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Sample records for china case study

  1. CASE STUDY: China — Young researchers battle poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... CASE STUDY: China — Young researchers battle poverty and bureaucracy in rural China ... And the “three pig rule” is just one example of the problems the local people ... Revenues were applied to system maintenance and all financial ... The researchers, of course, were trained in science, fieldwork, and ...

  2. CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ... the right inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides to maximize yields. ... Some are rare and unique to the area, such as black wax maize and mountain lily.

  3. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals : a case study of China's Haier group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Jacob, J.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.; Yu, Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and

  4. Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies. China is emerging as a major power in the global economy. The broad-based nature of its industrial development has generated a sustained and high demand for oil and raw materials, a significant reason for the current strength of oil and other commodity ...

  5. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations : a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.

    Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural

  6. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yiu Fai

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the world. Informed by intersectional and transnational feminist scholarship, this empirical study zooms in on one group of women, ethnic Chinese born and/or growing up in the Netherlands, to identify and recuperate their neglected lived experience in a particular historical-cultural context. It takes their own voices as central, hopefully to contribute to their visibility. It aims to provide an understanding of diasporic Chinese women as living in the dynamics not only of their multiple subordinations but also of their subjective consciousness, experienced autonomy, and agency. Drawing insights from the subjective accounts of both contestants and audiences of Miss China Europe, I suggest that one way to foreground marginalized women's agency is to understand their intersectionality in terms of movements and sensory experiences. On the one hand, while the contestants articulated a readiness to perform their modern and yet Chinese selves, they were making movements along two intersecting axes of inequality and power relations - Chineseness and Dutchness - precisely to negotiate their sense of inequality and power relations. On the other hand, among the audiences, two major topics - the blood issue (or whether Chineseness should be defined by ancestry) and the language problem (or whether Chineseness should be defined by the ability to speak Chinese) - were raised regularly, underscoring a complex viewing experience of seeing and hearing, of the tension between visual and audio identifications.

  7. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Y.F.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the

  8. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals: a comparative case study of China's Haier group

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Duysters; Jojo Jacob; Charmianne Lemmens; Yu Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and internationalization with those of India's Tata Group. We examine several aspects of their internationalization, such as the mode of internationalization and the choice of overseas destinations. The study furth...

  9. Aerosol direct effects on ozone - China case study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Model output from the 2-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system applied to China. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: EPA scientists helped with the model...

  10. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.

  11. Flash flood disasters analysis and evaluation: a case study of Yiyang County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Qing; Qin, Tao; Lei, Xiaohui

    2018-03-01

    Global climate change leads to the more extreme precipitation and more flash flood disasters, which is a serious threat to the mountain inhabitants. To prevent flash flood disasters, China started flash flood disaster control planning and other projects from 2006. Among those measures, non-engineering measures are effective and economical. This paper introduced the framework of flash flood disaster analysis and evaluation in China, followed by a case study of Yiyang County.

  12. Study on Measurement of Advanced Manufacturing: Case by China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She Jinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has built a system of China's Advanced Manufacturing measurement indicators. By applying the datum from 2004 to 2013, we estimate the level of development and current status of China’s Advanced Manufacturing (AM, and evaluate the measurement results by establishing Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM. We confirmed that China's Advanced Manufacturing is in the rapid development trend. And due to the difference of initial conditions in Advanced Manufacturing development there is a greater imbalance. In contrast, a region with poor initial condition of has a relatively fast development speed.

  13. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  14. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen

    China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of

  15. Atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition: Analysis of nationwide data and a case study in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.M.; Yu, W.T.; Ma, Q.; Xu, Y.G.; Zou, H.; Zhang, S.C.; Sheng, W.P.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of atmospheric dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) deposition is not very clear at present. Across China, the DON deposition was substantially larger than that of world and Europe, and we found significant positive correlation between contribution of DON and the deposition flux with pristine site data lying in outlier, possibly reflecting the acute air quality problems in China. For a case study in Northeast China, we revealed the deposited DON was mainly derived from intensive agricultural activities rather than the natural sources by analyzing the compiled dataset across China and correlating DON flux with NH 4 + –N and NO 3 − –N. Crop pollens and combustion of fossil fuels for heating probably contributed to summer and autumn DON flux respectively. Overall, in Northeast China, DON deposition could exert important roles in agro-ecosystem nutrient management and carbon sequestration of natural ecosystems; nationally, it was suggested to found rational network for monitoring DON deposition. -- Highlights: •Contribution and deposition flux of DON across China was positively correlated. •Deposited DON was more influenced by human in China than across the world and Europe. •DON of a farmland in Northeast China was mainly derived from agricultural activities. •Crop pollen and combustion of fossil fuels contributed to summer and autumn DON. •Deposited DON should not be neglected when evaluating its ecological impacts. -- Synthesis of DON deposition across China implied regional importance of anthropogenic sources, and an observation in Northeast China suggested the ecological significances of the DON flux should be considered

  16. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  17. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  18. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  19. Religion and Media in China : Insights and Case Studies from the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the intersection of religion and the media in China, bringing interdisciplinary approaches to bear on the role of religion in the lives of individuals and greater shifts within Chinese society in an increasingly media-saturated environment. With case studies focusing on

  20. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  1. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  2. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  3. Atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition: analysis of nationwide data and a case study in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C M; Yu, W T; Ma, Q; Xu, Y G; Zou, H; Zhang, S C; Sheng, W P

    2013-11-01

    The origin of atmospheric dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) deposition is not very clear at present. Across China, the DON deposition was substantially larger than that of world and Europe, and we found significant positive correlation between contribution of DON and the deposition flux with pristine site data lying in outlier, possibly reflecting the acute air quality problems in China. For a case study in Northeast China, we revealed the deposited DON was mainly derived from intensive agricultural activities rather than the natural sources by analyzing the compiled dataset across China and correlating DON flux with NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N. Crop pollens and combustion of fossil fuels for heating probably contributed to summer and autumn DON flux respectively. Overall, in Northeast China, DON deposition could exert important roles in agro-ecosystem nutrient management and carbon sequestration of natural ecosystems; nationally, it was suggested to found rational network for monitoring DON deposition. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1 the 'Kundun' incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2 the production of 'Mulan 'in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a telling example to study the local operation of global capitalism, especially in terms of its interaction with the state. While many believe that the advent of globalization will open more free markets for fair competition, this study reveals how government policy intervenes in the global entertainment industry, and sheds light on the political and economic struggles behind the silver screen.

  5. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bosin; Wong Siuwai; Lau, Milton Chi-hong

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture

  6. Economic costs of motor vehicle emissions in China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Deng

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of motor vehicles in China. Motor vehicles have become an increasingly important contributor to air pollution in major Chinese cities. While research interest in vehicular pollution in China has increased in recent years, there is little research on evaluating monetary costs of this pollution. This paper uses Beijing as a case study to evaluate the magnitudes of air pollution concerning motor vehicles. A monetary estimation of air pollution in regard to motor vehicles is presented on the basis of data for Beijing in 2000. Two methods - willingness-to-pay and human capital methods - are used to analyse the high and low points of estimation. (author)

  7. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  8. Innovation Ecosystem of CNG Vehicles: A Case Study of Its Cultivation and Characteristics in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of the case study to explore its cultivation and characteristics. The theoretical significance lies in three areas. Firstly, the cultivation path of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is manifested. Secondly, the symbiotic process model among the communities within the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is found. Thirdly, the substitutive process model of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is discovered, which reveals the substitutability among innovation ecosystems, the communities of similar products, and the enterprises of similar products. This paper is of theoretical, practical, and political significance for the development of a CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem in emerging markets in terms of regional energy security and emission reduction.

  9. Evaluating performance of local case-mix system by international comparison: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei-Yan; Lu, Ming; Cui, Tao; Hu, Mu

    2011-01-01

    Case-mix is an important tool for health planning and management in many countries. As a major developing country, China is considering the introduction of the case-mix system in the health reform. Beijing, the capital of China, developed a local case-mix version whose performance needs to be evaluated before utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the case-mix system developed in Beijing by comparing it with those used in Australia and the U.S.A. A total of 1.3 million inpatient records from 154 hospitals in Beijing in 2008 were grouped respectively using three case-mix systems: (i) Beijing Diagnosis Related Groups (BJ-DRGs); (ii) US-based All Patient DRGs; and (iii) Australian Refined DRGs. Coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of DRGs system. The BJ-DRGs produced the best CV and RIV results for expenditure. However, at the level of Major Diagnostic Category (MDC), three MDCs of BJ-DRGs gave the poorest RIVs for both expenditure and length of stay. Although the performance of BJ-DRGs was acceptable, further revision and improvement is needed. Comparisons with other mature DRGs versions can assist in identifying the improvement priorities of the local version. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Feng Chang; Shu-Juan Zhu; Fu-Gui Han; Sheng-Nnian Zhong; Qiang-Qiang Wang; Jian-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the...

  11. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  12. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  13. Stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms: China CDM case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2017-01-01

    exists on how LSC is practised, and synergies between climate mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study explores how international LSC rules are practised at national and local levels. It aims to better shape future LSC in climate mechanisms by learning from the case of China. First, LSC policies...... in CDM, REDD +, and GCF are identified. Relevant rules in China’s local policies are analysed. To understand the interaction between CDM policies and China’s local LSC rules, a selection of Chinese CDM Projects Design Documents (PDDs) are analysed, providing an overall impression of the stakeholder...

  14. CHANGES IN THE SECURITY AGENDA: CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND HUMAN SECURITY. THE CASE OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen THI THUY HANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War the meaning of security has fundamentally changed. Issues which are labeled as non-traditional security namely human development, economic crises, environmental degradation, natural disaster, poverty, epidemics… have become a crucial part of the security agenda. These changes have been intensified with the development of the two approaches: Critical Security Studies and Human Security. This article explores how the meaning of security has changed and how the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional security have become blurred. The case of China is taken as empirical evidence to support the assertion that security has evolved beyond its traditional focus on the state.

  15. Carbon reduction potentials of China's industrial parks: A case study of Suzhou Industry Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Lei, Yue; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks are the economic engines for many China regions, but they also consume a great deal of energy and emit greenhouse gases. However, few empirical studies have examined these special communities. We selected SIP (Suzhou Industrial Park) as a case study. Carbon emissions from SIP were accounted from the consumption perspective to analyze their characteristics. Results showed total carbon emissions grew 85.2% from 2005 to 2010, and carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of GDP (gross domestic product)) decreased by 9%. Scenario analysis was then used to depict emissions trajectories under three different pathways. The total carbon emissions and per capita carbon emissions for SIP will undoubtedly increase in the near future under a business-as-usual scenario, improved-policy scenario, and low-carbon scenario; the carbon intensity will decrease by 38% under low-carbon scenario, but it will still be difficult to reach the national mitigation target. In addition, geographic-boundary-based accounting methodology was applied for comparison analysis, carbon emissions show a large gap of 42.4–65.1% from 2005 to 2010, due to failure to account for cross-boundary emissions from imported electricity. Therefore, comprehensive analysis from a consumption perspective is necessary to provide a fair and comprehensive tool for China's local decision-makers to evaluate carbon mitigation potentials. - Highlights: ► Carbon reduction potentials of industrial parks, which are important communities in China, were analyzed. ► Comprehensive carbon emission inventories were developed for a China's industrial park. ► Policies were recommended for industrial parks to achieve low-carbon development target. ► Consumption-based emission inventory is necessary for local government to evaluate carbon reduction potentials

  16. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Gu, H.

    1995-01-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Qian, Y.; Huang, X.; Yu, H.; Yang, J.; Han, R.; Su, J.; Du, W.; Zhou, J; Dong, M.; Yu, X.; Duijnhoven, F.; Kampman, E.; Wu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the

  18. White rice consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between white rice consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in remote northwest China, where the cancer incidence is known to be high. A case-control study was conducted during 2008?2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual white rice consumption was obtained by personal interview using a validated semi-qu...

  19. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  20. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiong Yuan; Limin Dai; Qingli Wang

    2008-01-01

    Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR) in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China...

  1. Pricing and affordability of renewable energy in China - A case study of Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xue-liang; Zuo, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The global warming and climate change have put enormous pressure on both governments and industries to re-think their attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability issues. The past decades have witnessed a number of renewable energy developments across the world. Even though these developments are not issue-free, it is generally recognized that the benefits outweigh disadvantages. However, there is an increasing level of concern on the high initial cost associated with the renewable energies, which was claimed as one of critical barriers to the promotion of its further developments. A case study approach is adopted in this study to investigate the pricing and affordability issues associated with the renewable energy in China. The policy framework and related statistics are critically reviewed in order to discuss these issues from different stakeholders' perspective in Shandong province, China. It is concluded that the affordability remains a critical issue despite numerous efforts have been made by the Chinese Government and Shandong Provincial Government on renewable power pricing. This study offers a useful reference to pricing and affordability of renewable energy. (author)

  2. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  3. Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Qingying; Luo, Ganfeng; Li, Zhihao; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-10-01

    In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) during 2011-2014 in Guangdong were gathered. A dengue search index was constructed for developing the predictive models in combination with climate factors. The observed year and week were also included in the models to control for the long-term trend and seasonality. Several machine learning algorithms, including the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm, step-down linear regression model, gradient boosted regression tree algorithm (GBM), negative binomial regression model (NBM), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) linear regression model and generalized additive model (GAM), were used as candidate models to predict dengue incidence. Performance and goodness of fit of the models were assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and R-squared measures. The residuals of the models were examined using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation function analyses to check the validity of the models. The models were further validated using dengue surveillance data from five other provinces. The epidemics during the last 12 weeks and the peak of the 2014 large outbreak were accurately forecasted by the SVR model selected by a cross-validation technique. Moreover, the SVR model had the consistently smallest prediction error rates for tracking the dynamics of dengue and forecasting the outbreaks in other areas in China. The proposed SVR model achieved a superior performance in comparison with other forecasting techniques assessed in this study. The findings can help the government and community respond early to dengue epidemics.

  4. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    Solutions towards sustainable cities are of vital importance for China's stakeholders due to the rapid urbanizations, serious resources depletion and environmental contaminations in China. China as the second largest economy is suffering from the dilemma of rapid industrialization and urbanization......, and sustainable development. One of the most severe problems affecting China's sustainable urban development is the resource dependent city, in which resource mining and process industries dominate the local economy. With the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of environment, the concept...... of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...

