozone production in the city of Shanghai. The evaluation of the model shows that the calculated isoprene concentrations agree with the measured concentrations when the measured isoprene concentrations are lower than 3 ppb, but underestimate the measurements when the measured values are higher than 3 ppb. Isoprene was underestimated only at sampling sites near large bamboo plantations, a high isoprene source, indicating the need to include geospatially resolved bamboo distributions in the biogenic emission model. The assessment of the impact of isoprene on ozone formation suggests that the concentrations of peroxy radicals (RO2 are significantly enhanced due to the oxidation of isoprene, with a maximum of 30 ppt. However, the enhancement of RO2 is confined to the forested regions. Because the concentrations of NOx were low in the forest regions, the ozone production due to the oxidation of isoprene (C5H8 + OH → → RO2 + NO → → O3 is low (less than 2–3 ppb h−1. The calculation further suggests that the oxidation of isoprene leads to the enhancement of carbonyls (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the regions downwind of the forests, due to continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. As a result, the concentrations of HO2 radical are enhanced, resulting from the photo-disassociation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because the enhancement of HO2 radical occurs in regions downwind of the forests

  15. Analysis on Soil Degradation Resulted From Human Activities Near City Area in China By Use of DMSP/OLS and Other Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qigang; Shintaro GOTO; Hiroki TAKAMURA

    2001-01-01

    In order to study land use and cover changes (LUCC), especially urbanization accompanied soil degradation, authors used Asia DMSP/OLS data in 1992, Land Cover Data of Asia in 1992 and Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD, by ISRIC) in 1992, etc. In China the major type of soil degradation is water erosion, which is widely distributed especially in Loess Plateau and in Southeast and Southwest China and happened in forestland, grassland and arable land and mainly resulted from deforestation. The secondary type is wind erosion, which is mainly distributed in Northwest China and happened in arable land and grassland and was mainly caused by overgrazing. Chemical deterioration is mainly distributed in North and Northwest China and happened in paddy, arable land and grassland. Physical deterioration only concentrated in local area in North China and happened in arable land and paddy. Chemical and physical deterioration were resulted from unreasonable agricultural activity. From city to city + 200km with different distance away from city, different types and strength of human activities resulted in different types and distributions of soil degradation. In China human activity mainly concentrated within city+ 50km, therefore, accompanied soil degradation, such as chemical and physical deterioration, mainly happened near and around city.

  16. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zuxun; Liu, Junan

    2013-01-01

    Background With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. Methods A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community health centers (CHCs) from 2007 to 2009. Indicators of responsiveness that were recommended by the World Health Organization were adopted, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS. Results The responsiveness scored at a fairly ‘good’ level of 7.45, 7.45, and 7.46 for CHS in years 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. The representative responsiveness inequality indexes were 0.097, 0.101, and 0.109, respectively, indicating the moderately balanced distributions of responsiveness in these three years. During this period, the scores of responsiveness elements were highest at 7.44 to 8.34 in “dignity”, “communication”, and “social support”, while lowest at 6.76 to 7.54 in “autonomy”, “confidentiality”, and “basic amenities”. The results of the logistic regression analysis suggested that five elements (OR value), namely, “dignity” (1.414–3.345), “communication” (1.218–3.655), “basic amenities” (1.251–2.362), “prompt attention” (1.098–1.590), and “autonomy” (1.416–2.173), had significant associations with CHS responsiveness. Conclusions The responsiveness of CHS in Wuhan City was fairly good but still requires further improvement, particularly on the working conditions of CHCs and communication skills trainings among CHS workers. PMID:23658785

  17. Strategic Choice on Transformation Mode of China¡¯s Resource-based Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhuang Mao

    2014-01-01

    The industrial structure of the resource-based cities is relatively single. The ability to withstand macroeconomic risk is relatively weak. And with the depletion of resources, the issue of the transformation of the resource-based cities is becoming more and more urgent. Currently, researches focus mainly on the selection and developing of the leading industries of the resource-based cities. This is the goal and direction of the transformation in the resource-based cities, which is to be solv...

  18. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  19. Characterization of Two Efficient Aerobic Denitrifying Strains Isolated from Shallow Aquifers in Suzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, X.; Zhu, X.; Sun, H.; Li, M.

    2010-12-01

    Sixty two stains that can utilize nitrate as source of nitrogen under aerobic conditions were isolated from shallow aquifer samples in Suzhou city, China. Two of the strains, XK42 and PJ21, can convert nitrate into nitrogen gas efficiently without obvious accumulation of nitite. According to morphological, biochemical/biophysical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, XK42 and PJ21 were identified as Pseudomonas Stutzeri and Pseudomonas Mendocica, respectively. The generation time, optimum pH value range and optimum growth temperature range were 4.64h, 6.5˜8.0, 25˜35°C for XK42 and 8.39h, 6.5˜8.5, 25˜35°C for PJ21. Under aerobic conditions (DO=6.9˜7.8 mg/L), the nitrate concentrations in the medium inoculated with XK42 and PJ21 decreased to 42.35 mg/L and 35.69 mg/L with initial nitrate concentration of 276.25 mg/L within 12 hours, respectively. The nitrite concentrations reached to 3.06 mg/L and 3.70 mg/L, and their nitrate removal rates reached 18.24 mg/L●h and 17.51 mg/L●h. The total nitrogen loss through denitrification of XK42 and PJ21 were 70.9% and 66.3%, respectively. The nitrate reduction efficiencies within 60 hours was up to 95.13% (strain XK42) and 95.55% (strain PJ21). The results indicate that the isolated strians XK42 and PJ21 are aerobic denitrifiers with high nitrogen removal efficiency, and can be used for in-situ bioremediation of nitrogen-contaminated shallow groundwater and biotreatment of wasterwater.

