WorldWideScience

Sample records for china chugoku ni

  1. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Technical engineers exchange project (coal mine technology field). Training in China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun`ya). Chugoku no kenshu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, T. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The paper described JCOAL`s project on the exchange of technical coal engineers of China. In the project on sending of engineers to China in the first term, coal mine engineers of Japan (Taiheiyo Coal Mine, Kushiro Works, Training Center) were sent to the Daitun coal-thermal power plant, Peixuan city, Jiangsu province, in September, 1997 to introduce the production control technology in Japan. They contributed to the heightening of productivity in coal mines in China. Eighteen Chinese participated in the training. Mechanization has been comparatively well in progress, and it was 83% in coal mining and 91% in drilling. The kind of coal is mostly a raw material coal. The stuff members are 30,000, and expert engineers are 4,200. The plant has an output of 130,000 kWh, owns its railroad, is run on the general multiple management, and is largely developing. The project on sending of engineers to China in the last term was carried out in February 1998 for tracing/confirming how the results of the training conducted in September are made the most of and if or not there is something bad and for obtaining the detailed data. A certain degree of promotion and effects were able to be confirmed. A project on training of the head, sub-head, etc. who were invited to Japan to lean production/management control was also carried out in November and December 1997. 1 tab.

  4. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  7. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1995-11-10

    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  9. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Trend of natural gas demand/supply in China; Chugoku no tennen gas jukyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Confirmed recoverable reserves of natural gas are increasing at a sharp rate, with 1.7-trillion meters{sup 3} reported in 1995. Production also increased to reach 17.6-billion meters{sup 3} in the same year. The produced natural gas is all for domestic consumption at the present time. Sichuan Province occupies more than 40% of the total production. Exploration and exploitation are under way in the Shanganning district, Sichuan district, Sinkiang district, South China Sea, East China Sea, etc. Natural gas occupies 1.9% of China`s primary energy consumption, and it is urgently required that more natural gas be used in big cities in view of environmental problems. As for the transportation capability of pipelines, they handle 9-billion meters{sup 3}/year, mainly in Sichuan Province. There are large-scale pipeline systems in the Tarim basin and some other land locations and on the sea bottom of the `cliff 13-1,` partly in service already and partly under construction yet. It has been decided that Export-Import Bank of Japan invest in a submarine pipeline project off Shanghai. In 2000, China will need to import natural gas. Natural gas-fired thermal power stations and LNG storage facilities are under construction. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Mitsubishi chemistry: Spreading of carbon business in China; Kasseitan. Chugoku seisan wo kakudai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Mitsubishi chemistry strengthens the overseas development of activated carbon business. The matter that this rank worked from October is received, and activated carbon equipment of Shanshi expands global development. The policy that joint company establishment in China and the annual production that it hits present double as that part after 2001 build a system 10000 tons. The case that a headquarters area is secured in Asia recently is on the increase in activated carbon manufacturer. Regardless of the coconut tree shell and the coal, a reason is because it is favorable on the cost side. After having secured it, a production position is turned to the world market in China of the raw material location, and Mitsubishi chemistry works for the product extreme development. On the other hand, high value added development is taken about the domestic position, and a role assignment is defined. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation in China (area for survey: Hunan Province, Sichuan Province and Chongquing City); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru kankyo kisei no jittai to doko chosa (Chosa taisho chiiki: Hunan sho, Sichuan sho, Chongquing shi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In China where approximately 3/4 of the primary energy depends on coal, the survey focused especially on the area around the Yangtze River and the South area which suffer from the serious acid rain caused by combustion of the coal with much sulfur content. The paper surveyed the air pollution in terms of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation and aimed at collecting the basic data useful in planning the international cooperation of Japan which supports the promotion of CCT introduction/spread to China. The survey was conducted in Yunnan Province, Guangxi Zhaungze, and Guizhou Province in fiscal 1996, and Hunan Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongquing where the problem is the SOx emission in fiscal 1997. The items for survey are economy and industry, energy supply/demand, the actual state of coal production/consumption and coal flow among provinces, etc., SOx emitted from coal combustion facilities, data on dust emission and the state of damages, emission standards, air environmental standards and the present status and subjects of the execution of air environmental regulation/surcharge system, administrative systems and policies on industry/environment, etc. 16 refs., 17 figs., 75 tabs.

  15. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  16. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Energy conservation by modernization of a cement plant (Double Horse Cement Co.) in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku cement kojo (Double Horse Cement) kindaika ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  17. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (China); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of making technical exchanges with coal mine related engineers in China and surveying levels of coal production technology and the needs in China and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held and technical tours were made. On December 13, 2000, a workshop was held in China which was named 'Japan-China Joint Coal Project Workshop: Environment/Production/Security.' Participants were 112 including 16 from Japan and 96 from China. Subjects were as follows: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, technical exchange project and technical development, Japan-China technical cooperation project, report on the operational situation of China Coal Industry Environmental Preservation Safety Training Center, Japan-China Joint Project on spontaneous combustion prevention technology, CMG recovery/utilization system joint demonstration project, Japan-China joint coal exploration project, Japan-China coal field geology joint exploration project, etc. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on overseas geological structures. Program for exchanging engineers (coal mining area) with China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Chugoku 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese coal mining engineers were dispatched to China, to transfer techniques for mining in mine cavities and general production management techniques covering, e.g., safety, transportation and ventilation, and techniques for discovering and solving problem, in order to help improve productivity in China's coal mining. In this year, the lectures were given to managers of including manager of Meitan Industrial Co.in Zhenzhou in Henan province in China. A total of 7 lecturers, 6 from Taiheiyo Coal Mining and one from Coal Energy Center, were dispatched from Japan. The themes included outline of Taiheiyo Coal Mining; excavation techniques; transportation techniques/ventilation management/production management; equipment management/technological development/improvement of working conditions/cost management; quality management/emergency management/management of enterprises/education of employees; outline of management techniques; entering of Chaohua meitan Mine; group discussion/problems listing-up/5-stage problem solution procedure (introduction of examples); questionnaire analysis/group discussion; preparation of self check lists/roles of managers. It is considered that Japan's advanced techniques are very useful for the Chinese coal industry. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with China (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kenshu Chugoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A coal mining engineer exchange project was implemented by Japan and China for improving on coal mining engineers' production and management technologies in the Asia-Pacific region. Six engineers were dispatched to the jurisdiction of Kailuan Co., Ltd., Tangshan City, who stayed there in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. The six engineers gave lectures and training on the coal situation in the world, coal mining technology, degassing technology, production control technology, safety management technology, management technology, and the like. Ten trainees were received, who were given lectures and training at Taiheiyo Coal Mining Corporation, Kushiro City, in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. Coal mining technologies that were taught involved drift excavation, rock-bed excavation, rock bolting, and transportation. Production control technologies that were taught involved production control, equipment management, technology development, quality control, risk control, and management technologies. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  2. Geothermal energy development activities. Report of the field trip of the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin, the 30th International Geothermal Congress; Dai 30 kai IGC chugoku tenshinshi ni okeru chinetsu chokusetsu riyo no kengaku ni sanka shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, O. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The 30th International Geothermal Congress (IGC) was held in August, 1996, in the Beijing Great Hall of People`s Congress, Beijing, China. The author of the paper took part in an excursion being a part of IGC titled the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin and reported the summary in this paper. Because the Tianjin area has relatively high geothermal gradient, the direct utilization of the geothermal resources has been pushed forward from the 1980`s. An electron controlled hot water production and supply system developed by the Geothermal Resources Center, Tianjin Environment Protection Bureau is characterized in not utilizing any heat exchanger and conducting chemical treatments to prevent scaling. This system adopts a fuzzy-control, calculates the most suitable operating condition based on 48 kinds of observed parameters (hot water flow rate, pressure, external temperature, etc.) and controls automatically all the hot water production and supply system. The system can supply warming for 95,000 square meters including a municipal library and the neighboring 6 buildings. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Taking Advantages of China's Increasing Demand for Recycled Resources : Case Company: Ni-Met Resources Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the feasibility and advise the management of Ni-Met on the location of a warehouse in China. Ni-Met is a global company involved in trading of resources and commodities - primary and secondary metals, minerals and plastics. A sizeable portion of its sales are into China. The objective of this thesis is to suggest the most suitable way for Ni-Met to take advantage of China’s huge demand for commodities and resources. Ni-Met wants to increase...

  4. Medical application of NiTi shape memory alloy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Y. [Nonferrous Metals Society of China (NFSOC), Beijing, BJ (China); Dai, K. [Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai, SH (China); Zhu, M.; Mi, X. [General Research Inst. for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2000-07-01

    In the present paper, a general review of clinical application of NiTi shape memory alloy in bone implantation, orthodontics and interventional treatment in China is given with some of typical topics introduced in detail. (orig.)

  5. Basic survey project for joint implementation in fiscal 1998. Study of BFG mono-firing gas turbine combined cycle power plant application for the steel mill of China; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Chugoku seitetsu kaishamuke koro gas sensho combined cycle hatsuden setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on application to the steel mills in China of a 1100-degree C class high-efficiency combined cycle power plant (CCPP) exclusively firing blast furnace gas developed jointly by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. of Japan and ABB Corporation of Switzerland. The CCPP can utilize the energy possessed by a fuel without waste from high temperature zones to low temperature zones, being capable of attaining high efficiency that cannot be achieved with the single cycle. The CCPP has the efficiency exceeding that of the BTGP by about 10% or more in absolute value. The investigations and discussions were given on Shougang General Corporation, Anshan Steel Corporation and Wuhan Steel Corporation. As a result, in the plan for the power plant of Shougang General Corporation on which both parties have agreed, the project implementation can be expected to result in electric power generation of 110 MW in annual average, factory air supply of about 100 tons per hour in annual average, and annual reduction of carbon dioxide of 841 kilo tons. Wuhan Steel and Anshan Steel will require implementation of further detailed investigation, but the possibility of realization is considered high (NEDO)

  6. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for district heat supplying plants in Dailian City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku/Dailian shi chiiki netsu kyokyu plant kokoritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dailian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  7. Basic survey project of advanced efficiency of energy consumption in developing countries. Engineer invitation project from developing countries such as Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippine, Chugoku, Tai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For contributing to the promotion of energy saving and environmental conservation, eighteen officers and engineers were invited to Japan during the period between January 14th and 23rd in 1997, from Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand. This report summarizes the invitation project for training conducted under a theme `Energy saving and environmental conservation.` Lectures were given concerning activities of global environmental conservation by NEDO, history and measures of overcoming the Yokkaichi pollution, outline of new energy, outline of energy saving, outline of basic environment law, outline of final industrial waste treatment facilities, and global environmental issues. Site training was conducted at Hekinan Thermal Power Station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fujiwara Works of Onoda-Chichibu Cement Co., Ltd., and Yokkaichi Works of Kyowa Petroleum and Chemistry Co., Ltd. Questions and answers were exchanged. The new energy and energy saving were impressive, and were new concept for the trainees. This project was considered to be continued. The inspection of works was also well received, which was considered to be continued

  8. Magmatic Sulfide Ni-Cu Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection deposits form a major type of magmatic sulfide deposit in China. The reserves of nickel and copper in this type of deposit may attain several hundred thousand tons (e.g.Hongqi 7 and Karatunggu) to nearly ten million tons (e.g.Jinchuan). Those deposits can be classified as large or superlarge deposits. The ore grade is relatively high, commonly with w(Ni)>1 %.The mineralized intrusions are small in size, generally only 0.0n km2 to 0.n km2, with the largest one not exceeding a few km2. Before intruding, the primary magmas have undergone liquation and partial crystallization at depth; as a result, the magmas have partitioned into barren magma, ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magma and ore magma, which then ascended and injected into the present locations once or multiple times, to form ore deposits. The above-mentioned mineralizing process is known as deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection mineralization. The volume of the barren magma is generally much larger than those of the ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magma and ore magma. In the ascending process, most of the barren magma intruded into different locations or outpoured onto the ground surface, forming intrusions or lava flows. The rest barren magma, ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magmaand ore magma may either multiple times inject into the same place in which rocks and ores are formed or separately inject into different spaces to form rocks and ores. Such deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection deposits have a much smaller volume, greater ore potential and higher ore grade than those of in-situ magmatic liquation deposits. Consequently, this mineralizing process leads to the formation of large deposits in small intrusions.

  9. Dynamic Magma Conduit System Related to the Jinchuan Ni-Cu Sulfide Deposit, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xie-yan; CHEN Lie-meng; TIAN Yu-long; XIAO Jia-fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, NW China, are hosted in small ultramafic intrusions that were emplaced into Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. The ultramafic intrusions were previously thought to be the segments of a single elongate intrusion that was dismembered by late faults into eastern and western portions, each of which have distinct stratigraphic sequences.

  10. Decadal Anomalies of Winter Precipitation over Southern China in Association with El Niño and La Niña

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yuan; LI Chongyin; YANG Song

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple datasets, this paper analyzes the characteristics of winter precipitation over southern China and its association with warm and cold phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 1948-2011. The study proves that El Niño is an important external forcing factor resulting in above-normal winter precipitation in southern China. The study also reveals that the impact of La Niña on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Ni˜na before 1980, the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough over East Asia, and the western Pacifi c subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward. Therefore, anomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China, leading to a cold and dry winter. During La Ni˜na winter after 1980, however, the East Asian trough is weaker than normal, unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon. The India-Burma trough is intensifi ed, and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Ni˜na is located to the west of the Philippines. Therefore, anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China, which increases moisture fl ux from the tropical oceans to southern China. Meanwhile, La Ni˜na after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter. Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region, anomalous ascending motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation, favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Therefore, a cold and wet winter, sometimes with snowy and icy weathers, would occur in southern China during La Niña winter after 1980. Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly during the La Ni˜na mature phase, as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, would be the important reasons for the decadal

  11. Contribution of the 2015-2016 El Niño on Floods and Droughts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F.; Ye, A.

    2016-12-01

    The powerful 2015-2016 El Niño that developed in 2015 and peaked during November and December of 2015 was one of the strongest on record, comparable with the 1997-98 and 1982-83 events. This El Niño is now in decline, but its impacts on global climate will continue for many months to come. Here, we uses the "Nino 3.4 index" to classify the El Niño conditions, which is defined as the average of SST anomalies over the region 5°N - 5°S and 170° - 120°W. Since 2015, China has faced large-scale severe droughts and floods, caused a great economic loss. A comparative analysis of abnormal conditions during the period of 1981-2010 (climatology) and 2015-2016 (EI Niño) was presented to identify extreme events. In this paper, our aim was to examine the role of the 2015-2016 El Niño event on droughts and floods of China. To achieve our aim, China was divided into four regions (including southern, northern, northeastern and northwestern China), and we analyzed the influence of this El Niño on precipitation and streamflow (over period January 2015- August 2016) over each region by using statistical methods, such as linear correlations, Granger Causality Test, spectral analysis and stochastic regression models. Gridded precipitation datasets were collected from China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and station-based streamflow datasets were from hydrology bureau, respectively. In addition, we also analyzed the forecasts of 2015-2016 El Niño from the North American Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) system. Our findings may significantly improve the possibility of preparing for extreme events, and thus potentially improve water resources management in China.

  12. Predictability of Extreme Drought/Flood over China in 2015/16 Monster El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    The past monster El Niño of 2015/16 resulted in widespread droughts and floods across the globe. Particularly, North China suffered extreme drought in the summer of 2015 (where two agricultural provinces (Henan and Liaoning) were hit by the worst drought on record since 1951), and the middle and lower riches of Yangtze river underwent catastrophic flooding in June and July of 2016 (where the damages from China's 2016 floods have already topped more than 22 billion according to the International Disasters Database). Both of these devastating hydrological extremes were well captured by a dynamical seasonal climate forecast model with a good prediction of the 2015/16 big El Niño. Nevertheless, a strong El Niño does not necessarily result in an extreme drought, but depending on whether the El Niño evolves synergistically with Eurasian spring snow cover reduction to trigger a positive summer Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern that favors anomalous northerly and air sinking over North China. Added to El Niño is the high-latitude snow cover. The decreasing spring snow cover in Eurasia has been considered as one of possible reasons for the increasing of the positive EU pattern and severe droughts in North China in recent decades. We found that a dynamical-statistical forecasting approach that combines both the low- and high-latitudes precursors is more skillful than the dynamical forecast model at long lead. Therefore, the vanishing cryosphere should be considered as important factors for the extreme summer drought in North China as well in a warming future, and optimally combing them with the low-latitude signals (e.g., El Niño) will enhance the predictability of extreme droughts. In addition, we also found that the water vapor transport is more predictable than the extreme precipitation at short lead based on CFS2 seasonal real-time forecast, which may provide useful information for early warning.

  13. The strong El Niño of 2015/16 and its dominant impacts on global and China's climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Panmao; Yu, Rong; Guo, Yanjun; Li, Qingxiang; Ren, Xuejuan; Wang, Yaqiang; Xu, Wenhui; Liu, Yanju; Ding, Yihui

    2016-06-01

    The oceanic and atmospheric conditions and the related climate impacts of the 2015/16 ENSO cycle were analyzed, based on the latest global climate observational data, especially that of China. The results show that this strong El Niño event fully established in spring 2015 and has been rapidly developing into one of the three strongest El Niño episodes in recorded history. Meanwhile, it is also expected to be the longest event recorded, attributable to the stable maintenance of the abnormally warm conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean since spring 2014. Owing to the impacts of this strong event, along with climate warming background, the global surface temperature and the surface air temperature over Chinese mainland reached record highs in 2015. Disastrous weather in various places worldwide have occurred in association with this severe El Niño episode, and summer precipitation has reduced significantly in North China, especially over the bend of the Yellow River, central Inner Mongolia, and the coastal areas surrounding Bohai Bay. Serious drought has occurred in some of the above areas. The El Niño episode reached its peak strength during November-December 2015, when a lower-troposphere anomalous anticyclonic circulation prevailed over the Philippines, bringing about abnormal southerlies and substantially increased precipitation in southeastern China. At the same time, a negative phase of the Eurasia-Pacific teleconnection pattern dominated over the mid-high latitudes, which suppressed northerly winds in North China. These two factors together resulted in high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and frequent haze weather in this region. Currently, this strong El Niño is weakening very rapidly, but its impact on climate will continue in the coming months in some regions, especially in China.

  14. Geology and genesis of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnelier, Nicolas J.

    The Jinchuan intrusion in northwestern China hosts the third-largest Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit in the world. It is distinguished from other deposits of this type by a very large amount of mineralization (at least 500 Mt at ˜1.2 wt% Ni) compared to the relatively small volume of the intrusion (6000 x 300m) and the predominance of net-textured ore over other textures. Most of the intrusion is composed of ultramafic rocks whose compositions include harzburgites, lherzolites, and plagioclase lherzolites. Rare wehrlites and gabbros along the margins of the intrusion represent the most evolved rock types and have been previously considered to be less olivine-rich equivalents of the lherzolite and to be representative of the parental magma composition. The intrusion contains three main Ore Bodies numbered 2, 1, and 24 from SE to NW. The Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization occurs as net-textured and disseminated sulfides, but the textures vary between the different ore bodies. The central part of Jinchuan (Ore Body 1) hosts ˜60% of the known mineralization and is described as concentrically zoned, with net-textured ore surrounded by patchy disseminated mineralization, barren peridotite, and marginal wehrlites with significantly lower olivine content. However, other features, such as olivine grain size, interstitial mineralogy and Ni/Cu ratio in the ore zone, appear to be asymmetric, consistent with previous interpretations that Jinchuan was emplaced as a sub-horizontal sill. The southeastern and northwestern parts are more asymmetrically zoned, with patchy net-textured and localized massive ore overlain by disseminated mineralization and barren lherzolite. The ores in Jinchuan generally contain moderate amounts of sulfide (rarely exceeding 30%) but are rich in Ni and Cu and depleted in PGE relative to these elements. Jinchuan rock types are very Mg and Fe-rich (reflecting their high olivine and orthopyroxene contents). They are enriched in LREE and their isotope and trace element

  15. Weakest winter South China Sea western boundary current caused by the 2015-2016 El Niño event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruixiang; Zhu, Xiao-Hua

    2016-10-01

    During the winter of 2015-2016, the strongest El Niño event of the twenty-first century occurred. At the same time, volume transport (VT) time series of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC) exhibited a minimum value of 3.7 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) toward the southwest, indicating the weakest strength ever recorded in boreal winter (from November to February). The South China Sea (SCS) cyclonic gyre, inferred from the satellite-derived surface absolute geostrophic current, was significantly reduced. It was considered that the weakened wind stress curl (negative anomaly) over the SCS resulting from an anticyclone over the Philippine Sea played an essential role. The anticyclone arose from a Rossby-wave response to a negative sea surface temperature anomaly in the northwest Pacific. This idea is further supported by composite analysis, which shows that during El Niño (La Niña) winter, negative (positive) wind stress curl anomalies prevail in the Philippine Sea and the SCS; thus, the wind stress curl over the SCS is reduced (strengthened), leading to a weaker (stronger) SCS cyclonic gyre and SCSWBC. The mean VT of SCSWBC is 4.7 Sv (5.6 Sv), which is smaller (larger) than 5.2 Sv in normal years. This study provides robust observational evidence from long-term in situ volume transport monitoring that El Niño can have a significant impact on the SCSWBC through an atmosphere-bridged teleconnection.

  16. REE Characteristics of the Kalatongke Cu-Ni Deposit, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuwang; WANG Jingbin; WANG Lijuan; WANG Yong; TU Caineng

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the study on the REE geochemistry of the ore minerals and host rocks of the Kalatongke Cu-Ni deposit, Xinjiang, it is indicated that the major ore minerals, sulfides, were sourced from the host mafic-ultramafic magma.Characterized by low REE content of sulfide, such a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit occurring in the orogen is obviously different from that on the margin of the craton. Because the mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Cu-Ni sulfide deposit occurring in the orogen is water-rich and the REEs of some sulfides show a particular "multiple-bending" pattern, which suggests coexistence of multiple liquid phases (fluid and melt), the sulfide melt possibly contains a great deal of hydrothermal fluids and increasingly developed gases and liquid-rich ore-forming fluids after the main metallogenic epoch (magmatic segregation stage).

  17. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun

    2017-08-01

    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  18. Lithological and geochemical constraints on the magma conduit systems of the Huangshan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu-Feng; Song, Xie-Yan; Hollings, Pete; Chen, Lie-Meng; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Dayu; Zhao, Bingbing

    2017-08-01

    Magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang, China, are associated with small mafic-ultramafic complexes, with the sulfide ores generally occurring in ultramafic rocks. The Huangshan deposit (up to 65 Mt of ore at 0.49% Ni and 0.31% Cu), one of the largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, is composed of a layered sequence of lower websterite, lower lherzolite, websterite, norite-gabbro, gabbro, diorite, and gabbronorite, with sulfide mineralization mainly found in the lower lherzolite, lower websterite, and websterite. Systematic variations of the major oxides and trace elements suggest that the rocks of the Huangshan deposit are fractionated from the same parental magma, with the sharp contact and discontinuous trends of major oxide contents between different lithologies implying intrusion of four distinct stages of magma from a single deep-seated staging chamber. The reversals in olivine Fo contents and major oxides in the lower lherzolite were the result of inhomogeneity in olivine within the lower chamber. The Se/S ratios (63.1˜150 × 10-6) and the negative correlation between Se/S and δ34S (0.63˜2.42‰) of the sulfide ores suggest that a large contribution of crustal S caused the sulfide segregation. The sulfides in the lower lherzolite have lower Cu contents (1386-2200 ppm) and Cu/Pd ratios (2.31 × 105-1.36 × 106) relative to those in the mineralized lower websterite (Cu = 2300 to 18,700 ppm, and Cu/Pd = 6.65 × 105 to 2.73 × 106). A positive correlation between Pd/Ir and Ni/Ir for the vein-textured sulfides in the lower websterite likely reflects fractionated sulfides picked up by a new pulse of magma. In contrast, the restricted range of Pd/Ir ratios indicates that the PGE contents of the disseminated sulfides in the lower lherzolite resulted from reaction between the sulfides and new pulses of S-undersaturated magma.

  19. Short-Term Effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on Pediatric Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hualiang; Zou, Hong; Wang, Qinzhou; Liu, Chunxiao; Lang, Lingling; Hou, Xuexin; Li, Zhenjun

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was an emerging viral infectious disease in recent years in Shenzhen. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric HFMD in Shenzhen, China. Daily count of HFMD among children aged below 15 years old, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and weather variables were collected to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was applied ...

  20. Re-Os isotopes and PGE geochemistry of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide bed from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shaoyong; YANG Jinghong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; CHEN Yongquan; CHEN Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation consists of a thick black shale sequence with a regionally distributed conformable Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide horizon and a chert bed at its basal strata on theYangtze Platform, South China. In this paper, we discuss all available data on Re-Os isotopes and Platinum Group Element (PGE) distribution pattern of the Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide ore and its host rocks (black shales, cherts, and phosphorites) from Guizhou and Hunan provinces. Our results show that the black shales and the Ni-Mo sulfide ore have a high initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.78~0.86, indicating that the Early Cambrian ocean across the Yangtze Platform had a highly radiogenic Os value. This ratio is slightly lower than but still similar to present-day seawater, possibly as a result of high continental weathering at that time. The Ni-Mo sulfide ore yields a Re-Os isochron of 537±10 Ma (MSWD=11.9), possibly representing the depositional age of the Niutitang Formation. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern, Pt anomaly (Pt/Pt*), Pt/Pd, Ir/Pd, Au/Ir and Re/Mo ratios of the Ni-Mo sulfide ore and its host rocks from South China indicate a varying source contribution of the PGE and other metals for different rocks. It is suggested that the cherts and Ni-Mo sulfide ore may have a significant proportion of PGE and probably other metals deriving from submarine-hydrothermal fluids with a mantle signature.

  1. PGE geochemistry and Re Os dating of massive sulfide ores from the Baimazhai Cu Ni deposit, Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengwei; Sun, Weidong; Shi, Guiyong; Sun, Yali; Xiong, Dexin; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2008-09-01

    The Baimazhai deposit in Yunnan Province is one of the largest Cu-Ni sulfide deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions in China. Concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) in massive sulfide ores and host rocks from Baimazhai were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following nickel sulfide fire assay pre-concentration. The results show that the total PGE (ΣPGE) are quite low, decreasing gradually from central massive ores (78.2-556 ppb) to olivine pyroxenite (0.472-67.0 ppb), gabbro (0.847 ppb) and, websterite (0.76-0.809). The intruded lamprophyre dykes also show low ΣPGE (2.98-4.07 ppb). The ΣPGE exhibit obvious positive correlations with Au, Ni and Cu contents. Primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns of the massive Cu-Ni ores are of the Pt-Pd type with relatively steep and trough-like patterns, which are similar to those of the host rocks. In addition, the Pt/Pd and Cu/Pd ratios of the massive sulfide ores are similar to those of olivine pyroxenite, gabbro and websterite. These characteristics suggest that sulfides in the massive ores are of magmatic origin, co-genetic with their host rocks. The relatively high Pt/Pd ratios of the Baimazhai massive sulfide ores (averaging 0.83) and their host rocks imply that the Baimazhai sulfides formed in a single sulfide saturation event, but not through multiple sulfide injections. High Ir contents (0.77-5.52 ppb, averaging 2.35 ppb) and dramatically variable Pd/Ir ratios (4.76-296, averaging 138) of the massive sulfide ores suggest that the Baimazhai sulfide ores might have suffered significant late stage hydrothermal alteration. The Baimazhai massive sulfide ores yield a Re-Os isochron age of 259 ± 20 Ma (MSWD = 0.025), which is the same as the major eruption stage of the Emeishan large igneous province and the Baimazhai intrusion, further supporting their magmatic origin. The initial 187Os/ 188Os value of 0.456 ± 0.026 indicates that crustal contamination has played

  2. Bio-active trace elements (cd, cu, fe, ni) in the oligotrophic south china sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L.-S.; Jiann, K.-T.; Liu, K.-K.

    2003-04-01

    Bio-active trace elements (Cu, Ni, Cd, Fe) in seawater play a critical role in regulating oceanic phytoplankton growth and, hence, may influence global carbon cycle. However, their in-situ speciation and bio-reactivity are poorly understood. Dissolved copper and nickel are believed to be present in seawater predominantly as low molecular weight soluble organic complexes which are readily available to marine organism and immune from particle scavenging. Dissolved iron is believed to exist predominantly as high molecular weight colloidal species. Using ultraclean ultrafiltration and ion exchange/affinity chelating chemistry, we demonstrate that in the oligotrophic ocean waters, these four bio-active elements have distinctive characteristics of speciation and reactivity, even though they display similar nutrient-type distributions. For dissolved Cu, the concentration increased from 0.9 nM in the surface water to 3 nM at depths below 500 m; for dissolved Ni, 2˜9 nM; for dissolved Cd, 0.01˜0.9 nM; for dissolved Fe, 0.1˜0.6 nM. All four elements showed a subsurface minimum around 60 m deep, which corresponded to the subsurface Chl a maximum, indicating strong biological interactions with these elements. Detailed analysis revealed distinct size distribution and chemical reactivity for each element. For Cu, more than 50% in surface water was in smaller than 1kDa labile forms; the strongly complexed inert form increased from 28% at surface to 50% below 500 meter; the colloidal form Cu decreased from 12% at surface to a minimum of 6% at 60 meter, and then gradually increased to 16% in deeper water. For Ni, more than 80% was in smaller than 1kDa labile form, and very small fraction (˜5%) in colloidal from. For Cd, almost all dissolved fraction was in smaller than 1kDa labile form. As for Fe, its dynamic nature in water column caused by complicated bio-interactions was evident. This study indicated that, with preferential uptake of trace elements by different phytoplankton

  3. Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization of the Huangshannan mafic-untramafic intrusion, Eastern Tianshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, YongQiang; Ke, Junjun

    2015-06-01

    The Huangshannan Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposit, a new discovery from geological prospecting in Eastern Tianshan, is in a belt of magmatic Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposits along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The host intrusion of the Huangshannan deposit is composed of a layered ultramafic sequence and a massive gabbro-diorite unit. The major sulfide orebodies occur mainly within websterite and lherzolite in the layered ultramafic sequence. In-situ zircon U-Pb dating analyses yielded a crystallization age of 282.5 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the ages of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Samples from the Huangshannan intrusion are characterized by nearly flat rare earth elements patterns, negative Zr, Ti and Nb anomalies, arc-like Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and significantly lower rare earth element and immobile trace element contents than the Tarim basalts. These characteristics suggest that the Huangshannan intrusion was not generated from the Tarim mantle plume. The primary magma for the Huangshannan intrusion and its associated sulfide mineralization were formed from different pulses of picritic magma with different degrees of crustal contamination. The first pulse underwent an initial removal of 0.016% sulfide in the deep magma chamber. The evolved magma reached sulfide saturation again in the shallow magma chamber and formed sulfide ores in lherzolite. The second pulse of magma reached a level of 0.022% sulfide segregation at staging chamber before ascending up to the shallow magma chamber. In the shallow conduit system, this sulfide-unsaturated magma mixed with the first pulse of magma and with contamination from the country rocks, leading to the formation of sulfide ores in websterite. The third magma pulse from the deep chamber formed the unmineralized massive gabbro-diorite unit of the Huangshannan intrusion.