  5. The use of microblog-based case studies in a pharmacotherapy introduction class in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansheng; Wang, Fei; Shi, Luwen

    2013-09-08

    Microblog is a Web 2.0 technology that provides an online social networking platform for communicating and sharing information among web users. Pharmacy educators have previously used microblog to promote active engagement of students. However, there is very little research to demonstrate how to use microblogging effectively to enhance pedagogy in a blended or face-to-face classroom environment. We used the most popular microblog website in China to create a "space" within the classroom to evaluate an interactive microblogging forum for the integration of pharmacotherapy case studies. This study is aimed to determine students' attitudes toward microblog-based case studies (MBC) in a pharmacotherapy class. We created a group on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblog website in China, to explore the possibilities of using microblog-based case discussions in pharmacy education to promote and motivate student learning. The class teaching activities began in November 2011; individual group assignments to a single case study were administered to 21 groups with a total of 126 participating pharmacy students. Each group was required to share a discussion care plan on the microblogging platform. Individual students were expected to participate in an online discussion related to at least two other group cases by posting their comments on the microblog platform. All postings were tracked and analyzed, and then a post MBC survey was administered anonymously to determine students' opinions towards MBC. A total of 126 students posted 592 messages and 112 students (89%) completed the survey. More than 80% of students agreed that MBC improved communication; nearly 70% agreed that MBC increased the amount of interaction, and over 50% found value in reading other students' messages. However, 25% students believed the collaborative learning was not effective and 22% indicated the quality of interaction was low. MBC appears to be well-accepted learning method to students in this study

  6. Dust Storms in North China in 2002: A Case Study of the Low Frequency Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The low frequency oscillation in both hemispheres and its possible role in the dust weather storm events over North China in 2002 are analyzed as a case study. Results show that the Aleutian Low is linked with the Circumpolar Vortex in the Southern Hemisphere on a 30-60-day oscillation, with a weak Circumpolar Vortex tending to deepen the Aleutian Low which may be helpful for the generation of dust storm events.The possible mechanism behind this is the inter-hemispheric interaction of the mean meridional circulation,with the major variability over East Asia. The zonal mean westerly wind at high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in the upper level troposphere may lead that of the Northern Hemisphere, which then impacts the local circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the low frequency oscillation teleconnection is one possible linkage in the coupling between the Southern Hemisphere circulation and dust events over North China. However, the interannual variation of the low frequency oscillation is unclear.

  7. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  9. Clinical and molecular epidemiological study of xeroderma pigmentosum in China: A case series of 19 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eray Yihui; Wang, Huijun; Lin, Zhimiao; Xu, Guiwen; Ma, Zhihong; Zhao, Jiahui; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Yin, Jinghua; Yang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic disorder which is divided into eight complementation groups: XP-A to XP-G and XP-V. Some XP patients demonstrate severe cutaneous and neurological manifestations, management of which requires timely diagnosis and intervention. We performed clinical evaluation and genetic analysis on 19 patients, the largest cohort of XP to date in China. Twenty-three mutations from six groups were identified, 16 of which were novel. All patients developed marked freckle-like pigmentation on sun-exposed sites while patients with XP-A, XP-D, XP-F and XP-G showed acute sunburn reactions. Only XP-A patients displayed progressive neurological degeneration. A relatively larger proportion of XP-A and XP-C were found in Chinese XP patients. One XP case and two carriers were prenatally determined. This study extended the mutation spectrum of XP in China and may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of Chinese XP patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Modes and Experience of Green Mine Construction in Yunnan, China: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui; Yang, Shuran; Xu, Jun; Fan, Youcai; Xu, Gang; Yang, Jiaqing; Yuan, Jia; Qi, Wufu

    2017-12-01

    Yunnan is one of most important provinces with mineral resources and exploration in China. Meanwhile, Yunnan is Chinese ecological protective screen and try to be Pacesetter of ecological civilization. However, mining industry always disturbs ecological environment seriously. So green mine construction is inevitable and the best choice for Yunnan. In this paper, achievement of green mine construction in Yunnan was summarized. Then the paper takes two mines from Dahongshan and 4 mines from Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co., Ltd (YPC for short) as case studies. Technological innovation in Dahongshan Fe Mine and Dahongshan Cu Mine guarantees their success of green mine construction. Land rehabilitation and harmonious community are highlights of 4 mines from YPC. These modes and experience could be referential to construct green mine.

  11. A real options-based CCS investment evaluation model: Case study of China's power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Fan, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper establishes a carbon captures and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model. → The model is based on real options theory and solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. → China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment. → The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. -- Abstract: This paper establishes a carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model based on real options theory considering uncertainties from the existing thermal power generating cost, carbon price, thermal power with CCS generating cost, and investment in CCS technology deployment. The model aims to evaluate the value of the cost saving effect and amount of CO 2 emission reduction through investing in newly-built thermal power with CCS technology to replace existing thermal power in a given period from the perspective of power generation enterprises. The model is solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. Since the model could be used as a policy analysis tool, China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment through scenario analysis. The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. Thus, there is an important trade off for policy makers between reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the interests of power generation enterprises. The research presented would be useful for CCS technology evaluation and related policy-making.

  12. The Impact of Mass and Universal Higher Education on Curriculum and Instruction: Case Studies of China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    Based on case studies of China and Japan, this study undertakes comparative research on major aspects of university curriculum and instruction-teaching activities of academics, their role in curriculum development, and their perceptions of these activities--between a mass and a universal higher education system. Major findings from the APA…

  13. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  14. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  15. Dietary score and the risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Junfeng; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang

    2017-05-23

    This study aims to develop a simple dietary score to comprehensively evaluate the role of diet in the risk of oral cancer. A case-control study including 930 oral cancer cases and 2667 frequency-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the effects of dietary factors on oral cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, less intake of domestic meat (oral cancer. Then these variables were incorporated to establish dietary risk score. Assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curve, the score showed a satisfactory discriminatory capacity, with an area under the curve of 0.682 (95% CI: 0.662-0.702). Moreover, the score was positively associated with the risk of oral cancer as quartiles, and the association was apparently stronger in tobacco smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, there were significant multiplicative interactions between the score and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking for oral cancer. In the present study, a convenient dietary score with satisfactory discriminatory capacity was developed to assess the collected effect of dietary factors on oral cancer, which could provide a new strategy for the prevention of oral cancer through changing in dietary habits.

  16. Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences: a case study in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Domroes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the occurrences of rainstorms and their relationship with the climate change scenario. The study period under investigation refers to the period of greatest recent warming between 1976–2000 whereas the study area covers China east of 105 E longitude. This region is commonly considered to be controlled by the monsoon type of climate over East Asia.

    Positive (increasing trends of rainstorm occurrences, both in annual and summer respects, have been shown for subtropical China whereas a non-uniform picture is associated with temperate China. The increase of rainstorms in subtropical China corresponds with an increasing trend of precipitation. At the same time, subtropical China experiences a mostly decreasing recent temperature change. No clear evidence could, however, be proved for a direct linkage between increasing temperatures and greater rainstorm occurrences. Within the climate change scenario a great risk of rainstorm occurrences must be regarded as part of the increasing risk of extreme weather events.

    Rainstorm occurrences are of a great practical importance as they increase the risk for environmental hazards such as landslides, landslips and floods. Landuse planners must therefore pay a great attention to an increasing number of rainstorms and their adverse risk impact on the environment.

    Such practical aspects need particular attention in subtropical China as the region of largest increase of rainstorm occurrences and where, at the same time, the mountains and hilly landscapes are particularly hazard-prone to landslides and floods.

  17. The Rural Health Care Delivery System in the Dingxian Experiment: A Case Study of Educational Transfer in Republican China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-man; Lo, L. Nai-kwai

    1988-01-01

    Discusses dependency theory in comparative education studies. Examines U.S. educational transfer to China during the Republican period as it functioned through the public health delivery model of the Dingxian Experiment. Notes that resistance to dependency in this case could serve as a model for avoiding the technological misfitting of programs.…

  18. Perverse incentives and invisible tradeoffs in subway construction in China: a case study of Hangzhou subway collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); Y. Ma (Yongchi); M. de Jong (Martin); B. Xi (Bao)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract—Hangzhou subway collapse is the most serious subway construction disaster to date in China. In this article, the management and regulatory questions the collapse raised are focused and a case study of Hangzhou subway collapse is given. By regarding the contractual

  19. Nonlinear integrated resource strategic planning model and case study in China's power sector planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Kang, Junjie; Zhang, Xingping; Hu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we expand the IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) model by including the external cost of TPPs (traditional power plants) and popularization cost of EPPs (efficiency power plants) with nonlinear functions. Case studies for power planning in China during 2011–2021 are conducted to show the efficacy of the model. Scenarios are compiled to compare the pathways of power planning under different policies. Results show that: 1) wind power will become competitive with technical learning, but its installation is undesirable when the external cost of coal power is not internalized; 2) the existence of popularization cost will hinder EPPs' (efficiency power plants) deployment and pure market mechanism is not enough to deliver EPPs at socially desirable scale; 3) imposition of progressive emission tax on coal power at an average of 0.15–0.20 RMB/KWh can remedy the market distortion and promote the development of wind power by a significant margin; 4) nuclear power will grow stably when its external cost is set no more than 0.187 RMB per KWh, or 87% of its internal cost. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for decision support in the process of power planning and policy formulation for national government. - Highlights: • Improve IRSP model by adding nonlinear external and popularization cost. • The model is used to conduct China's power sector planning in 2011–2021. • Simulate the impacts of alternative energy policies on planning results. • The model can be used for joint power sector planning and policy design

  20. Smoking and adult glioma: a population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Han, Wei; Wu, Yanping; Zou, Xiaonong; Nasca, Philip C; Xue, Fang; Chen, Yuanli; Zhang, Biao; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Zixing; Li, Junyao

    2016-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of numerous cancers; however, an association of smoking with adult gliomas has not been found in a population. This case-control study included 4556 glioma cases (ICD-9 code 191.0-191.9) aged ≥ 30 years and 9112 controls from a national survey of smoking and mortality in China in 1989-1991. Controls from 325 255 surviving spouses of all-cause deaths were randomly assigned to cases in each of 103 areas according to sex and age groups at a ratio of 2:1. Smoking information was ascertained retrospectively by interviewing surviving spouses. After adjustment for confounders, smoking increased the risk of glioma deaths by 11% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.21). Compared with non-smokers; the increased risk was 9% (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99-1.20) in men and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36) in women. The risk increased with age and doses. For individuals aged ≥ 50 years, smoking was associated with higher risk of glioma death by 25% (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.15-1.38); this increased risk for smokers who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily for ≥ 30 years was 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.34-1.74). There were similar findings in both men and women and with either pathology-based or non-pathology-based comparisons. This study indicates that smoking is associated with glioma deaths in the Chinese population. Long-term heavy smoking could be a factor for risk stratification in individuals attending brain tumor clinics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Study on the ARIMA model application to predict echinococcosis cases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    En-Li, Tan; Zheng-Feng, Wang; Wen-Ce, Zhou; Shi-Zhu, Li; Yan, Lu; Lin, Ai; Yu-Chun, Cai; Xue-Jiao, Teng; Shun-Xian, Zhang; Zhi-Sheng, Dang; Chun-Li, Yang; Jia-Xu, Chen; Wei, Hu; Xiao-Nong, Zhou; Li-Guang, Tian

    2018-02-26

    To predict the monthly reported echinococcosis cases in China with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, so as to provide a reference for prevention and control of echinococcosis. SPSS 24.0 software was used to construct the ARIMA models based on the monthly reported echinococcosis cases of time series from 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2014, respectively, and the accuracies of the two ARIMA models were compared. The model based on the data of the monthly reported cases of echinococcosis in China from 2007 to 2015 was ARIMA (1, 0, 0) (1, 1, 0) 12 , the relative error among reported cases and predicted cases was -13.97%, AR (1) = 0.367 ( t = 3.816, P ARIMA (1, 0, 0) (1, 0, 1) 12 , the relative error among reported cases and predicted cases was 0.56%, AR (1) = 0.413 ( t = 4.244, P ARIMA models as for the same infectious diseases. It is needed to be further verified that the more data are accumulated, the shorter time of predication is, and the smaller the average of the relative error is. The establishment and prediction of an ARIMA model is a dynamic process that needs to be adjusted and optimized continuously according to the accumulated data, meantime, we should give full consideration to the intensity of the work related to infectious diseases reported (such as disease census and special investigation).

  2. Business Models for Mobile Media Services : A case study in China mainland market

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Mobile media OTT service such as mobile music and mobile video is believed to be the next big revenue driver for mobile operator’s mobile broadband business. The media industry is willing to take mobile distribution channel to increase the content value. In Europe, there are already several successful cooperation cases between online media service provider and mobile operator, such as Spotify and Telia. However, with more complicated market and business environment in China, the mobile media ...

  3. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  4. Uncovering opportunity of low-carbon city promotion with industrial system innovation: Case study on industrial symbiosis projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Gu, Fumei; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    There is a dilemma for rapid industrializing China to balance economic growth and low carbonization. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a system innovation to utilize the industry to fight climate change and pursue sustainable urban development, while few attentions are paid in literatures. Under this circumstance, this study reviews the low-carbon city practice in China and conducts a case study to calculate the CO 2 emissions reduction potential under promoting IS projects in two cities of China, named Jinan and Liuzhou. With the real national project in Jinan as advanced example, new scenarios related to IS are designed for Liuzhou, including comprehensive energy network, waste plastics recycling, scrap tires recycling and flying ash recycling. The material/waste and energy exchange is quantified in the IS network, as well as the related environmental benefit. The material/energy exchange is over 10 million ton and 20 thousands tce in Jinan's case, and 2.5 million ton and 45 thousand tce in Liuzhou's case. Results highlight that IS could effectively reduce CO 2 emissions. The total reduction potential amounts to 3944.05 thousands tCO 2 /year and 2347.88 thousands tCO 2 /year in Jinan and Liuzhou. Finally, policy implications on the ever-improvement of industrial symbiosis and China's sustainable urban development are proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • Investigate two real industrial symbiosis projects in Jinan and Liuzhou of China. • Quantify the material exchange and the CO 2 reduction potential of the IS network. • CO 2 reduction potential is 3944.05 and 2347.88 ktCO 2 /year in Jinan and Liuzhou. • In current China, IS is main in term of material symbiosis. • How to coordinate IS and low-carbon city is discussed

  5. The weaknesses of China's contractors in overseas construction project management: 2 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Mo Xuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The practices of international construction contracting have been prevalent increasingly over the past half a centuru, Altough the contractors of highly developed world have dominated this field, there tends to be more players from newly emerging countries like China. The history of China's contractors performing in the overseas construction markets is divided into 3 major phases, namely the planning economy era, reform and openness perios and the latest nwe millennium. However, the know-how and techniques of modern project management have been widely deployed in China for merely 2 decades. While competing with those veterans in overseas markets, China's contractors still lack adequate advantages as well as experiences, leading to the underperformance or even failures. A 2-dimension framework of overseas project management, comprising the external risk and internal function aspects , is proposed. Based on the analysis of 2 recent cases in Saudi Arabia an Poland respectively, it's foung that the low cost strategy management in risk, commerce, cost, human resources, etc. are their fatal weaknesses.