  20. Occurrence of selected aliphatic amines in source water of major cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Zhang; Shuoyi Ren; Jianwei Yu; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    The formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs),such as nitrosamines,halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles,from reactions between chlorine/chloramine and dissolved organic nitrogen in drinking water has caused great concern with regarding public health.This study revealed the occurrence of 17 aliphatic amines,some of which have been confirmed to be the precursors of N-DBPs,in source water across China.A sensitive method based on benzenesulfonyl chloride derivatization and liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-MS analysis was established for the simultaneous analysis of the selected amines in aqueous samples.In total,37 source water samples from the capital cities of 20 provinces were collected for the survey.Among the 17 amines,14 were detected with an average frequency of detection of 36%.The most relevant amines in terms of frequency and maximum concentrations detected were dimethylamine (100%,24.82 μg/L),methylamine (78%,0.92 μg/L),N-methylethylamine (70%,8.84 μg/L),propylamine (59%,10.69 μg/L),diethylamine (54%,3.76 μg/L),N-methylbutylamine (35%,3.07 μg/L),N-ethylpropylamine (35%,0.52 μg/L),and piperidine (32%,2.35 μg/L).This is the first large scale survey of the aliphatic amines occurrence in source water in the world.The wide presence of nitrosamine precursors like dimethylamine,N-methylethylamine and diethylamine,and the precursors of haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes like methylamine and propylamine suggests that better source water management is required to ensure the safety of drinking water.

  1. Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Greenhouse Land Change in Shouguang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important facet of modern agricultural development, greenhouses satisfy ever-increasing demands for agricultural production and, therefore, constitute a growing proportion of global agriculture. However, just a handful of countries regularly collect statistics on the land cover of greenhouse infrastructure. Even when collected, these data cannot provide the detailed spatial information required for environmental risk assessment. It is, therefore, important to map spatial changes in greenhouse land cover using remote sensing (RS approaches to determine the underlying factors driving these changes. In this paper, we apply a support vector machine (SVM algorithm to identify greenhouse land cover in Shouguang City, China. Enhanced thematic mapper (ETM images were selected as the data source for land use classification in this study as they can be freely acquired and offer the necessary spatial resolution. We then used a binary logistic regression model to quantitatively discern the mechanisms underlying changes in greenhouse land cover. The results of this study show that greenhouse land cover in Shouguang increased by 50.51% between 2000 and 2015, and that 90.39% of this expansion took place between 2010 and 2015. Elevation, slope, precipitation, and the distance to the nearest rural settlements and coastline are all significant factors driving expansion in greenhouse land cover, while distance to the nearest urban areas, rivers, roads, railways, and coastline have contributed to contractions in this land use type. Our research provided a practical approach to allow the detection of changes in greenhouse land cover in the countries with using free or low-cost satellite images.

  2. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Wei, M.

    2015-01-01

    to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however......Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil...... temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda...

  3. Crude Imports Triggers Investment Fever of Oil Wharves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's record high crude import of 80 million tons in 2003 has triggered a fever of oil wharf construction along the country's eastern coastal regions. Reportedly, the coastal harbor cities, such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nantong, Ningbo,Zhoushan, Maoming and Zhanjiang, have stepped up the efforts for construction of wharves, the large-scale berths for oil products in particular, so as to stimulate the rapid development of the local petrochemical and commodity flow industries.

  4. The occurrence of haloanisoles as an emerging odorant in municipal tap water of typical cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Kumirska, Jolanta

    2016-07-01

    In this study, occurrence of the haloanisoles odorous compounds in tap water of Chinese cities, were investigated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC/MS analysis. This study revealed the occurrence of four kinds of haloanisoles in 22 cities of China in both summer and winter. Except 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA), all studied haloanisoles showed higher frequency of detection. 2,3,6-Trichloroanisole (2,3,6-TCA) and 2,3,4-trichloroanisole (2,3,4-TCA) showed higher occurrence concentration; however, the relative odor values of them was lower. These values of 2,4,6-TBA and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in all samples were greater than zero in both summer and winter, indicating the odor from haloanisoles could be felt by human noise. This study further showed that Beijing exhibited most serious occurrence of haloanisoles that were depended on the season and drinking water distribution system (country and city). From this study, it was confirmed that haloanisoles was important taste and odor compounds in tap water of China. Based on the survey of occurrence of halophenol and residual chlorine, the possible source for the formation of haloanisoles in tap water was discussed. Furthermore, several suggestions on control the haloanisoles odor in drinking water treatment plant and water distribution system were provided.