  4. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  5. El estado nutricional de niñas chinas adoptadas en España Nutritional status in Chinese adopted girls in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lourenço Nogueira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Frente al creciente número de adopciones chinas en algunos países como España, se planteó un estudio para conocer y evaluar el perfil nutricional a la llegada y su probable implicación en el estado general de salud, crecimiento y desarrollo de niñas chinas adoptadas. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 85 niñas chinas adoptadas en España en el periodo de 2002 a 2003, con edades comprendidas entre 7 y 33 meses de vida, remitidas a la Unidad de Pediatría Social del Hospital Niño Jesús, Madrid. Se recogieron datos referentes a la institución de procedencia, parámetros nutricionales (antropométricos y bioquímicos, presencia de enfermedades asociadas y retrasos de desarrollo (psicomotor/edad-ósea. Resultados: El índice nutricional de Waterlow reflejó un 11% de malnutrición basándose en las tablas de referencia china, frente a un 58% obtenido por las tablas españolas, del cual el 82% era malnutrición aguda. Comparando la eficacia de dos métodos de valoración nutricional, propuestos por Waterlow y Gómez, no hubo diferencias en la detección de malnutrición, a pesar de que este último autor prioriza el índice peso/edad como indicador nutricional en edades por debajo de los 2 años. El 18% de las niñas fueron consideradas en grupo de riesgo (talla/edad Introduction: Given the increasing number of adoptions from China in countries such as Spain, a study was designed to know and assess the nutritional profile at arrival and its likely implication in global health status, growth, and development of adopted Chinese girls. Patients and methods: Eighty-five Chinese girls adopted in Spain during the 2002-2003 period and ages ranging 7-33 months of life were studied at the Social Pediatrics Unit of the "Niño Jesús" Hospital, Madrid. Datas regarding institution of origin, nutritional parameters (anthropometrical and biochemical, presence of associated diseases, and developmental retardations (psychomotor/bone age were

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FRACTIONATIONS OF Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn AND Ni AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN URBAN SOILS OF CHANGCHUN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; XIE Zhong-lei; LI Jun; KANG Chun-li; LIU Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    An extensive soil investigation was conducted in different domains of Changchun to disclose the fractionations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni in urban soils. Meanwhile correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regressions were used to define relationships between soil properties and metal fractions and the chief factors influencingthe fractionation of heavy metals in the soils. The results showed that Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly associated with the residual and organic forms; most of Cd was concentrated in the residual and exchangeable fractions. Zn in residual and carbonate fraction was the highest. The activities of the heavy metals probably declined in the following order: Cd, Zn,Pb, CuandNi. The chemical fractions of heavy metals in different domains in Changchun City were of significantly spatial heterogeneity. Soil properties had different influences on the chemical fractions of heavy metals to some extent and the main factors influencing Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni fractionation and transformation were apparently different.

  7. Siliceous microplankton fluxes and seasonal variations in the central South China Sea during 1993-1995:monsoon climate and El Ni(n)o responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations of radiolarian and diatom fluxes in the central South China Sea during 1993-1995 were overwhelmingly controlled by monsoon climate. Radiolarian and diatom increased obviously during the Northeast (from November to February) and Southwest (from June to September) monsoons and decreased during the periods between the monsoons. The change of circulation driven by the monsoons improved water exchange in the different areas that brought rich nutrient materials for the surface microplankton, thereby enhancing radiolarian and diatom fluxes. Variation of radiolarian flux coincided with organic carbon flux, surface primary and export productivities. High radiolarian flux corresponded to high surface primary productivity. Radiolarian and diatom fluxes raised abnormally during 1994-1995 could be attributed to the El Ni(n)o event during the period.

  8. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Measurement of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: minghe@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xu, Yongning [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lan, Xiaoxi [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Cai, Li [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The long lived isotopes {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni measurements are determined as {sup 59}Ni/Ni = 1 × 10{sup −13} and {sup 63}Ni/Ni = 2 × 10{sup −12}, respectively.

  10. Short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric hand, foot and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Zou, Hong; Wang, Qinzhou; Liu, Chunxiao; Lang, Lingling; Hou, Xuexin; Li, Zhenjun

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was an emerging viral infectious disease in recent years in Shenzhen. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric HFMD in Shenzhen, China. Daily count of HFMD among children aged below 15 years old, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and weather variables were collected to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was applied to investigate the effect of daily SOI on pediatric HFMD occurrence during 2008-2010. We observed an acute effect of SOI variation on HFMD occurrence. The extremely high SOI (SOI = 45, with 0 as reference) was associated with increased HFMD, with the relative risk (RR) being 1.66 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.34-2.04). Further analyses of the association between HFMD and daily mean temperature and relative humidity supported the correlation between pediatric HFMD and SOI. Meteorological factors might be important predictors of pediatric HFMD occurrence in Shenzhen.

  11. Local temperature and El Niño Southern Oscillation influence migration phenology of East Asian migratory waterbirds wintering in Poyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Liu, Guanhua; Si, Yali

    2016-12-19

    Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. This study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of nine waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013, using linear regression models. Birds mainly arrive at Poyang in October and depart for their breeding sites in March. Six out of nine species show a strong negative relationship between departure time and overwintering temperature in Poyang. Departure dates also show a negative association with overwintering ENSO and March ENSO for two species. Both local and large-scale climate indices show no influence on the arrival timing of waterbirds. We suggest that birds react to the annual variation of overwintering temperature: an earlier departure of waterbirds is facilitated by a warmer overwintering period and vice versa. The long-term accumulated temperature effect is more pronounced than ENSO and the short-term local temperature effect. Our findings could help quantify the potential impact of global warming on waterbirds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace- and rare-earth element geochemistry and Pb-Pb dating of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores in Lower Cambrian strata, Yangtze Platform, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Yong-Quan; Ling, Hong-Fei; Yang, Jing-Hong; Feng, Hong-Zhen; Ni, Pei

    2006-08-01

    The Lower Cambrian black shale sequence of the Niutitang Formation in the Yangtze Platform, South China, hosts an extreme metal-enriched sulfide ore bed that shows >10,000 times enrichment in Mo, Ni, Se, Re, Os, As, Hg, and Sb and >1,000 times enrichment in Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, when compared to average upper continental crust. We report in this paper trace- and rare-earth-element concentrations and Pb-Pb isotope dating for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores and their host black shales. Both the sulfide ores and their host black shales show similar trace-element distribution patterns with pronounced depletion in Th, Nb, Hf, Zr, and Ti, and extreme enrichment in U, Ni, Mo, and V compared to average upper crust. The high-field-strength elements, such as Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sc, Th, rare-earth elements, Rb, and Ga, show significant inter-element correlations and may have been derived mainly from terrigenous sources. The redox sensitive elements, such as V, Ni, Mo, U, and Mn; base metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb; and Sr and Ba may have been derived from mixing of seawater and venting hydrothermal sources. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns, positive Eu and Y anomalies, and high Y/Ho ratios for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores are also suggestive for their submarine hydrothermal-exhalative origin. A stepwise acid-leaching Pb-Pb isotope analytical technique has been employed for the Niutitang black shales and the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores, and two Pb-Pb isochron ages have been obtained for the black shales (531±24 Ma) and for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores (521±54 Ma), respectively, which are identical and overlap within uncertainty, and are in good agreement with previously obtained ages for presumed age-equivalent strata.

  13. Organic geochemistry and petrology of barren and Mo-Ni-PGE mineralized marine black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation (South China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kribek, Bohdan; Pasava, Jan [Czech Geological Survey, Klarov 3, Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Sykorova, Ivana [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, V Holesovickach 41, 182 09 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Machovic, Vladimir [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, V Holesovickach 41, 182 09 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2007-11-22

    Marine black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in southern China host Mo-Ni-platinum group elements (PGE) mineralization confined to a phosphate- and pyrite-rich stratiform body (max. 20-cm thick). The H/C atomic ratio, carbon isotopic composition, FTIR spectra of bulk organic matter, and spectra of extractable part of organic matter indicate similar sources and thermal evolution of organic matter in barren and mineralized black shales. The morphology and relative abundance of organic particles in barren and mineralized shales are different. In barren black shales, organic particles comprise only elongated bodies and laminae 2-10 {mu}m across or elongated larger bodies (> 10 {mu}m) with R{sub max} = 2.96-5.21% (Type I particles). Mineralized black shales contain Type I particles in rock matrix (90-95 vol%), small veinlets or irregular organic accumulations (Type II particles, 1-5 vol%) that display weak to well developed mosaic texture and a variable reflectance (R{sub max} 3.55-8.65%), and small (< 1 to 5 {mu}m) rounded or irregular Type III organic particles (1-4 vol%) distributed within phosphate nodules and sulphide rip-up clasts. Type III particles show similar reflectance as particles of Type I in rock matrix. Type I particles are interpreted as remnants of in situ bacterially reworked organic matter of cyanobacteria/algal type, Type II as solidified products or oil-derived material (migrabitumen), and Type III particles as remnants of original organic matter in phosphatized or sulphidized algal/microbial oncolite-like bodies. Equivalent vitrinite reflectances of Type I and III particles in barren and mineralized rocks are similar and correspond to semi-anthracite and anthracite. Micro-Raman spectra of organic particles in rocks display a wide belt in the area of 1600 cm{sup -} {sup 1} (G belt) and approximately the same belt in the area of 1350 cm{sup -} {sup 1} (D belt). The ratio of integrated areas of the two belts correlate with R{sub max

  14. Crustal contamination and sulfide immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, East Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao

    2016-11-01

    The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded sulfide inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that sulfide immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at sulfide saturation reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger sulfide saturation in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing sulfide immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca

  15. Soil ni.trogen transformations varied with plant community under Nanchang urban forests in mid-subtropical zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wen; CHEN Fu-sheng; HU Xiao-fei; YU Ming-quan; FENG Xue

    2011-01-01

    Soil N transformations using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)closed-top tube in situ incubation method were studied in Nanchang urban forests of the mid-subtropical region of China m different monthsof 2007.Four plots of 20 m × 20 m were established in four different plant communities that represented typical successional stages of forest development including shrubs,coniferous forest,mixed forest and broadleaved forest.Average concentrations of soil NH4+-N fiom January to December were not different among the four plant communities.The concentrations of soil NO3-N and mineral N,and the annual rates of ammonification,nitrification and net N-mineralization under the early successional shrub community and coniferous forest were generally lower than that of the late successional mixed and broad-leaved forests (p<0.05).Similar differences among the plant communities were also shown in the relative nitrification index (NH4+-N/NO3-N) and relative nitrification intensity (nitrification rate/net N-mineralization rate).The annual net N-mineralization rate was increased from younger to older plant communities,from 15.1 and 41.4 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the shrubs and coniferous forest communities to 98.0 and 112.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the mixed and broad-leaved forests,respectively.Moreover,the high annual nitrification rates (50-70 kg·ha-1·a-1) and its end product,NO3-N (2.4-3.8mg·kg-1),under older plant communities could increase the potential risk of N loss.Additionally,the temporal patterns of the different soil N variables mentioned above varied with different plant community due to the combined affects of natural biological processes associated with forest maturation and urbanization.Our results indicated that urban forests arc moving towards a state of"N saturation" (extremely nitrification rate and NO3-N content) as they mature.

  16. Sintering behaviors of coal fly ash and NiCr-based alloy mixture powder stacked layer by layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasezaki, K.; Kaneko, G.Y.; Nakashita, A.; Kakuda, H. [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder stacked layer by layer (FGM) were prepared by spark plasma sintering. The coal fly ash was produced by Misumi coal thermal power station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), and 80 mass% nickel and 20 mass% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil & Powder Co., Ltd) were used as source materials. The sintering was done at 1000 {sup o}C in a graphite die. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that the mullite (3Al2O3 {center_dot} 2SiO{sub 2}) and silica (SiO{sub 2}) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes a fracture at the interface due to a mismatch of thermal expansion. Cracks in the FGMs were observed between the two layers when the difference of linear thermal expansion coefficient (alpha) was over 4.2 x 10{sup -6} K{sup 1}, while no cracks were detected in stable FGMs when the difference was less than 4.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}.

  17. Sintering properties of functionally graded materials using coal fly ash and NiCr-based alloy powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasezaki, K.; Nakashita, A.; Kaneko, G.Y.; Kakuda, H. [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan). Dept. of Material Science

    2007-12-15

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering using coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder. The coal fly ash was produced by Misumi coal thermal power station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), and 80 mass% nickel and 20 mass% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil & Powder Co., Ltd) were used as source materials. The sintering was done at 1000{sup o}C in a graphite die. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that the mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}) and silica (SiO{sub 2}) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes a fracture at the interface due to a mismatch of thermal expansion. Cracks in the FGMs were observed between the two layers when the difference of linear thermal expansion coefficient (a) was over 4.2 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}, while no cracks were detected in stable FGMs when the difference was less than 4.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}.

  18. Preparation of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) Using Coal Fly Ash and NiCr-Based Alloy Powder by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen-yo; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Hasezaki, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuji; Kakuda, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder. The coal fly ash was produced by the Misumi Coal Thermal Power Station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), with 80 wt% nickel and 20 wt% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil & Powder Co., Ltd.) used as source materials. The sintering temperature in the graphite die was 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that mullite (3Al2O3ṡ2SiO2) and silica (SiO2) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes fracture at the interface. This is due to the mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients (CTE). A crack in the FGM was observed between the two layers with a CTE difference of over 4.86×10-6 K-1, while a crack in the FGM was difficult to detect when the CTE difference was less than 2.77×10-6 K-1.

  19. 遵义松林Ni-Mo矿区耕地土壤的镉砷污染及潜在生态风险评价%An Assessment on Contamination and Potential Ecological Risk of Cadmium and Arsenic in the Cultivated Soils Around the Ni-Mo Mining Area in Songlin, Zunyi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金昭贵; 周明忠

    2012-01-01

    The Ni-Mo mining area in Songlin, Zunyi, Guizhou is a type within the lower Cambrian Ni-Mo mineralization zone in South China. Therefore, assessing the environmental quality of the soils around the mining area is of important scientific and practical significances. The concentrations of cadmium and arsenic in cultivated soils around the Ni-Mo mining area in Songlin were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) in this study. The result showed that the soils were characterized by high contents of cadmium (with an average of 1.82 mg·kg-1) and arsenic (with an average of 69.72 mg·kg-1), and that the concentrations of cadmium and arsenic in the soils of the study area were 12.68 times and 4.24 times higher than those of the background soils in Guizhou Province, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of contamination and potential ecological risk for the soils through geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index, respectively. It suggested that the soils around the Ni-Mo mining area in Songlin, Zunyi, Guizhou had been contaminated by cadmium (most of the soil samples with moderate to heavy pollution) and arsenic (with moderate pollution dominantly). It also indicated that the studied soils had relatively high potential ecological risk caused by cadmium and arsenic (with moderate to high potential ecological risk levels). Therefore, further researches on remediation for the contaminated soils deserve to be carried out.%贵州遵义松林Ni-Mo矿区为华南下寒武统黑色页岩Ni-Mo矿化带中的典型矿区之一,对与其矿产资源开采活动相关的土壤环境质量评价具有重要的科学及实际意义.以松林Ni-Mo矿区耕地土壤为研究对象,采用ICP-MS方法分析其中镉和砷的含量.分析结果显示,该矿区耕地土壤中镉和砷的平均含量分别为1.82 mg· kg-1和69.72 mg·kg-1,具有高镉、砷含量特征.运用地质累积指数和潜在生态风险指数分别

  20. Melt inclusions in the olivine from the Nantianwan intrusion: Implications for the parental magma of Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the ∼260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province (SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Christina Yan

    2017-02-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide an archive of the parental magma and early magma history that is unavailable from bulk-rock analyses of cumulates. For those olivine-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions, a combined in situ analysis of major elements and Pb isotopic compositions for the melt inclusions and host olivine crystals may provide an effective way to understand the nature of the parental magma of the intrusions. In this study, we take the Nantianwan intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (SW China) as an example to analyze the melt inclusions and the host olivine. The Nantianwan intrusion is mainly composed of gabbronorite, with minor olivine gabbro. The olivine crystals in the olivine gabbro have Fo contents varying from 81.1 to 89.2 and Ni from 0.05 to 0.30 wt.%. The melt inclusion hosted in the most Mg-rich olivine has 50.9 wt.% SiO2, 1.0 wt.% TiO2, 15.1 wt.% MgO and 2.9 wt.% Na2O + K2O, indicating that the parental magma of the intrusion was of high-Mg basaltic composition. The melt inclusions overall have 208Pb/206Pb ratios of 2.0567-2.1032 and 207Pb/206Pb of 0.8287-0.8481, similar to the Pb isotopic compositions of the Emeishan flood basalts and consistent with insignificant crustal contamination. Given that the Nantianwan intrusion contains the most Mg-rich olivine among the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Emeishan LIP, we infer that the composition of the melt inclusion in the most Mg-rich olivine from the Nantianwan intrusion may represent the least evolved parental magma of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Emeishan LIP. This can be further used to constrain the magma process related to Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide mineralization.

  1. Looking for mine of the petroleum in China, especially, looking for mine activities in the foreign enterprise; Chukajinminkyowokoku ni okeru sekiyu no tanko. Tokuni gaikokukigyo ni okeru tanko katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Modern petroleum industry after the Chinese establishment (1950) rose mainly by the Russian cooperation, and main discovery such as oil field 1959 was made as to the discovery in 1955 oil field. After that, that activities range was limited to middle Kunisaki department land stage by a master though looking for mine which is characteristic of China, development were made by Russian withdrawal and there was discovery such as a task hill oil field in the victory oil field and 1964 big port oil field for 1962 and for 1976. (NEDO)

  2. A study of El Niño-Southern oscillation impacts to the South China Sea region using ground-based GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, Wayan; Iskandar, Ahmad; Singh Jit Singh, Mandeep; Alauddin Mohd Ali, Mohd; Yatim, Baharudin; Tangang, Fredolin

    2013-04-01

    We observe an ENSO activity by using ground-based GPS receiver as an effort to study the effects of global warming and climate change in the tropical region. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology in line with the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTa) is used to indicate their response on ENSO activities. The PWV data used in this study was taken from the station at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (UMSK) over 2011, together with NTUS station (in the Singapore), PIMO (in Philippines) and BAKO (in Indonesia) are also compared. The relationship between PWV and SSTa at all stations on weekly basis exhibited modest with correlation coefficients between -0.30 and -0.78 significantly at the 99% confidence level. The negative correlation indicates that during a La Niña phase, the PWV is increased when the sea surface temperatures getting cold causes warm air mass in the central Pacific moved to west Pacific. The increased of PWV causes the GPS signals will be getting slower.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  4. Operation history of hydraulic jet pump on teh Chengbei oil field, China. Chengbei yuden ni okeru haidororikku jet pump no shiyo jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Sunao

    1989-11-01

    Changbei oil field in China uses hydraulic jet pump(HJP) to cope with the increase of oil production and increase of water content in the oil field. This paper described the practical result. This pump makes high speed jet by driving fluid, and converts the dynamic energy to pressure energy by decelerating with a diffuser to push up oil. Wellheads damaged by sand friction or near the gas cap were removed. The production from March, 1988 to October increased at the rate of 114kl/day at total 8 wellheads. Heavy oil of API specific gravity of 16 degree could be proved. Since the separation of oil and water was inferior, so that the countermeasures were studied but the cause was not known. Troubles or failures of main body, nozzle and throat of HJP were not occurred. Any effect could not be found at a wellhead of water content exceeding 50 to 60% because only water production increased. Consequently, this process could result the increase of oil production with lower cost and without mechanical failures. 2 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  6. A Review on Origin of Ni-Mo Polymetallic Deposits in Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series in South China%华南早寒武世黑色岩系Ni-Mo多金属矿床成因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施春华; 曹剑; 胡凯; 韩善楚; 边立曾; 姚素平

    2011-01-01

    通过调研分析我国华南早寒武世黑色岩系Ni-Mo多金属矿床成因研究的现状,述评了这一领域的研究进展,提出了今后深化研究值得加强的方向.将已有提出的矿床成因模式总体归纳为5种观点:陨石撞击同沉积、岩浆火山碎屑、海水、热水、多源,并且认为目前主要侧重于对热水和海水两种成因的研究,这两方面积累的证据较多,争议也较大.结合生物有机质在矿床形成过程中起到了重要作用,即生物有机成矿作用,认为矿床成因复杂,受到热水、海水、生物有机质的多元复合作用.总体而言,各种矿床成因观点均各有l证据支持,但因成矿过程复杂,成矿地质作用多样,所以尚不能够完全全面、合理地揭示成矿过程,仍有待进一步深入工作;建议加强原位实验分析测试技术的应用和矿床成因研究的时空对比.这些认识为存在诸多争议和不确定性的该领域研究提供了参考,并且因这一分析寸象是全球黑色岩系矿床的一个典型实例,所以认识可望具有普遍参考意义.%The origin of Ni-Mo polymetallic deposits hosted in Lower Cambrian black rock series in South China was reviewed in this paper. Future research directions were further suggested based on the review. In general, the origin can be summarized and divided into five perspectives, including meteoritic impact syndeposition, magma volcanic collapse, sea water, hydrothermal water, and multiple sources. The present works are focused mainly on the sea water and hydrothermal water origins. They have relatively large amount of evidence. However, the issue still has disputes. In addition, bioorganisms and organic matters have important impacts on the formation of the deposits. This is so-called bio-organic mineralization. Thus, we propose that the formation of the deposits has complex mineralization processes, including sea water, hydrothermal water and organic matters. Each of these

  7. RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM SCRAP Ni-Cd BATTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.X.Zhu; B.Yu; J.H.Li; Y.F.Nie

    2001-01-01

    Several typical methods for the recovery of Ni-Cd batteries are described in detail.Based on the comparing of hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes,the latter was selected as the suitable method for recycling Ni-Cd batteries in China.

  8. Chinas Ingenieure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai

    2005-01-01

    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  9. 强La Ni(n)a背景下的东亚夏季风异常与1989年和1999年中国夏季降水的对比分析%East Asian Summer Monsoon Anomalies in Strong La Ni(n)a Years and Comparison of Summer Precipitation in China between 1989 and 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰

    2008-01-01

    选取两个强La Ni(n)a年 (1989年和1999年), 对比分析了强La Ni(n)a背景下的东亚夏季风异常和中国夏季降水分布.结果表明, 受南极海冰分布异常的影响, 这两年6~7月间南极涛动呈现不同的位相, 进而改变了南方涛动的位相.1989年, 南极涛动为正时, 南方涛动为正, 马斯克林高压 (简称马高) 偏强, 澳大利亚高压 (简称澳高) 偏弱.与1989年相反, 1999年南极涛动和南方涛动均为负位相, 马高偏弱, 澳高偏强, 这与一般La NiNi(n)a年的情况正好相反.与马高和澳高强度变化相对应, 西太平洋副热带高压在1989年偏西、 1999年偏东, 并影响到6~7月间中国降水的分布.8月副高北抬后, 南半球环流变化的影响减弱, 东亚夏季风环流主要受热带环流和中高纬度环流的影响.1989年8月, 受中高纬度冷平流的影响, 副高偏弱, 长江流域降水偏多.1999年8月, 由于热带西风异常偏强, 副高偏强, 长江以南降水偏多.本文的研究结果表明, 即使在两个相似的强La NiNi(n)a事件影响下, 由于其他因子对La NiNi(n)a信号的调制作用, 中国夏季降水仍呈现不同的分布, 1989年为中间型, 而1999年为南方型, 这与一般La NiNi(n)a年雨带偏北正好相反.最后, 对中国夏季降水的季度预测提出了一些建议.

  10. The exchange bias effect in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Angela; Feygenson, Mikhail; Kreno, Lauren; Patete, Jonathan; Tiano, Amanda; Zhang, Fen; Wong, Stanislaus; Aronson, Meigan

    2009-03-01

    We used magnetic measurements, X-ray diffraction, and HRTEM to study the exchange bias field in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles made by a modified wet chemistry method. We oxidized re-dispersed powders of bare Ni nanoparticles in air at 400^oC and 900^oC. HRTEM showed that annealing at 900^oC of bare Ni nanoparticles led to the formation of exceptionally high quality NiO nanoparticles, resembling perfect bulk-like crystalline order. To our knowledge, there are no reports of NiO particles of such quality in the literature. The loop shift was 1000 Oe at 300K for the NiO nanoparticles, while it was only 120 Oe at 10K for the Ni/NiO nanoparticles. The difference is explained by the different origins of the loop shift in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles. In Ni/NiO nanoparticles, the loop shift is associated with exchange interactions between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic NiO. In NiO nanoparticles, however, the origin of the shift is an uneven number of ferromagnetic sublattices present in NiO nanoparticles, which interact differently with an applied magnetic field (Kodama, 1999).

  11. Direct impact of El Niño on East Asian summer precipitation in the observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Na; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yinghui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the direct impact of El Niño in the tropical Pacific on the East Asian summer precipitation . Generalized equilibrium feedback assessment is used to isolate this direct impact from interrelated ocean forcings in the observations. Results indicate that the El Niño can directly influence the summer precipitation in East China significantly. The precipitation response presents a tri-pole pattern, with anomalous wet in the Southeast and the Northeast China and anomalous dry in the northern China. Amplitude of the precipitation response is around 20 % of the total precipitation for 1 °C El Niño forcing in most area of the East China, with maximal response up to 30 %/°C. The tri-pole precipitation response is attributed to an El Niño-induced cyclonic anomaly in the Northeast Asia and an anticyclonic anomaly in the western North Pacific (WNP). The anomalous cyclone deepens the East Asian trough southwestward, favoring an air ascending in front of the trough in the Southeast and the Northeast China, and an air descending at the rear of the trough in the northern China. The anomalous anticyclone in the WNP strengthens the WNP Subtropical High northeastward, providing adequate water vapor to the Southeast China. The anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone work together to generate the tri-pole precipitation response pattern in the East China. Further investigation suggests that these two key anomalous circulations are part of a northwestward propagating Rossby wave, which is excited by the El Niño warming-induced convection over the subtropical west-central Pacific. This study can serve as a reference for the prediction of the East Asian precipitation in both the developing and decaying summer of El Niño.

  12. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  13. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles and Ni(C) Nanocapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Structure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles and Ni(C) nanocapsules were studied. The carbon atoms hardly affect the lattice of Ni to form Ni-C solid solution or nickel carbides. The large thermal irreversibility in zerofield-cooled and zero-field magnetization curves indicates magnetic blocking with a wide energy barrier. Saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of Ni(C) nanocapsules decrease with increasing temperature.

  15. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  16. CHINA TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY CHINATODAY UNDER CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP IN ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, CHINESE, AND TURKISH, WITH DIGITAL VERSIONS IN CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ARABIC ON THE INTERNET, SPONSORED BY CHINA WELFARE INSTITUTE.

  17. Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LisaChiu

    2003-01-01

    CHINA-Enabling A New Era of Changes paints a comprehensive and extremely up-to-date look at the current growth trends in China and examines ways to maintain this fast-paced growth for future generations.

  18. Decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Hui; Lu, Er; Kumar, Arun

    2016-11-01

    The decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is examined using both observational data and coupled global climate model simulations. The co-variability between 68-year (1948-2015) observed East China precipitation and tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) is quantified by the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. The first SVD mode relates Southeast China winter pluvial (drought) to the tropical Pacific El Niño (La Niña) SST. A comparison between two 480-year model simulations with and without ENSO suggests that ENSO can modulate both the intensity and frequency of East China winter precipitation. In the presence of ENSO, maximum precipitation anomalies over Southeast China can be increased by 50% and largely on the interannual timescale (3-6 years). It is also demonstrated that there is an asymmetry in the precipitation and circulation responses to warm and cold phases of ENSO. The responses are sensitive to the intensity of SST anomalies during El Niño, but less sensitive to SSTs during La Niña. This sensitivity, together with the decadal variations of ENSO, helps understand the observed decadal changes in the strength of the association between wintertime tropical Pacific SST and East China precipitation. The association is relatively weak during 1948-1977 when La Niña occurred more frequently, but strong during 1978-1999 when El Niño occurred more frequently. In the last 16 years (2000-2015) the association is weakest, likely due to the weakened variability of tropical Pacific SST since 2000.