  6. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  7. Social media for informal science learning in China: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a case study on a popular informal science learning community via social media in China, named GuoKr (meaning “nutshell” in English. Data were collected through a variety of Chinese social media and social networking sites, web-based community portals, and discussion boards. Content analyses and data mining were conducted to investigate how GuoKr successfully attracted and engaged public in informal learning on scientific topics in particular. The study found three key characteristics that contributed to the success of such learning communities: (a utilizing a variety of social media to empower participants with just-in-time, accidental learning opportunities; (b daily tweets related to emerging or ongoing social events or hot topics to provide brief but intriguing knowledge “bites”, which often leads to extended readings and related resources; and (c the integration of social media and traditional face-to-face local events to engage the public in science-related learning and knowledge sharing. Practical and research implications are discussed with suggestions for future research as related to ubiquitous learning communities for informal science learning.

  8. Numerical modeling for longwall pillar design: a case study from a typical longwall panel in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangchao; Liang, Saijiang; Tan, Yunliang; Xie, Fuxing; Chen, Shaojie; Jia, Hongguo

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new numerical modeling procedure and design principle for longwall pillar design with the assistance of numerical simulation of FLAC3D. A coal mine located in Yanzhou city, Shandong Province, China, was selected for this case study. A meticulously validated numerical model was developed to investigate the stress changes across the longwall pillar with various sizes. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical modeling, a calibration procedure is undertaken to match the Salamon and Munro pillar strength formula for the coal pillar, while a similar calibration procedure is used to estimate the stress-strain response of a gob. The model results demonstrated that when the coal pillar width was 7-8 m, most of the vertical load was carried by the panel rib, whilst the gateroad was overall in a relatively low stress environment and could keep its stability with proper supports. Thus, the rational longwall pillar width was set as 8 m and the field monitoring results confirmed the feasibility of this pillar size. The proposed numerical simulation procedure and design principle presented in this study could be a viable alternative approach for longwall pillar design for other similar projects.

  9. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  10. The Case of China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    This report examines the motivations, operations, and collaboration methods of ... Research for development is the use of science and technology to reduce poverty in developing countries through practical, long-term solutions to social, economic, and ..... expenditure of central and local governments” table, China Statistical.

  11. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Levy, J.I.; Hammitt, J.K.; Evans, J.S. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health, Landmark Center

    2003-02-01

    Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. It was found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10{sup -5}, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10{sup -6}. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. The authors also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate.

  14. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Networks: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel (Jian Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit is developing rapidly in major cities of China and has become a key component of urban transport. Nevertheless, the security and reliability in operation are significant issues that cannot be neglected. In this paper, the network and station vulnerabilities of the urban rail transit system were analyzed based on complex network and graph theories. A vulnerability evaluation model was proposed by accounting metro interchange and passenger flow and further validated by a case study of Shanghai Metro with full-scale network and real-world traffic data. It is identified that the urban rail transit network is rather robust to random attacks, but is vulnerable to the largest degree node-based attacks and the highest betweenness node-based attacks. Metro stations with a large node degree are more important in maintaining the network size, while stations with a high node betweenness are critical to network efficiency and origin-destination (OD connectivity. The most crucial stations in maintaining network serviceability do not necessarily have the highest passenger throughput or the largest structural connectivity. A comprehensive evaluation model as proposed is therefore essential to assess station vulnerability, so that attention can be placed on appropriate nodes within the metro system. The findings of this research are of both theoretical and practical significance for urban rail transit network design and performance evaluation.

  15. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  16. Cultural aspects of sustainability challenges of island-like territories: case study of Macau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zadori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability challenges and reactions are not new in the history of human communities but there is a substantial difference between the earlier periods and the present situation: in the earlier periods of human history sustainability depended on the geographic situation and natural resources, today the economic performance and competitiveness are determinative instead of the earlier factors. Economic, social and environmental situations that seem unsustainable could be manageable well if a given land or territory finds that market niche where it could operate successfully, could generate new diversification paths and could create products and services that are interesting and marketable for the outside world. This article is focusing on the sustainability challenges of Macau, China. The case study shows how this special, island-like territory tries to find balance between the economic, social and environmental processes, the management of the present cultural supply and the way that Macau creates new cultural products and services that could be competitive factors in the next years.

  17. A case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Chien, C.; Stahl, R.; Mack, E.; Grosso, N.

    2013-12-01

    A field site in Nanjing, China was selected for a case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation. This site is about 100m long and 100m wide. A chemical plant (1999-2010) at the site manufactured optical brightener PF, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol and 2-Nitro-4-methylphenol, totally three products. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for PPL 126 (126 pollutants in the 'Priority Pollutants List' issued by US EPA). Values of the Dutch Standards were used as the screening criteria for soil and ground water. Low levels of ethylbenezene, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4- dichlorobenzene were detected in one soil sample. Concentrations above Dutch Target Value (DTV) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and/or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, phenol, and/or 2,4-dichlorophenol were exhibited in two groundwater samples. The ground water was especially highly impacted by bichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The maximum concentration of impacts was 7.3 mg/L of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in groundwater which was 730 times higher than Dutch Intervention Values (DIV). Risk of soil and groundwater at this site was assessed according to the guidelines issued by Chinese MEP and US EPA, respectively. Finally, remedy techniques were selected according to the result of risk assessment and the characteristics of hydrogeology conditions and contaminants.

  18. Mining geographic variations of Plasmodium vivax for active surveillance: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benyun; Tan, Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2015-05-27

    Geographic variations of an infectious disease characterize the spatial differentiation of disease incidences caused by various impact factors, such as environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Some factors may directly determine the force of infection of the disease (namely, explicit factors), while many other factors may indirectly affect the number of disease incidences via certain unmeasurable processes (namely, implicit factors). In this study, the impact of heterogeneous factors on geographic variations of Plasmodium vivax incidences is systematically investigate in Tengchong, Yunnan province, China. A space-time model that resembles a P. vivax transmission model and a hidden time-dependent process, is presented by taking into consideration both explicit and implicit factors. Specifically, the transmission model is built upon relevant demographic, environmental, and biophysical factors to describe the local infections of P. vivax. While the hidden time-dependent process is assessed by several socioeconomic factors to account for the imported cases of P. vivax. To quantitatively assess the impact of heterogeneous factors on geographic variations of P. vivax infections, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation method is developed to estimate the model parameters by fitting the space-time model to the reported spatial-temporal disease incidences. Since there is no ground-truth information available, the performance of the MCMC method is first evaluated against a synthetic dataset. The results show that the model parameters can be well estimated using the proposed MCMC method. Then, the proposed model is applied to investigate the geographic variations of P. vivax incidences among all 18 towns in Tengchong, Yunnan province, China. Based on the geographic variations, the 18 towns can be further classify into five groups with similar socioeconomic causality for P. vivax incidences. Although this study focuses mainly on the transmission of P. vivax

  19. An improved inventory of polychlorinated biphenyls in China: A case study on PCB-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Ma, Jianmin; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-06-01

    Emission inventory of pollutants is essential for the environmental fate study and management of the pollutant. To construct a reasonable PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) inventory in China, this study estimates PCB usage and emission using power generating capacity, installed capacity of power plants and transformer substations, population density and GDP as surrogates. Inventory of representative PCB (PCB-153) with a resolution of 1/4° latitude × 1/4° longitude in China from 1952 to 2005 was generated and assessed as an example. Totally, about 20.3 kt PCBs were applied in China, of which 179 t were PCB-153. By the end of 2005, most of them (56.4%) were emitted into the soil, 2.7% entered the air, and about 20.8% was sealed in storage site or still in service. Historical emissions exhibited increasing trends after 1968, 1984 and 1994, which were mainly associated with usage or disposal processes. Although primary emission has been declined since 2005, the influence of secondary emission from soils, unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCB), and reemission from storage sites could be a long-lasting issue in the future. This new emission inventory improves previous PCB emission inventory significantly, which underestimated PCB emission in China considerably.

  20. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Hammitt, J.K.; Evans, J.S. [Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures and increased mortality and morbidity risk. Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model-CALPUFF. We found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10{sup -5}, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10{sup -6}. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. We also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate. Our analysis shows that this approach is applicable to a developing country and it provides reasonable population exposure estimates. (author)

  1. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  2. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  3. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs : Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the a...

  4. Factors Influencing Luxury Fashion Retailers’ Entry Mode Selection: A Case Study of Louis Vuitton in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Keqin

    2014-01-01

    The luxury industry is one of the leading industries in the global financial markets and has surpassed other consumer categories with its remarkable performance. Meanwhile, China is predicted to become the largest luxury market in 2015. Therefore, in line with a buoyant market trend, the leading luxury retailers have shifted their focus to Chinese markets, to seize new market opportunities. This study aims to evaluate the applicability and generalizability of identified entry mode choice ...

  5. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  6. A Case Study of Foreigner’s Intercultural Identity in China via WeChat Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of communication and culture are interrelated with each other and with semiotics. This study attempts to explore the intercultural identity of foreigners via their use of social media in China. As the most popular social media used in China, a foreign teacher from America (named as Liz’s posts via WeChat Moments from 2013 to 2015 were coded based upon photos and texts to indicate her identity in China. As a result of semiotic analyses, five main themes were identified in her posts, ranging from personal interests and needs, occupation, family, Chinese traits to American traits. Based upon these identified themes, Liz’s intercultural identity as Chinese culture experiencer and promoter is reflected by her description of Chinese traditions, showing contrasts between American and Chinese culture, and using Chinese characters in writing. Overall, not much anxiety and stress during Liz’s acculturation process are shown while most cultural posts reflect her active and ongoing adaption to Chinese culture.

  7. Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and attempted suicide in rural China: A paired case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Xin-Ting; Qiu, Hui-Min; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and attempted suicide in rural China. Data of this study came from the investigation of 407 suicide attempters and their paired non-suicide attempters matched with the same gender, age (±3 years) and residence area in six counties in rural Shandong, China. Suicide attempters accounted for a lower proportion on high functional impulsivity, but a higher proportion on high dysfunctional impulsivity than non-suicide attempters. Dysfunctional impulsivity in the male denoted a significant risk factor for attempted suicide, even after adjustment for psychiatric disorder and demographic factors. Suicide attempters with high dysfunctional impulsivity had a higher percent of family suicide history than those with low dysfunctional impulsivity. High functional impulsivity was a significant protective factor for attempted suicide in the group aged 35-59 years, but a significant risk factor in the group aged 15-34 years. Suicide attempters with low functional impulsivity had poorer economic status and older age than those with high functional impulsivity. Our findings support the key roles of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in attempted suicide among rural residents of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing the Land Shareholding Cooperative: A Case Study of Shanglin Village in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The land tenure reform is the key to sustainable development in rural China. Without challenging the collective ownership of land, the land shareholding cooperative (LSC system came into being and is being strongly endorsed by the authority: It re-collectivizes the contracted land from peasants and enables better regional planning and large-scale modern agricultural production. This paper studies a specific LSC (Shanglin LSC in the Sunan region of the Yangtze River Delta based on our fieldwork. We found that the LSC system is a bottom-up institutional innovation towards sustainable land use in China. Both village cadres and ordinary peasants’ decision making contributes to its successful establishment and development. This shareholding system increases peasants’ income through dividends and employment opportunities. The concentrated land enables ecological farming. Acting as a quasi-government agency, the LSC also provides public service and social security to the village community. On the other hand, the LSCs’ success depends on certain prior conditions and the LSCs’ multiple missions may contradict each other from time to time, and lead to loss of efficiency. We argue that this approach to land tenure reform may not be universally applied to any regions in China.

  9. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Feng, Tian; Zhao, Shuyu; Xing, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs) to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW). Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR) and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP). To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust) is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei). When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from -5 to -15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of -12.4 % (-19.2 µg m-3) in BTH and -7.6 % (-10.1 µg m-3) in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the dominant reason for [PMC] decrease in the NCP

  10. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW. Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP. To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from −5 to −15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of −12.4 % (−19.2 µg m−3 in BTH and −7.6 % (−10.1 µg m−3 in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the

  11. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Security Strategy: Case Studies on the South China Sea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    regional economic order with its own. 119 Sun Tzu , The Art of War, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (New York...Accessed March 19, 2017. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-southchinasea-china-coastguard- idUSKCN11C2LA. Tzu , Sun . The Art of War. Translated by...OF SOFT POWER STRATEGY—TAIWAN ....................79 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  12. Patent pool analysis based on technical standards: A case study of indigenous alliances in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Yuzhen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China has set up only two sorts of patent pools (PLs with technical standards, namely, the AVS alliance and IGRS alliance. Both PLs are applied in the IT industry. Statistics of patent alliances with global technical standards show that Chinese enterprises cannot easily form and develop an international PL. This study analyzes the formation process of the AVS and IGRS patent alliance, and points out the challenges in building and developing Chinese PL. The study offers suggestions on alliance management, government guidance, and international cooperation.