  5. Sustaining Regional Advantages in Manufacturing: Skill Accumulation of Rural–Urban Migrant Workers in the Coastal Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extant research pays little attention to unorganized migrant workers’ skill accumulation/upgrading from the perspective of the labor supply. This paper takes China as an example to explore the factors influencing the skill accumulation of rural–urban migrant workers (RUMWs, with the purpose of discovering how to sustain or reshape regional competitive advantages by improving RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Structured questionnaire surveys were adopted for data collection in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province and Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province located in the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China. In total, 700 questionnaires were issued and 491 effective questionnaires were recovered. It takes the perspective of individual laborers, with special regard to the effects of localization on the laborers’ skill accumulation within the context of globalization. It adopts a broad viewpoint including intra-firm skill-biased strategy (as a response to intense competition, inter-firm relationships, and the accessibility of local non-firm organizations. The findings indicate that firms’ skill preference, which impacts employees’ skills and innovation ability and stimulates them to learn with initiative, have a significant influence on RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In terms of collective efficiency based on the co-competitive relationship between local firms, the more intensive interactions are, the more opportunities RUMWs are afforded for skill accumulation. The accessibility of local institutions and favorable policies also benefit RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In addition, the place itself, as a synthesized space of a firm’s internal labor-management relations and inter-organizational relations, also exerts an influence on and causes regional differences in RUMWs’ skill accumulation.

  6. Geochemical characterization and heavy metal migration in a coastal polluted aquifer incorporating tidal effects: field investigation in Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Bo; Dai, Chaomeng; Lou, Sha; Tao, An; Zhong, Guihui

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and migration of heavy metal in coastal aquifer incorporating tidal effects were investigated in detail by the field geological survey and observation. The continuous groundwater sampling, field observation (for groundwater potentiometric surface elevation, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity), and laboratory analysis (for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentration) were conducted through eight monitoring wells located around the landfill in the northern part of Chongming Island, China. The results showed that the unconfined aquifer medium was estuary-littoral facies deposit of Holocene, mainly gray clayey silt and grey sandy silt, and the groundwater flow was mainly controlled by topography condition of the aquifer formation strike. The background values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Chongming Island were 3.10 ± 3.09, 0.81 ± 0.25, 1.48 ± 1.09, 43.32 ± 33.06, 0.08 ± 0.16, and 0.88 ± 1.74 μg/L, respectively. Compared with the groundwater samples around the study area, the drinking water was qualified and was free from the seawater intrusion/estuarine facies contaminant encroachment. Pollutant discharge was reflected in water quality parameters, the Cr and Cu concentrations elevated to the peak of 50.07 and 46.00 μg/L, respectively, and meanwhile specific migration regularity was embodied in observation time series as well as other elements. This migration regularity was not fully identical according to correlations between these analyzed elements. Ambient watery environment, anthropogenic disturbance, regional hydrogeological condition, and biogeochemical reactivity on heavy metals reduced/altered the significance of elements correlation in the migration pathway in coastal aquifer.

  7. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wereanalyzed in sediment and mussel( Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, SouthChina. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/glipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and< 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment,and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presentedsimilar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantlycorrelated ( p < 0.01 ) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several timeshigher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compoundsmeasured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, andtetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition.According to the present results, three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, LingdingYang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all musselsamples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 μg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group ofGuangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  8. Low-Frequency Variability of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass Identified from the China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the Yellow Sea cold watermass (YSCWM) and its relationship to...Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the Yellow Sea cold water mass (YSCWM) and...China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data. CORA assimi- lated the in situ observed temperature and salinity profiles collected by the

  9. Winter Phytoplankton Assemblages of Coastal Yellow Sea Connected to Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Lixia; SUN Jun; HE Qing; WANG Dan; WANG Min

    2007-01-01

    The daily species variation of phytoplankton assemblage of coastal Yellow Sea connected to Jiaozhou Bay in the seawater around the Xiaoqingdao Island was studied for the three months of winter, 2003. A total of 79 taxa from four phyla, Bacillariophyta (52 species), Pyrrophyta (25 species), Chrysophyta (1 species), and Cyanophyta (1 species) were determined. In general,the most important groups were Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta on cell abundance and species richness. In January, the dominant species was mainly composed of cosmopolitan species such as Skeletonema costatum, then it changed to cosmopolitan species Thalassiosira nordenskiodii in February, and finally, it recovered to Skeletonema costatum again in March. Cell abundance ranged from 1.02 to 130.71 ×103 cells L-1 with a single peak on 6th Feb., and the average abundance was 28.11 ± 26.01 × 103 cells L-1 (n= 90) during the winter time. The trends of Shannon-Weiner diversity index and Pielou's evenness index were contrary to cell abundance, whereas the species diversity and evenness were the lowest in February. Temperature and salinity were closely correlated to phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance. According to the variations of temperature and salinity, species sequence was