  19. China, the United States and a “Power Shift” in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Signos recientes denotando asertividad por parte del gobierno de China en sus relaciones con los EEUU han sido considerados como reflejo de un cambio general de poder en el plano tanto asiático como mundial, donde China intentaría sustituir a los EEUU. Un examen más detallado de la postura china frente a los EEUU y las dinámicas de poder en Asia muestra sin embargo que China no tiene ni la voluntad ni la capacidad de desafiar a los EEUU en Asia.

  20. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  1. First-principles studies of effects of interstitial boron and carbon on the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of Ni solution and Ni3Al intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Li; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2016-10-01

    The effects of boron and carbon on the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of both Ni solution and Ni3Al intermetallics are investigated using first-principles calculations. The results agree well with theoretical and experimental data from previous studies and are analyzed based on the density of states and charge density. It is found that both boron and carbon are inclined to occupy the Ni-rich interstices in Ni3Al, which gives rise to a cubic interstitial phase. In addition, the interstitial boron and carbon have different effects on the elastic moduli of Ni and Ni3Al. The calculation results for the G/B and Poisson’s ratios further demonstrate that interstitial boron and carbon can both reduce the brittleness of Ni, thereby increasing its ductility. Meanwhile, boron can also enhance the ductility of the Ni3Al while carbon hardly has an effect on its brittleness or ductility. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB606402).

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AU; ChakTong

    2010-01-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  3. Multiple S isotopes, zircon Hf isotopes, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes, and spatial variations of PGE tenors in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jun; Li, Chusi; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Jiao, Jiangang; Ripley, Edward M.; Feng, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    Previous geochemical data for the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(platinum-group elements, PGE) deposit, the single largest magmatic sulfide deposit in the world, are derived primarily from the upper parts of the deposit. This paper reports new PGE and S-Hf-Sr-Nd isotope data for the lower parts of the deposit that have become accessible for sampling by ongoing underground mining activity. New PGE data from this study, together with previous results, indicate that PGE tenors in the bulk sulfide ores of the deposit increase eastward, except for two fault-offset ore zones which occur together within the western part of the deposit. Generally, these two ore zones show depletions in IPGE (Ir, Ru, Rh) but not in PPGE (Pt, Pd) and Cu, and more fractionated olivine and Cr-spinel compositions than the rest of the deposit. These differences can be explained by a more evolved parental magma for the IPGE-depleted ore zones. The eastward increase of PGE tenors in the rest of the deposit can be explained by upgrading of preexisting sulfide liquid in a subhorizontal conduit by a new surge of magma moving through the conduit from west to east, which took place before the formation of the IPGE-depleted ore zones. The Jinchuan ultramafic rocks are characterized by elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7077 to 0.7093, negative ɛ Nd values from -9.2 to -10.5, and zircon ɛ Hf values from -4 to -7. These data indicate up to 20 % of crustal contamination in the Jinchuan magma. Four of nine multiple sulfur isotope analyses for the Jinchuan deposit show anomalous ∆33S values varying from 0.12 to 2.67 ‰. These results, together with elevated δ34S values (>2 ‰) for some of the samples analyzed previously by other researchers, indicate the involvement of external sulfur from Archean and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Modeling results based on our olivine data and magma compositions estimated previously by other researchers indicate that fractional crystallization did not play a major role in

  4. ZnNi data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    www.asetsdefense.org Teaming website: www.materialoptions.com Other data .. •• • Zinc - nickel alloy coatings r~.., ataTECH Corrosion...cathodic corrosion protection with y- zinc - nickel alloy! () ToTAL ----------------- · ---------------- . A ~ESTCP ~§g.~J?.P Keith Legg 847-680...2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Fatigue Test Results (Alkaline Zinc - Nickel , Phase IV) • Nickel Alloy 718 Bolts – 3/8” diameter Cd or Zn-Ni

  5. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  6. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    has largely masked latent social ills, internal problems, and tenuous governance behind its supersonic growth. The prospects of a failed China are...In 1992, China enacted an internal law on territorial sea and contiguous zone, which claims Chinese sovereignty over all islands that fell within a...to an even stronger future. Economic growth has fueled huge modernization efforts across Chinese industry as well as its military. As China

  7. Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni-Mn and Ni-Cu-Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: masataka-hakamada@aist.go.j [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimosihidami, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Mabuchi, Mamoru [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-10-19

    Nanoporous Ni, Ni-Cu and Cu with ligament sizes of 10-20 nm were fabricated by dealloying rolled Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys, respectively. Unlike conventional Raney nickel composed of brittle Ni-Al intermetallic compounds, the initial alloys had good workability. Ni and Cu atoms formed a homogeneous solid solution in the nanoporous architecture. The ligament sizes of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu were smaller than that of nanoporous Cu, reflecting the difference between the surface diffusivities of Ni and Cu.

  8. Characteristics and mechanisms of Ni(Ⅱ) removal from aqueous solution by Chinese loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 唐晓武; 王恒宇

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is a toxic heavy metal among trace elements which has a detrimental impact on living organisms. There is growing need of finding an economic and effective solution for Ni(Ⅱ) immobilization in environments. Chinese loess was selected as adsorbent to remove Ni(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution. Adsorbent dosage, reaction time, solute concentration, temperature, and solution p H also have influences on efficiency of Ni(Ⅱ) removal. The monolayer adsorption capacity of loess towards Ni(Ⅱ) is determined to be about 15.61 mg/g. High temperature and p H favor the removal of Ni(Ⅱ) using Chinese loess soil and the optimal dosage of loess is determined to be 10 g/L. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms of the adsorption process can be best-fitted with the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir isothermal model, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the adsorption process is spontaneous, endothermic and the system disorder increases with duration. Nickel ions can be removed with the removal efficiency of 98.5% at p H greater than or equal to 9.7. Further studies on loess and Ni(Ⅱ) laden loess(using X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and Ni(Ⅱ) species distribution at various p H have been conducted to discuss the adsorption mechanism. Loess soils in China have proven to be a potential adsorbent for Ni(Ⅱ) removal from aqueous solutions.

  9. Characteristics and mechanisms of Ni(II) removal from aqueous solution by Chinese loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 唐晓武; 王恒宇

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is a toxic heavy metal among trace elements which has a detrimental impact on living organisms. There is growing need of finding an economic and effective solution for Ni(II) immobilization in environments. Chinese loess was selected as adsorbent to remove Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Adsorbent dosage, reaction time, solute concentration, temperature, and solution pH also have influences on efficiency of Ni(II) removal. The monolayer adsorption capacity of loess towards Ni(II) is determined to be about 15.61 mg/g. High temperature and pH favor the removal of Ni(II) using Chinese loess soil and the optimal dosage of loess is determined to be 10 g/L. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms of the adsorption process can be best-fitted with the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir isothermal model, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the adsorption process is spontaneous, endothermic and the system disorder increases with duration. Nickel ions can be removed with the removal efficiency of 98.5% at pH greater than or equal to 9.7. Further studies on loess and Ni(II) laden loess (using X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and Ni(II) species distribution at various pH have been conducted to discuss the adsorption mechanism. Loess soils in China have proven to be a potential adsorbent for Ni(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

  10. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  11. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  12. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  13. Impacts of decaying eastern and central Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxing; Xie, Ruihuang; Wang, Faming; Huang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influences of the decaying eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) and central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific (WNP) during July, August, and September (JAS). During this period, TC geneses and tracks are reduced in the central and eastern WNP. However, TC tracks reaching the Philippines increase, and more TC geneses appear west of 145°E during EP-El Niño. During CP-El Niño, tracks reaching the South China Sea (SCS) and southeast coast of China increase, and positive anomalies of TC genesis are found in the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS. It is possible that the different variations of the anomalous anticyclone over east of the Philippines in the WNP induced by El Niños are instrumental to the different TC variations in the two types of decaying El Niños during JAS. Compared with EP-El Niño, strengthening and northward expansion of the anomalous anticyclone during CP-El Niño cause a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in summer, which is responsible for more westward TC tracks over the SCS and southeast coast of China. This northward expansion can cause the center of suppressed TC geneses in the central WNP to migrate further north during CP-El Niño. A decreased magnitude of vertical shear dominates the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS, which enhances TC formation in these regions during CP-El Niño.

  14. Niños investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Liebel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  15. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  16. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H

    2010-01-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  17. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.

    2010-09-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  18. Geology, Mineral Deposit Model and Potential of the Suwar Cu-Ni Sulphide Prospect, Northwest Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulkarim M.; Al-Nagashi; Li Xujun

    2002-01-01

    The Suwar Cu-Ni sulphide prospect is very highly regarded for its potential to host a major nickel-copper sulphide deposit in Republic of Yemen, a mineral resource lacking country. The ore-hosting intrusion is a lopolith about 6km long and lkm wide and more than 300m deep. There are two types of Cu-Ni mineralizations in the prospect: primary massive chalcopyrite+ pyrrhotite+ pentlandite controlled by gravitational and structural traps while the secondary Cu-Ni mineralization is coarse grained and occur as veins, veinlets, fracture fill, blebs or associated with coarse, re-crystallized carbonate in shear zones and faults. The deposit type of the prospect is believed to be the one associated with the ultramafic component of a large, broadly differentiated noritic, gabbroid intrusive. It is suggested that the prospect and adjacent area possibly contain a similar world class Ni-Cu deposits as that in Jinchuan, China.

  19. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  20. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  1. The Role of NGOsin Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Editor's Note: CAFIU's Secretary-General Ni Jian took part in the UN Sustainable Development Conference (Rio+20) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from June 16 to 21. During the Conference, he also attended and addressed a side meeting of "Poverty-Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Chinese NGOs in Action" hosted by China NGO Network for International Exchanges.

  2. Does a Strong El Niño Imply a Higher Predictability of Extreme Drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Yaohui

    2017-01-01

    The devastating North China drought in the summer of 2015 was roughly captured by a dynamical seasonal climate forecast model with a good prediction of the 2015/16 big El Niño. This raises a question of whether strong El Niños imply higher predictability of extreme droughts. Here we show that a strong El Niño does not necessarily result in an extreme drought, but it depends on whether the El Niño evolves synergistically with Eurasian spring snow cover reduction to trigger a positive summer Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern that favors anomalous northerly and air sinking over North China. The dynamical forecast model that only well represents the El Niño underpredicts the drought severity, while a dynamical-statistical forecasting approach that combines both the low- and high-latitudes precursors is more skillful at long lead. In a warming future, the vanishing cryosphere should be better understood to improve predictability of extreme droughts.

  3. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  4. Magnetic property and interface structure of Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers, utilizing Ta as buffer layer, were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering. The exchange coupling field between NiO and NiFe reached a maximum value of 9.6×103 A/m at a NiO film thickness of 50 nm. The composition and chemical states at interface region of Ta/NiO/Ta were studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomp- osition technique. The results show that there is an "inter- mixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface due to a thermodynamically favorable reaction 2Ta + 5NiO = 5Ni + Ta2O5. This interface reaction has a great effect on exchange coupling. The thickness of Ni+NiO estimated by XPS depth- profiles is about 8-10 nm.

  5. Destination China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  6. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 柴春林; 朱逢吾; 赖武彦

    2002-01-01

    Ta/NiOx/Ni81Fe19/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering.The exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiOx/Ni81Fe19 as a function of the ratio of Ar to O2 during the deposition process were studied.The composition and chemical states at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe were also investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique.The results show that the ratio of Ar to O2 has great effect on the nickel chemical states in NiOx film.When the ratio of Ar to O2 is equal to 7 and the argon sputtering pressure is 0.57 Pa,the x value is approximately 1 and the valence of nickel is +2.At this point,NiOx is antiferromagnetic NiO and the corresponding Hex is the largest.As the ratio of Ar/O2 deviates from 7,the exchange coupling field (Hex) will decrease due to the presence of magnetic impurities such as Ni+3 or metallic Ni at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe,while the coercivity (Hc) will increase due to the metallic Ni.XPS studies also show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at the NiO/NiFe interface: NiO+Fe=Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe=3Ni+Fe2O3.These interface reaction products are magnetic impurities at the interface region of NiO/NiFe.It is believed that these magnetic impurities would have effect on the exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiO/NiFe.

  7. GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMISTRY IN Ni3Al AND Ni3Si

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, I; Schulson, E.; Michael, J.; Padgett, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Ni/Al ratio at grain boundary regions in Ni3Al have been performed, using x-ray microanalysis of thin foils in a scanning transmission electron microscope, as a function of both alloy stoichiometry and the addition of boron. It is shown that whilst grain boundaries of Al-rich and stoichiometric Ni3Al have a composition similar to the matrix composition, boundaries in Ni-rich Ni3Al can be highly Ni-enriched. The addition of B to Ni3Al produces Ni enrichment in grain boundar...

  8. Thermodynamic reassessment of Gd–Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahou, Z., E-mail: rahou.zakarea@gmail.com; Mahdouk, K.

    2015-11-05

    By means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach, the phase diagram and thermodynamic data of the Gd–Ni system were critically assessed. The Gd–Ni system contains four solution phases (liquid, face-centered cubic FCC-A1, body-centered cubic BCC-A2 and hexagonal close-packed HCP-A3) modeled with the Redlich-Kister polynomials and seven intermetallic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni, GdNi, GdNi{sub 2}, GdNi{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}, GdNi{sub 5} and Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, which are all treated as stoichiometric compounds. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters describing various phases in this binary system was obtained. The phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities calculated from assessed parameters agree well with experimental data.

  9. Electron Density Distributions for Millerite, Vaesite , Heazlewoodite and Ni metal: A Case for the Importance of NiNi Bond Paths for Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N. L.; Gibbs, G. V.; Downs, R. T.; Prewitt, C. T.; Rosso, K. M.; Cox, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    Bond paths and the bond critical point properties have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the Ni sulfide minerals millerite, vaesite and heazlewoodite and Ni metal. The experimental NiS bond lengths decrease linearly as the magnitudes of the properties each increases in value. Bond paths exist between the Ni atoms in heazlewoodite and millerite for NiNi separations that match the shortest separation in Ni metal, an indicator that the Ni atoms are bonded. Bond paths also exist between the Ni atoms in bulk Ni metal. In addition, the bcp properties of the bonded interactions in Ni metal are virtually the same as those in heazlewoodite and millerite. In contrast, NiNi bond paths are absent in vaesite where the NiNi separations are 60% greater than those in Ni metal. The bcp properties for the NiNi bonded interactions scatter along protractions of the NiS bond length-bcp property trends, suggesting that the two bonded interactions have similar characteristics. NiNi bond paths radiate throughout Ni metal and the metallic heazlewoodite structures as continuous networks whereas the NiNi paths in millerite are restricted to isolated Ni3 rings. Electron transport in Ni metal and heazlewoodite is pictured as occurring along the bond paths, which behave as networks of atomic size wires that radiate in a contiguous circuit throughout the two structures. Unlike heazlewoodite, the electron transport in millerite is pictured as involving a cooperative hopping of the d orbital electrons from the Ni3 rings comprising Ni3S9 clusters to Ni3 rings in adjacent clusters via the p orbitals on the interconnecting S atoms. Vaesite, an insulator at low temperatures and a doped semiconductor at higher temperatures, lacks NiNi bond paths.

  10. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  11. China's Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the spread of the global financial turmoil.China is Under growing tension from its large population,limited resource,environment Problems,and losing its competitive edge in the world as exports are being driven down by shrinking demand abroad as well as higher costs.

  12. China Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  13. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  14. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Saravanan; T A Jose; P John Thomas; G U Kulkarni

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities using the polyol process. Experiments carried out with different metal precursors and starting compositions have yielded reliable routes to produce particles of the desired diameters in the 100–600 nm range. The particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. The particles are found to be stable under ambient conditions indefinitely. The coercivity values of the Co and Ni particles are ∼ 50% higher compared to the corresponding bulk values. The alloy particles follow a trend similar to the bulk alloys.

  15. Ni putes ni soumises. Media and women with other gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIÉBLEMONT Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, new women's movements emerge like Ni putes ni soumises (NPNS who give a new approach to activism: not the one on feminists in the classi- cal sense of the term with the connotations it carries, but women carrying claims in the media and through the media on the living conditions of the residents of the suburbs. So, many media will take part in the mediatization of NPNS and its dis-courses, and will serve in some way as a place of “factory” for the public opinion.

  16. Effects of plate thickness on reverse martensitic transformation of prestrained NiTi/NiTi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)was used to study the effects of predeformation and plate thickness on the reverse martensitic transformation of explosively welded NiTi/NiTi alloy.Results showed that there was a constraint between Ni50.4Ti(NiTi-1)and Ni49.8Ti (NiTi-2),which led to that the thickness of NiTi-1 or NiTi-2 strongly affected the reverse martensitic transformation behavior because residual stress variations in thickness wound enable bias force to be built inside the composite.The DSC measurements showed that after deformation,the reverse martensitic transformation temperature of the composite was increased with the increasing thickness of NiTi-2.Also.the XRD results revealed that the microstructure of NiTi/NiTi alloy changed from B2 phase to B19'phase along the thickness direction.

  17. Preparation and property of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nano-composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jen; Wang, Yuxin; Shu, Xin; Tay, Seeleng; Gao, Wei; Shakoor, R. A.; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2015-03-01

    The duplex Nickel-Boron-Titania/Nickel (Ni-B-TiO2/Ni) coatings were deposited on mild steel by using two baths with Ni as the inner layer. TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni-B coatings as the outer layer by using solid particle mixing method. The microstructure, morphology and corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nanocomposite coatings were systemically investigated. The results show that the duplex interface was uniform and the adhesion between two layers was very good. The microhardness of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was much higher than the Ni coating due to the outer layer of Ni-B-TiO2 coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was also significantly improved comparing with single Ni-B coating. The Ni-B-10 g/L TiO2/Ni coating was found to have the best corrosion resistance among these duplex coatings. This type of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating, with high hardness and good corrosion resistance properties, should be able to find broad applications under adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Interannual variations of surface winds over China marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Che; YAN Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    In a study of surface monsoon winds over the China marginal seas,Sun et al.(2012) use singular value decomposition method to identify regional dominant modes and analyze their interdecadal variability.This paper continues to evaluate the interannual variability of each dominant mode and its relation to various atmospheric,oceanic and land factors.The findings include:1) The intensity of the winter monsoon over the East China Sea is highly correlated with the Siberian High intensity and anti-correlated with the latitudinal position of the Aleutian Low as well as the rainfall in eastem China,Korean Peninsula and Japan; 2) The western Pacific subtropical high is significantly correlated with the summer monsoon intensity over the East China Sea and anti-correlated with the summer monsoon over the South China Sea; 3) The winter monsoon in a broad zonal belt through the Luzon Strait is dominated by the ENSO signal,strengthening in the La Ni(n)a phase and weakening in the El Ni(n)o phase.This inverse relation exhibits interdecadal shift with a period of weak correlation in the 1980s; 4) Analysis of tidal records validates the interdecadal weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon and reveals an atmospheric bridge that conveys the ENSO signal into the South China Sea via the winter monsoon.

  19. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  20. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  1. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  2. THIRSTY CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions have blighted much of China over the past year and a pattern of increasing drought has emerged. The problem is both economic and human. Swathes of farmland have been hit by drought leading to production losses and millions of people have had difficulty accessing fresh water. While the government is attempting to tackle the issue,increasingly dry weather is something that could prove a long-term problem for the countryA rare longdrought has had severe consequences across China and brought up difficult auestions about the thecause"Guilin tops the world in landscape"is a well-accepted saying for Chinese people. Guilin is a city and tourist resort in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and attracts many people because of its charming beauty,

  3. China DBSAT Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  4. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  5. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray pho

  6. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  7. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  8. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  9. On the similarity of the bonding in NiS and NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The bonding in NiS is found to be quite similar to that in NiO, having an ionic contribution arising from the donation of the Ni 4s electron to the S atom and a covalent component arising from bonds between the Ni 3d and the S 3p. The one-electron d bonds are found to be of equal strength for NiO and NiS, but the two-electron d bonds are weaker for NiS.

  10. Large reversible magnetocaloric effect induced by metamagnetic transition in antiferromagnetic HoNiGa compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xu; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Mei-Ling; Tao, Kun; Li, Ya-Wei; Yan, Tim; Long, Ke-Wen; Long, Teng; Pang, Zheng; Long, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of HoNiGa compound are investigated systematically. The HoNiGa exhibits a weak antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state below the Ńeel temperature TN of 10 K, and the AFM ordering could be converted into ferromagnetic (FM) ordering by external magnetic field. Moreover, the field-induced FM phase exhibits a high saturation magnetic moment and a large change of magnetization around the transition temperature, which then result in a large MCE. A large -ΔSM of 22.0 J/kg K and a high RC value of 279 J/kg without magnetic hysteresis are obtained for a magnetic field change of 5 T, which are comparable to or even larger than those of some other magnetic refrigerant materials in the same temperature range. Besides, the μ0H2/3 dependence of well follows the linear fitting according to the mean-field approximation, suggesting the nature of second-order FM-PM magnetic transition under high magnetic fields. The large reversible MCE induced by metamagnetic transition suggests that HoNiGa compound could be a promising material for magnetic refrigeration in low temperature range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51671022 and 51427806), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2162022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-15-002A3).

  11. How carbon nanofibers attach to Ni foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Thakur, D.B.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    A stable Carbon-Nano-Fiber (CNF) layer was catalytically grown on Ni foam by decomposing ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy of the cross-section of the deposited layer on Ni foam revealed the presence of two distinct carbon layers; an apparently dense layer (‘C-layer’) at the carbon–Ni interface

  12. Mechanisms of High Coercivity in Ni/NiO Composite Films by Post Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A coercivity as large as 2.4 kOe has been achieved in the Ni/NiO composite film after an annealing under a magnetic field of 10 kOe and an O2 partial pressure of 0.001 torr. The coercivity was attributed to the strong exchange coupling of Ni and NiO. Small grain size of Ni and NiO was observed after the post-annealing. The enhanced coercivity is probably associated with the domain wall pinning by local energy minima, the distribution of Ni and NiO, and the domain structure in the interface of Ni/NiO generated under the presence of the magnetic field during the post-annealing.

  13. Effects of chemical coating with Ni on electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys are presented in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to examine the crystal structure and surface morphologies of the bare and Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The electrochemical properties of alloys were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni coating not only decreased the charge transfer resistance, but also decreased the H atom diflusion resistance for Mg2Ni alloys. It was also found that Ni coating effectively improved the discharge capacity, but decreased the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The discharge current has a great impact on the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys.

  14. Kinetics of Ni sorption in soils: roles of soil organic matter and Ni precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-02-21

    The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

  15. Synthesis and catalytic performance of SiO2@Ni and hollow Ni microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, Xueting; Yu, Zhengyang; Feng, Libang

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) catalyst has been widely used in catalytic reducing reactions such as catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds and catalytic reduction of organic dyes. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure Ni is low. In order to improve the catalytic performance, Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres can be developed. In this study, we have prepared Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres (SiO2@Ni) and hollow Ni microspheres using two-step method. SiO2@Ni microspheres with raspberry-like morphology and core-shell structure are synthesized successfully using SiO2 microsphere as a template and Ni2+ ions are adsorbed onto SiO2 surfaces via electrostatic interaction and then reduced and deposited on surfaces of SiO2 microspheres. Next, the SiO2 cores are removed by NaOH etching and the hollow Ni microspheres are prepared. The NaOH etching time does no have much influence on the crystal structure, shape, and surface morphology of SiO2@Ni; however, it can change the phase composition evidently. The hollow Ni microspheres are obtained when the NaOH etching time reaches 10 h and above. The as-synthesized SiO2@Ni microspheres exhibit much higher catalytic performance than the hollow Ni microspheres and pure Ni nanoparticles in the catalytic reduction of methylene blue. Meanwhile, the SiO2@Ni catalyst has high stability and hence it can be recycled for reuse.

  16. China Eximbank Promotes China-Tunisia Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Export and Import Bank of China(China Eximbank) and Tunisia Embassy, on March 28,jointly held "China-Tunisia Cooperation Forum" in Beijing. Wei Jianguo, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce,Li Ruogu, President of China Eximbank and Mohamed Nouri Jouini, Minister of the Tunisia Development and International Cooperation Department attended the forum. Government officials and entrepreneurs from both sides had deep communications on the topics of the investment environment, economic and trade cooperation, etc..

  17. Structural evaluation and nonlinear optical properties of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Padmanathan, N.; Philip, Reji; Balamurugan, S.; Kanakam, Charles C.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocomposites of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 have been synthesized by a chemical reduction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the mixed composite nature of the sample and uniform particle size of approximately 13 nm. Formation of Ni/NiCo3O4 solid solution or NiCo2O4 spinel phase in the mixed composite is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum. Magnetic hysteresis (M-H) curves of the nanocomposites show excellent ferromagnetic (FM) nature at room temperature. Nonlinear optical transmission of the nanocomposites is measured using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing 7 nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Experimental results show that NiO/NiO-Co3O4/Co3O4 nanocomposites exhibit good optical limiting performance. From the measurements and numerical fitting of the data to theory, it is found that nonlinear absorption has contributions from excited state absorption and two-photon absorption. Optical limiting is enhanced in Co3O4 and Ni/NiCo2O4 in which the Co3O4 content has a larger volume ratio.

  18. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi......-empirical correlations were employed for creep limiting grain growth of Ni and NiO, particle coarsening of Ni and particle growth in NiO during the oxidation. Seven experimental cases of high temperature redox dilatometry were simulated. The model shows good qualitative agreement with the measurements. The different...

  19. Determination of Ni2+ in Waters with Sodium Polyacrylate as a Binding Phase in Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; DONG Jia; NIU Yong-xin; SUN Ting

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous solution containing sodium polyacrylate(PAAS) was used in diffusive gradient in thin-films technique(DGT) to measure DGT-labile Ni2+ concentrations.The DGT devices(PAAS DGT) were validated in four types of solutions,including synthetic river water containing metal ions with complexing EDTA or that without complexing EDTA,natural river water(Ling River,Jinzhou,China) spiked with Ni2+,and an industrial wastewater (Jinzhou,China).Results show that only free metal ions were measured by PAAS DGT,recovery=97.36% in the solutions containing only free metal ions,recovery=49.62% in a solution with metal/EDTA molar ratio of 2:1 and recovery=0 in the solutions with metal/EDTA molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:2.These indicated that the complexes of Ni-EDTA were DGT-inert.The DGT performance in spiked river water(recovery=18.24%) and in industrial wastewater(recovery=l2.25%) were investigated,which indicated that the measurement of metals by this DGT device did not include the humic substances complexed fractions of metals.The binding properties of PAAS DGT for Ni2+ were investigated under different conditions of pH value and ionic strength.Conditional stability constants(lgK) of PAAS-Ni complexes were also evaluated.

  20. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  1. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  2. Cultura del amante: amor, emoción y corazón en el acogimiento familiar de niños y niñas con discapacidad de nanchang

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yamping

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo explora la experiencia del acogimiento familiar de niños y niñas con discapacidad de Nanchang (China). Se realiza una etnografía a partir de la investigación de la visión "emic" de acogedores y acogedoras y otras personas implicadas. La metodología que se emplea se basa en la observación participante —realizada mediante la convivencia en los hogares de las familias de acogida—, las entrevistas a los y las participantes, y la revisión de los estudios sobre los entornos impl...

  3. Monoligated monovalent Ni: the 3d(Ni)9 manifold of states of NiCu and comparison to the 3d9 States of AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschopf, Gretchen K; Morse, Michael D

    2005-12-22

    A dispersed fluorescence investigation of the low-lying electronic states of NiCu has allowed the observation of four out of the five states that derive from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold. Vibrational levels of the ground X2delta(5/2) state corresponding to v = 0-11 are observed and are fit to provide omega(e) = 275.93 +/- 1.06 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 1.44 +/- 0.11 cm(-1). The v = 0 levels of the higher lying states deriving from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold are located at 912, 1466, and 1734 cm(-1), and these states are assigned to omega values of 3/2, 1/2, and 3/2, respectively. The last of these assignments is based on selection rules and is unequivocal; the first two are based on a comparison to ab initio and ligand field calculations and could conceivably be in error. It is also possible that the v = 0 level of the state found at 912 cm(-1) is not observed, so that T0 for the lowest excited state actually lies near 658 cm(-1). These results are modeled using a matrix Hamiltonian based on the existence of a ground manifold of states deriving from the 3d9 configuration on nickel. This matrix Hamiltonian is also applied to the spectroscopically well-known molecules AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF. The term energies of the 2sigma+, 2pi, and 2delta states of these molecules, which all derive from a 3d9 configuration on the nickel atom, display a clear and understandable trend as a function of the electronegativity of the ligands.

  4. Bipolar resistive switching of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au heterostructure nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Perego, D.; Tallarida, G.; Bestetti, M.; Franz, S.; Spiga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Arrays of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires with a diameter of 50 nm were characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, which was used to probe the electrical behavior of single nanowires still included in the array. A bipolar switching of the single Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires is demonstrated and is attributed to the choice of an asymmetric couple of electrode materials and, possibly, to a non-uniform Ni oxidation profile inside the NiOx segments. An analysis of the conduction mechanism in a single nanowire is presented to further support this conclusion.

  5. Study on Transfer of Ni in Soil—Plant System Using 63Ni Tracer Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUCONG

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out on the transfer of native and added Ni towards plant both in different soils and at different time by using 63 Ni tracer technique.The transfer of added Ni in soil was greater than native Ni and declined as time increased.The mobility was greater for soluble plus exchangeable fraction of soil Ni but very smaller for residual and Fe/Mn oxide bound fractions.These indicated that Ni was more mobile and more harmful in soils with a low pH and /or low content of Fe/Mn oxides.

  6. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high—energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕荣厚; 马如璋; 等

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr,Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni Catalyst by high energy milling.The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy.the Structure was analyzed by XRD and Moessbauer methods.The results showed that after a high-energy milling(HEM).the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al.By annealing the alloy,a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  7. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high-energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr, Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni catalyst by high energy milling. The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy, the structure was analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer methods. The results showed that after a high-energy milling (HEM), the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al. Byannealing the alloy, a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  8. El niño

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Freire, Carlos; Aristizábal, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Aquella Navidad Pedro estaba triste porque no paraba de llover y su padre, pescador, regresaba a casa desanimado con las redes vacías. El abuelo de Pedro, otro viejo pescador, consiguió cambiar el semblante de su pequeño nieto contándole las bondades del pronóstico del tiempo. Conoce el fenómeno de El Niño a través de este cuento.