  13. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XP

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods: A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results: Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions: The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a

  14. Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2013-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  15. Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2014-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  16. Measurement and analysis of equity in health: a case study conducted in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueshan; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Xiaoqian; Gu, Shuyan; Zhen, Xuemei; Gu, Yuxuan; Huang, Minzhuo; Wei, Jingming; Dong, Hengjin

    2018-03-22

    Equity is the core of primary care. The issue of equity in health has become urgent, and China has attached increasing attention to it. With rapid economic development and great changes in medical insurance policy, the pattern of equity in health has changed tremendously. The reform of healthcare in Zhejiang Province is at the forefront in China, and studies on Zhejiang Province are of great significance to the entire country. This paper aimed to measure health equity from the perspectives of health needs and health-seeking behavior and to provide suggestions for the next policy formulations, with respect to timeliness. The investigator's household survey was conducted in August 2016. A sample of 1000 households, which included2807 individuals in Zhejiang, China, was obtained with the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis and chi-square tests were adopted in the analysis. The value of the concentration index was used to measure the equity. This study found that the poor have more urgent health needs and poorer health situations than the rich. Through studies on health-seeking behavior, the utilization of outpatient services was almost equitable, while the utilization of hospitalization showed a pro-rich inequity (i.e., the rich use more services). Individuals with employer-based medical insurance used more outpatient services than those with rural and urban medical insurance. More people in the poorer income groups did not use inpatient services due to financial difficulties. Absolute medical prices and medical insurance may explain the equity in the utilization of outpatient services and the inequity in the utilization of hospitalization. In view of the pro-rich inequity of hospitalization, more financial protection should be provided for the poor.

  17. Meeting the Demand for Accountability: Case Study of a Teacher Education Program in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Cheung CHAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for accountability, a teacher education program in a university located in South China has established processes at the college, the program, and the faculty levels to assure its program quality. Highlights of the processes are: involvement of stakeholders and the examination of program effectiveness. Although much has been done to help program candidates succeed, more effort is needed in the areas of program assessment and continuous improvement to assure program quality. An accountability implementation plan, a beginning teacher mentoring program, and a comparative study of beginning teacher performance were recommended to further enforce its strategies toward program accountability.

  18. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  19. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

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    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  20. 76 FR 11267 - Cased Pencils From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on cased pencils from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby... cased pencils from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  1. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform--a case study on Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Yuxin

    2012-12-18

    In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China's state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China's poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were -0.0024 (urban) and -0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and -0.0177 (urban) and -0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: -0.0615 in 2002,-0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably. Optimizing benefit packages in public health insurance is

  2. Ecological risk Evaluation and Green Infrastructure planning for coping with global climate change, a case study of Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyao; Xiao, He; Li, Xiang; Hu, Wenhao; Gu, Shoubai; Yu, Zhenrong

    2018-01-01

    Coping with various ecological risks caused by extreme weather events of global climate change has become an important issue in regional planning, and storm water management for sustainable development. In this paper, taking Shanghai, China as a case study, four potential ecological risks were identified including flood disaster, sea-source disaster, urban heat island effect, and land subsidence. Based on spatial database, the spatial variation of these four ecological risks was evaluated, and the planning area was divided into seven responding regions with different green infrastructure strategy. The methodology developed in this study combining ecological risk evaluation with spatial regionalization planning could contribute to coping with global climate change.

  3. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  4. Perioperative Management of Pregnant Women With Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: An Observational Case Series Study From China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglan; Lu, Jiakai; Zhou, Xiaorui; Xu, Xuefeng; Ye, Qing; Ou, Qitan; Li, Yanna; Huang, Jiapeng

    2018-03-07

    The mortality of pregnant women with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is very high. There are limited data on the management of idiopathic PAH during pregnancy. The authors aimed to examine systematically the characteristics of parturient women with idiopathic PAH, to explore the adverse effects of idiopathic PAH on pregnancy outcomes, and to report the multidisciplinary perioperative management strategy from the largest comprehensive cardiac hospital in China. Observational case series study. Tertiary referral acute care hospital in Beijing, China. The cases of 17 consecutive pregnant idiopathic PAH patients undergoing abortion or parturition at Anzhen Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative characteristics, anesthesia method, intensive care management, PAH-specific therapy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in this case series study. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were the main measures. The mean ages of the 17 parturient women with idiopathic PAH were 28.3 ± 5.4 years, and the mean systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 97.9 ± 18.6 mmHg. Fifteen patients (88.2%) received PAH-specific therapy before delivery, including sildenafil, iloprost, and treprostinil. All except 1 parturient received epidural anesthesia for surgery due to an emergency Caesarean section. Three patients experienced pulmonary hypertension crisis that necessitated conversion to general anesthesia. Ten parturients underwent Caesarean delivery at a median gestational age of 31 weeks. Three patients developed acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis intraoperatively. Two patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The maternal mortality was 17.6% (3/17). Of the 10 delivered neonates, 9 (90.0%) survived. The maternal mortality of the idiopathic PAH parturient was high in this case series from China. The authors applied epidural anesthesia, early management with multidisciplinary approaches, PAH

  5. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs: Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-09-05

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the amount of dumped waste and temperature exerted the most significant effects on bimonthly fluctuations of ARG levels in landfill sites. As a middle-sized cosmopolitan city in China, millions of college students and workers migrate during holidays, contributing to the dramatic increases in waste production and fluctuation in ARG abundances. In line with this, mass migration explained most of the variation in waste dumping. The waste dumping also affected the bioaccessibility of mixed-compound pollutants that further positively impacted the level of ARGs. The influence of various bioaccessible compounds on ARG abundance followed the order: antibiotics>nutrients>metals>organic pollutants. Concentrations of bioaccessible compounds were more strongly correlated with ARG levels compared to total compound concentrations. Improved waste classification and management strategies could thus help to decrease the amount of bioaccessible pollutants leading to more effective control for urban ARG dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  7. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  8. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  9. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  10. Physical activity and risk of prostate and bladder cancer in China: The South and East China case-control study on prostate and bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul C Reulen

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses have suggested a modest protective effect of high levels of physical activity on developing both prostate and bladder cancer, but significant heterogeneity between studies included in these meta-analyses existed. To our knowledge, few Chinese studies investigated the association between physical activity and prostate cancer and none between physical activity and bladder cancer. Given the inconsistencies between previous studies and because studies on the relation between physical activity and prostate and bladder cancer in China are scarce, it remains elusive whether there is a relationship between physical activity and prostate and bladder cancer within the Chinese population.We investigated the association between physical activity and risk of developing prostate and bladder cancer within a hospital-based case-control study in the East and South of China among 260 and 438 incident prostate and bladder cancer cases, respectively, and 427 controls. A questionnaire was administered to measure physical activity as metabolic equivalents (METs. Random effects logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs of prostate and bladder cancer for different levels of physical activity and for the specific activities of walking and cycling.Increasing overall physical activity was associated with a significant reduction in prostate cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.04 with the highest activity tertile level showing a nearly 50% reduction in prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.28-0.98. Overall physical activity was not significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer (Ptrend = 0.61, neither were vigorous (Ptrend = 0.60 or moderate levels of physical activity (Ptrend = 0.21. Walking and cycling were not significantly associated with either prostate (Ptrend> = 0.62 or bladder cancer risk (Ptrend> = 0.25.The findings of this largest ever case-control study in China investigating the relationship between physical activity and

  11. Roles of scholars in the practice of combating-desertification: a case study in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Lan, Zhiyong; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the perceived importance of scholars' participation in combating-desertification programs in northwest China and analyzed the underlying factors and mechanisms. Our results show that, while various experts, professors, and researchers have participated in combating-desertification programs, their actions were often not effective. Only those scholars who understood the local situations adequately had important and positive impacts. These scholars served as information brokers between the governments and other stakeholders, entrepreneurial activity organizers for farmers, governmental representatives, or advocators for local affairs themselves. They played indispensible roles in facilitating efforts in combating desertification. The study also identified key factors that led to the success of scholars' participation in combating-desertification activities. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of scholars' participation in land restoration and environmental management.

  12. Coevolution of Interorganizational Psychological Contract and Interorganizational Relationship: A Case Study of Manufacturing Company in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the belief of the beholder in an exchange about the obligations that another party should have, interorganizational psychological contract (IPC from a micro perspective provides a new angle to study interorganizational relationship (IOR. This paper studies the interrelation and coevolution of IORs and IPCs by building a system dynamics (SD model. Firstly based on the structural analysis of the interrelations of IPC and IOR, this paper builds the qualitative causal loop diagram of the interrelations. Based on investigation of 55 manufacturing enterprises in China we further draw the stock and flow diagram. Then we apply the data of Jiangxi Motors Co., Ltd., to simulate the model. The results reveal the development and evolution of IORs and IPCs and their interrelations. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is conducted and the influences of trust on IORs and IPCs are discussed. Finally managerial implications and some recommendations are provided for the decision-making of developing IORs.

  13. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  14. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  15. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households. Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban and −0.0281 (rural in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban and −0.0097 (rural in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,���0.1436 in 2007.. Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve

  16. A regional strategy for ecological sustainability: A case study in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Hou, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yueqiu; Dong, Shikui; Liu, Guohua

    2018-03-01

    Partitioning, a method considering environmental protection and development potential, is an effective way to provide regional management strategies to maintain ecological sustainability. In this study, we provide a large-scale regional division approach and present a strategy for Southwest China, which also has extremely high development potential because of the "Western development" policy. Based on the superposition of 15 factors, including species diversity, pattern restriction, agricultural potential, accessibility, urbanization potential, and topographical limitations, the environmental value and development benefit in the region were quantified spatially by weighting the sum of indicators within environmental and development categories. By comparing the scores with their respective median values, the study area was divided into four different strategy zones: Conserve zones (34.94%), Construction zones (32.95%), Conflict zones (16.96%), and Low-tension zones (15.16%). The Conflict zones in which environmental value and development benefit were both higher than the respective medians were separated further into the following 5 levels: Extreme conflict (36.20%), Serious conflict (28.07%), Moderate conflict (12.28%), Minor conflict (6.55%), and Slight conflict (16.91%). We found that 9.04% of nature reserves were in Conflict zones, and thus should be given more attention. This study provides a simple and feasible method for regional partitioning, as well as comprehensive support that weighs both the environmental value and development benefit for China's current Ecological Red Line and space planning and for regional management in similar situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiong Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents' attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents' support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people's sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  18. A perspective on emerging law, consumer trust and social responsibility in China's food sector: the "bleaching" case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Trust underpins the Chinese social system, and yet it is lacking from a Chinese food system that is riddled with safety disasters and disgruntled consumers. Government and industry play a major role in rehabilitating consumer trust in China. To this end, food safety and quality laws have been constructed to foster this process; however, safety scandals continue even in the face of stricter regulations and increased enforcement. A potential toll to abate food-safety problems and to build trust is the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility ("CSR"). Mandates by the government promote CSR in enterprise activity, including Article 3 of the 2009 China Food Safety Law. Officials have also recently touted the need for "moral education" of operators in the food industry. Regardless of government activity or whether CSR is employed by food enterprises, it is imperative that the food industry recognizes how critical it is to establish trust with Chinese consumers, who increasingly expect safe, quality food. The case study with pistachios highlights this evolving consumer expectation and the principles of social responsibility in the framework of the relationship between government and industry and consumers, while demonstrating the benefits of doing the right thing for food companies doing business in China.

  19. Global Analysis of Changes in Water Supply Yields and Costs under Climate Change. A Case Study in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and WaterSHED Center, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts, 02155 (United States); McCluskey, M. [CDM, Inc., Denver, Colorado (United States); Vogel, R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and WaterSHED Center, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts, 02155 (United States); Strzepek, K. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, and Environment and Behavior Program, Institute for Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Using China as a case study, a methodology is presented to estimate the changes in yields and costs of present and future water production systems under climate change scenarios. Yield is important to consider because it measures the actual supply available from a river basin. Costs are incurred in enhancing the natural yield of river basins by the construction and operation of reservoirs and ground water pumping systems. The interaction of ground and surface waters within a river basin and instream flow maintenance are also modeled. The water demands considered are domestic, irrigation, and instream flow needs. We found that under climate change the maximum yields of some basins in China may increase or decrease, depending upon location, and that in some basins it may cost significantly more or it may not be possible to meet the demands. While our results for China could be improved with more hydrologic and economic data, we believe that the cost curves developed have suitable accuracy for initial analysis of water supply costs in Integrated Assessment Models.

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility: a Case Study in Subsidiaries from Brazil and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chagas Prates

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility refers to the business’ role in providing Sustainable Development through fair and appropriate relationships with its stakeholders. This study aimed to describe and analyze the CSR evolution in two subsidiaries within the same group, one located in Brazil and other in China. In general, observed similarities in CSR evolution. In both companies, the order in which the dimensions received incentives was the same, first the economic, then the environmental and lastly the social dimension. However, some differences were noted, such as the initial situation of dimensions and the time to consolidate the pillars. In Chinese company, the initial situation about environmental and social dimension was worst. Other point refers to time toward CSR. In Brazilian’ subsidiary, the CSR evolution occurred slower. The last point refers to requirements of second order, given the non-observance of these in both subsidiaries.

  1. Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research will be carried out as a collaborative effort in which senior African scholars and their counterparts outside Africa interact with African policymakers who are engaged in various ways with China and India. The idea is to better understand the implications of economic relations with China for African development ...

  2. Trade between China and the Netherlands: a case study of trade in tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Hayat, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper argues that the recent rise in China Dutch trade is a typical example of two nations trading tasks rather than goods. Design/methodology/approach - China Dutch trade growth between 1996 and 2010 is compared with China’s trade growth with its main partners. In addition, the

  3. Risk factors for measles among adults in Tianjin, China: Who should be controls in a case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L; Gillespie, Brenda W; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Yaxing; Carlson, Bradley F; Luo, Xiaoyan; Montgomery, JoLynn P; Wang, Xiexiu

    2017-01-01

    Control groups in previous case-control studies of vaccine-preventable diseases have included people immune to disease. This study examines risk factors for measles acquisition among adults 20 to 49 years of age in Tianjin, China, and compares findings using measles IgG antibody-negative controls to all controls, both IgG-negative and IgG-positive. Measles cases were sampled from a disease registry, and controls were enrolled from community registries in Tianjin, China, 2011-2015. Through a best subsets selection procedure, we compared which variables were selected at different model sizes when using IgG-negative controls or all controls. We entered risk factors for measles in two separate logistic regression models: one with measles IgG-negative controls and the other with all controls. The study included 384 measles cases and 1,596 community controls (194 IgG-negative). Visiting a hospital was an important risk factor. For specialty hospitals, the odds ratio (OR) was 4.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28, 16.03) using IgG-negative controls, and OR = 5.27 (95% CI: 2.73, 10.18) using all controls. Variables, such as age or length of time in Tianjin, were differentially selected depending on the control group. Individuals living in Tianjin ≤3 years had 2.87 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.66) times greater odds of measles case status compared to all controls, but this relationship was not apparent for IgG-negative controls. We recommend that case-control studies examining risk factors for infectious diseases, particularly in the context of transmission dynamics, consider antibody-negative controls as the gold standard.

  4. Exploring the transition to DRGs in Developing Countries: A case study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxin; Liu, Rui; Li, Ping; Jiang, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: With the success of DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) in developing countries, this prospective payment system has been imported into China from the early 21st century. However, DRGs has been struggling and has made little progress since (its adoption in) 2004. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service (system/scheme) and DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) during the transitional period of payment reform in China. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, sixty regional general hospitals in Shanghai were divided into three groups according to their economic level, and one hospital was picked from each group randomly. After ranking of morbidity, 22130 patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the inter relationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results: The main findings were (1) Age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. However, gender is only a significant factor to patients with coronary heart disease. The results suggested that age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location should be considered in formulating pricing standards for the hypertension patient group. Besides the above mentioned factors, gender should also be considered in formulating pricing standards for the coronary heart disease patient group. (2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion: Simplification of the DRGs standard- setting process based on standardized clinical pathways and accurate costing will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the

  5. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong Hong; Ng, Chui Shan; Cai, Xiao; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xin Shi; Ke, Dong Ge; Yu, Qian Hui; Chan, Chi Kuen

    2018-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a “bottom-up” approach to cultural change, to build up a comprehensive and integrated incident management system, and to improve team building and staffing for patient safety. PMID:29750061

  6. Improved USLE-K factor prediction: A case study on water erosion areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K-factor is an essential factor in soil erosion prediction and conservation practises. The major obstacles to any accurate, large-scale soil erodibility estimation are the lack of necessary data on soil characteristics and the misuse of variable K-factor calculators. In this study, we assessed the performance of available erodibility estimators Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC and the Geometric Mean Diameter based (Dg model for different geographic regions based on the Chinese soil erodibility database (CSED. Results showed that previous estimators overestimated almost all K-values. Furthermore, only the USLE and Dg approaches could be directly and reliably applicable to black and loess soil regions. Based on the nonlinear best fitting techniques, we improved soil erodibility prediction by combining Dg and soil organic matter (SOM. The NSE, R2 and RE values were 0.94, 0.67 and 9.5% after calibrating the results independently; similar model performance was showed for the validation process. The results obtained via the proposed approach were more accurate that the former K-value predictions. Moreover, those improvements allowed us to effectively establish a regional soil erodibility map (1:250,000 scale of water erosion areas in China. The mean K-value of Chinese water erosion regions was 0.0321 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1 with a standard deviation of 0.0107 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1; K-values present a decreasing trend from North to South in water erosion areas in China. The yield soil erodibility dataset also satisfactorily corresponded to former K-values from different scales (local, regional, and national.

  7. Association between Two Resistin Gene Polymorphisms and Metabolic Syndrome in Jilin, Northeast China: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a significant health care problem worldwide and is characterized by increased fasting glucose and obesity. Resistin is a protein hormone produced both by adipocytes and immunocompetent cells, including those residing in adipose tissue, and is believed to modulate glucose tolerance and insulin action. This study examined the association of resistin gene polymorphisms, rs1862513 and rs3745368, and related haplotypes with the development of metabolic syndrome in a Han Chinese population. This case-control study was performed on 3792 subjects, including 1771 MetS cases and 2021 healthy controls from the Jilin province of China. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between gene polymorphism and MetS. Our results showed that there were no significant associations between MetS and the genotype distributions in four kinds of inheritance models, allele frequencies, and related haplotypes of resistin gene polymorphisms rs1862513 and rs3745368 (all p values > 0.05. Based on our study findings, we concluded that mutations in resistin genes are not associated with the presence of MetS in a Han Chinese population from Jilin province in China.

  8. 76 FR 38697 - Cased Pencils From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4239 (June 2011), entitled Cased Pencils from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-669 (Third Review...

  9. Mining the Urban Sprawl Pattern: A Case Study on Sunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ronghua; Gu, Chaolin; Pu, Yingxia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2008-10-14

    China's urbanization is going into a fast development stage. This paper focuses on the recent evolution of an urbanized area - Sunan, the southern part of Jiangsu province in the Yangtze River Delta in China - by means of complementary approaches, especially different fractal and autocorrelation measures. The research shows that Sunan's urban clusters are becoming more and more homogenous and compact and are growing up along the important transportation axes. The enriching discussion of the findings establishes the links between the morphology of urban sprawl and recent socio-economic changes in China.

  10. A sustainable biogas model in China: The case study of Beijing Deqingyuan biogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lihong, Chen; Cong, Ronggang; Shu, Bangrong

    2017-01-01

    According to the Paris Agreement, China has the ambition to develop non-fossil energy which will account for 20% of the total energy consumption in 2030. China has abundant biomass potential implying the bioenergy should be an important option of non-fossil energy. In this analysis, we present......, mitigating pollution, and increasing employment, among other benefits. This paper aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the typical demonstration model (DQY) in utilization of agricultural waste in China, and further proposes a general development model of Chinese biogas in the future....

  11. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Wei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District 300072 (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P. O. Box 9518, 2300RA, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: zhao@cml.leidenuniv.nl; Voet, Ester van der [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P. O. Box 9518, 2300RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Yufeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District 300072 (China); Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P. O. Box 9518, 2300RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management have been highlighted in China, due to the continually increasing amount of MSW being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. Of particular interest is greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, aided by the Kyoto Mechanisms. China is an important case study for this global issue; however, an analysis of the entire life cycle of MSW management on GHG emissions is not available for China. This study evaluates the current and possible patterns of MSW management with regard to GHG emissions, using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on the Tianjin case. We assess the baseline scenario, reflecting the existing MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, five exploring waste treatment technology innovations and one exploring integrated MSW management, to quantitatively predict potentials of GHG mitigation for Tianjin. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the influence of landfill gas (LFG) collection efficiency, recycling rate and methodological choice, especially allocation, on the outcomes. The results show GHG emissions from Tianjin's MSW management system amount to 467.34 Mg CO{sub 2} eq. per year, based on the treatment of MSW collected in the central districts in 2006, and the key issue is LFG released. The integrated MSW management scenario, combining different improvement options, shows the highest GHG mitigation potential. Given the limited financial support and the current waste management practice in Tianjin, LFG utilization scenario would be the preferred choice. The sensitivity analysis of recycling rate shows an approximately linear relation of inverse proportion between recycling rate and total GHG emissions. Kitchen waste composting makes a considerable contribution to total GHG emissions reduction. Allocation choices result in differences in total quantitative outcomes, but preference orders and contributions analysis are

  12. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Voet, Ester van der; Zhang Yufeng; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management have been highlighted in China, due to the continually increasing amount of MSW being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. Of particular interest is greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, aided by the Kyoto Mechanisms. China is an important case study for this global issue; however, an analysis of the entire life cycle of MSW management on GHG emissions is not available for China. This study evaluates the current and possible patterns of MSW management with regard to GHG emissions, using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on the Tianjin case. We assess the baseline scenario, reflecting the existing MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, five exploring waste treatment technology innovations and one exploring integrated MSW management, to quantitatively predict potentials of GHG mitigation for Tianjin. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the influence of landfill gas (LFG) collection efficiency, recycling rate and methodological choice, especially allocation, on the outcomes. The results show GHG emissions from Tianjin's MSW management system amount to 467.34 Mg CO 2 eq. per year, based on the treatment of MSW collected in the central districts in 2006, and the key issue is LFG released. The integrated MSW management scenario, combining different improvement options, shows the highest GHG mitigation potential. Given the limited financial support and the current waste management practice in Tianjin, LFG utilization scenario would be the preferred choice. The sensitivity analysis of recycling rate shows an approximately linear relation of inverse proportion between recycling rate and total GHG emissions. Kitchen waste composting makes a considerable contribution to total GHG emissions reduction. Allocation choices result in differences in total quantitative outcomes, but preference orders and contributions analysis are found to

  13. Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study of Health Care Planning in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.

  14. Analysis of physical flows in primary commodity trade. A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Li, Bo; Fang, Changming; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiakuan

    2006-01-01

    How globalization and international trade affect sustainable development and environment has attracted worldwide attention. Associated with the import and export of primary commodities, ecologically important materials have been exchanged among regions and countries. China, having the largest population in the world and the highest economic growth rate in last decades, may have an important influence on global sustainable development through the trade of primary commodities. Using the data from Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, we analyzed material flows in the trade of primary commodity in China from 1950 to 2001. Our analysis shows that: (1) China has turned from a net exporter of primary commodities to a net importer; (2) minerals and fuels have been the major imports of primary commodities since 1992, just as well as foods and minerals did in 1980s; (3) most of the net imported primary commodities come from Oceania, Africa and Latin America. (author)

  15. Managing cultural differences in MNE: a case study on IKEA in China and their staffs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Binh; Hongyu, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Course: EFO703 Bachelor Thesis in Business administration 15 ECTS University: Mälardalen University School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Västerås Authors: Pham Ngoc Binh & Xue Hongyu Examiner: Ole Liljefors Tutor: Per Nordqvist Research question: How has IKEA managed cultural differences regarding their staffs in China? Purpose of the research: The purpose of the research is to describe and analyze the managerial practices of IKEA in China under the influence of Ch...

  16. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  17. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  18. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  19. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  20. Fluid management of hypernatraemic dehydration to prevent cerebral oedema: a retrospective case control study of 97 children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chengqing; Mao, Jianhua; Dai, Yuwen; Xia, Yonghui; Fu, Haidong; Chen, Yifang; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Aimin

    2010-06-01

    To compare the fluid management of hypernatraemic dehydration in acute gastroenteritis in those who developed cerebral oedema (cases) versus those who did not (controls). A retrospective study of 97 cases of hypernatraemic dehydration at a tertiary children's hospital in China over five years, in which rehydration regimes of 49 children who developed cerebral oedema were compared with 48 children who made an uneventful recovery. Risk factors for cerebral oedema (vs. no cerebral oedema) were an initial fluid bolus (29/49 vs. 15/48, P=0.006), the mean rate of bolus infusion (14.7+/-2.2 vs. 10.8+/-1.4 mL/kg/hr, Pdehydration were too rapid a rate of rehydration, an initial fluid bolus to rapidly expand plasma volume and the severity of the hypernatraemia. Thus, we conclude that a uniformly slow rate of rehydration is the best way of preventing cerebral oedema.

  1. Groundwater Chemistry Regulated by Hydrochemical Processes and Geological Structures: A Case Study in Tongchuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrochemical processes in groundwater helps to identify the relationship between geochemical processes and groundwater quality as well as to understand the hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater, which is important for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This study aims to identify the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the area of Tongchuan City, China. A total of 58 groundwater samples were collected. A hierarchical cluster analysis divided samples into three clusters and six sub-clusters (cluster 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b according to hydrochemical facies. Graphical plots of multiple ionic ratios, saturation indices, and ion exchange indices were employed to examine hydrochemical processes that result in different hydrochemical facies of each cluster. Results show the predominance of carbonate and silicate weathering in cluster 1, silicate weathering in cluster 2, and carbonate weathering in cluster 3. Ionic exchange is a ubiquitous process among all clusters. The distribution of clusters is related to the regional geology, which may result in different hydrochemical processes. Two stratigraphic sections identify the differences in hydrochemical processes resulting from complex stratum structures and varied aquifer media. Cluster 2a shows an interesting difference in water chemistry along the groundwater flow path. Further study by oxygen and hydrogen isotope indicated that mixing between Quaternary and the Permian aquifers resulting from faulting is the main reason for the distinctive characteristic of cluster 2a.

  2. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  3. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  4. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  5. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Vincent, Bernard; Yang, Jinzhong; Bouarfa, Sami; Vidal, Alain

    2008-11-07

    This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding cropped areas were detected from NVDI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values using an unsupervised method. Field samples and agricultural statistics were used to estimate the accuracy of the classification. Historical data concerning irrigation/drainage and the groundwater table were used to analyze the relation between changes in soil salinity and land and water management practices. Results showed that: (1) the overall accuracy of remote sensing in detecting soil salinity was 90.2%, and in detecting cropped area, 98%; (2) the installation/innovation of the drainage system did help to control salinity; and (3) a low ratio of cropped land helped control salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. These findings suggest that remote sensing is a useful tool to detect soil salinity and has potential in evaluating and improving land and water management practices.

  6. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAYANANDA, Salindra K.; GOODALE, Eben; LEE, Myung-bok; LIU, Jia-Jia; MAMMIDES, Christos; PASION, Bonifacio O.; QUAN, Rui-Chang; SLIK, J. W. Ferry; SREEKAR, Rachakonda; TOMLINSON, Kyle W.; YASUDA, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments. PMID:27265653

  7. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salindra K. DAYANANDA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments.

  8. The Evolution of River–Lake and Urban Compound Systems: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river–lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments. Urban systems and river–lake systems are not isolated and static, there is a relation between them which is constantly changing. Based on the idea of system research, the urban system is simplified into four subsystems: environment, infrastructure, social, and economic. These four components interact together, influencing the river–lake system to form a compound system. This paper aims to reflect the features and evolution laws of the compound system, by building a Collaborative Development Model to study the changing of the compound system in Wuhan, China over a 10-year period. The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river–lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. However, in order to improve the sustainability of the compound system in Wuhan, the status of the river–lake system, social system and environment system, which are still comparatively substandard, should be constantly improved. The Collaborative Development Model could also be used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development.