  9. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  10. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  11. SIAL CHINA 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The 5th edition of SIAL CHINA, organized by China Development Chamber of Commerce and Exposium, will take place from March 30th to April 1 st 2004 in Shanghai New International Expo Centre of Pudong. It has been 5 years since SIAL CHINA firstly held in Beijing in 2000. Now, it has been a typical show in China food industry and became the largest international food show in China.

  12. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  13. Comparison of the thermal stabilities of NiSi films in Ni/Si, Ni/Pd/Si and Ni/Pt/Si systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R N

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different interlayer materials (Pd and Pt) deposited between Ni films and Si substrates on the NiSi thermal stability are discussed. Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si and Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 5 Pt sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 5 Si solid solutions were formed when the samples were annealed at high temperatures and the lattice parameters of Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si were calculated according to Vegard's law. The NiSi thermal stability was enhanced by interposing a Pd or Pt interlayer, and the sample with the Pt interlayer had the highest NiSi thermal stability among all the samples studied. This is attributed to the reduction of the interface energy between NiSi and Si substrates and the decrease of the driving force for the nucleation of NiSi sub 2 , induced by formation of the NiSi(200) preferred orientation and the solid solution respectively.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Grain Boundaries of Nanocrystalline Ni and of Ni Precipitates in Nanocrystalline NiCu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, H.; Guan, Z.; Li, X.; Wichert, Th.

    2001-11-01

    Perturbed γγ-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) was used to investigate nanocrystalline Ni and NiCu alloys, which are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition (PED). Using diffusion for doping nanocrystalline Ni with 111In four different ordered grain boundary structures are observed, which are characterized by unique electric field gradients. The incorporation of 111In on substitutional bulk sites of Ni is caused by moving grain boundaries below 1000 K and by volume diffusion above 1000 K. The nanocrystalline NiCu alloys prepared by PED are microscopically inhomogeneous as observed by PAC. In contrast, this inhomogeneity cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction. The influence of the temperature of the electrolyte, the current density during deposition, and the optional addition of saccharin to the electrolyte on the homogeneity of nanocrystalline NiCu alloys was investigated.

  15. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  16. Mixing behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers induced by cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Larson, D.; Reinhard, D. [CAMECA Instruments Inc., 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The composition profiles of Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers were investigated. • A compositional oscillation was observed in the Cu/Ni composition profile. • The Ni/V composition profile varies smoothly and continuously between end members. • The effective diffusion coefficients were enhanced by about 30 order of magnitudes. • The effective temperature were estimated as 946 K for Cu/Ni and 936 K for Ni/V. - Abstract: Multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Ni70/V30 foil arrays were cold rolled in order to study the transformation reactions and mixing behaviors induced by deformation. Upon cold rolling, the layer thicknesses were refined to about 20 nm and solid solution phases were induced from pure end members (i.e. Cu, Ni and V) in both cases. The composition profiles for Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayer samples at the deformation level where the solid solution phases coexist with end members were investigated by means of atom probe tomography and electron energy loss spectrum, respectively. An oscillation in the composition of Cu–Ni solid solution phase was observed, however the composition profile of Ni/V shows a smoothly varying curve between the end members. The effective diffusion coefficients were promoted by about 30 orders of magnitude for both Cu/Ni and Ni/V compared to room temperature diffusion. The effective temperature for Cu/Ni multilayers after 36 passes and Ni/V after 60 passes are estimated as 946 K and 936 K respectively.

  17. The impact of Ni on the physiology of a Mediterranean Ni-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotiello, Enrica; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    High nickel (Ni) levels exert toxic effects on plant growth and plant water content, thus affecting photosynthesis. In a pot experiment, we investigated the effect of the Ni concentration on the physiological characteristics of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssoides utriculata when grown on a vermiculite substrate in the presence of different external Ni concentrations (0-500 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that the Ni concentration was higher in leaves than in roots, as evidenced by a translocation factor = 3 and a bioconcentration factor = 10. At the highest concentration tested (500 mg Ni L(-1)), A. utriculata accumulated 1100 mg Ni per kilogram in its leaves, without an effects on its biomass. Plant water content increased significantly with Ni accumulation. Ni treatment did not, or only slightly, affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The photosynthetic efficiency (FV/FM) of A. utriculata was stable between Ni treatments (always ≥ 0.8) and the photosynthetic performance of the plant under Ni stress remained high (performance index = 1.5). These findings support that A. utriculata has several mechanisms to avoid severe damage to its photosynthetic apparatus, confirming the tolerance of this species to Ni under hyperaccumulation.

  18. Transparent nanostructured electrodes: Electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Nanni, F. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Nunziante, P. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/nickel(II) acetate precursor fibers were deposited by electrospinning directly on radio frequency sputtered thin Ni and NiO films grown on quartz substrate, starting from Ni(II) acetate and PVP solution in ethanol. The samples were calcined in air in the temperature range 400–500 °C to obtain transparent and conductive p-type NiO nanofibers on NiO films. A higher density of nanofibers was obtained on Ni/quartz substrates, as compared to NiO/quartz ones, demonstrating the feasibility of fiber adhesion directly to an insulating substrate previously coated by a thin Ni layer. Samples were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and resistance measurements. - Highlights: • Nanostructured electrodes: electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films were fabricated. • NiO fibers were directly grown on insulating substrate coated by thin Ni or NiO films. • Good quality crystalline fibers were obtained at low calcination temperatures. • Transparent and conductive p-type electrodes were fabricated.

  19. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production.

  20. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans Infection in the Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku areas of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Honma, Kizou; Shinoda, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Yumie

    2005-01-01

    A survey on the infestation of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans was made by inquiry to dermatologists. Patients strongly suggestive of having skin lesions due to T. tonsurans were seen in all areas examined, and were mainly schoolboys, including those practicing judo, of high schools and junior high schools. In Nagasaki, a mycological examination was done on 21 judo students and their teacher in a high school in which a patient with T. tonsurans infection was mycologically confirmed and treated by antimycotics. Mycological examinations failed to isolate T. tonsurans, but even after the examination sporadic cases were reported among the group members. In Saga prefecture, Kyushu, a mycological screening for T. tonsurans infection among judoists and wrestlers in 13 high-schools and 7 junior high schools was done using the blush sampling method. Fifty-six strains of T. tonsurans were isolated from 248 students. The problems concerning the control of this infection were discussed.

  1. REE in cretaceous to tertiary granitoids of Chugoku and Shikoku district, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Harada, Michiru

    1998-01-01

    `Niho plutonic composite rocks` distributed in Niho Kamigo area in the northeast of Yamaguchi-city in Japan. It is small plutonic composite rocks, of about 2 km in long length and 1 km of short length. The rocks were studied by the geological survey. Many kinds of rock and rare earth elements were determined. The constitution process is estimated by these results. It consists of gabbro-quartz diorite-tonalite{center_dot}granodiorite-granito. The more inside of rock existed, the more felsic rock are discovered. Chemical compositions were TiO{sub 2}, FeO, MnO and K{sub 2}O. It is estimated that intrusion of tonalite and successive intrusion of granodiorite generated and then formed in situ crystallization differentiation. (S.Y.)

  2. Electroless Plated Co-Ni-P-B/Ni Foam Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeil; Kim, Taegyu

    2016-02-01

    Co-Ni-P-B catalyst supported on Ni foam was prepared using electroless plating for hydrogen generation from an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Co-B, Co-P-B, and Co-Ni-B were prepared for comparison. Surface morphology of catalyst/Ni foams were observed using SEM analysis. The Co- Ni-P-B/Ni foam catalyst showed the superior performance on hydrogen generation rate due to the uniform formation of catalyst particles on the surface of Ni foam. Characteristics of hydrogen generation rate on the Co-N-P-B/Ni foam catalyst were investigated at the variety of NaBH4 and NaOH concentrations. The hydrogen generation rate increased with decreasing NaBH4 concentration, while increasing NaOH concentration. Durability test was performed, resulting in the stable hydrogen generation for 6 hours.

  3. Study of the interfacial magnetism in NiO/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafur, Miguel, E-mail: umiguelt@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Alayo, W. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.P. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo, Rua Humberto de Almeida Francklin 257 - Bairro Universitario, Sao Mateus - 29933-415 ES (Brazil); Xing, Y.T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil)

    2010-05-31

    The interfacial magnetism of NiO/NiFe bilayers with different NiFe layer thicknesses, produced by DC and RF magnetron sputtering, has been studied by magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In magnetic hysteresis loops, the exchange bias field was found to be inversely proportional to the NiFe layer thickness. The fit using the Meiklejohn and Bean model gives a coupling energy at the NiO/NiFe interface of approximately 0.027 mJ/m{sup 2}. The analysis of the XMCD spectra of Fe and Ni, using the sum rules, shows a reduction of the effective spin magnetic moments in bilayers with NiFe thickness less than 4 nm. This reduction is attributed to hybridization of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic atoms d orbitals near the interface and/or formation of antiferromagnetic alloys due to atomic diffusion at the interfaces.

  4. ENSO cycle and climate anomaly in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongli; ZHAO Yongping; FENG Junqiao; WANG Fan

    2012-01-01

    The inter-annual variability of the tropical Pacific Subsurface Ocean Temperature Anomaly (SOTA) and the associated anomalous atmospheric circulation over the Asian North Pacific during the El Ni(n)o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) atmospheric reanalysis data and simple ocean data simulation (SODA).The relationship between the ENSO and the climate of China was revealed.The main results indicated the following:1) there are two ENSO modes acting on the subsurface tropical Pacific.The first mode is related to the mature phase of ENSO,which mainly appears during winter.The second mode is associated with a transition stage of the ENSO developing or decaying,which mainly occurs during summer; 2) during the mature phase of El Ni(n)o,the meridionality of the atmosphere in the mid-high latitude increases,the Aleutian low and high pressure ridge over Lake Baikal strengthens,northerly winds prevail in northern China,and precipitation in northern China decreases significantly.The ridge of the Ural High strengthens during the decaying phase of El Ni(n)o,as atmospheric circulation is sustained during winter,and the northerly wind anomaly appears in northern China during summer.Due to the ascending branch of the Walker circulation over the western Pacific,the western Pacific Subtropical High becomes weaker,and south-southeasterly winds prevail over southern China.As a result,less rainfall occurs over northern China and more rainfall over the Changjiang River basin and the southwestern and eastern region of Inner Mongolia.The flood disaster that occurred south of Changjiang River can be attributed to this.The La Ni(n)a event causes an opposite,but weaker effect; 3) the ENSO cycle can influence climate anomalies within China via zonal and meridional heat transport.This is known as the "atmospheric-bridge",where the energy anomaly within the tropical Pacific

  5. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N; Allen, RJ; Mukerjee, S

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  6. Determination of isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni and Ni-Mo-Re ternary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; WANG Richu; YU Kun; WEN Danhua

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K and the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K were determined by means of diffusion triple and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).The results indicate that there are three three-phase regions found in the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K:(Ni,Co)+NbCo3+ Ni3Nb,NbCo3+NbCo2+Ni3Nb,and NbCo2+μ+Ni3Nb;and four three-phase regions found in the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K:Re+Ni+χ,Ni+NiMo+σ,σ+χ+ Ni,and σ+Mo+NiMo.No ternary eompoond is observed in the two isothermal sections.The isothermal sections arc contrasted with the previous study.

  7. Ni clay neoformation on montmorillonite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähn, R; Scheidegger, A; Manceau, A; Schlegel, M; Baeyens, B; Bradbury, M H

    2001-03-01

    Polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (P-EXAFS) was used to study the sorption mechanism of Ni on the aluminous hydrous silicate montmorillonite at high ionic strength (0.3 M NaClO4), pH 8 and a Ni concentration of 0.66 mM. Highly textured self-supporting clay films were obtained by slowly filtrating a clay suspension after a reaction time of 14 days. P-EXAFS results indicate that sorbed Ni has a Ni clay-like structural environment with the same crystallographic orientation as montmorillonite layers.

  8. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  9. 酸度对化学镀Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P的影响%Effect of acidity on Ni-P and Ni-Mo-P chemical plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永奎; 邱安娥; 张翼; 邱万忠

    2002-01-01

    研究了镀液pH值对Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P化学镀镀层的生成速度和镀层中Ni质量分数的影响. 结果表明,镀液的pH值不仅影响Ni的沉积速度,而且影响镀层中Ni的质量分数;镀层生成速度均随镀液pH值增大而出现极大值,但两者的位置有所不同;随镀液pH值增加,Ni-Mo-P镀镀层中w(Ni)出现极大值,而Ni-P镀则是pH值增至一定值后w(Ni)趋于平稳;镀层的生成速度与镀层中w(Ni)的最高点都出现在相同的酸度下,Ni-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为5.5,而Ni-Mo-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为6.5.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF Ni BIOACCUMULATION BY SYNECHCOCCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoran Li; Zhuwei Du; Jianglong Liang; Huiqing Bai; Yali Feng

    2006-01-01

    Influencing factors on bioaccumulation of Ni by Synechcoccus were studied in this paper. The equilibration time of Ni bioaccumulation was about 80 min in aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation quantity reached maximum when mass ratio of Ni to dry weight concentration of Synechcoccus was 16-18%. Bioaccumulation quantity increased with increasing pH. The optimum pH was 9-10 and higher pH led to precipitation of Ni(OH)2. Bioaccumulation quantity was also influenced by temperature and light intensity reaching their optima at 35℃ and 3 000 Ix respectively. Bioaccumulation of nonliving algae was larger than that of living algae.

  11. Morphology controlled synthesis of 2-D Ni-Ni3S2 and Ni3S2 nanostructures on Ni foam towards oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Oh, Aram; Sa, Young Jin; Jin, Haneul; Baik, Hionsuck; Kim, Sang Gu; Lee, Suk Joong; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2017-03-01

    Catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions (OER) are at the heart of key renewable energy technologies, and development of non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and stability remain a great challenge in this field. Among various material candidates, metal sulfides are receiving increasing attention. While morphology-dependent catalytic performances are well established in noble metal-based catalysts, relatively little is known for the morphology‒catalytic performance relationship in metal sulfide catalysts. In this study, uniform spider web-like Ni nanosheets-Ni3S2 and honeycomb-like Ni3S2 structures are deposited on nickel foam (Ni3S2/NF) by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthetic route. When used as an oxygen evolution electrode, the spider web-like Ni-Ni3S2/NF with the large exposed surface area shown excellent catalytic activity and stability with an overpotential of 310 mV to achieve at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 63 mV/dec in alkaline media, which is superior to the honeycomb-like structure without Ni nanosheet. The low Tafel slope of the spider web-like Ni-Ni3S2/NF represents one of the best OER kinetics among nickel sulfide-based OER catalysts. The results point to the fact that performance of the metal sulfide electrocatalysts might be fine-tuned and optimized with morphological controls.

  12. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First principles exploration of NiO and its ions NiO+ and NiO-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Constantine N; Mavridis, Aristides

    2013-02-07

    We present a high level ab initio study of NiO and its ions, NiO(+) and NiO(-). Employing variational multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) and single reference coupled-cluster methods combined with basis sets of quintuple quality, 54, 20, and 10 bound states of NiO, NiO(+), and NiO(-) have been studied. For all these states, complete potential energy curves have been constructed at the MRCI level of theory; in addition, for the ground states of the three species core subvalence (3s(2)3p(6)∕(Ni)) and scalar relativistic effects have been taken into account. We report energetics, spectroscopic parameters, dipole moments, and spin-orbit coupling constants. The agreement with experiment is in the case of NiO good, but certain discrepancies that need further investigation have arisen in the case of the anion whose ground state remains computationally a tantalizing matter. The cation is experimentally almost entirely unexplored, therefore, the study of many states shall prove valuable to further investigators. The ground state symmetry, bond distances, and binding energies of NiO and NiO(+) are (existing experimental values in parenthesis), X(3)Σ(-)(X(3)Σ(-)), r(e) = 1.606 (1.62712) Å, D(0) = 88.5 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol, and X(4)Σ(-)(?), r(e) = 1.60(?) Å, D(0) = 55 (62.4 ± 2.4) kcal/mol, respectively. The ground state of NiO(-) is (4)Σ(-) (but (2)Π experimentally) with D(0) = 85-87 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol.

  14. ¿Puede América Latina convertirse en el patio trasero de China?

    OpenAIRE

    Hongying, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Parte de la sociedad norteamericana tiene el preconcepto de que la relación entre China y América Latina representa un pe- ligro para los Estados Unidos. Este juicio no contempla los linea- mientos estratégicos de la política exterior de China, la disminución de la presencia de EE.UU. en América Latina ni los cambios recien- tes en esta región. Deben establecerse nuevos mecanismos de cooperación entre China, Estados Unidos y América Latina que permitan su desarrollo económico y social, y que ...

  15. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  16. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  17. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, K.; Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S. S.; Mumtaz, M.

    2016-11-01

    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400-800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (Ms) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest Ms values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy studies on pulsed electrodeposited Ni/Ag/Ni trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanapal, K.; Revathy, T.A.; Raj, M. Anand [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Narayanan, V. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Stephen, A., E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Crystalline nature of layered films is confirmed using XRD. • Magnetic easy axis is observed to be parallel to the plane of the film. • Magnetic anisotropy change is dependent on number of layers. • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film shows higher anisotropy energy than pure Ni film. - Abstract: The pulsed electrodeposition method was employed for the deposition of pure Ni, Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films due to its greater advantages while comparing with other methods. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of fcc structure for both nickel and silver. The cross sectional scanning electron microscopy shows the layer formation in Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films. The metallic nature of the nickel and silver were also confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy behaviour was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer which gives that the easy axis is in plan of the film for all the film.

  19. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  20. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda-Jiménez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, K.; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from fra

  1. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  2. Spin polarization effect of Ni2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Zhu Zheng-He

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) method (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 is used to optimize the structure of the Ni2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Ni2 molecule is a 5-multiple state, symbolizing a spin polarization effect existing in the Ni2 molecule, a transition metal molecule, but no spin pollution is found because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So the ground state for Ni2 molecule, which is a 5-multiple state, is indicative of spin polarization effect of the Ni2 molecule, that is, there exist 4 parallel spin electrons in Ni2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is greatest. These electrons occupy different spatial orbitals so that the energy of the Ni2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Ni2 molecule is larger than that of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters of the ground state and other states of the Ni2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule is 1.835 eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2243 nm, vibration frequency ωe is 262.35 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3 and f4 are 1.1901 aJ.nm-2, 5.8723 aJ.nm-3, and 21.2505 aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule ωexe, Be and αe are 1.6315cm-1, 0.1141 cm-1, and 8.0145×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  3. Angle-resolved XPS Studies of Magnetic Multilayers Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta%磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta角分辨XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 朱逢吾; 马纪东; 王安荣

    2002-01-01

    磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta由磁控溅射方法制备.采用角分辨X射线光电子能谱(XPS)研究了反铁磁(NiO)/铁磁(NiFe)界面.结果表明,在NiO/NiFe界面发生了化学反应: NiO+Fe = Ni+FeO和3NiO+2Fe =3Ni+Fe2O3,此反应深度约为1~1.5 nm.反应产物将影响NiO对NiFe的交换耦合.

  4. Models of the Ni-L and Ni-SIa States of the [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey M; Huynh, Mioy T; Li, Yulong; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-19

    A new class of synthetic models for the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases are described. The Ni(I/II)(SCys)2 and Fe(II)(CN)2CO sites are represented with (RC5H4)Ni(I/II) and Fe(II)(diphos)(CO) modules, where diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PPh2)2(dppe) or cis-1,2-C2H2(PPh2)2(dppv). The two bridging thiolate ligands are represented by CH2(CH2S)2(2-) (pdt(2-)), Me2C(CH2S)2(2-) (Me2pdt(2-)), and (C6H5S)2(2-). The reaction of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) and [(C5H5)3Ni2]BF4 affords [(C5H5)Ni(pdt)Fe(dppe)(CO)]BF4 ([1a]BF4). Monocarbonyl [1a]BF4 features an S = 0 Ni(II)Fe(II) center with five-coordinated iron, as proposed for the Ni-SIa state of the enzyme. One-electron reduction of [1a](+) affords the S = 1/2 derivative [1a](0), which, according to density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies, is best described as a Ni(I)Fe(II) compound. The Ni(I)Fe(II) assignment matches that for the Ni-L state in [NiFe]-hydrogenase, unlike recently reported Ni(II)Fe(I)-based models. Compound [1a](0) reacts with strong acids to liberate 0.5 equiv of H2 and regenerate [1a](+), indicating that H2 evolution is catalyzed by [1a](0). DFT calculations were used to investigate the pathway for H2 evolution and revealed that the mechanism can proceed through two isomers of [1a](0) that differ in the stereochemistry of the Fe(dppe)CO center. Calculations suggest that protonation of [1a](0) (both isomers) affords Ni(III)-H-Fe(II) intermediates, which represent mimics of the Ni-C state of the enzyme.

  5. Site preferences and lattice vibrations of Nd6Fe13 - x TxSi (T = Co, Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian-Shun; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Zhang, Zhen-Feng; An, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The site preferences of the rare earth intermetallics Nd6Fe13-xTxSi (T = Co, Ni) are investigated by using interatomic pair potentials which are converted from a lattice-inversion method. Calculation shows that the order of the site preference of Co is 4d, 16k, 16l1, and 16l2 and that of Ni is 16l2, 16l1, 16k, and 4d in Nd6Fe13-xTxSi. Calculated lattice and positional parameters are found to agree with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the phonon density of states for Nd6Fe13-xTxSi is also evaluated, and a qualitative analysis featuring the coordination and the relevant potentials is carried out. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272048 and 50971024) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB606401).

  6. Cobalt Deposits of China:Classification, Distribution and Major Advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chengyou; ZHANG Dequan

    2004-01-01

    The important strategic metal cobalt has diverse uses and the majority of world cobalt deposits have been found in China. The deposits can be classified into four types, i.e., magmatic Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposits, hydrothermal and volcanogenic cobalt polymetallic deposits, strata-bound Cu-Co deposits hosted by sedimentary rocks and lateritic Ni-Co deposits, of which the former two types are the most important. There are six principal metallogenic epochs and seven important metallogenic belts according to their distribution and tectonic position. Although cobalt generally occurs in nickel-copper, copper and iron deposits as an associated metal, great developments in exploration for independent cobalt deposits have happened in China, and, in recent years, many independent deposits with different elementary assemblages and different genetic types have been discovered in the eastem part of the northern margin of the North China platform, the Central Orogenic Belt of China, western Jiangxi and northeastern Hunan. In addition, it is inferred that the Kunlun-Qinling Orogenic Belt has great potential for further exploration of new types of independent cobalt deposits.

  7. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  8. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  9. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  10. China Meets G7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵福

    2004-01-01

    Parties held by the wealthy, seldom welcome poor guests. But last week China made it through the doors into a gathering of the world's richest countries. Jin Renqing, China's finance minister, and Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of the People's Bank of China, joined a meeting of the Group of Seven'on October. It is the first time that China has had direct talks with the club.

  11. Oxidation kinetics of Ni metallic films: Formation of NiO-based resistive switching structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtade, L.; Turquat, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Muller, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.muller@l2mp.fr; Lisoni, J.G.; Goux, L.; Wouters, D.J. [IMEC, Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goguenheim, D. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, ISEN-Toulon, Maison des Technologies, Place Georges Pompidou, F-83000 Toulon (France); Roussel, P. [UCCS, Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ortega, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, UPR CNRS 5031, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-30

    Resistive switching controlled by external voltage has been reported in many Metal/Resistive oxide/Metal (MRM) structures in which the resistive oxide was simple transition metal oxide thin films such as NiO or TiO{sub 2} deposited by reactive sputtering. In this paper, we have explored the possibility to form NiO-based MRM structures from the partial oxidation of a blanket Ni metallic film using a Rapid Thermal Annealing route, the remaining Ni layer being used as bottom electrode. X-ray diffraction was used to apprehend the Ni oxidation kinetics while transmission electron microscopy enabled investigating local microstructure and film interfaces. These analyses have especially emphasized the predominant role of the as-deposited Ni metallic film microstructure (size and orientation of crystallites) on (i) oxidation kinetics, (ii) NiO film microstructural characteristics (crystallite size, texture and interface roughness) and (iii) subsequent electrical behavior. On this latter point, the as-grown NiO films were initially in the low resistance ON state without the electro-forming step usually required for sputtered films. Above the threshold voltage varying from 2 to 5 V depending on oxidation conditions, the Pt/NiO/Ni MRM structures irreversibly switched into the high resistance OFF state. This irreversibility is thought to originate in the microstructure of the NiO films that would cause the difficulty to re-form conductive paths.

  12. Purification of a Ni sup 2+ -binding protein, pNiXa, from Xenopus ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B.L.; Makowski, G.S.; Nomoto, S.; Sunderman, F.W. (Univ. of Connecticut, Farmington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous research on nickel-induced teratogenesis in Xenopus laevis identified several Ni{sup 2+}-binding proteins, including pNiXa in Xenopus ovaries, unfertilized eggs, and embryos. A major goal of this research project is elucidating the role of pNiXa in the uptake, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity of Ni{sup 2+} in Xenopus. To purify and identify pNiXa, ovarian tissue from mature Xenopus females was homogenized in 3 vol of Tris buffer and centrifuged. The supernatant was centrifuged; the ultracentrifugal supernatant was batch-adsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose. The pNiSa remained unbound and was subsequently adsorbed on phosphocellulose and eluted by a step-wise NaCl gradient. The pNiXa was eluted in 0.25 M NaCl; this fraction was concentrated, and further purified by reverse phase chromatography on a 5 {mu}m C-8 column, with a linear trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The pNiXa was eluted at {approximately}56% acetonitrile, yielding a single protein band with mol wt {approximately}47 kD,based on SDS-PAGE analysis. Comparison of the amino acid composition of pNiXa versus the results obtained by automated Edman degradation indicated that the N-terminus of pNiXa was blocked. Sequencing of peptide fragments of pNiXa is underway.

  13. Formation of dioxins on NiO and NiCl2 at different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua; Olie, Kees; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) containing activated carbon (AC) as source of carbon, NaCl as source of chlorine and either NiO or NiCl2 as de novo catalyst, was heated for 1h at 350 °C in a carrier gas flow composed of N2 containing 0, 6, 10, and 21 vol.% O2, to study the formation of PCDD/Fs (dioxins) and its dependence on oxygen. The formation of PCDD/Fs with NiCl2 was stronger by about two orders of magnitude than with NiO and the difference augmented with rising oxygen concentration. The thermodynamics of the NiO-NiCl2 system were represented, X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy allowed to probe the state of oxidation of the nickel catalyst in the MFA and individual metal species were distinguished using the LCF (Linear combination fitting) technique: thus three supplemental nickel compounds (Ni2O3, Ni(OH)2, and Ni) were found in the fly ash. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that both Ni2O3 and NiCl2 probably played an important role in the formation of PCDD/Fs.

  14. Abrasive wear property of laser melting/deposited Ti2Ni/TiNi intermetallic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A wear resistant intermetallic alloy consisting of TiNi primary dendrites and Ti2Ni matrix was fabricated by the laser melting deposition manufacturing process. Wear resistance of Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy was evaluated on an abrasive wear tester at room temperature under the different loads. The results show that the intermetallic alloy suffers more abrasive wear attack under low wear test load of 7, 13 and 25 N than high-chromium cast-iron. However, the intermetallic alloy exhibits better wear resistance under wear test load of 49 N. Abrasive wear of the laser melting deposition Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy is governed by micro-cutting and plowing.Pseudoelasticity of TiNi plays an active role in contributing to abrasive wear resistance.

  15. Preparation of ZnNiMo/{gamma}-alumina catalysts from recycled Ni for hydrotreating reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Carlos F.; Lopez, Julio [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia Edo Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela); Scaffidi, Adriana; Scott, Carlos E. [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado 47102, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-09-18

    Ni, recovered from Ni-Cd cellular phone batteries, was used in the preparation of ZnNiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reductions (TPR), surface area determinations (BET) and chemical analysis. Vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP) hydrodeporphyrinization (HDP) and thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) were used as catalytic tests. It was found that the addition of Zn increases the ratio between octahedral and tetrahedral Mo in ZnMo and ZnNiMo catalysts, and that Ni addition lowers the reduction temperature of Mo species. Both results induce a positive synergetic effect for HDP and HDS reactions. An activity maximum was found for the catalyst with a Zn/(Zn+Ni) atomic ratio equal to 0.29, for both reactions. Finally, the use of a possible pollutant (Ni-Cd batteries) to produce a catalyst to eliminate contaminants in fuels was shown to be feasible.

  16. Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-08

    The seasonal prediction of the coastal oceanic warm event off West Australia, recently named the Ningaloo Niño, is explored by use of a state-of-the-art ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model. The Ningaloo Niño/Niña, which generally matures in austral summer, is found to be predictable two seasons ahead. In particular, the unprecedented extreme warm event in February 2011 was successfully predicted 9 months in advance. The successful prediction of the Ningaloo Niño is mainly due to the high prediction skill of La Niña in the Pacific. However, the model deficiency to underestimate its early evolution and peak amplitude needs to be improved. Since the Ningaloo Niño/Niña has potential impacts on regional societies and industries through extreme events, the present success of its prediction may encourage development of its early warning system.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Amorphous NiFe/Cu/NiFe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yun; JIANG Ya-dong; HU Wen-cheng; ZENG Hong-juan

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous of Permalloy on the copper subtract was studied using composite electroplating method. A portion of hydrogen brings the counteraction on the surface of cathode leading nickel-iron alloys to be anomalous in the process of co-depositing. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the Ni-Fe alloys layer is amorphous. The Giant Magneto -Impedance (GMI) effect of Ni-Fe alloys was obtained under the optimal conditions, dependence on the soft magnetic property of Ni-Fe amorphous thin film. As a result, the ratios△ Z/Z of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film are 30% at 40 kHz which is in low frequency. Furthermore, the GMI value of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film with a sandwich structure is higher than that of single-layer ferromagnetic films of the same thickness.

  18. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Jason E., E-mail: jedouglas@mrl.ucsb.edu; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chater, Philip A. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Brown, Craig M. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Electrodeposited Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-cheng; XU Rui-dong; WANG Ji-kun

    2004-01-01

    The potential-pH diagram of Ni-P-H2O system is calculated and constructed by use of thermodynamic data. On the basis of the potential-pH diagram the electrochemical behaviors of electrodepositing Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloys are analyzed. The phases of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P coatings are identified by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermodynamic analysis shows that it is difficult to deposit Mo or P individually from its aqueous solution, and they must be co-deposited with other metals by induced deposition; P and Ni can be deposited as compound Ni3P on the cathode; Mo is deposited in two forms: one is in the form of MoO3 solid particles and the other is in the form of compound MoC. X-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis.

  20. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  1. Doing Business with China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  2. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  3. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  4. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  5. Ballet Flourishing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  6. CHINA PRINT 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Introduction CHINA PRINT 2009, the Seventh Beijing International Printing Technology Exhibition, will be held at New China International Exhibition Center from May 12 to 16, 2009.CHINA PRINT, known as the Olympics of China’s print-ing and printing related business, has been organized onceevery four years since 1984 by PEIAC and CIEC. It has be-come one of the

  7. BGCI China office opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  8. Charge ordering in Ni1 +/Ni2 + nickelates: La4Ni3O8 and La3Ni2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; Norman, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d9) but also because they show Ni1 +(S =1 /2 ) /Ni2 +(S =0 ) stripe ordering. The insulating charge-ordered ground state is obtained from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni2 + ions are in a low-spin configuration (S =0 ) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni1 + S =1 /2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. The analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni dx2-y2 and O p states.

  9. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  10. One-neutron knockout from $^{57}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkewicz, K L; Brown, B A; Enders, J; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Hansen, P G; Maddalena, V; Navin, A; Sherrill, B M; Tostevin, J A

    2006-01-01

    The single-particle structure of $^{57}$Ni and level structure of $^{56}$Ni were investigated with the \\mbox{$^{9}$Be ($^{57} $Ni,$^{56}$Ni+$\\gamma$)$\\it{X}$} reaction at 73 MeV/nucleon. An inclusive cross section of 41.4(12)~mb was obtained for the reaction, compared to a theoretical prediction of 85.4 mb, hence only 48(2)% of the theoretical cross section is exhausted. This reduction in the observed spectroscopic strength is consistent with that found for lighter well-bound nuclei. One-neutron removal spectroscopic factors of 0.58(11) to the ground state and 3.7(2) to all excited states of $^{56}$Ni were deduced.

  11. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  12. A dinuclear Ni(II) complex with two types of intramolecular magnetic couplings: Ni(II)-Ni(II) and Ni(II)-TTF*+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Xia; Ambrus, Christina; Dolder, Stefan; Neels, Antonia; Decurtins, Silvio

    2006-11-27

    A dinuclear Ni(II) complex involving tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) radicals as ligands has been prepared and characterized, [Ni2(mu-Cl)2(L*+)2(I3)4(I2)3.(H2O)2.(C4H8O)3 (1), L = 4,5-bis(2-pyridylmethylsulfanyl)-4',5'-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene. There are two types of intramolecular magnetic exchange interactions, namely one ferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) and one antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-TTF*+. This study is new in the respect of revealing a magnetic exchange interaction between a TTF*+ radical and a paramagnetic transition metal ion. This is due to the fact of a direct binding of the transition metal ion to the skeleton of the TTF*+ radical.

  13. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Sb binary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhanmin; TAKADU Yoshikazu; OHNUMA Ikuo; KAINUMA Ryosuke; ZHU Hongmin; ISHIDA Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    The Ni-Sb binary alloy system was thermodynamically assessed using CALPHAD approach in this article.Excess Gibbs energies of solution phases,liquid and fcc phases,were formulated using the Redlich-Kister expression.The intermediate phases were modeled by the sublattice model with (Ni,Va)0.5(Ni,Sb)0.25(Ni)0.25 for Ni3Sb_HT phase and (Ni,Va)0.3333(Sb)0.3333(Ni,Va)0.3333 for NiSb phase.The other phases including Ni3Sb,Ni7Sb3,and NiSb2 were treated as stoichiometric compound owing to their narrow composition ranges.Based on the reported thermodynamic properties and phase diagram data,the thermodynamic parameters of these phases were optimized,and the obtained values can reproduce the available experimental data well.

  15. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China...... relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  16. The cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle with borate capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunjing; Wang, Yongjing; Pan, Danmei; Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Yonghao; Lin, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    The impact of surface capping on cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle was investigated with Escherichia coil (E.coli) in this work. The NiO nanoparticle and NiO nanoparticle capped by borate (denoted as NiO-borate) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The average size of both nanoparticles is about 4.0 nm. The plate experiments demonstrated that NiO-borate nanoparticles show lower cytotoxicity than NiO nanopaticles. Further spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the concentration of both extracellular and intercellular Ni2+ in NiO-borate system were lower than that of uncapped one. Intracellular ICP-AES analysis also showed the concentration of Ni element was higher than Ni2+, suggesting the NiO nanoparticles might penetrate into the cellular interior. Comprehensive AFM, SEM and TEM observation illustrated both NiO-borate and NiO nanoparticles lead to the collapse of cellular body, the convex on the cell wall and the damage of cell wall ultimately. In summary, the surface capping with borate on NiO nanopaticles will suppress the release of the Ni2+ ions and impede the contact between the NiO nanoparticle and cell wall, which ultimately decreased the cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticles.

  17. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    pressure (pH2O) gradient as previously observed [1], but in the present cases Ni seems to migrate up the pH2O gradient. However, it is also observed that there is a preceding phase in this Ni-YSZ electrode degradation, namely that the Ni-particles closest to the YSZ electrolyte loose contact to each other....... This means that the active three phase boundary (TPB) moves away from the electrolyte and causes a significant increase in the ohmic resistance as is also observed in electrochemical impedance spectra....

  18. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of Ni site models of [NiFeSe] hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombwell, Claire; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-03-21

    A series of structural models of the Ni centre in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases has been developed which exhibits key structural features of the Ni site in the H2 cycling enzyme. Specifically, two complexes with a hydrogenase-analogous four-coordinate 'NiS3Se' primary coordination sphere and complexes with a 'NiS2Se2' and a 'NiS4' core are reported. The reactivity of the complexes towards oxygen and protons shows some relevance to the chemistry of [NiFeSe] hydrogenases. Exposure of a 'NiS3Se' complex to atmospheric oxygen results in the oxidation of the selenolate group in the complex to a diselenide, which is released from the nickel site. Oxidation of the selenolate ligand on Ni occurs approximately four times faster than oxidation with the analogous sulfur complex. Reaction of the complexes with one equivalent of HBF4 results in protonation of the monodentate chalcogenolate and the release of this ligand from the metal centre as a thiol or selenol. Unrelated to their biomimetic nature, the complexes serve also as molecular precursors to modify electrodes with Ni-S-Se containing particles by electrochemical deposition. The activated electrodes evolve H2 in pH neutral water with an electrocatalytic onset potential of -0.6 V and a current density of 15 μA cm(-2) at -0.75 V vs. NHE.

  19. Niño maltratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ivis Crespo Barrios

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 200 niños maltratados que acuden al Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez" en el período comprendido de diciembre de 1990 a enero de 1992; éstos fueron seleccionados teniendo en cuenta los criterios de maltrato, y era el objetivo fundamental del estudio conocer cómo se comporta en nuestro medio. En los resultados se muestra que la forma más frecuente fue el tipo no intencional; la ingestión de tóxicos fue la forma de negligencia física más frecuente dentro del maltrato no intencional, ésta es más usual en los niños menores de 5 años; los trastornos psiquiátricos y el alcoholismo son favorecedores del maltrato intencional, la madre es la que más maltrata; la mortalidad por esta causa no fue elevada (5 fallecidos y los criterios de riesgo de maltrato tienen utilidad para su identificación.200 mistreated children who were seen at the "Juan Manual Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from December, 1990 to January, 1992, are presented. These patients were selected taking into consideration the abuse criteria. The main objective of this paper was to know how these criteria behave in our enviroment. According to the results, the most common form was the non-intentional type. The ingestion of toxic agents was the most frequent form of physical neglect within the non-intentional mistreatment, and it is the most usual among children under 5. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism favor the intentional mistreatment, and the mother mistreats the most. Mortality due to this cause was not high (5 deaths, and the abuse risk criteria are useful for its identification.

  20. Effect of Electromigration on Interfacial Reaction in Ni/Sn/Ni-P Solder Joint%电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P焊点界面反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷达; 周少明; 黄明亮

    2012-01-01

    The line-type Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) solder joints were used to determine the effect of electromigration (EM) on interfacial reaction under the current density of 5.0×103 A/cm2 at 150 ℃. For comparison, the Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) interconnects were aged at the same temperature for the same duration. The results show that the current direction plays an important rule on Ni-P layer consumption. When electrons flowed from Ni-P side to Ni side (Ni-P layer was the cathode), EM accelerated the Ni-P layer consumption. More Ni-P layer was consumed with increasing EM time. After EM for 100 h and 200 h, 5.88 μm and 13.46 urn Ni-P layer were consumed, respectively. Instead of Ni3Sn4, Ni2SnP IMC layer was observed at the Sn/Ni-P interface, and there was a porous Ni3P layer between Ni2SnP IMC and Ni-P. When electrons flowed from Ni side to Ni-P side (Ni-P layer was the anode), no obvious Ni-P layer consumption was observed during EM, and Ni3Sn4 IMC formed at the Sn/Ni-P interface. The thickness of the Ni3Sn4 IMC increased slowly with increasing EM time and reached to 1.81 μm after EM for 200 h.%研究了温度为150℃,电流密度为5.0×103A/cm2的条件下电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au)线性接头中界面反应的影响.结果表明电流方向对Ni-P层的消耗起着决定作用.当Ni-P层为阴极时,电迁移加速了Ni-P层的消耗,即随着电迁移时间的延长,Ni-P层的消耗显著增加;电迁移100 h后Ni-P层消耗了5.88 μm,电迁移200 h后Ni-P层消耗了13.46μm.在Sn/Ni-P的界面上形成了一层Ni2SnP化合物而没有观察到Ni3Sn4化合物的存在,多孔状的Ni3P层位于Ni2SnP化合物与Ni-P层之间.当Ni-P层为阳极时,在电迁移过程中并没有发现Ni-P层的明显消耗,在Sn/Ni-P的界面处生成层状的Ni3Sn4化合物,其厚度随着电迁移时间的延长而缓慢增加,电迁移200 h后Ni3Sn4层的厚度达到1.81 μm.

  1. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  2. niños pre-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra León Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las producciones narrativas orales de niños de pre-escolar y relacionar estos desempeños con la lectura de imágenes. Se conformó una muestra de 9 niños entre 4 y 6 años que pertenecían a instituciones de educación formal. Se realizó un análisis de tarea de la historieta presentada y la aplicación de ésta fue de manera individual en el contexto familiar del niño. Los resultados mostraron que los niños identificaban la situación inicial de la narración, en la cual relacionaban personajes principales, actividades propias de ellos y del espacio donde sucedían sin embargo, a medida que se avanzaban en el procedimiento, se observó cómo se dificultaba para los niños la elaboración de las otras categorías que estructuran la narración como la complicación, la reacción, la resolución y la situación final. En relación con las estrategias cognitivas se observó que cuatro niños se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo bajo, cuatro se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo medio y un niño, en un nivel cognitivo alto. En cuanto a los procesos de lectura de imágenes se encontró que sólo dos niños utilizaron la referencia y dos niños usaron conectores temporales

  3. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  4. A 10-year observation of PM2.5-bound nickel in Xi’an, China: Effects of source control on its trend and associated health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Guinot, Benjamin; Kan, Haidong; Shen, Zhenxing; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Suixin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Ningning; Zhu, Chongshu; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Rujin

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the first long term (10-year period, 2004–2013) datasets of PM2.5-bound nickel (Ni) concentration obtained from the daily sample in urban of Xi’an, Northwestern China. The Ni concentration trend, pollution sources, and the potential health risks associated to Ni were investigated. The Ni concentrations increased from 2004 to 2008, but then decreased due to coal consumption reduction, energy structure reconstruction, tighter emission rules and the improvement of the industrial and motor vehicle waste control techniques. With the comparison of distributions between workday and non-workday periods, the effectiveness of local and regional air pollution control policies and contributions of hypothetical Ni sources (industrial and automobile exhausts) were evaluated, demonstrating the health benefits to the populations during the ten years. Mean Ni cancer risk was higher than the threshold value of 10‑6, suggesting that carcinogenic Ni still was a concern to the residents. Our findings conclude that there are still needs to establish more strict strategies and guidelines for atmospheric Ni in our living area, assisting to balance the relationship between economic growth and environmental conservation in China.

  5. A 10-year observation of PM2.5-bound nickel in Xi’an, China: Effects of source control on its trend and associated health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Guinot, Benjamin; Kan, Haidong; Shen, Zhenxing; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Suixin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Ningning; Zhu, Chongshu; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Rujin

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the first long term (10-year period, 2004–2013) datasets of PM2.5-bound nickel (Ni) concentration obtained from the daily sample in urban of Xi’an, Northwestern China. The Ni concentration trend, pollution sources, and the potential health risks associated to Ni were investigated. The Ni concentrations increased from 2004 to 2008, but then decreased due to coal consumption reduction, energy structure reconstruction, tighter emission rules and the improvement of the industrial and motor vehicle waste control techniques. With the comparison of distributions between workday and non-workday periods, the effectiveness of local and regional air pollution control policies and contributions of hypothetical Ni sources (industrial and automobile exhausts) were evaluated, demonstrating the health benefits to the populations during the ten years. Mean Ni cancer risk was higher than the threshold value of 10−6, suggesting that carcinogenic Ni still was a concern to the residents. Our findings conclude that there are still needs to establish more strict strategies and guidelines for atmospheric Ni in our living area, assisting to balance the relationship between economic growth and environmental conservation in China. PMID:28117355

  6. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri Latvala

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni and nickel oxide (NiO particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2 were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles. Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2 when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE. Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2. Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1 was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  7. Preparation of hcp and fcc Ni and Ni/NiO Nanoparticles Using a Citric Acid Assisted Pechini-Type Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. García-Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of hcp and fcc Ni and Ni/NiO nanoparticles is reported. Ni and Ni/NiO nanoparticles were obtained starting from a precursor material prepared using a citric assisted Pechini-type method and, then, followed by a calcination of the precursor in air at either 400 or 600°C for different times. The precursor was analyzed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal methods (TGA-DTA, and the resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and vibrational sample magnetometry. Nanoparticles showed a phase transformation for Ni from hcp to fcc and/or to fcc NiO structure as the calcination time increased. The influence of the phase transition and the formation of NiO on the magnetic properties of the samples are discussed.

  8. Ni nanoparticles prepared by simple chemical method for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Remalli, Nagarjuna; Gedela, Venkataramana; Padya, Balaji; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed; Rana, Usman Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    A new chemical method was used to obtain a high yield of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs). The effect of solvent (distilled water, ethylene glycol, and ethanol) and surfactant (oleic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidinone) on the morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized Ni-NPs has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that among the solvents mentioned above, ethanol gives the best results in terms of complete reduction, controlled morphology and size distribution of Ni-NPs. The surfactants played an important role in impeding the agglomeration and surface oxidation of Ni-NPs. The surfactants also affected the morphology of the Ni-NPs. The synthesized Ni-NPs are found to be quite stable in air. The best of the synthesized Ni-NPs were effectively used as catalysts for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique.

  9. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  10. De niños e infancias

    OpenAIRE

    Camenen, Gersende; Liendo, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    A Sarmiento, el niño sabio, lo llevan de casa en casa como al prodigio del pueblo para oírlo leer en voz alta. Norah Lange, la niña excéntrica, grita desaforada en distintos idiomas y finge carcajadas enloquecidas desde el techo de su casa hasta gastar la voz. Reinaldo Arenas, el niño salvaje, escribe, como Celestino, poemas con un cuchillo en el tronco los árboles para que no amanezca. Borges, el traductor precoz, lee a los seis años el Quijote en inglés sin tener la menor sospecha de que el...

  11. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  12. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  13. Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece); Plainakis, G.D.; Lagaris, D.A. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings were produced on copper substrates with the aid of electrodeposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the produced coatings were examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microhardness of alloy Ni-W coatings on copper substrate was also studied. The adhesion between the Ni-W coating, having W content 50 wt%, and the copper substrate, was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The scratch tests resulted in the coatings suffering an intensive brittle fracture and minor delamination.

  14. Synthesis of Ni-poor NiO nanoparticles for p-DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polteau, Baptiste; Tessier, Franck; Cheviré, François; Cario, Laurent; Odobel, Fabrice; Jobic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    To improve the performances of p-Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (p-DSSC) for the future, the synthesis of modified p-type nickel oxide semiconductor, commonly used as photocathode in such devices, was initiated with Ni3O2(OH)4 as precursor. This specific nickel oxyhydroxide was first characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Then its thermal decomposition was thoroughly studied in order to control the particles size of the as-prepared NiO nanopowders. Low temperature decomposition in air of this precursor allows the formation of Ni1-xO nanoparticles with a large amount of Ni vacancies and specific surface areas up to 250 m2 g-1. Its ammonolysis at 250 °C leads to nanostructured N-doped NiO (NiO:N) materials.

  15. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  16. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of αE,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm−1 ⋅ Oe−1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  17. Microstructure and Martensitic Transformation Behaviors of Explosively Welded NiTi/NiTi Laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2007-01-01

    The study is a first attempt to prepare bulk NiTi/NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) laminates with a macroscopic heterogeneous composition by explosive welding and investigate their microstructures and martensitic transformation behaviors. After explosive welding, a perfect interfacial bonding between the two components and a reversible martensitic transformation are realized in the tandem.Results show achievement of a fine granular structure and the maximum value of microhardness near the welding interface because of the excessive cold plastic deformation and the high impact velocity during the explosive welding. Meanwhile, the effects of aging on the transformation of the welded tandem are investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and subject to discussion. The transformation temperatures of NiTi/NiTi SMAs increase with the rise of the aging temperature. The experimental results indicate the shape memory properties of NiTi/NiTi SMA fabricated by explosive welding can be improved by optimizing the aging technology.

  18. Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Electromigration in Ni-Sn Microbump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses the reliability challenges regarding electromigration in developing three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). The line-type sandwich structure of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was used to simulate microbumps to examine the reliability of electromigration in 3D-IC technology. The solder strip of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was stressed with a current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The current stressing enhanced the reaction between the solder and Ni to form Ni3Sn4, which occupied the entire joint and transformed into a Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni structure when the solder was completely consumed. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the crystallographic characteristics of Sn and Ni3Sn4 as related to the electromigration effect. The results indicated that the crystallographic orientation of Sn plays a significant role in the Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni, whereas the orientation of Ni3Sn4 is the dominant factor of diffusion behavior in the Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni.

  19. Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Electromigration in Ni-Sn Microbump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the reliability challenges regarding electromigration in developing three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). The line-type sandwich structure of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was used to simulate microbumps to examine the reliability of electromigration in 3D-IC technology. The solder strip of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was stressed with a current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The current stressing enhanced the reaction between the solder and Ni to form Ni3Sn4, which occupied the entire joint and transformed into a Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni structure when the solder was completely consumed. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the crystallographic characteristics of Sn and Ni3Sn4 as related to the electromigration effect. The results indicated that the crystallographic orientation of Sn plays a significant role in the Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni, whereas the orientation of Ni3Sn4 is the dominant factor of diffusion behavior in the Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni.

  20. Photoactivation of the Ni-SIr state to the Ni-SIa state in [NiFe] hydrogenase: FT-IR study on the light reactivity of the ready Ni-SIr state and as-isolated enzyme revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hulin; Xu, Liyang; Inoue, Seiya; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2016-08-10

    The Ni-SIr state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was photoactivated to its Ni-SIa state by Ar(+) laser irradiation at 514.5 nm, whereas the Ni-SL state was light induced from a newly identified state, which was less active than any other identified state and existed in the "as-isolated" enzyme.

  1. Unraveling El Niño's impact on the East Asian Monsoon and Yangtze River summer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Stuecker, Malte F.; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Timmermann, Axel; Ren, Hong-Li; Kug, Jong-Seong; Cai, Wenju; Cane, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Strong El Niño events are followed by massive summer monsoon flooding over the Yangtze River basin (YRB), home to about a third of the population in China. Although the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) provides the main source of seasonal climate predictability for many parts of the Earth, the mechanisms of its connection to the East Asian monsoon remain largely elusive. For instance, the traditional Niño3.4 ENSO index only captures precipitation anomalies over East Asia in boreal winter but not during the summer. Here we show that there exists a robust year-round and predictable relationship between ENSO and the Asian monsoon. This connection is revealed by combining equatorial (Niño3.4) and off-equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (Niño-A index) into a new metric that captures ENSO's various aspects, such as its interaction with the annual cycle and its different flavors. This extended view of ENSO complexity improves predictability of YRB summer flooding events.

  2. Effect of metallic content on mechanical property of Ni/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHANG Gang; YE Shao-long; LAI Yan-qing; TIAN Zhong-liang; SUN Xiao-gang

    2006-01-01

    Ni/ (10NiO-NiFe2O4 ) cermets were fabricated by using cold pressing-sintering method. The phase composition and effect of metallic content on the mechanical properties such as bending strength, Vickers' hardness,fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance were studied. The results show that the cermets consist of Ni, NiO and NiFe2O4. Within the range of metallic content from 0 to 17% (mass fraction), the relative density decreases with the increase of metallic content and the decrease of sintering temperature, Vickers' hardness decreases from 7 097 MPa to 4 814 MPa and the bending strength increases from 110 MPa to 157 MPa, and the fracture toughness mal shock testing falls sharply as the thermal shock temperature difference is above 200℃. The cermets samples,whose metallic content is 10% and 15%, respectively, exhibit promising property of thermal shock resistance at 960 ℃ with six cycles of heating and quenching testing.

  3. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudikov, D.A., E-mail: gelbry@gmail.com; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-08-15

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  4. Electrodeposited NiCu Alloy Catalysts for Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jieun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Sookil [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Hyun; Jang, Jong Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    NiCu alloys have been suggested as potential candidates for catalysts in glucose oxidation. In this study, NiCu alloys with different compositions were prepared on a glassy carbon substrate by changing the electrodeposition potential to examine the effect of Ni/Cu ratios in alloys on catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that NiCu alloys had higher catalytic activity than pure Ni and Cu catalysts. Especially, Ni{sub 59}Cu{sub 41} had superior catalytic activity, which was about twice that of Ni at a given oxidation potential. X-ray analyses showed that the oxidation state of Ni in NiCu alloys was increased with the content of Cu by lattice expansion. Ni components in alloys with higher oxidation state were more effective in the oxidation of glucose.

  5. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    with the Neel temperature, 250 degrees C, of NiO was observed. Above this temperature, a linear decrease occurred. Specific damping showed a peak at 170-180 degrees C and increased above ca. 1000 degrees C in NiO-YSZ. In the reduced state the elastic modulus decreased linearly with temperature; specific damping......The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52...

  6. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FeNi1- alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Basa; S Raj; H C Padhi; M Polasik; F Pawlowski

    2002-05-01

    -to- X-ray intensity ratios of Fe and Ni in pure metals and in FeNi1- alloys ( = 0.20, 0.50, 0.58) exhibiting similar crystalline structure have been measured following excitation by 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am point source, to understand as to why the properties of permalloy Fe0.2Ni0.8 is distinct from other alloy compositions. It is observed that the valence electronic structure of Fe0.2Ni0.8 alloy is totally different from other alloys which may be attributed to its special magnetic properties.

  7. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  8. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  9. Differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory films and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志荣; 周敬恩

    2002-01-01

    The differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory film (SMF) and shape memory alloy (SMA) age-treated at 773K after solution-treatment at 973K have been investigated, using Ti-51.5Ni thin film and Ti-51.5Ni bulk alloy as examples, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM and EDX. It is found that the age-treated Ni-rich TiNi SMF and SMA are of the same types of transformation, i.e., A→R→M (during cooling), and M→A (during heating) (A: parent phase; R: R-phase; M: martensite); the transformation temperature of the TiNi SMF is lower than that of the SMA, but the SMFs hysteresis is larger. The transformation heat of the TiNi SMF and SMA is nearly the same. The reason that TiNi SMFs strain is sensitive to temperature is not hysteresis, but its thickness is thinner, and the temperature is easy to distribute homogeneously.

  10. Martensitic Transformation of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Ni Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lishan CUI; Yan LI; Yan jun ZHENG; Huibin XU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a TiNi shape memory alloy fiber Ni matrix composite was fabricated by an electroplating method using TiNialloy as the cathode and Ni as the anode. The constrained martensitic transformation behaviors of the TiNi alloy were studiedby differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and the results showed that two endothermic peaks appear on the DSC heatingcurves and the reverse transformation temperatures increase with increasing prestrain levels. Moreover, comparing to the freetransformation, the temperature window of the constrained reverse transformation is widely expanded due to the influence ofrecovery stress.

  11. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  12. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  13. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein recrystallisat......The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  14. Effect of Mg/Ni ratio on microstructure of Mg–Ni films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junko, E-mail: junko.matsuda@i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Uchiyama, Naoki; Kanai, Tomomi; Harada, Kazumi [ATSUMITEC CO., LTD., Ubumi 7111, Yuto-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-0192 (Japan); Akiba, Etsuo [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties of Mg–Ni films depend on the Mg/Ni ratio. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films are composed of Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. • Mg{sub 2}Ni is fully amorphous, in contrast Mg crystallization occurs in Mg{sub 10}Ni films. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films after hydrogenation include Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, MgH{sub 2} and Mg crystals. • Mg crystallization causes to reduce desorption kinetics and cycle ability. - Abstract: The relationship between the Mg/Ni ratio and microstructure of Mg–Ni films with a Pd-cap deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the 6Mg–Ni films are observed to be composed of a Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. In contrast, the 10Mg–Ni films contain Mg nanocrystals and Mg-rich amorphous. The 2Mg–Ni films, which absorb/desorb hydrogen repeatedly as well as 6Mg–Ni films, are fully amorphous and have a homogeneous distribution of Mg and Ni. The hydrogenated 6Mg–Ni film, after 200 cycles of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, includes Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2} nanocrystals as well as Mg crystals. In conclusion, the crystallization of Mg reduces desorption kinetics and cycle ability of the Mg–Ni films. Our results suggested that Mg crystallization occurs in films with an initial Mg/Ni ratio greater than 7.7 the eutectic composition between Mg and Mg{sub 2}Ni.

  15. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  16. GRAFIČNI PRISTOP K FIGURATIVNEMU SLIKARSTVU

    OpenAIRE

    Bergles, Niko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu z naslovom Grafični pristop k figurativnemu slikarstvu sem se posvetil tistim področjem likovne teorije in zgodovine, na podlagi katerih sem sam ustvarjal. Nalogo sem razdelil na tri dele

  17. Cavitation erosion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)]|[Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Salvi, R. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-02-01

    Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast NiAl intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at. pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1}. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.

  18. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  19. Amorphous Ni-P Hollow Spheres Prepared by Self-assembly of Ni-P Nanoparticles on Polystyrene Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first preparation of amorphous Ni-P/PS (polystyrene) core-shell and Ni-P hollow microspheres was per-formed using a surface seeding-electroless plating method. The preliminary magnetic properties of the amorphous Ni-P hollow sphere were investigated and compared with those of the Ni hollow sphere.

  20. Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, R.L. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Animal Manure and By-Products Lab, Beltsville, MD (United States); Scott Angle, J.; McIntosh, M.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Phytoextraction Associates LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Reeves, R.D. [Inst. of Fundamental Science-Chemistry, Massey Univ., Palmerston North, NZ (United States); Li Yin-Ming; Brewer, E.P. [Viridian LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Kuang-Yu; Synkowski, E.C.; Leigh Broadhurst, C.; Wang, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roseberg, R.J. [Oregon State Univ., Central Point, OR (United States); Perner, H. [Inst. for Plant Nutrition, Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Baker, A.J.M. [Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd

  1. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  2. Towards Single-component Molecular Conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by Charge Disproportionation:2[Ni(dmit)2]-0.5 →[Ni(dmit)2 ]+ [Ni(dmit)2]-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Wen XU

    2003-01-01

    A new method of synthesizing single-component molecular conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by the reaction 2(Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2]2→[Ni(dmit)2] + (Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2] is reported. [Ni(dmit)2] exhibits a semiconductive behavior above 167 K, while from 167 K down to the measuring limit of 60 K, it exhibits metallic conductivity.

  3. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  4. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  5. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  6. Autothermal Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane in Fluidized Reactor over Highly Dispersed Ni Catalyst Prepared from Ni Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing; HOU Zhao-Yin; SHEN Kai; LOU Hui; FEI Jin-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Highly dispersed Ni catalysts on spherical SiO2 were prepared by simple impregnation of Ni(acac)2, [Ni-(NH3)6-n(H2O)n]2+, [Ni(en)3]2+ and [Ni(EDTA)]2-. Pulse adsorption of H2 and TEM analysis results confirmed that Ni was dispersed very well on the surface of SiO2 even after calcination (4 h) and reduction (1 h) at high temperature of 800 ℃. These highly dispersed and uniquely sized Ni crystallites were more stable and more reactive for both autothermal reforming and partial oxidation of methane in fluidized reactor.