  9. Predicting expressway crash frequency using a random effect negative binomial model: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhuanglin; Zhang, Honglu; Chien, Steven I-Jy; Wang, Jin; Dong, Chunjiao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between crash frequency and potential influence factors, the accident data for events occurring on a 50km long expressway in China, including 567 crash records (2006-2008), were collected and analyzed. Both the fixed-length and the homogeneous longitudinal grade methods were applied to divide the study expressway section into segments. A negative binomial (NB) model and a random effect negative binomial (RENB) model were developed to predict crash frequency. The parameters of both models were determined using the maximum likelihood (ML) method, and the mixed stepwise procedure was applied to examine the significance of explanatory variables. Three explanatory variables, including longitudinal grade, road width, and ratio of longitudinal grade and curve radius (RGR), were found as significantly affecting crash frequency. The marginal effects of significant explanatory variables to the crash frequency were analyzed. The model performance was determined by the relative prediction error and the cumulative standardized residual. The results show that the RENB model outperforms the NB model. It was also found that the model performance with the fixed-length segment method is superior to that with the homogeneous longitudinal grade segment method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Analysis of sea use landscape pattern based on GIS: a case study in Huludao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Anning; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse sea use landscape patterns on a regional scale based on methods of landscape ecology integrated with sea use spatial characteristics. Several landscape-level analysis indices, such as the dominance index, complex index, intensivity index, diversity index and sea congruency index, were established using Geographic Information System (GIS) and applied in Huludao, China. The results indicated that sea use landscape analysis indices, which were created based on the characteristics of sea use spatial patterns using GIS, are suitable to quantitatively describe the landscape patterns of sea use. They are operable tools for the landscape analysis of sea use. The sea use landscape in Huludao was dominated by fishing use with a landscape dominance index of 0.724. The sea use landscape is a complex mosaic with high diversity and plenty of fishing areas, as shown by the landscape complex index of 27.21 and the landscape diversity index of 1.25. Most sea use patches correspond to the marine functional zonation plan and the sea use congruency index is 0.89 in the fishing zone and 0.92 in the transportation zone.

  11. Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. Overall, the results show that consumers in the low-income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high-income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high-income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Wu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding cropped areas were detected from NVDI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values using an unsupervised method. Field samples and agricultural statistics were used to estimate the accuracy of the classification. Historical data concerning irrigation/drainage and the groundwater table were used to analyze the relation between changes in soil salinity and land and water management practices. Results showed that: (1 the overall accuracy of remote sensing in detecting soil salinity was 90.2%, and in detecting cropped area, 98%; (2 the installation/innovation of the drainage system did help to control salinity; and (3 a low ratio of cropped land helped control salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. These findings suggest that remote sensing is a useful tool to detect soil salinity and has potential in evaluating and improving land and water management practices.

  13. Environmental accident and its treatment in a developing country: a case study on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Along with their rapid progress, developing countries have had to deal with more environmental problems, which have been a cause for concern among policy makers and the public in general. This study cites two accidents that happened in China in 2006 that caused serious environmental problems in nearby communities and discusses the problems these accidents created and the resulting disputes among the concerned people. Pollution-causing accidents not only pose threats to the health of the victims but also give rise to environmental disputes that jeopardise national security and social stability. Conflicts normally ensue following a pollution-causing accident, which are more likely to happen within a development zone or industrial park. Few environmental conflicts in the past decades were resolved through litigation. Nevertheless, there are lapses in the regulatory system, which have to be addressed to ensure that the public's rights and interests are protected. Currently, reports on pollution-causing accidents are difficult to obtain and are often released very late. A majority of industrial firms operate without environmental clearance, thus highlighting the government's inefficiency in environmental management. It is about time that the Chinese government takes seriously the use of the Environmental Impact Assessment.

  14. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  15. China's foreign trade and climate change: A case study of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yunfeng; Yang Laike

    2010-01-01

    The globalization of trade has numerous environmental implications. Trade creates a mechanism for consumers to shift environmental pollution associated with their consumption to other countries. Carbon leakage exerts great influences on international trade and economy. Applying an input-output approach, the paper estimates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) embodied in China's foreign trade during 1997-2007. It is found that 10.03-26.54% of China's annual CO 2 emissions are produced during the manufacture of export goods destined for foreign consumers, while the CO 2 emissions embodied in China's imports accounted for only 4.40% (1997) and 9.05% (2007) of that. We also estimate that the rest of world avoided emitting 150.18 Mt CO 2 in 1997, increasing to 593 Mt in 2007, as a result of importing goods from China, rather than manufacturing the same type and quantity of goods domestically. During 1997-2007, the net 'additional' global CO 2 emissions resulting from China's exports were 4894 Mt. Then, the paper divides the trade-embodied emissions into scale, composition and technical effect. It was found that scale and composition effect increased the CO 2 emissions embodied in trade while the technical effect offset a small part of them. Finally, its mechanism and policy implications are presented.

  16. Extraction of Rocky Desertification from Disp Imagery: a Case Study of Liupanshui, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wu, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Y.; Mao, G.; Huang, Y.; Jia, B.; Gao, G.; Chen, P.

    2017-09-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a typical type of land degradation in Guizhou Province, China. It causes great ecological and economical implications to the local people. This paper utilized the declassified intelligence satellite photography (DISP) of 1960s to extract the karst rocky desertification area to analyze the early situation of karst rocky desertification in Liupanshui, Guizhou, China. Due to the lack of ground control points and parameters of the satellite, a polynomial orthographic correction model with considering altitude difference correction is proposed for orthorectification of DISP imagery. With the proposed model, the 96 DISP images from four missions are orthorectified. The images are assembled into a seamless image map of the karst area of Guizhou, China. The assembled image map is produced to thematic map of karst rocky desertification by visual interpretation in Liupanshui city. With the assembled image map, extraction of rocky desertification is conducted.

  17. A CASE STUDY OF CHINA ́S WIND POWER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yanping

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, China is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the increasing pressure to cut GHS emissions and to improve energy efficiency, China is now changing its traditional energy mix, mainly through consuming more renewable energy instead of fossil energy. This change has resulted in a policy adjustment which in turn boosts the utilization of the wind power resources. However, the development of the wind power resources in China is confronted with some significant challenges, such as greater installed electricity capacity than the electricity generation, greater electricity generation than the electricity transmission capacity and greater inland wind power generation than the offshore wind power generation. Therefore, the further development of China’s wind power electricity in the coming years depends largely on the ways these challenges will be addressed.

  18. EXTRACTION OF ROCKY DESERTIFICATION FROM DISP IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY OF LIUPANSHUI, GUIZHOU, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Karst rocky desertification is a typical type of land degradation in Guizhou Province, China. It causes great ecological and economical implications to the local people. This paper utilized the declassified intelligence satellite photography (DISP of 1960s to extract the karst rocky desertification area to analyze the early situation of karst rocky desertification in Liupanshui, Guizhou, China. Due to the lack of ground control points and parameters of the satellite, a polynomial orthographic correction model with considering altitude difference correction is proposed for orthorectification of DISP imagery. With the proposed model, the 96 DISP images from four missions are orthorectified. The images are assembled into a seamless image map of the karst area of Guizhou, China. The assembled image map is produced to thematic map of karst rocky desertification by visual interpretation in Liupanshui city. With the assembled image map, extraction of rocky desertification is conducted.

  19. Mining the Urban Sprawl Pattern: A Case Study on Sunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Ma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s urbanization is going into a fast development stage. This paper focuses on the recent evolution of an urbanized area – Sunan, the southern part of Jiangsu province in the Yangtze River Delta in China – by means of complementary approaches, especially different fractal and autocorrelation measures. The research shows that Sunan’s urban clusters are becoming more and more homogenous and compact and are growing up along the important transportation axes. The enriching discussion of the findings establishes the links between the morphology of urban sprawl and recent socio-economic changes in China.

  20. Paradox of Student Gender: A Case Study of Economic Education from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Fangbin; Li, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    In many Chinese universities and colleges, female students outperform male students in social science subjects. This paper presents a case study, which examines gender difference in economic education in a Chinese university. We look at a sample of students from the Chinese university and find that holding constant observed student…

  1. Amalgamation, Expansion, Quality Assurance and Innovations: A Case Study on a Key University in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingning

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese higher education reform policies since 1993 have been pursued in a centralized, top-down manner, which some theorists characterize as "centralized decentralization" or governmental "steering at distance." This case-study dissertation has two purposes. First, is to evaluate the implementation or the "situated…

  2. Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction: A case study of Wenchuan County, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.X.; Lin, Y.L.; Wang, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction emphasizes strategies, safety, memorials and institutional arrangements. It is closely related to earthquake recovery plans. This article reviews general studies on urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction, before focussing on the case of

  3. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO{sub 2} emissions in China 1997-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton, E-mail: Afton.Clarke-Sather@colorado.edu [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, 260 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Qu Jiansheng [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Wang Qin [MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zeng Jingjing [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)

    2011-09-15

    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO{sub 2} emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO{sub 2} emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO{sub 2} emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: > Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. > Interprovincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. > Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. > Interprovincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  4. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO2 emissions in China 1997-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton; Qu Jiansheng; Wang Qin; Zeng Jingjing; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO 2 emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO 2 emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO 2 emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO 2 emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO 2 emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: → Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. → Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  5. Meteorological and chemical impacts on ozone formation: A case study in Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Ying, Fang; White, Stephen J.; Jang, Carey; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Hong, Shengmao; Shen, Jiandong; Azzi, Merched; Cen, Kefa

    2017-11-01

    Regional ozone pollution has become one of the most challenging problems in China, especially in the more economically developed and densely populated regions like Hangzhou. In this study, measurements of O3, CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), together with meteorological data, were obtained for the period July 1, 2013-August 15, 2013 at three sites in Hangzhou. These sites included an urban site (Zhaohui ;ZH;), a suburban site (Xiasha ;XS;) and a rural site (Qiandaohu ;QDH;). During the observation period, both ZH and XS had a higher ozone level than QDH, with exceeding rates of 41.3% and 47.8%, respectively. Elevated O3 levels in QDH were found at night, which could be explained by less prominent NO titration effect in rural area. Detailed statistical analysis of meteorological and chemical impacts on ozone formation was carried out for ZH, and higher ozone concentration was observed when the wind direction was from the east. This is possibly due to emissions of VOCs from XS, a typical chemical industrial park located in 30 km upwind area of ZH. A comprehensive comparison between three ozone episode periods and one non-episode period were made in ZH. It was concluded that elevated concentrations of precursors and temperatures, low relative humidity and wind speed and easterly-dominated wind direction contribute to urban ozone episodes in Hangzhou. VOCs reactivity analysis indicated that reactive alkenes like isoprene and isobutene contributed most to ozone formation. Three methods were applied to evaluate O3-VOCs-NOx sensitivity in ZH: VOCs/NOx ratio method, Smog Production Model (SPM) and Relative Incremental Reactivity (RIR). The results show that summer ozone in urban Hangzhou mostly presents VOCs-limited and transition region alternately. Our study implies that the increasing automobiles and VOCs emissions from upwind area could result in ozone pollution in urban Hangzhou, and synergistic reduction of VOCs and NOx will be more effective.

  6. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  7. A mixed method to evaluate burden of malaria due to flooding and waterlogging in Mengcheng County, China: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guoyong; Gao, Lu; Li, Xuewen; Zhou, Maigeng; Liu, Qiyong; Ren, Hongyan; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a highly climate-sensitive vector-borne infectious disease that still represents a significant public health problem in Huaihe River Basin. However, little comprehensive information about the burden of malaria caused by flooding and waterlogging is available from this region. This study aims to quantitatively assess the impact of flooding and waterlogging on the burden of malaria in a county of Anhui Province, China. A mixed method evaluation was conducted. A case-crossover study was firstly performed to evaluate the relationship between daily number of cases of malaria and flooding and waterlogging from May to October 2007 in Mengcheng County, China. Stratified Cox models were used to examine the lagged time and hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of flooding and waterlogging on malaria. Years lived with disability (YLDs) of malaria attributable to flooding and waterlogging were then estimated based on the WHO framework of calculating potential impact fraction in the Global Burden of Disease study. A total of 3683 malaria were notified during the study period. The strongest effect was shown with a 25-day lag for flooding and a 7-day lag for waterlogging. Multivariable analysis showed that an increased risk of malaria was significantly associated with flooding alone [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)  = 1.467, 95% CI = 1.257, 1.713], waterlogging alone (AHR = 1.879, 95% CI = 1.696, 2.121), and flooding and waterlogging together (AHR = 2.926, 95% CI = 2.576, 3.325). YLDs per 1000 of malaria attributable to flooding alone, waterlogging alone and flooding and waterlogging together were 0.009 per day, 0.019 per day and 0.022 per day, respectively. Flooding and waterlogging can lead to higher burden of malaria in the study area. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of malaria epidemics after these two weather disasters.

  8. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  9. Teaching case studies on the regulation of motor vehicle air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-23

    Motor vehicle air pollution is a critical component of China's severe air quality problem and has the potential to become an even greater issue in the years to come. On this project, the principal investigator and research staff are developing Harvar...

  10. Pediatric Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 271-case Retrospective Study at a Single Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Penetrating ocular trauma is the most frequent cause of pediatric endophthalmitis in China. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species are the most commonly identified organisms in exogenous pediatric endophthalmitis whereas Fusarium species are commonly seen in endogenous endophthalmitis. In this research, in spite of aggressive management with antibiotics and vitrectomy, the visual prognosis was found to be generally poor.

  11. The Emergence of Regulated Individualism: Case Study of an Educational Journal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kwok Wah

    Based on the theory of pedagogic discourse developed by Basil Bernstein, this paper discusses the relationship between the production of intellectual discourse and the Chinese State which emerged after the Cultural Revolution. The paper identifies three dominant ideological positions in China between 1949 and 1993: traditional collectivism (before…

  12. Exploring Professional Development from Brief Experiences: Case Studies of Secondary EFL Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingling, Yuan; Qunhua, Yuan; Ying, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of educational reforms since 1990s has brought up a booming demand of competent EFL teachers because of economic globalization and further opening-up policy in China. So it's vital and significant to explore EFL teachers' professional development in order to promote English language teaching. Based on the Constructivism…

  13. Development of a hybrid model to predict construction and demolition waste: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiliao; Wang, Yong; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yixin

    2017-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is currently a worldwide issue, and the situation is the worst in China due to a rapid increase in the construction industry and the short life span of China's buildings. To create an opportunity out of this problem, comprehensive prevention measures and effective management strategies are urgently needed. One major gap in the literature of waste management is a lack of estimations on future C&DW generation. Therefore, this paper presents a forecasting procedure for C&DW in China that can forecast the quantity of each component in such waste. The proposed approach is based on a GM-SVR model that improves the forecasting effectiveness of the gray model (GM), which is achieved by adjusting the residual series by a support vector regression (SVR) method and a transition matrix that aims to estimate the discharge of each component in the C&DW. Through the proposed method, future C&DW volume are listed and analyzed containing their potential components and distribution in different provinces in China. Besides, model testing process provides mathematical evidence to validate the proposed model is an effective way to give future information of C&DW for policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Case study of the constraints and potential contributions regarding wind curtailment in Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    The wind power industry in China is faced with the obstacle of ineffective use due to severe wind curtailment recently. With detailed representation of the electricity and heat sectors in an energy-system-modeling tool, we evaluated the potential of technical improvements that could be implemented...