  7. China Infected with Work Ennui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  8. China Satcom Merged Into CASC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Satellite Communications Corporation (China Satcom) merged with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently on the request under regrouping and structure readjustment by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

  9. Effects of Ni content on the shape memory properties and microstructure of Ni-rich NiTi-20Hf alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaian, S. M.; Karaca, H. E.; Tobe, H.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Noebe, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at.%)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. When the precipitates were small (˜5-15 nm), they were readily absorbed by martensite plates, which resulted in maximum recoverable strain of 2% in Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20. With increasing Ni content, the size (>100 nm) and volume fraction of precipitates increased and the growth of martensite plates was constrained between the precipitates when the Ni concentration was greater than 50.7 at.%. Near perfect dimensional stability with negligible irrecoverable strain was observed at stress levels as high as 2 GPa in the Ni52Ti28Hf20 alloy, though the recoverable strain was rather small. In general, strong local stress fields were created at precipitate/matrix interphases, which lead to high stored elastic energy during the martensitic transformation.

  10. IBF Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  11. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    caused by peanut mild mottle virus (PMMV) was predominant throughout all areas. Peanut yellow mosaic and common mosaic caused by cucumber mosaic virus ...Fujian 42 Types and Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 42 TAIWAN Yao Chia-wen on Taiwan’s Legal...Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 40110003 Wuhan ZHONGGUO YOULIAO [OIL CROPS OF CHINA] in

  12. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  13. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  14. Industrial robots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  15. Understanding the Real China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese officials underlined the need for the EU to gain a more balanced view of China-by looking not only at its progress but also at its challenges-at the recent China-EU strategic dialogue. Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton co-chaired the September 1 meeting in Guiyang, capital of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  16. Think London, Think china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The China-UK relationship has a long history and is one of the most important contemporary China-European ties.The UK was the first western country to recognize the People's Republic of China after it was founded in 1949.Later,the two sides reached an agreement to exchange Charges d'Affairs in 1954,and signed the Joint Communiqué for the Agreement on the Exchange of Ambassadors in 1972.

  17. "CHINA IS MY HOME"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>AMemoir of More Than 80 Years in China by Israel Epstein was translated into Chinese and published by the New World Press in April this year to celebrate the author’s 89th birthday. The 415-page book tells about his love for China, his profound friendly sentiments towards the Chinese people, his great expectation for the construction of new China and his confidence in the bright prospects for its future.

  18. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  19. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  20. China Builds Its NASDAQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  1. Patriotic Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLin; GaoYu

    2005-01-01

    From last year on, a few news media in Japan have reported that China has began anti-Japanese education among the young people since the middle of 1990s. This biased view does not reflect the fact, for China has never conducted the so-called“anti-Japanese education” The education conducted in China now is to promote patriotism rather than instigate anti-Japanese sentiment. During my contacts with Japanese friends I have found that lots of Japanese are not familiar with what China's patriotic education is about. I hope this article can present readers with an objective picture.

  2. The Rise of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong

    2007-01-01

    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  3. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  4. Improvement of Ni phytostabilization by inoculation of Ni resistant Bacillus megaterium SR28C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-15

    The use of metal tolerant plants for the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soil is an area of extensive research and development. In this study the effects of inoculation of Ni-resistant bacterial strains on phytostabilization potential of various plants, including Brassica juncea, Luffa cylindrica and Sorghum halepense, were studied. A Ni-resistant bacterial strain SR28C was isolated from a nickel rich serpentine soil and identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological features, biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain SR28C tolerated concentrations up to 1200 mg Ni L(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium. Besides, it showed high degree of resistance to various metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and kanamycin) tested. In addition, the strain bound considerable amounts of Ni in their resting cells. Besides, the strain exhibited the plant growth promoting traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in modified Pikovskayas medium and LB medium, respectively in the absence and presence of Ni. Considering such potential, the effects of SR28C on the growth and Ni accumulation of B. juncea, L. cylindrica and S. halepense, were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of SR28C stimulated the biomass of the test plants grown in both Ni contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Further, SR28C alleviated the detrimental effects of Ni by reducing its uptake and translocation to the plants. This study suggested that the PGPB inoculant due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of Ni could be exploited for phytostabilization of Ni contaminated site.

  5. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K

    2003-12-20

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer.

  6. Dissolution and Interfacial Reactions of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound in Molten Sn-Cu-Ni Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-hong; Lai, Wei-han; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2014-01-01

    (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is an important intermetallic compound (IMC) in lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints on Ni substrate. The formation, growth, and microstructural evolution of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 are closely correlated with the concentrations of Cu and Ni in the solder. This study reports the interfacial behaviors of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC (Sn-31 at.%Cu-24 at.%Ni) with various Sn-Cu, Sn-Ni, and Sn-Cu-Ni solders at 250°C. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 substrate remained intact for Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu solder. When the Cu concentration was decreased to 0.3 wt.%, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 significantly dissolved into the molten solder. Moreover, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 dissolution and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 formation occurred simultaneously for the Sn-0.1 wt.%Ni solder. In Sn-0.5 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni solder, many tiny (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 particulates were formed and dispersed in the solder matrix, while in Sn-0.3 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni a lot of (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 grains were produced. Based on the local equilibrium hypothesis, these results are further discussed based on the liquid-(Cu, Ni)6Sn5-(Ni,Cu)3Sn4 tie-triangle, and the liquid apex is suggested to be very close to Sn-0.4 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni.

  7. Top 10 China rare earth technological news 2011 (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    5. China NiMH battery technology reached international leading level Project "'Research on High Capacity Power NiMH Battery for Vehicles and Commercialization of the Technology", which is a special fund supported project to promote transformation of S & T achievements in Jiangsu province and was undertaken by Chunlan Research Institute of Clean Energy passed acceptance check organized by related specialists from Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology of Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing University, Southeast University and Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics on March 11, 2011.

  8. Skillful seasonal predictions of winter precipitation over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick; Smith, Doug; Ren, Hong-Li; Liu, Ying; Eade, Rosie

    2017-07-01

    Southern China experiences large year-to-year variability in the amount of winter precipitation, which can result in severe social and economic impacts. In this study, we demonstrate prediction skill of southern China winter precipitation by three operational seasonal prediction models: the operational Global seasonal forecasting system version 5 (GloSea5), the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) and the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM1.1m). The correlation scores reach 0.76 and 0.67 in GloSea5 and CFSv2, respectively; and the amplitude of the ensemble mean forecast signal is comparable to the observed variations. The skilful predictions in GloSea5 and CFSv2 mainly benefit from the successful representation of the observed ENSO teleconnection. El Niño weakens the Walker circulation and leads to the strengthening of the subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific. The anti-cyclone then induces anomalous northward flow over the South China Sea and brings water vapor to southern China, resulting in more precipitation. This teleconnection pattern is too weak in BCC-CSM1.1m, which explains its low skill (0.13). Whereas the most skilful forecast system is also able to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean on southern China precipitation via changes in southwesterly winds over the Bay of Bengal. Finally, we examine the real-time forecast for 2015/16 winter when a strong El Niño event led to the highest rainfall over southern China in recent decades. We find that the GloSea5 system gave good advice as it produced the third wettest southern China in the hindcast, but underestimated the observed amplitude. This is likely due to the underestimation of the Siberian High strength in 2015/2016 winter, which has driven strong convergence over southern China. We conclude that some current seasonal forecast systems can give useful warning of impending extremes. However, there is still need for further model improvement to fully represent the complex

  9. The Influence of Sintering Temperature in NiO Target on the Properties of Exchange Coupling NiO/Ni81Fe19 Double-Layered Films%NiO靶烧结温度对NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡用时; 邱进军; 李佐宜; 刘兴阶

    2000-01-01

    在不同的温度下烧结制备NiO靶,用射频磁控溅射法淀积NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜,研究了不同的温度烧结NiO靶对NiO/NiFe双层膜特性的影响,结果表明,使用不同的烧结温度制备的NiO靶溅射所得的NiO膜中Ni的化学价态及其含量不同,进而影响NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的磁滞回线的矩形度及层间交换耦合作用.

  10. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni(0) to Ni(II) ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  11. Impacts of Two Types of El Niño and La Niña Events on Typhoon Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The HadISST (Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset is used to define the years of El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and La Niña events and to find out the impacts of these events on typhoon activity. The results show that the formation positions of typhoon are farther eastward moving in El Niño years than in La Niña years and much further eastward in El Niño Modoki years. The lifetime and the distance of movement are longer, and the intensity of typhoons is stronger in El Niño and in El Niño Modoki years than in La Niña years. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy of typhoon is highly correlated with the Oceanic Niño Index with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. We also find that the typhoons anomalously decrease during El Niño years but increase during El Niño Modoki years. Besides, there are two types of El Niño Modoki, I and II. The intensity of typhoon in El Niño Modoki I years is stronger than in El Niño Modoki II years. Furthermore, the centroid position of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is strongly related to the area of typhoon formation with a correlation coefficient of 0.95.

  12. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-08-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni0 to NiII ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  14. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  15. EFFECTS OF ENSO ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IOD AND SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan-fei; YUAN Hui-zhen; GUAN Zhao-yong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data of 1950 - 1999 monthly global SST from Hadley Center. NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data and rainfall over 160 weather stations in China,investigation is conducted into the difference of summer rainfall in China (hereafter referred to as the "CS rainfall") between the years with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) occurring independently and those with IOD occurring along with ENSO so as to study the effects of El Ni(n)o - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the relationship between IOD and the CS rainfall. It is shown that CS rainfall will be more than normal in South China (centered in Hunan province) in the years of positive IOI) occurring independently; the CS rainfall will be less (more) than normal in North China (Southeast China) in the years of positive IOI) occurring together with ENSO. The effect of ENSO is offsetting (enhancing) the relationship between IOD and summer rainfall in Southwest China,the region joining the Yangtze River basin with the ttuaihe River basin (hereafter referred to as the "Yangtze-Huaihe basin") and North China (Southeast China). The circulation field is also examined for preliminary causes of such an influence.

  16. Fracture of FeNiB-NiP amorphous bilayer ribbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The Study of failure surfaces of amorphous bimetal ribbons Fe40Ni40B20-Ni82P18 failed during tensile testing in the as-quenched and relaxed states (anneaIed at 250 degrees C) is presented. Two different fracture morphologies are observed on failed as-quenched samples: (i) near the maximum shear

  17. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  18. Investigation on microstructures of NiO-YSZ composite and Ni-YSZ cermet for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Tahereh; Sarrafi, Mohammad Hassan; Haji, Mohsen; Raissi, Babak; Maghsoudipour, Amir [Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Tehran 14155-4777 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    NiO-YSZ composites and Ni-YSZ cermets were successfully performed for solid oxide fuel cell applications. These composites must have enough porosity and appropriate microstructure for transferring the fuel gases. In this study, ball-milling was used as a simple, cost-effective method for the purpose of mixing the raw materials. The homogeneity of NiO-YSZ composites was examined by Map mode of SEM. NiO-YSZ composites were reduced at the high temperature under the controlled atmosphere to fabricate Ni-YSZ cermet. Variations in the anode phases were investigated by XRD and microstructure and porosity of composites were observed by SEM. Effective parameters like temperatures and the amount of pore former were investigated on open porosity, bulk density, electrical conductivity as well as electrochemical impedance of NiO-YSZ composites and Ni-YSZ cermet. A thin layer of YSZ was deposited by EPD as an electrolyte on NiO-YSZ composites which had various amount of open porosity, to study its effect on the performance of semi-cells by electrochemical impedance. (author)

  19. Phase equilibria in the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guanglong; Fei, Houjun [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Cui, Yu-Wen [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials, Madrid (Spain); Zhang, Ligang [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Centre for Innovation Competence; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Libin; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Scientific Center of Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Preparation, Hunan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Phase equilibria of the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems were critically investigated using equilibrated alloys and differential scanning calorimeter measurements. The phase diagram of the Gd-Ni binary system was updated from scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimeter results obtained on binary samples over the entire composition range. Major changes made in the present work include the absence of the Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 4} compounds and the congruent melting point of the GdNi compound. An isothermal section of the Mg-Ni-Gd ternary system at 673K was constructed from the investigations on 22 ternary alloys. In total, six ternary compounds were identified in this work, three of which were observed to crystallize in the Cu{sub 4}MgSn ({tau}1), Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} ({tau}2), and Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 3}B{sub 2}-type ({tau}3) structures, respectively. As in most of the Mg-rare-earth metal-transition metal ternary systems, a long-period-stacking ordered phase was identified to have an 18R structure and a melting temperature of 806K. Noticeable solid solubility of Ni in the Mg{sub 5}Gd and Mg{sub 3}Gd binary compounds was observed.

  20. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from different precursors: Magnetic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Ningthoujam; N S Gajbhiye; Sachil Sharma

    2009-03-01

    The reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni particles using different precursors such as NiCl2 solution, NiO powder and Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex has been established. Different particle sizes can be designed from these precursors. The smallest crystallite size (12 nm) can be obtained from Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex in the presence of the stabilizing ligand (oleic acid). The field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization of Ni particles obtained from Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex in the temperature range 5–300 K established the ferromagnetic interaction up to 300 K. The magnetization values at three different temperatures 5, 70 and 300 K are 50.2, 49.5 and 45.5 Oe respectively at 3 × 104 Oe applied field and such values are less than that of the bulk value. The Curie temperature (c) decreases slightly with the decrease of particle size. This study will provide guidance in the preparation of metal nanoparticles from different precursors.

  1. Combustion Synthesis of NiAl and In-situ Joining to Ni-based Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Combustion synthesis is used as a joining technology to join Ni-based superalloys with in-situ synthesized NiAl filler. The synthesis mechanism is discussed. The microstructure of the joints is investigated and the joint strength is also evaluated by tensile testing.

  2. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  3. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-10-12

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni{sub 3}Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  4. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  5. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  6. Fabrication of Ni-,Co-and NiCo-coated Graphite Microspheres by Heterogeneous Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianxin; SHEN Xiangqian; CHEN Dong

    2009-01-01

    The precursors with NiCO_3·2Ni(OH)_2·2H2_O,Co_2(OH)_2CO_3,or both NiCO_3·2Ni(OH)_2·2H_2O and Co_2(OH)-2CO_3 coated graphite microspheres were prepared respectively by the aqueous heterogeneous precipitation using nickel sulfate,cobalt nitrate,sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and graphite microspheres as the main starting materials.Subsequently,Ni-, Co-and NiCo-coated graphite microspheres were successfully obtained by thermal reduction of the as-prepared precursors at 500℃for 2 h,respectively.These metal-coated graphite microspheres were characterized with a smooth,cohesive surface consisting of fine metallic particles.Optimized precipitation processing parameters of the concentration of graphite microspheres(10 g/L),the rate of adding reactants(3 mL/min)and pH value(8.0)were determined by a trial and error method.The thermal analysis of the precursors was investigated by TG.Powders of the precursors and the resultant metal-(Ni,Co and NiCo alloy)coated graphite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS)and X-ray diffraction(XRD).

  7. Fracture of FeNiB-NiP amorphous bilayer ribbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The Study of failure surfaces of amorphous bimetal ribbons Fe40Ni40B20-Ni82P18 failed during tensile testing in the as-quenched and relaxed states (anneaIed at 250 degrees C) is presented. Two different fracture morphologies are observed on failed as-quenched samples: (i) near the maximum shear stre

  8. Materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimo, S.; Fujii, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    2001-02-01

    One of the advantageous functional properties of Mg alloys (or compounds) is to exhibit the reversible hydriding reaction. In this paper, we present our systematic studies regarding the relationship between nanometer- or atomistic-scale structures and the specific hydriding properties of the Mg-Ni binary system, such as(1) nanostructured (n)-Mg{sub 2}Ni, (2) a mixture of n-Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous (a)-MgNi,(3) pure a-MgNi, and(4) n-MgNi{sub 2}. Further studies on(5) an a-MgNi-based system for clarifying the effect of the short-range ordering on the structural and hydriding properties and(6) a MgNi{sub 2}-based system for synthesizing the new Laves phase structure are also presented. The materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides will provide indispensable knowledge for practically developing the Mg alloys as hydrogen-storage materials. (orig.)

  9. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  10. Hydride reactivity of Ni(II)-X-Ni(II) entities: mixed-valent hydrido complexes and reversible metal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    2013-01-28

    After the lithiation of PYR-H(2) (PYR(2-) =[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC(6)H(3)(iPr)(2)}(2)(C(5)H(3)N)](2-)), which is the precursor of an expanded β-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr(2) (dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)-bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(μ-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide ligand could be selectively exchanged for a thiolate ligand to yield [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiBr] (3). In an attempt to introduce hydride ligands, both compounds were treated with KHBEt(3). This treatment afforded [(PYR)Ni(μ-H)Ni] (2), which is a mixed valent Ni(I)-μ-H-Ni(II) complex, and [(PYR-H)Ni(μ-SEt)Ni] (4), in which two tricoordinated Ni(I) moieties are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. Compound 4 is the product of an initial salt metathesis, followed by an intramolecular redox process that separates the original hydride ligand into two electrons, which reduce the metal centres, and a proton, which is trapped by one of the binding pockets, thereby converting it into an olefin ligand on one of the Ni(I) centres. The addition of a mild acid to complex 4 leads to the elimination of H(2) and the formation of a Ni(II)Ni(II) compound, [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiOTf] (5), so that the original Ni(II) (μ-SEt)Ni(II) X core of compound 3 is restored. All of these compounds were fully characterized, including by X-ray diffraction, and their molecular structures, as well as their formation processes, are discussed.

  11. Effect of NiO content on corrosion behaviour of Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets in Na3AlF6-Al2O3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劼; 段华南; 赖延清; 田忠良; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    5Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets with different NiO contents were prepared and the corrosion behaviour in Na3 AlF6-Al2O3 melts was investigated in laboratory electrolysis tests. The results indicate that adding NiO is unfavorable to the densification of NiFe2O4-xNiO ceramics, while small Ni doping can greatly improve the sintering property. The electrolysis tests show that excess NiO is beneficial to the reduction of Fe while has little effects on that of Ni in the bath; the steady-state concentrations of Ni, Fe are below the corresponding solubilities of NiFe2O4-xNiO, implying that corrosion mechanism changes while electrifying. Post-electrolysis examination of anodes shows that Ni metal leaches at the anode surface, yet the substrate ceramic prevents the penetration of bath and the further loss of metal phase.

  12. Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiO nano structures: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotf Ali; Sanati, Soheila; Mehdizadeh, Robabeh [Payam Noor Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanzadeh, Mohammad [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Hydrothermal route have been used in different conditions for preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2} nano structures. The NiO nanoparticles were obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor at 450 .deg. C for 2 h. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as surfactant on the morphology and size of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The growth mechanism of the as-synthesized nano structures was also discussed in detail based on the experimental results. Coming up, the NiO nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode was applied to the determination of captopril in aqueous solution.

  13. Exchange coupling and noncollinear magnetic states in Ni/Fen/Ni(1 0 0) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Stojić, N.; Binggeli, N.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) and the atomic-scale magnetic configurations in fcc Ni /Fen /Ni (1 0 0) multilayers, with ultrathin Fe spacers, are investigated using first-principles density-functional theory including the noncollinear spin formalism. The trends with changing Fe thickness (n) between 3 and 5 monolayers (MLs) are examined. For n = 3 and 4 MLs, we find the ground state to display antiferromagnetic IEC between the Ni films, while for the 5-ML Fe spacer, the IEC changes into ferromagnetic. Upon reversal of the magnetization alignment, from antiparallel to parallel, between the Ni films with 3- and 4-ML thick Fe spacer, we find noncollinear magnetic configurations in the Fe layer as the lowest-energy states, which are related to the magnetic instability towards noncollinear solutions in bulk γ -Fe.

  14. Standard Specification for Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    Standard Specification for Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe

  15. Developmental Idealism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Xie, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19(th) century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20(th) century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity. Then, with important but brief aberrations, the country began to implement many of the elements of developmental idealism, a movement that became especially important following the assumption of power by the Communist Party of China in 1949. This movement has played a substantial role in politics, in the economy, and in family life. The beliefs and values of developmental idealism have also been directly disseminated to the grassroots in China, where substantial majorities of Chinese citizens have assimilated them. These ideas are both known and endorsed by very large numbers in China today.

  16. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  17. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  18. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  19. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  20. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  1. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  2. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  3. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  4. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  5. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  6. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  7. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  8. Liquidating a China Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  9. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  10. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  11. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China

  12. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  13. China's Food Quality Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  14. Probing China's Lysine Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The lysine sector in China developed further in 2006. Both the capacity and the output hit new highs and China had a major impact on the global lysine market. The import amount of lysine satisfied only a very small portion of the domestic market's demand.

  15. Luxury Loves China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ With luxury sales in the rest of the world either shrinking or growing more slowly,it showcased a completely different scene in China. Although not immune to the global economic crisis, the country has suffered far less than others,and the continued health of China's luxury market makes it an oasis of hope and possibility in a recession-battered world.

  16. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  17. China Salutes Chopin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China and the composer who is the pride of Poland will be on show this year.

  18. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  19. Petaflop supercomputers of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After ten years of development, high performance computing (HPC) in China has made remarkable progress. In November, 2010, the NUDT Tianhe-1A and the Dawning Nebulae respectively claimed the 1st and 3rd places in the Top500 Supercomputers List; this recognizes internationally the level that China has achieved in high performance computer manufacturing.

  20. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  1. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  2. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  3. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  4. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  5. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  6. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, L., E-mail: lucia.delbianco@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Allia, P. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy.

  7. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  8. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  9. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  10. Exchange bias effect in polycrystalline NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Cabral, A.J. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil); Peña Serna, J.; Rache Salles, B.; Novak, M.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, A.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha Remédios, C.M. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • Grains are well faceted, indicating that the specimen was well crystallized. • The micrographs suggests that NiO and NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} may be stuck to each other. • EB effect in NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • EB effect increases with the amount of NiO. - Abstract: Calcination of aqueous solutions formed by different molar ratios between the nickel and manganese chlorides led to the formation of antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique and Rietveld refinement. Low temperature zero field cooled and field cooled magnetic hysteresis cycles show an exchange bias effect, presumably due to interaction at the interfaces between the antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials.

  11. Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additional China sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is an atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2008. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern America and southern South America. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2008, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The terrestrial carbon sinks in China also show an increasing trend. However, the IAV in China is not the same as that of the globe. There is relatively stronger land sink in 2002, lowest sink in 2006, and strongest sink in 2007 in China. This IAV could be reasonably explained with the IAVs of temperature and precipitation in China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002–2008 are −3.20 ± 0.63 and −0.28 ± 0.18 PgC yr−1, respectively. Considering the carbon emissions in the form of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and from the import of wood and food, we further estimate that China's land sink is about −0.31 PgC yr−1.

  12. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  13. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  14. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  15. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-02-21

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5 nm and 2.3–4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  16. Optimization of the Ni(P) Thickness for an Ultrathin Ni(P)-Based Surface Finish in Soldering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Wang, S. J.; Fan, C. W.; Wu, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the Ni(P) thickness δ Ni(P) on the interfacial reaction between an Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder and an Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P)/Cu pad (thickness: 0.05/0.05/0.1-0.3/20 μm) and the resulting mechanical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction system, a focused ion beam system, electron probe microanalysis, and high-speed ball shear (HSBS) testing. Regardless of δ Ni(P), all of the Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) surface finishes examined were completely exhausted in one reflow, exposing the Cu pad underneath the solder. Cu6Sn5 dissolved with various Ni contents, termed (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, was the dominant intermetallic compound (IMC) species at the solder/Cu interface. Additionally, Ni2SnP and Ni3P IMCs might form with the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 in the thick Ni(P) case, i.e., δ Ni(P) = 0.3 μm, and the two IMCs (Ni2SnP and Ni3P) were gradually eliminated from the interface after multiple reflows. A mass balance analysis indicated that the growth of the Ni-containing IMCs, rather than the dissolution of the metallization pad, played a key role in the Ni(P) exhaustion. The HSBS test results indicated that the mechanical strength of the solder joints was also δ Ni(P) dependent. The combined results of the interfacial reaction and the mechanical evaluation provided the optimal δ Ni(P) value for soldering applications.

  17. Enhanced cycle performance of a Na/NiCl2 battery based on Ni particles encapsulated with Ni3S2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Hu, Yingying; Wu, Tian; Wu, Xiangwei; He, Qiming

    2017-02-01

    Nickel particles with different contents of Ni3S2 surface layer were prepared for their application as cathode materials in Na/NiCl2 batteries. The surface modification of nickel particles is found to prevent their growth and battery degradation during cycling. The optimum level of surface modification was determined by electrochemical tests and morphology characterization. Excessive Ni3S2 layer seems to cause particle aggregation resulting in low reversible capacity. The capacity of the cell with optimum level of Ni3S2 surface modification layer after 50 cycles is about 4 times greater than that without Ni3S2 surface modification layer.

  18. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  19. Committed to a Digitized China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Guo Wei, President and CEO of Digital China, answers questions about the company's operating strategies and prospects for China's IT service sector in a written interview with Beijing Review. Beijing Review: Digital China has detailed its strategies as "IT Serves China" and "IT Service on Demand." What is the operating objective for 2006?

  20. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  1. Effect of silicon on oxidation of Ni-15Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; NIU Yan; WU Wei-tao

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of binary Ni-Al alloy containing 15% (mole fraction, the same below if not mentioned)Al (Ni-15Al), and of a ternary alloy with the same Al content but also containing 4% Si (Ni-4Si-15Al) has been studied at 1 000 ℃ under 1.0× 105Pa O2 to examine the effect of the addition of Si on the oxidation of Ni-15Al. Oxidation of Ni-15Al produces a duplex scale composed of an outer NiO layer and an inner layer riched in Al2O3. On the contrary, Ni-4Si-15Al forms an external alumina layer directly in contact with the alloy presenting only trace of NiO and the Ni-Al spinel. As a result, the kinetics of Ni-15Al shows a fast initial stage followed by two subsequent parabolic stages with decreasing rate constants, while Ni-4Si-15Al presents essentially a single nearly-parabolic behavior with a rate constant similar to that of the final stage of Ni-15Al. Therefore, the addition of 4% Si significantly reduces the oxidation rate during the initial stage by preventing the formation of Ni-riched scales and promoting an earlier development of an exclusive external alumina layer on the alloy surface.

  2. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  3. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  4. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  5. De niño a niño, un programa de niños tutores en alfabetización

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    El programa "De niño a niño: un programa de niños tutores en alfabetización" (Rosemberg y Alam, 2009- en curso) tiene por objeto promover simultáneamente el desarrollo lingüístico y cognitivo de niños de 4 y 5 años y niños de 12 y 13 años a través de la realización de actividades de alfabetización y de la lectura de cuentos de los niños mayores a los pequeños. En talleres semanales los coordinadores pedagógicos y miembros del equipo de investigación capacitan a los niños mayores para llevar a...

  6. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2017-07-01

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (;equiatomic;) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  7. Application of Nanocrystalline LaNi5-type Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys in Ni-MHx Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jurczyk M; Nowak M

    2004-01-01

    The structure and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LaNi5-type alloys were studied. These materials were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. It was found that the partial substitution of Ni by Al or Mn in LaNi5-xMx alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity. The alloying elements such as Al, Mn and Co greatly improved the cycle life of LaNi5 material. For example, in the nanocrystalline LaNi3.75Mn0.75Al0.25Co0.25 powder, discharge capacity up to 258 mAh·g-1 was measured (at 40 mA·g-1 discharge current). Furthermore,the effect of the graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. The mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline LaNi5-type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, was successful.

  8. Easy access to Ni3N- and Ni-carbon nanocomposite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Guylhaine; Molinari, Valerio; Kraupner, Alexander; Giordano, Cristina

    2014-07-14

    In the search for alternative materials to current expensive catalysts, Ni has been addressed as one of the most promising and, on this trail, its corresponding nitride. However, nickel nitride is a thermally unstable compound, and therefore not easy to prepare especially as nanoparticles. In the present work, a sol-gel-based process (the urea glass route) is applied to prepare well-defined and homogeneous Ni3N and Ni nanoparticles. In both cases, the prepared crystalline nanoparticles (∼25 nm) are dispersed in a carbon matrix forming interesting Ni3N- and Ni-based composites. These nanocomposites were characterised by means of several techniques, such as XRD, HR-TEM, EELS, and the reaction mechanism was investigated by TGA and IR and herein discussed. The catalytic activity of Ni3N is investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, for hydrogenation reactions involving H2, and here compared to the one of Ni. Both materials show good catalytic activities but, interestingly, give a different selectivity between different functional groups (namely, nitro, alkene and nitrile groups).

  9. Atomistic structure of the coherent Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Campos, M.F. de; Souze, R.M. de; Goldenstein, H. (Escola Politecnica USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia)

    1994-02-01

    Most Ni-based superalloys are strengthened by the presence of coherent precipitates of an ordered fcc bases phase, known as [gamma][prime]. This phase is basically Ni[sub 3]Al. The precipitates are coherent up to a certain size and they present a cubic shape with faces oriented in the (100) planes of both matrix and precipitate. The detailed atomistic structure of this interface has not been studied. Interest in the use of ordered intermetallic compounds as possible structural materials has resulted in a large amount of work in Ni[sub 3]Al and in particular, the development of interatomic potentials for the Ni-Al system using the embedded atom technique. These potentials have been employed in the simulation of a variety of defects in Ni[sub 3]Al, including dislocation cores, grain boundaries and free surfaces. However, there is no simulation of the Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface structure using the embedded atom method. The objective of the present work is to carry out such a simulation. Besides the practical importance of the interface in superalloys, it is the simplest type of interface that can be modeled and it is a good starting point for interface work using the embedded atom technique.