  15. High Education as a Common Good in China: A Case Study for Ideas and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangang

    2016-01-01

    China began its modern system of higher education with the establishment of the former Peking University in Beijing in 1898. The traditional Confucian philosophy of education has been replaced dramatically by modern western philosophy. However, since the communist party came to power in 1949, the philosophy of higher education has experienced many…

  16. Technology transfer of nuclear power development in developing countries: Case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen; Shen Wenquan; Zhang Luqing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the specific experiences in the technology transfer of nuclear power in China, a country that both imported and developed indigenous nuclear technology. Based on this experience some recommendations are presented that should be considered particularly by the developing countries. (author)

  17. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  18. Patient safety culture in China: a case study in an outpatient setting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the patient safety culture in an outpatient setting in Beijing and explore the meaning and implications of the safety culture from the perspective of health workers and patients. A mixed methods approach involving a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews was adopted. Among the 410 invited staff members, 318 completed the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC). Patient safety culture was described using 12 subscale scores. Inter-subscale correlation analysis, ANOVA and stepwise multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of the patient safety culture scores. Interviewees included 22 patients selected through opportunity sampling and 27 staff members selected through purposive sampling. The interview data were analysed thematically. The survey respondents perceived high levels of unsafe care but had personally reported few events. Lack of 'communication openness' was identified as a major safety culture problem, and a perception of 'penalty' was the greatest barrier to the encouragement of error reporting. Cohesive 'teamwork within units', while found to be an area of strength, conversely served as a protective and defensive mechanism for medical practice. Low levels of trust between providers and consumers and lack of management support constituted an obstacle to building a positive patient safety culture. This study in China demonstrates that a punitive approach to error is still widespread despite increasing awareness of unsafe care, and managers have been slow in acknowledging the importance of building a positive patient safety culture. Strong 'teamwork within units', a common area of strength, could fuel the concealment of errors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Toward improved design of check dam systems: A case study in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debasish; Galelli, Stefano; Tang, Honglei; Ran, Qihua

    2018-04-01

    Check dams are one of the most common strategies for controlling sediment transport in erosion prone areas, along with soil and water conservation measures. However, existing mathematical models that simulate sediment production and delivery are often unable to simulate how the storage capacity of check dams varies with time. To explicitly account for this process-and to support the design of check dam systems-we developed a modelling framework consisting of two components, namely (1) the spatially distributed Soil Erosion and Sediment Delivery Model (WaTEM/SEDEM), and (2) a network-based model of check dam storage dynamics. The two models are run sequentially, with the second model receiving the initial sediment input to check dams from WaTEM/SEDEM. The framework is first applied to Shejiagou catchment, a 4.26 km2 area located in the Loess Plateau, China, where we study the effect of the existing check dam system on sediment dynamics. Results show that the deployment of check dams altered significantly the sediment delivery ratio of the catchment. Furthermore, the network-based model reveals a large variability in the life expectancy of check dams and abrupt changes in their filling rates. The application of the framework to six alternative check dam deployment scenarios is then used to illustrate its usefulness for planning purposes, and to derive some insights on the effect of key decision variables, such as the number, size, and site location of check dams. Simulation results suggest that better performance-in terms of life expectancy and sediment delivery ratio-could have been achieved with an alternative deployment strategy.

  20. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  1. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  2. Maternal care in rural China: a case study from Anhui province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on prenatal care in China have focused on the timing and frequency of prenatal care and relatively little information can be found on how maternal care has been organized and funded or on the actual content of the visits, especially in the less developed rural areas. This study explored maternal care in a rural county from Anhui province in terms of care organization, provision and utilization. Methods A total of 699 mothers of infants under one year of age were interviewed with structured questionnaires; the county health bureau officials and managers of township hospitals (n = 10 and county level hospitals (n = 2 were interviewed; the process of the maternal care services was observed by the researchers. In addition, statistics from the local government were used. Results The county level hospitals were well staffed and equipped and served as a referral centre for women with a high-risk pregnancy. Township hospitals had, on average, 1.7 midwives serving an average population of 15,000 people. Only 10–20% of the current costs in county level hospitals and township hospitals were funded by the local government, and women paid for delivery care. There was no systematic organized prenatal care and referrals were not mandatory. About half of the women had their first prenatal visit before the 13th gestational week, 36% had fewer than 5 prenatal visits, and about 9% had no prenatal visits. A major reason for not having prenatal care visits was that women considered it unnecessary. Most women (87% gave birth in public health facilities, and the rest in a private clinic or at home. A total of 8% of births were delivered by caesarean section. Very few women had any postnatal visits. About half of the women received the recommended number of prenatal blood pressure and haemoglobin measurements. Conclusion Delivery care was better provided than both prenatal and postnatal care in the study area. Reliance on user fees gave

  3. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  4. Government Support, FDI Clustering and Semiconductor Sustainability in China: Case Studies of Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi in the Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Lung Chou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the case studies of Shanghai, Suzhou, and Wuxi, in the Yangtze Delta, China, this paper demonstrates the local possibilities and various development paths for developing an indigenous semiconductor industry, using the government support within foreign direct investment (FDI-dominated clusters for the New Industrializing Countries (NICs. Two important policy lessons are identified. The first is that the government may attract FDI and develop high-tech clustering by using policy support, but it does not necessarily provide conducive and positive influences on the sustainable development of domestic semiconductors. The second lesson is that the sustainability of the domestic semiconductor industry in the FDI cluster may start from three connected elements: (1 a pragmatic goal of government support; (2 complementarities of the domestic semiconductors with international leading firms in the market, technology and equipment linkages; and (3 a sustainable capacity of technical learning to drive local developments.

  5. Media Representation of Tongxinglian in China: A Case Study of the People's Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yixiong

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the worldwide lesbian and gay movements have diversified and increased their rights claims. The achievement of gay rights claims in society is the result of an interplay among various social factors and forces. Media is one of most influential players in building homosexual images and promoting mutual understanding. Chinese homosexuals were not treated as criminals or mental illness patients anymore in 1997 and 2001, respectively, after decriminalization and depathologization. Thus this article aims to explore how homosexuals were portrayed in the official media of China, particularly the People's Daily, to illustrate the changing perception of homosexuals in China's political and social spheres. It argues that representation of homosexuals in the People's Daily changed gradually from a negative perception to a more positive one with less discrimination and prejudice as shown by the article's quantitative and qualitative results.

  6. Progress and challenges in maternal health in western China: a Countdown to 2015 national case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiu Gao, PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: China is one of the few Countdown countries to have achieved Millennium Development Goal 5 (75% reduction in maternal mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to examine the health systems and contextual factors that might have contributed to the substantial decline in maternal mortality between 1997 and 2014. We chose to focus on western China because poverty, ethnic diversity, and geographical access represent particular challenges to ensuring universal access to maternal care in the region. Methods: In this systematic assessment, we used data from national census reports, National Statistical Yearbooks, the National Maternal and Child Health Routine Reporting System, the China National Health Accounts report, and National Health Statistical Yearbooks to describe changes in policies, health financing, health workforce, health infrastructure, coverage of maternal care, and maternal mortality by region between 1997 and 2014. We used a multivariate linear regression model to examine which contextual and health systems factors contributed to the regional variation in maternal mortality ratio in the same period. Using data from a cross-sectional survey in 2011, we also examined equity in access to maternity care in 42 poor counties in western China. Findings: Maternal mortality declined by 8·9% per year between 1997 and 2014 (geometric mean ratio for each year 0·91, 95% CI 0·91–0·92. After adjusting for GDP per capita, length of highways, female illiteracy, the number of licensed doctors per 1000 population, and the proportion of ethnic minorities, the maternal mortality ratio was 118% higher in the western region (2·18, 1·44–3·28 and 41% higher in the central region (1·41, 0·99–2·01 than in the eastern region. In the rural western region, the proportion of births in health facilities rose from 41·9% in 1997 to 98·4% in 2014. Underpinning such progress was the Government's strong commitment to long

  7. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief introduction, Chapter 2 discusses some economic aspects of climate change. This in turn will serve as a good guide to pursuing the case study for CO 2

  8. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiliang Zhang; Shuhua Gu; Wenqiang Liu; Lin Gan

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analysed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (Author)

  9. The Development of Creative Tourism in China: The Case Studies of Hangzhou, Xiamen and Qingdao

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jingyao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the application of creativity has referred to each field including tourism industry. Based on the idea of creativity, creative industry has showed its importance for economic growth. Western countries paid earlier attention to the potential of creativity and creative industry, while developing countries such as China also found out the possibility of usage of creativity. On the other hand, as an extension of cultural tourism, creative tourism adopts creativity into the touris...

  10. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiliang; Liu Wenqiang; Gu Shuhua; Gan Lin

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analyzed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (author)

  11. Religious diversity and patrimonialization A case study of the Nianli Festival in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the neologism ‘intangible cultural heritage’ in 2003 and the adoption of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People’sRepublic of China in 2011 various popular religious practices in China which used to be considered as feudal superstitions started to be recognized as examples of cultural heritage worthy of protection. If we examine the concept of religious diversity at a local level in contemporary China, the process of a ‘patrimonialization’ of popular religious practices that reflect the dynamic relationships which can be detected across diverse discourses, multiple stakeholders and cultural policies in different arenas could offer us a new perspective on religious practices to explore. In this article I offer an analysis, based on fieldwork conducted between 2013 and 2016 on the Leizhou Peninsula in southern China’s Guangdong Province, of the varying degrees of acceptance, accommodation and resistance prompted by the actualization of popular religious practices in this era of patrimonialization.

  12. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-01-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUE PAR ) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security

  13. Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Bao, L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To study the associations between dorm environment and occupants' health, a nested case-control study on 348 college students was carried out in 2006-2007 at Tianjin University, China. Two hundred and twenty-three dorm rooms where the 'cases' and 'controls' resided were inspected. Measured...... the window) for wheezing was 3.56 [95% Confident Interval (CI): 1.56-8.14] and for rhinitis 2.81 (95% CI: 1.32-5.97). The AOR of a low air change rate (below the median value of 0.7/h) for wheezing was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.38-3.75) and for dry cough 2.26 (95% CI: 1.08-4.75). The prevalence of students...... with allergic symptoms in dorm rooms decreased with increasing ventilation rate. The combination of a 'localized moldy/moisture indicator' and a low air change rate significantly increased the AOR of case status to 13.35 (95% CI: 3.73-47.83), compared to the reference condition with no-dampness and high...

  14. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shurong; Qian, Yun; Huang, Xingyu; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie; Han, Renqiang; Su, Jian; Du, Wencong; Zhou, Jinyi; Dong, Meihua; Yu, Xiaojin; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B van; Kampman, Ellen; Wu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  15. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818. Controls (n = 935, selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  16. Shifting Patterns of the HIV Epidemic in Southwest China: A Case Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The HIV epidemic is experiencing a rapid shift in transmission profile in China. This study aims to examine the changes in magnitude, transmission pattern, and trend of the HIV epidemic in a typical Southwest Chinese prefecture over the period of 1995-2012. HIV surveillance data from the web-based reporting system were analyzed during this period. We investigated the temporal trends in the changing characteristics of HIV transmission, the HIV disease burden in key affected populations, and assessed the impacts on HIV disease progression due to scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. A total of 3556 HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Yuxi prefecture, Yunnan, over the study period. The number of HIV tests conducted has dramatically increased from 1041 in 1995 to 247,859 in 2012, resulting in a substantial increase in HIV diagnoses from 11 cases to 327 cases over the same period. Since 2005, cumulatively 1250 eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received combination antiretroviral therapy which reduced AIDS disease progression from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7-11.4%) in 1995 to 0.1% (0-0.3%) in 2012 (ptrend=0.0002). The primary mode of HIV transmission has been shifted from injection sharing (71.9% diagnoses in 1995-2004) to unsafe sexual contacts (82.6% diagnoses in 2012). Yuxi prefecture is experiencing a concentrated but shifting HIV epidemic. Scale-up of HIV testing is essential to effective sentinel surveillance and enhancing early diagnosis and treatment in PLHIV.

  17. Cross-Cultural Communication in Teacher Education: A Case Study of an Australian Pre-Service Teacher Placement in Liaoning, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aijing; Cooper, Maxine; Golding, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the experiences and reflections of four fourth year pre-service teachers from Federation University Australia who completed their three-week teaching placement in Anshan, Liaoning Province, China, in April 2014. The study also explores the perspectives and opinions of both the Chinese mentor teachers and Chinese…

  18. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  19. Serum carotenoids and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-10-01

    Previous epidemiological studies on the association between circulating carotenoids and the risk of colorectal cancer drew inconclusive conclusions. This study aimed to examine serum carotenoids in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. One case-control study beginning from July 2010, consecutively recruited 538 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 564 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were detected by HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence internal (CI) after adjusting for various confounders. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted ORs of the highest quartile relative to the lowest quartile serum level were 0.49 (95% CIs 0.33-0.72) for α-carotene, 0.44 (95% CIs 0.29-0.66) for β-cryptoxanthin, and 0.36 (95% CIs 0.24-0.54) for lycopene, respectively. The association between serum β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant. The results indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer was associated with lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene among Chinese population residing in Guangdong. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Traditional Cantonese diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a large-scale case-control study in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei-Hua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is rare in most parts of the world but is a common malignancy in southern China, especially in Guangdong. Dietary habit is regarded as an important modifier of NPC risk in several endemic areas and may partially explain the geographic distribution of NPC incidence. In China, rapid economic development during the past few decades has changed the predominant lifestyle and dietary habits of the Chinese considerably, requiring a reassessment of diet and its potential influence on NPC risk in this NPC-endemic area. Methods To evaluate the association between dietary factors and NPC risk in Guangdong, China, a large-scale, hospital-based case-control study was conducted. 1387 eligible cases and 1459 frequency matched controls were recruited. Odds ratios (ORs and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, dialect, and habitation household type. Results Observations made include the following: 1 consumption of canton-style salted fish, preserved vegetables and preserved/cured meat were significantly associated with increased risk of NPC, with enhanced odds ratios (OR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.03-2.94, 3.17(95% CI: 2.68-3.77 and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.22-3.60 respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum during childhood; 2 consumption of fresh fruit was associated with reduced risk with a dose-dependent relationship (p = 0.001; and 3 consumption of Canton-style herbal tea and herbal slow-cooked soup was associated with decreased risk, with ORs of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68-1.03 and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.72 respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum. In multivariate analyses, these associations remained significant. Conclusions It can be inferred that previously established dietary risk factors in the Cantonese population are still stable and have contributed to the incidence of NPC.