  10. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  11. Zn,Ni ferrite/NiO nanocomposite powder obtained from acetylacetonato complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucinic-Vasic, M.; Antic, B.; Kremenovic, A.; Nikolic, A. S.; Stoiljkovic, M.; Bibic, N.; Spasojevic, V.; Colomban, Ph

    2006-10-01

    The results on the synthesis, microstructure, structure and DC magnetization studies of nanocomposite Zn,Ni ferrite/NiO powder obtained by thermal decomposition of acetylacetonato complexes are reported in this paper. According to the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) element analysis and multiphase Rietveld refinement, the three samples made are composed of spinel-ferrite (86.7% 96.7%) and NiO (3.3% 13.3%) phases. The compositions of the spinel-ferrite (SP) phase in the investigated samples, S1 S3, are Zn0.72Ni0.24Fe1.98O4, Zn0.56Ni0.29Fe2.07O4 and Zn0.40Ni0.40Fe2.10O4, respectively. Due to the cation deficiency in spinels, created vacancies induce a partial change in the cation valence, \\mathrm {Ni^{2+}} \\to \\mathrm {Ni^{3+}} . The vacancy distribution is found to be random at 8a and 16d cation sites, except in sample S3, where all vacancies are over octahedral sites. The x-ray line broadening due to crystallite size effect is found to be isotropic for all spinels, while the x-ray line broadening due to the strain effect is anisotropic. A correlation between the Zn2+ occupancy of the tetrahedral site and the 650 cm-1 Raman peak intensities is shown. The observed coercivity decrease and shift in hysteresis loop in the samples are caused by the interaction between spinel and NiO phase. The results of M(H) measurements point to the properties of an ensemble of interacting nanoparticles. High saturation magnetization values and superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature point to the technological significance of the title compounds.

  12. Current Technology Research Status of Ni80Cr20 High Resistance Alloys for Electrical Heating%Ni80Cr20高电阻电热合金的工艺技术研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于朝清; 易立; 徐永红; 章应; 朱强军; 代红伟

    2014-01-01

    The nickel-based alloy Ni80Cr20 is widely used as a kind of high resistance alloys for electrical heating materials. The paper introduces the research status of technology preparing Ni80Cr20 materials, including composition of design, smelting and ingot casting, processing, and heat treatment. The quality gap existing in the similar products in China and abroad, and the research focus in future are indicated.%镍基电阻合金Ni80Cr20是应用广泛的高电阻电热合金材料。本文介绍了Ni80Cr20高电阻电热合金材料的成分设计、熔炼铸锭、加工及热处理等工艺技术研究现状,并指出了国内外同类产品质量差距以及今后研究人员需要关注的重点。

  13. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  14. Fe-Ni-O体系中Fe/Ni的还原行为%Reduction behavior of Fe/Ni in the Fe-Ni-O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文洁; 张延玲; 魏芬绒; 杨小刚; 胡晓军

    2013-01-01

    取电阻炉实验和热重分析等手段,探讨了Fe-Ni-O体系中不同条件下的产物组成及Fe/Ni的还原行为.结果表明:五种样品的还原难度由低到高依次为NiO<Fe2O3+Ni<Fe2O3+NiO<NiFe2O4 <Fe2O3; Ni元素能够促进铁氧化物还原,其促进作用由Ni元素的初始状态决定,单质Ni>氧化物NiO>NiFe2O4中的Ni;NiFe2O4的还原过程中各产物由低温到高温依次出现的次序为Fe3O4、Ni、(Fe,Ni)、Fe和Fe0.64Ni0.36.根据实验结果,对五种氧化物体系的还原过程进行了探讨,并获得了活化能、控速环节等重要参数及相关反应机理.%The product composition under different conditions and the reduction behavior of Fe and Ni in the Fe-Ni-O system were studied by electric resistance furnace experiments and thermogravimetric analysis. The order of difficult degree for reducing Fe/Ni oxides in five systems is NiONiO>Ni released from NiFe2O4. As the temperature increases, the reduction products of NiFe2O4 are in order of Fe3O4, Ni, (Fe, Ni), Fe, and Fe0.64Ni0.36- Based on these experimental results, the reduction processes and the kinetics such as activation energy and rate-controlling step for reducing the five oxides were analyzed and discussed.

  15. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  16. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  17. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un ...

  18. Synthesis of TiNi/Ti2Ni Composite Particles in Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-song; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2006-01-01

    A new process of synthesizing TiNi/Ti2Ni composite particles, high temperature molten salts method, is introduced. This method uses molten salts as a reaction medium that does not take part in the chemical reaction and can be easily dissolved in rinsing water. According this method, the composite particles were prepared in molten salts at 700 ℃-900 ℃. By means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi particles in these composite particles was confirmed.

  19. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  20. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-02-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of 100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix.

  1. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xiao Wang; Gui-xian Wang; Jing-shun Liu; Lun-yong Zhang; Wei Wang; Ze Li; Qi-xiang Wang; Jian-fei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Al powder and Ni–Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spec-troscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50μm. The morphology of the Ni–Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni–Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 parti-cles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni–Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermet-allic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 pre-cipitates and a Ni–Al–O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  2. Interface structure between epitaxial NiSi2 and Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Long Liu; Wen-Jauh Chen; Ting-Kan Tsai; Hsun-Heng Tsai; Shu-Huei Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    The interface structure between the Si and NiSi2 epitaxially grown on the ((-1)12) Si substrate was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and computer image simulation. The results showed that the interface between Si and NiSi2 epitaxially grown on the ((-1)12) Si substrate has six different types: type A NiSi2 ((-1)11 )/( (-1)11 ) Si, type A NiSi2 (001)/(001) Si, type B NiSi2 (1(-1)(-1))/(1(-1)1) Si, type B NiSi2 ((-1)12)/(1(-1)2) Si, type B NiSi2 (2(-2)1)/(001) Si, and type B NiSi2 (1(-1)(4))/( 1(-1)0 ) Si. And there are one or more different atomic structures for one type of interface.

  3. Electrochemical performance study of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode-supported IT-SOFC%Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑型IT-SOFC性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桂平; 彭开萍

    2015-01-01

    采用硝酸盐-柠檬酸溶胶-凝胶低温自蔓延燃烧法制备GDC粉末,用共压法制备了NiO-GDC单层阳极、NiO/NiO-GDC双层阳极及其单电池,并测试了其性能。研究结果表明:经H2还原后,Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极外层为多孔结构,由粒径较大的Ni粒子团形成了稳定的电子电导通道及燃料通道;内层孔隙较小、较少,Ni均匀分布于GDC构成的支撑骨架中。Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极的孔隙率及电导率都高于Ni-GDC单层阳极,从450~700℃,其电导率比Ni-GDC单层阳极都稳定高出15%~20%。单电池的测试结果表明:Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑单电池在700、650、600℃的最大功率密度分别为0.383、0.329、0.204 W/cm2,比Ni-GDC单层阳极支撑单电池分别高出了8.95%、79.38%、84.76%。Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑单电池具有比Ni-GDC单层阳极支撑单电池更高的中温、特别是低温电化学性能。%GDC electrolyte powder was synthesized by nitrate-citric acid sol-gel auto combustion method in low temperature. NiO-GDC single-layer anode, NiO/NiO-GDC double-layer anode and their single cells were prepared by co-pressing, then their properties were tested. The test results show that after reduction by H2, the outer layer of the Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode is porous and stable electronic conductivity channel and fuel channel is formed by the Ni particle groups with large size. In the inner layer, pores are less and smal er, and Ni particles distribute uniformly in the skeleton structure formed by GDC particle. Both the porosity and conductivity of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode are higher than Ni-GDC single-layer anode; its conductivities from 450 to 700℃are al 15%~20%higher than Ni-GDC single-layer anode. The single celltest shows that the peak power densities of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode-supported single cellat temperature 700, 650 and 600℃are respectively 0.383, 0.329 and 0.204 W/cm2, which are respectively 8.95%, 79.38%, 84

  4. Funciones cognoscitivas en niños y niñas con trastorno disocial comparados con niños y niñas sin el trastorno

    OpenAIRE

    Urazán Torres, Gina Rocio

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar y caracterizar las funciones cognoscitivas de un grupo de niños y niñas con Trastorno Disocial (TD), comparándolas con las de un grupo de niños y niñas normales. Se utilizó un diseño de casos y controles con una muestra de 39 niños y niñas entre 6 y 12 años de edad con TD y 39 niños y niñas del mismo rango de edades y los mismos estratos socioeconómicos. Los participantes fueron seleccionados de diferentes instituciones educativas de B...

  5. Fabrication of CdTe/NiTe films on Ni foils by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yannan [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Heihe University, Heihe 164300 (China); Zhou, Xiaoming [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Yao, Huizhen; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Chen, Yanli; Wang, Jun; Fu, Wuyou [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Song, Wenxu [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Yang, Haibin, E-mail: yanghb@jlu.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • The effects of T{sub s} on CdTe deposited on Ni by magnetron sputtering is investigated. • An effective method is studied of making CdTe/NiTe without post-treatment. • As-prepared CdTe/NiTe raised optical absorption and PEC properties. • Pre-deposited Te can react with Ni to generate NiTe at T{sub s} = 350 °C. - Abstract: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor thin films are fabricated on flexible Ni foil substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure and properties of the prepared functional thin films were characterized with series analysis technologies. The characterization results revealed that Nickel Telluride (NiTe) phase formatted at the interface of CdTe and Ni substrate when substrate temperature (T{sub s}) is 450 °C. Specially, XRD results demonstrated that CdTe/NiTe films could also be obtained by pre-depositing Te film on Ni and reducing T{sub s} to 350 °C. The investigation on optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the products illustrated that compact CdTe/NiTe films had improved the absorption in the visible region. Furthermore, PEC measurements indicated that CdTe/NiTe/Ni photoelectrode can have a promising application in photovoltaic devices.

  6. Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

    2010-07-29

    A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  7. Hydrogenation of Ethyl Acetate to Ethanol over Ni-Based Catalysts Obtained from Ni/Al Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Jiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP, BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  8. A Comparative Study of Elastic Constants of NiTi and NiAl Alloys from First-Principle Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianmin Lu; Qingmiao Hu; Rui Yang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the strong dependence of martensitic transformation temperature on composition,the elastic properties of high temperature B2 phases of both NiTi and NiAl were calculated by a first-principle method, the exact-muffin orbital method within coherent potential approximation. In the composition range of 50-56 at. pct Ni of NiTi and 60-70 at. pct Ni of NiAI in which martensitic transformation occurs, non-basalplane shear modulus c44 increases with increasing Ni content, while basal-plane shear modulus c' decreases.In the above composition ranges however the transformation temperature of NiAI increases with increasing Ni content while that of NiTi decreases from experimental observation. The softening of c' is experimentally observed only in NiAl, and the decrease of c' with increasing Ni content is responsible for the increase of transformation temperature. The result of the present work demonstrates that, besides c', c44 also influences the martensitic transformation of NiTi and plays quite important a role.

  9. Structural study of radiolytic catalysts Ni-Ce/Al2O3 and Ni-Pt/Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seridi, F.; Chettibi, S.; Keghouche, N.; Beaunier, P.; Belloni, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ni-Ce and Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts supported over α-Al2O3 are synthesized by using co-impregnation method, and then reduced, each via radiolytic process or thermal H2-treatment. For Ni-Ce/Al2O3, the structural study reveals that Ce is alloyed with Ni as Ce2Ni7 nanoparticles in the radiation-reduced catalysts, while it segregates to the surface in the form of CeO2 in the H2-reduced catalysts. For Ni-Pt/Al2O3 radiolytic catalysts, Ni, Pt, NiPt and Ni3Pt nanoparticles, which size is 3.5 nm, are observed. When the radiation-reduced samples are tested in the benzene hydrogenation, they both display high conversion rate. However, the Ni-Pt/Al2O3 is more efficient than Ni-Ce/Al2O3. The performance of the catalysts is correlated with the high dispersion of the metal and the presence of intermetallic Ni-Pt and Ni-Ce phases. It is compared to that of other radiolytic monometallic/oxide catalysts of the literature.

  10. A Trip to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Martin

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:The Vermont School of Colombia is one of the few middle schools in the country that teaches Chinese as the second foreign language.In early June 2013,a 77-member student delegation came to China to attend a summer camp jointly hosted by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC)and the North China University of Technology(NCUT).The following is an essay written in Chinese by a Colombian student recording his tour in China.

  11. The Spiders of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sevaral books about Chinese spider systematics and biology have been published,mostly since the later 1970s and the majority of then are designed as classification guides to the spider fauna of a particular area of China,or focused on a particular group ,for example Fauna of Zhejiang Province ,Araneida and Salticids of China. The newly published book "The Spiders of China",in English,differs from all others by including all 2361 described Chinese spider species and by reviewing literature of over 200 years of work on Chinese spider classification.

  12. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  13. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  14. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  15. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  16. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  17. Anomalous self-reduction of layered double hydroxide (LDH): from α-Ni(OH)2 to hexagonal close packing (HCP) Ni/NiO by annealing without a reductant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

    2015-01-21

    The traditional concept that nickel layered double hydroxide (Ni LDH, also known as α-Ni(OH)2) converts to NiO after annealing has been taken without doubt and utilized to fabricate NiO for years. This work reports that an anomalous self-reduction phenomenon can occur for Ni LDH synthesized from an ionic liquid system.

  18. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  19. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Macdonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  20. Novel Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag@Ni trepang-like nanocomposites: High-efficiency and magnetic recyclable catalysts for organic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Jun-Jie; Chen, Duo; Han, Guang-Bing; Yu, Shu-Yun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2016-08-01

    A facile step-by-step approach is developed for synthesizing the high-efficiency and magnetic recyclable Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag@Ni trepang-like nanocomposites. This method involves coating Fe2O3 nanorods with a uniform silica layer, reduction in 10% H2/Ar atmosphere to transform the Fe2O3 into magnetic Fe3O4, and finally depositing Ag@Ni core-shell nanoparticles on the L-lysine modified surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanorods. The fabricated nanocomposites are further characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag@Ni trepang-like nanocomposites exhibit remarkably higher catalytic efficiency than monometallic Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag nanocomposites toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) at room temperature, and maintain superior catalytic activity even after six cycles. In addition, these samples could be easily separated from the catalytic system by an external magnet and reused, which shows great potential applications in treating waste water. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11174183), the 111 Project (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  1. Variations of the temperature and solar activity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingQi Li; QuanSheng Ge; ZhiXin Hao; JingYun Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data collected at 119 meteorological stations over five regions of China during the period 1951-2010. The series of minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures from each climatic region have similar signatures, but there are differences among the five regions and the countrywide average. The results indicate that the periods of faster warming were not synchronous across the regions studied: warming in northeast China and Tibet began in 1986, while in central-east, southeast, and northwest China the warming emerged in 1995. Furthermore, central-east and northwest China, and Tibet, have warmed continuously since 2000, but the temper-ature has decreased during this period in southeast China. We evaluated the evolution of these temperature series using a novel nonlinear filtering technique based on the concept of the lifetime of temperature curves. The decadal to secular evolution of solar activity and temperature variation had similar signatures in the northeast, southeast, and northwest re-gions and the average across the whole country, indicating that solar activity is a significant control on climate change over secular time scales in these regions. In comparison with these regions, the signatures were different in central-east China and Tibet because of regional differences (e.g., landforms and elevation) and indirect effects (e.g., cloud cover influencing the radiation balance, thereby inducing climate change). Furthermore, the results of wavelet analysis indicated that the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has had a significant impact on climate change, but at different times among the regions, and these changes were most probably induced by differing responses of the atmospheric system to solar forcing.

  2. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  3. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotin, B; Ispas, A; Coman, V; Bund, A; Ilea, P

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits' thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni-Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni-Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni-Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  4. Heavy metal contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a sulfuric acid factory, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Chen, Yongheng; Wu, Yingjuan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (SCIES-MEP), Guangzhou (China); Wang, Chunlin [Research Center for Environmental Science, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    This study was designed to investigate heavy metal (Tl, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) contamination levels of arable soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of a sulfuric acid factory in the Western Guangdong Province, China. Health risks associated with these metals by consumption of vegetables were assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ). The soils show a most significant contamination of Tl, followed by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni. The heavy metal contents ({mu}g/g, dry weight basis) in the edible parts of vegetables range from 5.60 to 105 for Tl, below detection limit to 227 for Pb, 5.0-30.0 for Cu, 10.0-82.9 for Zn, and 0.50-26.0 for Ni, mostly exceeding the proposed maximum permissible level in Germany or China. For the studied vegetables, the subterranean part generally bears higher contents of Tl and Zn than the aerial part, while the former has lower contents of Cu and Ni than the latter. In addition, the results reveal that Tl is the major risk contributor for the local people since its HQ values are mostly much higher than 1.0. The potential health risk of Tl pollution in the food chain and the issue of food safety should be highly concerned and kept under continued surveillance and control. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Extractable Fractions of Metals in Sewage Sludges from Five Typical Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; LI Xiao-Chen; WANG Pei-Fang; ZOU Li-Min; MA Hai-Tao

    2006-01-01

    Metal content and bioavailability are often the limiting factors for application of sewage sludge in agricultural fields.Sewage sludge samples were collected from five typical urban wastewater treatment plants in China to investigate their contents and distribution of various chemical fractions of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Mo by using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The sludges contained considerable amounts of organic matter (31.8%-48.0%), total N (16.3-26.4 g kg-1) and total P (15.1-23.9 g kg-1), indicating high potential agricultural benefits of their practical applications. However, total Zn and Ni contents in the sludge exceeded the values permitted in China's control standards for pollutants in sludges from agricultural use (GB 4284-1984). The residual fraction was the predominant fraction for Mo, Ni and Cr, the oxidizable fraction was the primary fraction for Cu and Pb, and the exchangeable and reducible fractions were principal for Zn. The distribution of different chemical fractions among the sludge samples reflected differences in their physicochemical properties, especially pH. The sludge pH was negatively correlated with the percentages of reducible fraction of Cu and exchangeable fraction of Zn. The sludges from these plants might not be suitable for agricultural applications due to their high contents of Zn, Ni and Cr, as well as high potential of mobility and bioavailability of Zn.

  6. Long-term regional precipitation disparity in northwestern China and its driving forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Subject to the unique physical setting of northwestern China (NW China, precipitation in the region is characterized by salient regional differences. Yet, the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China still remains insufficiently-explored. In the present study, we base on historical documentation to reconstruct the precipitation indices of two macro regions in NW China between AD580–1979 to address the following issues: (1 determine the multi-decadal to centennial regional precipitation disparity in NW China, a topic which has not been systematically examined in previous paleo-climate/paleo-environment studies; and (2 find the major driving forces behind it. Wavelet analysis, which is ideal for analyzing non-stationary systems, is applied. Our results show that there is significant regional discrepancy of precipitation change in NW China over extended period. Although there is significant association between the regional precipitation disparity in NW China and various modes of atmospheric circulation, the association is characterized by a regime shift during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Most importantly, the low-frequency cycle of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation is found to be the most prominent pacemaker of regional precipitation disparity in NW China at the multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Our findings help to demonstrate which atmospheric circulation is primarily responsible for the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China, which may have important implications for water resource management in NW China in the near future.

  7. Metals in water and surface sediments from Henan reaches of the Yellow River,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined in the water and surface sediments from the Henan reaches of the Yellow River.Twenty-three sampling sites along the Yellow River and its tributaries were selected.Generally,metal concentrations were found to decrease in sequences of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd in water and Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cd in sediments.High levels of metal concentration were determined at a few stations of the river and its tributaries,such as Yiluo River,Si River and Qin River.The pollution of the Yellow River by Cd,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn can be regarded as much higher compared to the background values,US EPA criteria(1999) and China water quality criteria(2002) .For sediments,metal lev-els except Pb did not significantly exceed the average shale levels and backgrounds in several countries including China.Data analysis manifests that positive correlations were found between Cu,Ni and Zn in water,and Pb,Ni,Zn and Cr in sediments. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis and Cluster analysis were provided to assess the possible contamination sources. The results indicate a general appearance of serious pollution along the banks of the Yellow River.The wastewaters discharged by the mine plants,smelter plants,power plants,battery plants,tannery plants,etc.,and sewage inputs from the cities along the river banks may be the sources of metals.

  8. Epitaxial fabrication of two-dimensional NiSe2 on Ni(111) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan; Song, Shiru; Wu, Xu; Qi, Jing; Lu, Hongliang; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Shiyu; Liu, Zhongliu; Wang, Jiaou; Shi, Dongxia; Du, Shixuan; Wang, Yeliang; Gao, H.-J.

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) receive significant attention due to their intriguing physical properties for both fundamental research and potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. A high-quality 2D film of NiSe2, a TMD material, is grown epitaxially by a single step direct selenization of a Ni(111) substrate. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory calculations are combined to confirm the formation and structure of the film, revealing a (√3 × √3) superlattice of the NiSe2 film formed on the (√7 × √7) superlattice of the substrate. Fabrication of this 2D NiSe2 film opens opportunities to research its applications, especially for electrocatalysis and energy storage devices.

  9. Ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic moments in Ni/NiO ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jun; Chen, Jia-Hui; Li, Liang-Liang; Ma, Jing; Nan, Ce-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Electric field manipulation of magnetic properties has attracted a lot of research interest recently in solid-state physics. However, ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer is rarely studied in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet/ferroelectric heterostructures. In this paper, we prepared a Ni/NiO(001) heterostructure on ferroelectric Pb (Mg1/3N b2 /3 ) 0.7T i0.3O3(001 ) substrates and observed an out-of-plane electric field modulation of exchange bias and magnetic anisotropy in the Ni layer. The exchange bias was easily eliminated by an electric field cycle, which was due to the AFM domain switching induced by piezoelectric strain in the NiO layer. Synchrotron x ray linear dichroism results confirmed the AFM moment alignment induced by ferroelectric strain as well. Our work showed a promising strategy to manipulate AFM moments and domains, serving the blooming AFM spintronics.

  10. Irradiation induced defects in deformed $Ni_{3}Ge$ and $Ni_{3}Al$ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Murakumo, T; Miyahara, A; Hannuki, T; Sato, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of point defects and defect clusters by electron irradiation has been studied in Ll /sub 2/ ordered Ni/sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al by high voltage electron microscopy. It is found that defects are formed preferentially along the Burgers vector directions as linear lines and grow into linear chains of clusters by electron irradiation. This phenomenon is explained by preferential generation of the defects along the antiphase boundary (APE) tubes, in specimens deformed both below and above the peak temperature T/sub p/. Based on three-dimensional analyses of the defect distribution, the formation mechanism of the APE tubes is discussed with particular reference to superdislocation motion and the strengthening of the Ll/sub 2/ ordered compounds of Ni /sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al. (44 refs).

  11. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni and Carbon Coated Ni by Levitational Gas Condensation (LGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel (Ni, and carbon coated nickel (Ni@C nanoparticles were synthesized by levitaional gas condensation (LGC methods using a micron powder feeding (MPF system. Both metal and carbon coated metal nano powders include a magnetic ordered phase. The synthesis by LGC yields spherical particles with a large coercivity. The abnormal initial magnetization curve for Ni indicates a non-collinear magnetic structure between the core and surface layer of the particles. The carbon coated particles had a core structure diameter at and below 10 nm and were covered by 2-3 nm thin carbon layers. The hysteresis loop of the as-prepared Ni@Cs materials with unsaturated magnetization shows a superparamagnetic state at room temperature.

  13. Transformation characteristics of TiNi/TiNi alloys synthesized by explosive welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juntao; ZHENG Yanjun; CUI Lishan

    2007-01-01

    Effects of severe deformation and heat treatment on the transformation behaviors of explosively welded duplex TiNi/TiNi shape memory alloys(SMAs)were investigated by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).The explosively welded duplex TiNi/TiNi plate of 0.7mm in thickness was cold-rolled at room temperature to the extent of 60%reduction in thickness and then annealed at different temperatures (573-973K)for different time(15min-10h).Low temperature(623-723K)heat treatment led to amorphous crystallization.At higher temperature(873K),the re-crystallization took place in the specimens.Analysis showed that the change of internal stresses is iust the root cause of the change of transformation temperature.The relationships between the transformation behaviors and the heat treatment were discussed in the present report.

  14. Optical, magnetic, and microwave properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamnejadi, Ali; Bagheri, Saber

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the optical, magnetic, and microwave properties of NiO and Ni/NiO nanoparticles have been studied. The absorbance spectra of the samples show the electronic d-d excitations with energy band gap of about 3.8 eV. The magnetization measurement confirms the existence of ferromagnetic phase at room temperature, which could be originated from the uncompensated surface spins or ferromagnetic clusters in the antiferromagnetic ground state of NiO nanoparticles. The microwave parameters such as ac conductivity, skin depth, electric and magnetic loss tangents, attenuation constant, and reflection loss have been calculated. While both magnetic and dielectric relaxation processes have been observed in the complex permeability and permittivity, the microwave absorption is mainly attributed to the dielectric relaxation processes.

  15. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  16. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol-1 L s-1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  17. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  18. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  19. One Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Guoling; Lu, Jiahai

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China. PMID:27906124

  20. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    the study. 2 Originality/value – The paper addresses the topic of service innovation in China, which has so far received a limited attention in the management literature. By presenting an in-depth case study, the paper highlights main factors and dilemmas underpinning how Chinese companies are seeking......Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...

  1. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  2. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  3. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Construction, City ptanning, Decorations The llth China Beijing International Construction Machinery, Construction Materials machinery & Mining Machinery Exhibition and Technology Seminar Venue: Beijing Jiuhua International Exhibition Center Duration: October 18-October 21,

  4. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  5. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  6. China in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reno Calleja

    2009-01-01

    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  7. The Dancing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  8. China's New Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ The RMB4-trillion stimulus package is a bold move, but the economy still needs attention China unveiled a massive spending package in November to bolster investment and consumption as exports falter amid the global economic slowdown.

  9. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  10. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  11. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  12. Japan's China Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01

    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  13. Winter Storms Paralyze China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Severe snowstorms over broad swaths of eastern and central China have wreaked havoc on traffic throughout the country, creating gigantic passenger backups, spawning acci- dents and leaving at least 24 people dead, according to

  14. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  15. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  16. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  17. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available analysed by menas of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that when alloying with Fe-rich mixtures, the thin surface layers contained a number of cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZ). Alloying with Ni...

  18. Cancer en los niños

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fabio; Ramírez Wurttenberger, Óscar; Lotero, Viviana; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiología/ ¿Por qué se presenta el cáncer en los niños?/ ¿Cómo se realiza el diagnóstico?/ ¿Cómo es el tratamiento?/ ¿Resultados del tratamiento?/Recomendaciones/Otras formas de tratamiento: El trasplante de médula ósea.

  19. Two-stage Strain Recovery of Explosively Welded NiTi/NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Prestrained in Martensitic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhu; Cui Lishan; Zheng Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the transformation behavior and strain recovery characteristics of Ni50.2Ti/Ni51Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) prepared by explosive welding. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the reverse transformation temperatures and the temperature range of NiTi-NiTi alloys increased with increasing prestrain level. Meanwhile, a two-stage strain recovery over a wide temperature range was obtained.

  20. Features of cross-Pacific climate shown in the variability of China and US precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yang, S.; Kousky, V. E.; Higgins, R. W.; Lau, K.-M.; Xie, P.

    2005-11-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the climate features of China and the United States with a focus on the differences, similarities, connectivity, and predictability of precipitation and the relationships between precipitation and large-scale patterns of natural variability. China precipitation is characterized by large seasonality, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The seasonality of precipitation shows an increasing linear tendency in northwest China, with a change of about 20% from 1901 to 1998. A relatively weaker increasing tendency also appears in the Big Bend of Yellow River (BBYR) and the Tibetan Plateau, while southwest China experiences a decreasing tendency. Furthermore, the seasonality in the BBYR shows particularly significant interdecadal variability, while that of southern and eastern China has decreased slightly in the recent decades.Compared to China, the United States as a whole has less precipitation in summer but more precipitation in other seasons. Here, the seasonality of precipitation is only about 24% of that in China. The annual mean precipitation is 64.1 mm per month in the United States, compared to 54.6 mm per month in China. The seasonality of precipitation exhibits a decreasing tendency in the southeast, Pacific Northwest, and Gulf Coast and an increasing tendency in the Great Lakes. The seasonality in the Great Plains exhibits large interdecadal variability.The long-term variations of precipitation are highly seasonally dependent. In summer, a decreasing trend is observed in north China and an increasing trend is found in eastern-central China. However, these trends are almost opposite in spring. In addition, the fall precipitation decreases with time nearly everywhere in China except for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley.Results also indicate that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and

  1. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...

  2. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  3. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T; Buchholz, D Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Hersam, Mark C; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) → Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (∼800 mA h g(-1) after ∼100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  4. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Hersam, Mark C.; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) -> Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (similar to 800 mA h g(-1) after similar to 100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  5. The electronic structure of NiAl and NiSi

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, D. D.; Speier, W.; Zeller, R.; Leuken, E. van; Groot, R.A. de; Fuggle, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the electronic structures of NiSi and NiAl employing electron spectroscopies and theoretical calculations is presented. Experimental results, obtained with x-ray photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy, are interpreted by means of density of states and matrix element calculations for the compounds in their real crystal structure. This gives a detailed picture of the electronic states over the whole bonding-anti-bonding region below and above the Fermi level. Cluste...

  6. Characteristics of Reactive Ni3Sn4 Formation and Growth in Ni-Sn Interlayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Kenel, Christoph; Leinenbach, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The near-isothermal growth and formation of Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Ni-Sn interlayer systems was studied in the solid state at 473 K (200 °C) and under solid-liquid conditions at 523 and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) from an initial state of a few seconds. Scalloped solid-state IMC formation was mainly driven by grain boundary diffusion of Ni through the IMC layer combined with the grain coarsening of the IMC layer. Under solid-liquid conditions, the formation of faceted and needle-shaped Ni3Sn4 grains as well as an atypical IMC growth behavior with similar parabolic growth constants for 523 K and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) was observed within the first 180 seconds of the holding time, and IMC growth occurred as an isothermal solidification from the Ni-saturated Sn melt. Due to the progressive densification of the IMC layer and the diffusion-controlled growth, the kinetics slowed down by approximately one order of magnitude after 180 seconds of annealing. The final stage was characterized by the formation of IMC islands ahead of the interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer. Needle-like IMC growth was effectively suppressed under combined solid-state and solid-liquid conditions. Textured Ni3Sn4 IMC formation at the Ni-Sn interface was approved with pole figure measurements. The activation energy Q for solid-liquid IMC formation was calculated as 43.3 kJ/mol, and processing maps for IMC growth and Sn consumption were derived as functions of temperature and time, respectively.

  7. On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO2/Ni stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Simone; Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Data for the paper "Cortese, Simone, Trapatseli, Maria and Khiat, Ali et al. (2016) On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO2/Ni stacks. Journal of Applied Physics" \\ud \\ud The file contains all the current versus voltage measurements described in the paper: the resistive switching mechanism curves are presented, as well as subthreshold effects related to the filament instability. The area dependence of the resistances involved is also present in the file.

  8. Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and properties of Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses are explored in this work. The alloy compositions are determined by using a combination of the cluster line approach, the multi-alloying strategy and the substitutions of similar elements. Bulk metallic glasses with diameters of 3 mm take shape at compositions formulated under the clus- ter-plus-glue-atom model [M9B]B~[(Ni1-xFex)7.71(Si0.66Ta0.34)1.29B]B0.94=(Ni1-xFex)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, x=0.35–0.45, where the bracketed part is the cluster and the unbracketed part is the glue atoms. These alloys exhibit good magnetic properties. The maximum Is is found in the (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 alloy which reaches 0.51 T, with its Hc as low as 8.5 A/m. Interestingly, these alloys display dual glass transitions at (Ni0.65Fe0.35)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, (Ni0.60Fe0.4)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 and (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7- Si7.8Ta4 as unveiled by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

  9. Effect of deposition technique of Ni on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, S., E-mail: sakbulut@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Akbulut, A. [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Özdemir, M. [Marmara University, Physics Department, Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildiz, F., E-mail: fyildiz@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Si/Pt 3.5/(Co 0.3/Ni 0.6){sub n} /Co 0.3/ Pt 3 (all thicknesses are nm) multilayers were investigated for two different sample sets by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques. In the first sample set all layers (buffer, cap, Co and Ni) were grown by magnetron sputtering technique while in the second sample set Ni sub-layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at high vacuum. Apart from deposition technique of Ni, all other parameters like thicknesses and growth rates of each layers are same for both sample sets. Multilayers in these two sample sets display PMA in the as grown state until a certain value of bilayer repetition (n) and the strength of PMA decreases with increasing n. Magnetic easy axis's of the multilayered samples switched from film normal to the film plane when n is 9 and 5 for the first and second sample sets, respectively. The reason for that, PMA was decreased due to increasing roughness with increasing n. This was confirmed by X Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements for both sample sets. Moreover, in the first sample set coercive field values are smaller than the second sample set, which means magnetic anisotropy is lower than the latter one. This stronger PMA is arising due to existence of stronger Pt (111) and Co/Ni (111) textures in the second sample set. - Highlights: • Effect of deposition techniques for Ni sub-layers on magnetic properties in [Co/Ni]{sub n} multilayered films was studied. • Ni sub-layers were deposited by two different techniques, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and magnetron sputtering. • Spin reorientation thickness and magnitude of the anisotropy are strongly depending on growing techniques.

  10. China Report, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    During this visit to China, Lee Kuan Yew repeatedly emphasized "the existence of broad cooperation between China and Singapore." In the past 20...seek new economic cooperation and trade partners. Lee Kuan Yew himself also thinks that Singapore’s economy is in depression and "it must seek new...that there is great potential for cooperation between the two countries. Accompanying Lee Kuan Yew in this visit were a number of ministers and high

  11. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Comparing China with South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, the ratio was 1 to 6. Compar- ing China with Thailand , India, and Pakistan the ratio was 1 to...Xinjiang, 3,500 tons of tomatoes worth more than 500,000 yuan, were dumped into the Gobi desert and ditches of Manasi County, with bright red juice ... beverages , instant noodles, and other things, the difference between the wages of a janitor, assistant editor, and copy editor will become

  12. One Health in China

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accu...

  13. China's Regional Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shimin

    2005-01-01

    @@ China is a vast country with a long history and splendid culture. One reason for this is that the Chinese nation consists of many ethnic groups. They have lived, procreated, struggled and made creative achievements on this land for several thousand years. China is a big family consisting of 56 ethnic groups. While the Han ethnic group has the largest population, the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, so they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities."

  14. PERFECT [CHINA] CO., LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Funded by Perfect Resources (M) Sdn Bhd, Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.was incorporated in 1994 with business anchoring in research pioneering, advanced research and development, productions, sales and marketing and services in a grand scale, modern enterprise group. Today Perfect (China) Co., Ltd.'s wide range of consumer products has created a niche market for health food, personal care, household and beauty & skin care products.

  15. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).

  16. China Franchise Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      After seven years' development,China Franchise Expo has seen tremendous growth as the Chinese market has opened up to franchising. The organisers report that there are now over 2,1oo franchise systems operating in China,with over 12o,ooo franchisees which have generated 2.4 million jobs and made an investment of RMB6o billion (approximately C6.25 billion or US$7.4 billion).……

  17. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Xinjiang [Zhang Pingquan; NONGYE JINGJl WENTI, 23 Oct 87] 72 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China [Xu Bao, ct at.; ZIIONGGUO NONGYE...should be suitably limited. 12986 Analysis of Ecotypes of Wild Soybean (G. Soja ) in China 40110011 Beijing ZHONGGUO NONGYE KEXUE [SCIENTIA...of Agricultural Sciences, Gongzhuling, Jilin] [Text] In 1981-1985, the photo-thermo effects on the development of wild soybean (G. soja Sieb, et

  18. DV Fad in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AS the Digital Video fad sweeps China, the in-phrase on the Internet, in fashion magazines, on campus, and amongst the young generation is "did you DV today?" The word DV has transcended its original meaning to become a kind of lifestyle. When Starbucks and Italo Calvino first entered China, they were regarded as ultimate status symbols, until they became ubiquitous. This is the case with DV: as

  19. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  20. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  1. Folk Songs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE folk song in China is an art form created by working people through the ages to express therr feeling and emotions. In China,as elsewhere,such songsare a repository of the folk wisdomof the nation.Origins of China’s FolkSongsIn primitive society our ances-tors created in their struggle againstnature.In the Xia Dynasty(21st-16th centuries B.C.),Slaves used

  2. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    relations between China and Japan have been manifested in a series of incidents such as the textbook problem, the Yasukuni Shrine problem, and the Chinese...Pacific region. Japan’s position on the textbook issue, on the Japan- Taiwan relations issue, on the Yasukuni Shrine issue, and on the historical...about the land border between China and Vietnam, creating border controversy areas there. They have also sought to make two-thirds of the ocean area

  3. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    not distort facts, divulge state secrets, and infringe upon others’ legitimate rights, we must also provide for their relative independence in no...The Study of Species Biology of Chrysanthe- mum The System of Com- puter Data of Plant Gene Chemotaxonomy of Genus Arzemisia of China The...Institute of Biology , Academia Sinica Fudan University Peking University Jiansu Institute of Bot- any South China Institute of Botany

  4. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  5. Energy for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Economides

    2002-01-01

    @@ Rarely has the world witnessed the breathtaking economic developments currently ongoing in China. Neither the explosive entry in the international scene by the fresh nation of the United States, following World War Ⅰ, nor the reconstruction frenzy of post-World War Ⅱ Europe and Japan can rival the growth of China in the last decade and the even more intense one expected in the future.

  6. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  7. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser melting deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi Laves alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi Laves phase alloys with chemical compositions of Ni-39Ti-11 Si and Ni-42Ti-8Si (%, mole fraction, the same below), respectively, were fabricated by the laser melting deposition manufacturing process, aiming at studying the effect of Ti,Si contents on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloys. The Ni-39Ti-llSi alloy consisting of Ti2Ni3Si primary dendrites and Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi eutectic matrix is a conventional hypereutectic Laves phase alloy while the Ni-42Ti-8Si alloy being made up of NiTi primary dendrites uniformly distributed in Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi eutectic is a new hypoeutectic alloy. Mechanical properties of the alloys were investigated by nano-indentation test. The results show that the decrease of Si and the increase of Ti contents change the microstructures of the alloys from hypereutectic to hypoeutectic, which influences the mechanical properties of the alloys remarkably. Corrosion behaviors of the alloys were also evaluated by potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves.

  9. The electronic structure of NiO for Ni 3s-hole states including full orbital relaxation and localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Broer, R; Graaf, C. de; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic structure of NiO, with emphasis on the Ni 3s-hole ionic states, is studied using non-orthogonal configuration interaction, NOCI, wavefunctions for an NiO6 model of the crystal. Orbital sets are relaxed, or optimized, separately for each configuration used in the NOCI and orbital

  10. Dealloying Behavior of NiCo and NiCoCu Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Peecher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous metals and alloys, such as those fabricated via electrochemical dealloying, are of interest for a variety of energy applications, ranging from their potential for enhanced catalytic behavior to their use as high surface area supports for pseudocapacitor materials. Here, the electrochemical dealloying process was explored for electrodeposited binary NiCo and ternary NiCoCu thin films. For each of the four different metal ratios, films were dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry to various potentials in order to gain insight into the evolution of the film over the course of the linear sweep. Electrochemical capacitance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the structure and composition of each sample before and after linear sweep voltammetry was performed. For NiCo films, dealloying resulted in almost no change in composition but did result in an increased capacitance, with greater increases occurring at higher linear sweep potentials, indicating the removal of material from the films. Dealloying also resulted in the appearance of large pores on the surface of the high nickel percentage NiCo films, while low nickel percentage NiCo films had little observable change in morphology. For NiCoCu films, Cu was almost completely removed at linear sweep potentials greater than 0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear sweep removed large Cu-rich dendrites from the films, while also causing increases in measured capacitance.

  11. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  12. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of nickel: sonoelectrochemical exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Vaughan, D Huw; Stirling, David; Nei, Lembit; Compton, Richard G

    2002-07-19

    The exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) transition as a means of quantifying the concentration of nickel within industrial samples was assessed. The methodology relies upon the reagentless electrodeposition of Ni onto a glassy carbon electrode and the subsequent oxidative conversion of the metallic layer to Ni(III). The analytical signal is derived from a cathodic stripping protocol in which the reduction of the Ni(III) layer to Ni(II) is monitored through the use of square wave voltammetry. The procedure was refined through the introduction of an ultrasonic source which served to both enhance the deposition of nickel and to remove the nickel hydroxide layer that results from the measurement process. A well-defined stripping peak was observed at +0.7 V (vs. Agmid R:AgCl) with the response found to be linear over the range 50 nM to 1 muM (based on a 30 s deposition time). Other metal ions such as Cu(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Co(II) did not interfere with the response when present in hundred fold excess. The viability of the technique was evaluated through the determination of nickel within a commercial copper nickel alloy and validated through an independent comparison with a standard ICP-AES protocol.

  13. A New Polycrystalline Co-Ni Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, M.; Mulvey, P.; Ismail, F.; Radecka, A.; Rahman, K. M.; Lindley, T. C.; Shollock, B. A.; Hardy, M. C.; Moody, M. P.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Dye, D.

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, a new-ordered L12 phase, Co3(Al,W), was discovered that can form coherently in a face-centered cubic (fcc) A1 Co matrix. Since then, a community has developed that is attempting to take these alloys forward into practical applications in gas turbines. A new candidate polycrystalline Co-Ni γ/ γ' superalloy, V208C, is presented that has the nominal composition 36Co-35Ni-15Cr-10Al-3W-1Ta (at.%). The alloy was produced by conventional powder metallurgy superalloy methods. After forging, a γ' fraction of ~56% and a secondary γ' size of 88 nm were obtained, with a grain size of 2.5 μm. The solvus temperature was 1000°C. The density was found to be 8.52 g cm-3, which is similar to existing Ni alloys with this level of γ'. The alloy showed the flow stress anomaly and a yield strength of 920 MPa at room temperature and 820 MPa at 800°C, similar to that of Mar-M247. These values are significantly higher than those found for either conventional solution and carbide-strengthened Co alloys or the γ/ γ' Co superalloys presented in the literature thus far. The oxidation resistance, with a mass gain of 0.08 mg cm-2 in 100 h at 800°C, is also comparable with that of existing high-temperature Ni superalloys. These results suggest that Co-based and Co-Ni superalloys may hold some promise for the future in gas turbine applications.

  14. The accumulation of Ni in serpentines and garnierites from the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué-Rosell, Josep; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-02-01

    Ni-bearing serpentines and garnierites (Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates) are the main Ni ores in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic). In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS. The ultimate goal is to elucidate, for the first time, the Fe speciation and the Ni local environment of saprolite ores from Ni-laterites of the Dominican Republic. The chemical composition of the minerals has been obtained by means of EMPA and the Ni, Fe and Cr elemental maps obtained by μXRF allowed distinguishing the saprolite fragments containing Ni-bearing serpentines and Fe oxyhydroxides from the garnierite veins. The Fe K-edge μXANES demonstrated that Fe in the Ni-poor primary serpentine is mostly in the Fe2+ form, whereas in the Ni-bearing serpentine constituting the bulk of the saprolite and in the Fe-bearing garnierite Type I Fe was in the form of Fe3+. In parallel, the local environment of Ni determined by means of Ni K-edge μEXAFS confirmed that in Ni-poor primary serpentines Ni formed a homogeneous Ni-Mg solid solution, in garnierites formed Ni-Ni clusters, and in Ni-bearing secondary serpentines Ni was found in Ni-Mg and Ni-Ni mixed sites. This paper explains the accumulation of Ni, the speciation of Fe in garnierites with various mineral compositions and in Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon in Ni-laterite deposits.

  15. Identification of soil heavy metal sources and improvement in spatial mapping based on soil spectral information: A case study in northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Tao; Chang, Qingrui; Liu, Jing; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2016-01-01

    In a sewage irrigation area of northwest China, 52 topsoil samples were collected to measure the contents of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). To identify their sources, multivariate statistics and geostatistics were appl

  16. Identification of soil heavy metal sources and improvement in spatial mapping based on soil spectral information: A case study in northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Tao; Chang, Qingrui; Liu, Jing; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2016-01-01

    In a sewage irrigation area of northwest China, 52 topsoil samples were collected to measure the contents of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). To identify their sources, multivariate statistics and geostatistics were

  17. A Study on Production of Carbon Nanotubes by CH4 Decomposition over LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of narrow size distribution can be abundantly produced in the catalytic decomposition of CH4 over pre-reduced LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4.The CNTs obtained were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Thermal oxidation of CNTs in air was monitored thermogravimetrically (TG). The resultsrevealed that a lower La/Ni ratio of the catalysts would lead to a wider diameter distribution and a higher degree of graphitic nature.

  18. Preparation and Oxygen Evolution Reaction Performance of Ni/NiCo2O4 Electrode%Ni/NiCo2O4电极的制备及其析氧反应性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森林; 王丽品; 张振洪

    2013-01-01

      采用溶胶-凝胶法制备NiCo2O4尖晶石粉体,然后以多孔Ni为基体,通过复合溶胶涂覆结合烧结制备Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极.运用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能量色散谱(EDS)和X射线衍射(XRD)表征粉体以及Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极的组成和结构.采用循环伏安(CV),稳态极化(LSV),电化学阻抗谱(EIS),恒电位阶跃以及恒电位长时间电解研究涂层电极在5 mol·L-1 KOH溶液中的电催化析氧反应(OER).结果表明:Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极与多孔Ni电极对比,具有低的析氧过电位、高的比表面积和高的稳定性能;其中比表面积增大了28.69倍,表观活化能在不同过电位分别降低了166.78和162.15 kJ·mol-1.%Spinel-type NiCo2O4 powders were prepared by a sol-gel method, and Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode was prepared through composite sol method combined with sintering. The composition and structure of Ni/NiCo2O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Electrocatalytic properties of the Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were studied in 5 mol·L-1 KOH solution, using cyclic voltammertry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronoamperometry, and extended duration constant potential electrolysis. The Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode exhibited a lower OER over-potential, higher specific surface area, and better stability than a porous Ni electrode. The specific surface area of the Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode was 28.69 times greater than that of the porous Ni electrode, and its apparent activation energies decrease 166.78 and 162.15 kJ·mol-1 at different overpotentials, respectively.

  19. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: hmosca@cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  20. Magnetic properties of nanostructural γ-Ni-28Fe alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yin; QIN Xiao-ying; QIU Tai

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructural γ-Ni-28Fe alloy (nano γ-Ni-28Fe) was successfully prepared by mechanochemical alloying(MCA). The relationship between the microstructure and the synthesis conditions was investigated by using XRD, TEM, SEM as well as BET analyzer. The results show that nano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy is composed ora gamma phase (FCC structure). Its grain size is about 20 nm at reduction temperature below 600 ℃. The magnetic measurements indicate that the saturation magnetization ofnano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy to its decrease of the grain size and chemical composition in nano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy.

  1. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  2. China's Geo-cultural Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhongqi; Huang Renwei; Wang Hui

    2008-01-01

    This paper divides China's geocultural space into global, Asian, and neighboring spheres, explores the major challenges China's geocultural policy faces in each of them, and puts forward options for China's geocultural strategy. It also suggests that the development of China's geoculture should be based on a triple-circled geopolitical pattern, and should adopt a strategy of addressing regional issues first and global issues second. China's priorities should be the building up of its own culture, the consolidation of neighboring geocultural space, promoting the geocultural integration of Asia, becoming more involved in global geocultural interactions, and enhancing China's cultural influence and status.

  3. Effect of adding methods of metallic phase on microstructure and thermal shock resistance of Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ball mixing and electroless plating were respectively used as the adding methods of metallic phase to prepare Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets for the inert anode in aluminum electrolysis. The microstructure and thermal shock resistance of cermet samples were studied. The results show that, for the samples prepared by ball mixing method, aggregation of metallic phase is found in either the green blocks or sintered samples and the extent of aggregation increases with the increase of metal content. For 6.5Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets prepared with electroless plating method, the homogeneous and fine metallic particles are found in either the green compacts or sintered samples, but the relative density and thermal shock residual strength decrease by 3% and 28%-58% respectively, compared with samples prepared with ball mixing method.

  4. Analysis on Anomalous Precipitation in Southern China During Winter Monsoons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xicheng; DING Yihui; HE Ruyi; HE Jinhai; LI Qiaoping

    2007-01-01

    The winters of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999, corresponding to El Ni(n)o and La Ni(n)a episodes, respectively,were two typical rain-abundant and -scarce seasons for the southern China. In order to understand the cause of the anomalous precipitation during the two winters, a comparative analysis technique has been employed to investigate the differences in general circulation and moisture transportation between the two seasons.The results show that the abundant rainfall during the winter of 1997/1998 was associated with the ENSO warm episode event, eastward shifted weak westerly trough/ridge, weakened East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), strengthened subtropical high, and presented two anti-cyclonic circulations over Hokkaido and the Philippine Sea, respectively, as well as one cyclonic circulation over the Yangtze River Basin in the anomalous wind fields of the lower troposphere. During the rain-scarce winter, however, the patterns of equatorial sea surface temperature anomalies and the circulation systems both in upper and lower levels were nearly the opposite of those during the rain-abundant winter. It has also been discovered that the water vapor over southern China during the winters came mainly from the southwesterly flow ahead of troughs in the southern branch of westerlies and the turning flow over the South China Sea-Indo-China Peninsula area; and the moisture transportation channels varied significantly with regard to height. The intensified flow in the southern branch of westerlies and the anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly over the Philippine Sea during the winter of 1997/1998 were favorable for moisture transportation to mainland China, however the two moisture transportation streams were dramatically weakened during the winter of 1998/1999 due to weak westerly flow and the dominance of a cold high system in the lower level over the southeast coast of China. Such a significant inter-annual change of moisture transportation is a key factor resulting in the

  5. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  6. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  7. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  8. Composition and structure of NiAu nanoparticles formed by laser ablation of Ni target in Au colloidal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrović, Suzana, E-mail: spetro@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milovanović, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Salatić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Peruško, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Kovač, J. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dražić, G. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mitrić, M.; Trtica, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jelenković, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-09-15

    Bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles were formed by laser ablation of Ni target immersed in the colloidal gold solution. Effect of laser parameters (pulse duration, fluences and ablation times) on size and composition of nanoparticles was investigated by ablating the target with two Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm, operating with different pulse durations, 150 ps and 20 ns. Stronger ablation of the Ni target and subsequient synthesis of nanoparticles is achieved with picosecond pulses, compared to the nanoparticles production with nanosecond pulses, because the former ablation induces activation of different reactions between species in the colloidal solution. Shape, size and composition of the synthesized nanopraticles were found to correlate with the concentration of Ni species in the colloidal solution. Higher Ni concentration leads to formation of larger NiAu nanoparticles in form of solid solution. Smaller nanoparticles with lower Ni concentration in the colloidal solution were achieved by their synthesis during nanosecond pulses, when the obtained distribution of composition corresponds to the NiO matrix with incorporated golden nanoparticles. The results also demonstrate that the formation of bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles were possible by means of laser ablation in liquids. - Highlights: • Bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation in liquids. • Influence of the laser pulse duration on the characteristics of the NiAu nanoparticles. • Composition of the nanopraticles is correlated with content of Ni in the colloidal solution.

  9. Properties of highly crystalline NiO and Ni nanoparticles prepared by high-temperature oxidation and reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Kou, Angela; Kreno, Lauren E.; Tiano, Amanda L.; Patete, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Fen; Kim, Moo Sung; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Aronson, Meigan C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900°C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Néel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800°C , an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  10. Properties of Highly Crystalline NiO and Ni Nanoparticles Prepared by High-temperature Oxidation and Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygenson, M.; Kou, A.; Kreno, L.E.; Tiano, A.L.; Patete, J.M.; Zhang, F.; Kim, M.S.; Solovyov, V.; Wong, S.S.; Aronson, M.C.

    2010-01-26

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900 C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Neel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800 C, an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  11. Structure and Phase Transformation Behavior of Ni-P and Ni-W-P Electroless Plating Layer on Aluminium Alloy%铝合金化学镀Ni-P、Ni-W-P组织及相转变行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天旭; 蒙继龙; 胡永俊

    2006-01-01

    采用差示扫描热分析仪(DSC)、X射线衍射(XRD)等研究了6061铝合金基体化学镀Ni-P、Ni-W-P合金的组织结构及相转变行为.结果表明,镀态Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层的结构都是微晶结构;200℃热处理1h后,Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层仍为微晶,但微晶有所长大;300、400、525和600℃热处理1h后,Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层析出Ni3P和Ni晶体,没有其它亚稳相析出;400℃时Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层硬度达到峰值,其值分别为840HV100和940HV100.

  12. Densities of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui; FANG Liang; LIU Lan-xiao; ZHAO Hong-kai

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate density for molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloy, the densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys were measured with a sessile drop method. It is found that the measured densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys decrease with increasing temperature in the experimental temperature range. The density of alloys increases with increasing W and Co concentrations while it decreases with increasing Cr concentration in the alloy at 1 773-1 873 K. The molar volume of Ni-based alloys increases with increasing W concentration while it decreases with increasing Co concentration. The effect of Cr concentration on the molar volume of the alloy is little in the studied concentration range. The accommodation among atomic species was analyzed. The deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing shows an ideal mixing of Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloys.

  13. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalie Austin; Brandon Butina; Giannis Mpourmpakis⁎

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs) in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds). This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  14. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  15. State of Supported Nanoparticle Ni during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Zizwe; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John; Camaioni, Donald; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Lercher, Johannes

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was studied during aqueous-phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, NiO and Ni(OH)(2) were readily reduced to Ni-0 under reaction conditions (approximate to 35bar H-2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5wt.% phosphoric acid at 473K). In contrast, Ni supported on SiO2 was not stable in a fully reduced Ni-0 state. Water enables the formation of Ni-II phyllosilicate, which is more stable, that is, difficult to reduce, than either -Ni(OH)(2) or NiO. Leaching of Ni from the supports was not observed over a broad range of reaction conditions. Ni-0 particles on HZSM-5 were stable even in presence of 15wt.% acetic acid at 473K and 35bar H-2.

  16. Property comparisons between NiZn ferrites prepared using NiO raw materials of different suppliers%采用不同厂家的NiO原料制备的NiZn铁氧体性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂敏; 徐方舟; 孙蒋平; 申志刚

    2011-01-01

    In this research, conventional oxide ceramic method was used to prepare NiZn ferrites, and the effect of NiO raw materials of different suppliers on the magnetic properties of corresponding materials was studied. The experimental results showed that the purity, particle size and surface morphology of NiO raw material seriously affect the reactivity and magnetic properties of the prepared materials. NiO raw material with high purity, homogeneous particle size and pinecone shape is the best choice for preparing high performance NiZn ferrite.%采用传统氧化物法制备NiZn铁氧体材料,考查不同厂家的NiO原料对于高性能NiZn铁氧体材料电磁性能的影响.实验表明,NiO原料的纯度、颗粒尺寸、颗粒形貌严重影响材料的烧结活性和电磁性能.高纯度、颗粒尺寸较均匀、形状为松果状的NiO原料是制备高性能NiZn铁氧体材料的最佳选择.

  17. Persistent severe drought in southern China during winter-spring 2011: Large-scale circulation patterns and possible impacting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenghu; Yang, Song

    2012-05-01

    Severe drought persisted in southern China from January to May in 2011. In this study, a statistical analysis is carried out to discuss the multiple possible impacting factors including La Niña, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the thermal condition of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The La Niña event in 2010-11 excited a lower-tropospheric anomalous cyclone over the northwestern Pacific, weakening the northwestern Pacific subtropical high and caused an eastward shift of the high. As a result, transportation of wet and warm moisture from tropical oceans to southern China decreased. The La Niña event also strengthened the upper-tropospheric East Asian jet stream and deepened the East Asian trough, favoring a southward intrusion of dry northerly flow from the Siberia. The La Niña condition in the previous two seasons also seemed to provide precursory signals for the drought. Moreover, in January-May 2011, the NAO was in a positive phase and it tended to excite stationary Rossby waves that were distributed along the sub-polar and subtropical waveguides, respectively. The sub-polar one induced an anomalous anticyclone over the Siberia, favoring a southward intrusion of high-latitude northerly flow to southern China. The subtropical one, associated possibly with the enhanced convection over the broad region from the Mediterranean to Sahara, was favorable for an influence of upper-tropospheric flow on southern China. The TP might also exert an influence on the drought by weakening the westerly flow to the southern flank of TP and reducing water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal to southern China.

  18. Crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4, and magnetic properties of Dy5Ni2In4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provino, A.; Mudryk, Y.; Smetana, V.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner Jr, Karl; Corbett, J.D.

    2012-02-27

    The crystal structure of the R5Ni2In4 intermetallic compounds was earlier reported for R Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu (Lu5Ni2In4-type, oP22, Pbam); more recently the isostructural phases Dy5Ni2In4 and Sc5Ni2In4 have also been identified. Three inequivalent crystallographic sites are occupied by the R atoms in these compounds. We have synthesized and characterized Dy5Ni2In4 and the two new isotypic compounds Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4. So far, none of the physical properties have been reported on any of these phases; in this article we report on the physical properties of the Dy5Ni2In4 and the crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4 compounds. Measurements of the magnetic properties performed on Dy5Ni2In4 show a ferromagnetic-like ordering with a T-C approximate to 105 K, followed by multiple magnetic orderings at lower temperatures. The fit of the inverse susceptibility in the paramagnetic state follows the Curie-Weiss law, where mu(eff). - 10.3 mu(B)/Dy-atom (close to theoretical value of 10.64 mu(B) for the free ion Dy3+) and a positive paramagnetic Curie temperature theta(p) - 58 K. Ni atoms are most likely to be nonmagnetic. The heat capacity also shows three peaks: a large one at 103K and two weaker at 12 and 8 K, respectively; the in-field heat capacity data corroborate these results, suggesting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings at the temperature of 103 and 12 K, respectively. Low temperature x-ray diffraction has shown that the compound does not undergo any structural change down to 5K. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics

  19. Developing AMS measurement of $^{59}$Ni at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, He; Xiangdong, Ruan; Chaoli, Li; Kejun, Dong; liang, Du; Bo, Xie Lin; Zhenyu, Li; Guowen, Zhen; Hao, Hu; J, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of $^{59}$Ni has been established at CIAE with the HI-13 tandem accelerator and the recently developed $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system. $^{59}$Ni standard and commercial NiO samples were measured to check the performance of the $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system on $^{59}$Ni isobar separation and suppression. An overall suppression factor of about 10$^{7}$ for the interfering isobar $^{59}$Co resulting in detection sensitivity as low as 3.8$\\times 10^{-13}$ atomic ratio ($^{59}$Ni/Ni) has been obtained. Based on these techniques, the AMS measurement method of $^{59}$Ni with high sensitivity is developed.

  20. Measurement and analyses of molten Ni-Co alloy density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; K. MUKAI; FANG Liang; FU Ya; YANG Ren-hui

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of powerful mathematical modeling techniques for material phenomena, there is renewed interest in reliable data for the density of the Ni-based superalloys. Up to now, there has been few report on the density of molten Ni-Co alloy.In order to obtain more accurate density data for molten Ni-Co alloy, the density of molten Ni-Co alloy was measured with a modified sessile drop method, and the accommodation of different atoms in molten Ni-Co alloy was analyzed. The density of alloy is found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of molten Ni-Co alloy increases with increasing Co concentration. The molar volume of Ni-Co alloy determined shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume, and the deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing increases with increasing Co concentration over the experimental concentration range.