  1. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  2. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  3. Wind energy technology development and diffusion. A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiliang; Gu Shuhua; Liu Wenqiang; Lin Gan

    1999-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China, with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts and relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building and international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development and analysing the role of alternative policy instruments, the major constraints of wind technology development are analysed and relevant policy recommendations are given. 12 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Obstetrical Disease Spectrum in China: An Epidemiological Study of 111,767 Cases in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Luo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of some obstetrical diseases is still high in the mainland of China. The CS rate is much higher than World Health Organization recommendations, in which CS delivery by maternal request (CDMR accounted for a large proportion. The government should propose solutions to reduce CS rate, especially the rate of CDMR. Most obstetrical complications have higher incidence in tertiary hospitals compared with secondary hospitals. It is important to manage the health of pregnant women systematically, especially those with high-risk factors.

  5. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  6. Assessing the value of retrofitting cement plants for carbon capture: A case study of a cement plant in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xi; Li Jia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A techno-economic analysis on retrofitting cement plants to CO 2 capture is conducted. ► A list of criteria is suggested to investigate the CO 2 capture retrofit potential in cement plants. ► The baseline estimated cost of CO 2 avoidance for retrofitting a cement plant is US$70/tCO 2 e. ► The value of retrofit option is US$1.2 million with a 7.3% probability of economic viability. ► The retrofit option value reaches US$20 m with 67% probability under a high carbon price growth. - Abstract: The cement manufacturing sector is the second largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the most important technologies to decarbonise the cement manufacturing process. China has accounted for more than half of global cement production since 2008. This study suggests criteria to assess the potential to retrofit cement plants and analyses the economics of retrofitting cement plants for CCS with a case study of a modern dry process cement plant locating in Guangdong province, China. The study assumes the extra heat and power for CO 2 capture and compression is provided by a new 200 MW combined heat and power unit (CHP) (US$17.5/MW h thermal for the cost of coal). The estimated cost of CO 2 avoidance by retrofitting a cement plant for carbon capture in 2012 is US$70/tonne at a 14% discount rate with 25 years remaining lifetime. Through a stochastic cash flow analysis with a real option model and Monte Carlo simulation, the study found the value of an option to retrofit to be US$1.2 million with a 7.3% probability of economic viability. The estimate is very sensitive to the assumptions in the carbon price model (i.e. base carbon price is US$12.00/tCO 2 e in 2012 and the mean growth rate is 8%). The option value and the probability can reach US$20 million and 67% respectively, if a 10% mean carbon price growth is assumed. Compared with post-combustion carbon capture retrofitting prospect in

  7. Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yin, Kunlong; Cao, Ying; Ahmed, Bayes; Li, Yuanyao; Catani, Filippo; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    Landslide is a common natural hazard and responsible for extensive damage and losses in mountainous areas. In this study, Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China was taken as a case study for landslide susceptibility assessment in order to develop effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies. To begin, 202 landslides were identified, including 95 colluvial landslides and 107 rockfalls. Twelve landslide causal factor maps were prepared initially, and the relationship between these factors and each landslide type was analyzed using the information value model. Later, the unimportant factors were selected and eliminated using the information gain ratio technique. The landslide locations were randomly divided into two groups: 70% for training and 30% for verifying. Two machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a multivariate statistical model: the logistic regression (LR), were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling (LSM) for each type. The LSM index maps, obtained from combining the assessment results of the two landslide types, were classified into five levels. The performance of the LSMs was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve and Friedman test. Results show that the elimination of noise-generating factors and the separated modeling of each landslide type have significantly increased the prediction accuracy. The machine learning models outperformed the multivariate statistical model and SVM model was found ideal for the case study area.

  8. Objectives and Indexes for Implementation of Sponge Cities—A Case Study of Changzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhao Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of objectives and indexes for sponge cities implementation in China. The proposed objectives and indexes aims to reflect whether the city is in accord with the sponge city. Different cities have different objectives and indexes as each city has its own geologic and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, the main problems (e.g., water security and flood risks in the central urban area of Changzhou city, China were evaluated scientifically. According to the local conditions, four objectives and eleven indexes have been made as a standard to estimate the sponge city and set a goal for the city development to reach the goal of sustainable urban development. The strategy of process control was implemented to improve the standard of urban drainage and flood control facilities, regulate total runoff and reduce storm peak flow, and the ecological monitoring of the function of the rivers and lakes. The objectives of sponge cities include water security, water quality improvement, healthy water ecosystems, and water utilization efficiency. Urban flood prevention capacity, river and lake water quality compliance, and annual runoff control are the key objectives to encourage the use of non-conventional water resources.

  9. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  10. [A case of human highly pathogenic avian influenza in Shenzhen, China: application of field epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xiang; Cheng, Jin-Quan; Ma, Han-Wu; He, Jian-Fan; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Jiang, Li-Juan; Mou, Jin; Wu, Chun-Li; Lv, Xing; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Ya-De; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Xin

    2008-03-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of a case with human avian influenza and the effects of field epidemiological study. An emergency-response-system was started up to follow the probable human Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza case initially detected by the "Undefined Pneumonia Surveillance System of Shenzhen". Public health professionals administered several epidemiologic investigations and giving all the contacts of the patient with a 7-day-long medical observation for temporally related influenza-like illness. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers for H5 and N1 was applied to test respiratory tract samples and/or throat swabs of the patient and all his contacts specific for the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A H5N1. Activities and strategies such as media response,notification in the public, communications with multiple related sectors, social participation and information exchange with Hong Kong were involved in field control and management. The patient was a male, 31 years old,with an occupation as a truck driver in a factory,and had been residing in Shenzhen for 7 years. Started with an influenza-like syndrome, the patient received treatment on the 4th day of the onset, from a clinic and on the 6th day from a regular hospital. On the 8th day of the disease course, he was confirmed by Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention as human avian flu case and was then transferred to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the 83rd day of commence, the patients was healed and released from the hospital. The patient had no significant exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from the illness before the onset of the disease. The patient and five family members lived together, but no family member was affected and no contact showed positive results for H5N1. A small food market with live poultry, which was under formal supervision and before illness the patient once visited, located near his apartment. Totally, 35 swabs from live

  11. ESD and Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of the Shangri-La Institute's Current Engagement with the Bazhu Community in Diqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that ESD should be integrated into lifelong learning and provides an example of how this might be done. It draws on a case study of a joint project between the Shangri-la Institute and the Bazhu community in Diqing, southwest China, to analyse a community-based approach to Education for Sustainable Development and assess its…

  12. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  13. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  14. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: A case study in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Ma, W.C.; Chen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10 -4 , 10 -5 -10 -4 and 10 -6 -10 -5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10 -6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.

  15. Nested case-control study on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted based on 106517 subjects. 98 cases that died of NPC were detected during a follow-up program for 9 years. Univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression were used to analyze associations between the exposure factors and NPC. Results: Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels, salted fish intake, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study was 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion: Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC

  16. Association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in China: A multicity case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Xu, Yan; Huang, Zhe; Huang, Chao; Hu, Yonghua; Zhang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and stroke, but few studies have investigated the association in developing countries. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between levels of ambient air pollutants and hospital admission for stroke in China. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 14 large Chinese cities among 200,958 ischemic stroke and 41,746 hemorrhagic stroke hospitalizations. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the percentage changes in stroke admissions in relation to interquartile range increases in air pollutants. Air pollution was positively associated with ischemic stroke. A difference of an interquartile range of the 6-day average for particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone corresponded to 0.7% (95% CI: 0%, 1.4%), 1.6% (95% CI: 1.0%, 2.3%), 2.6% (95% CI: 1.8%, 3.5%), 0.5% (95% CI: -0.2%, 1.1%), and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3%, 2.3%) increases in ischemic stroke admissions, respectively. For hemorrhagic stroke, we observed the only significant association in relation to nitrogen dioxide on the current day (percentage change: 1.6%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 2.9%). Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the effect of ambient air pollution on stroke in developing countries. Our findings may have significant public health implications for primary prevention of stroke in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: a case study of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; van der Voet, Ester

    2011-06-01

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  19. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yuyao; Zhang Bingjian; Liang Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability

  20. Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuncheng; Shi, Longyu

    2017-02-01

    Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes. Since 2011, most areas of China have been affected by frequent smog. Most research on smog has been concentrated on its causes, alert systems, and prevention measures, whereas in-depth research on the public perception of smog has not yet been conducted. When a risky environmental event such as smog occurs, consequences may be more serious than the event itself will cause if people take irrational measures because of lacking relevant knowledge. Therefore, investigating people's attitude and response to smog is both theoretically and practically significant.

  1. Being left-behind, mental disorder, and elderly suicide in rural China: a case-control psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wang, Guojun; Jia, Cunxian; Ma, Zhenyu

    2018-04-25

    Suicide rate among rural elderly is the highest among all age groups in China, yet little is known about the suicide risks in this rapidly growing vulnerable population. This matched case-control psychological autopsy study was conducted during June 2014 to September 2015. Consecutive samples of suicides aged 60 or above were identified in three provinces (Shandong, Hunan, and Guangxi) in China. Living comparisons were 1:1 matched with the suicides in age (±3 years old), gender, and living location. Risk factors included demographic characteristics, being left-behind, mental disorder, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and social support. A total of 242 suicides and 242 comparisons were enrolled: 135 (55.8%) were male, mean (s.d.) age was 74 (8) years. The most frequently used suicide means were pesticides (125, 51.7%) and hanging (95, 39.3%). Independent risks of suicide included unstable marital status [odds ratio (OR) 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-10.92], unemployed (compared with employed, OR 4.43, 95% CI 1.09-17.95), depressive symptoms (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48), and mental disorder (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.75-22.54). Structural equation model indicated that the association between being left-behind and suicide was mediated by mental disorder, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and social support. Unstable marital status, unemployed, depressive symptoms, and mental disorder are independent risk factors for suicide in rural elderly. Being left-behind can elevate the suicide risk through increasing life stresses, depressive symptoms, mental disorder, and decreasing social support. Elderly suicide may be prevented by restricting pesticides, training rural physicians, treating mental disorders, mitigating life stress, and enhancing social connection.

  2. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-05-23

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved.

  3. Optimal river monitoring network using optimal partition analysis: a case study of Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Chunyue; Rong, Luge; Wang, Xiaoxu; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-09

    River monitoring networks play an important role in water environmental management and assessment, and it is critical to develop an appropriate method to optimize the monitoring network. In this study, an effective method was proposed based on the attainment rate of National Grade III water quality, optimal partition analysis and Euclidean distance, and Hun River was taken as a method validation case. There were 7 sampling sites in the monitoring network of the Hun River, and 17 monitoring items were analyzed once a month during January 2009 to December 2010. The results showed that the main monitoring items in the surface water of Hun River were ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand. After optimization, the required number of monitoring sites was reduced from seven to three, and 57% of the cost was saved. In addition, there were no significant differences between non-optimized and optimized monitoring networks, and the optimized monitoring networks could correctly represent the original monitoring network. The duplicate setting degree of monitoring sites decreased after optimization, and the rationality of the monitoring network was improved. Therefore, the optimal method was identified as feasible, efficient, and economic.

  4. Building capacity for health promotion--a case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kwok-Cho; Nutbeam, Don; Kong, Lingzhi; Wang, Ruotao; Yan, Jun

    2005-09-01

    During the period 1997-2000 a technical assistance project to build capacity for community-based health promotion was implemented in seven cities and one province in China. The technical assistance project formed part of a much larger World Bank supported program to improve disease prevention capabilities in China, commonly known as Health VII. The technical assistance project was funded by the Australian Agency for International Development. It was designed to develop capacity within the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the cities and province in the management of community-based health promotion projects, as well as supporting institutional development and public health policy reform. There are some relatively unique features of this technical assistance which helped shape its implementation and impact. It sought to provide the Chinese MOH and the cities and province with an introduction to comprehensive health promotion strategies, in contrast to the more limited information, education and communication strategies. The project was provided on a continuing basis over 3 years through a single institution, rather than as a series of ad hoc consultancies by individuals. Teaching and learning processes were developmental, leading progressively to a greater degree of local Chinese input and management to ensure sustainability and maintenance of technical support for the project. Based on this experience, this paper presents a model for capacity building projects of this type. It describes the education, training and planning activities that were the key inputs to the project, as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project. It describes how the project evolved over time to meet the changing needs of the participants, specifically how the content of the project shifted from a risk-factor orientation to a settings-based focus, and the delivery of the project moved from an expert-led approach to a more participatory, problem based learning approach. In

  5. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  6. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from China's cities: Case study of Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunxia; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Rongrong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors driving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is crucial to mitigating China's anthropogenic emissions. In this paper, the main drivers increasing GHG emissions from the Chinese city of Suzhou between 2005 and 2010 were identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Kaya identity and the log-mean Divisia index method. We found that economy and population were the major drivers of GHG emissions in Suzhou, having contributed 162.20% and 109.04%, respectively, to the increase in emissions. A decline in carbon intensity, which was caused by the declining energy intensity and an adjustment to the mixture of power and industrial structures, was the major determinant and accounted for a reduction of 171.24% in GHG emissions. Slowing and maintaining healthy growth rates of economy and population could be the primary and most effective means if Suzhou tries to curb the total emissions over the short term. It may be more realistic for Suzhou to control emissions by optimizing the economic structure for low-carbon industrial development because of the city's relative high energy requirements and low potential to mitigate GHGs by adjusting the energy mixture. - Highlights: • Per capita carbon emissions in Suzhou kept stable at 15 tons/year during period 2005–2010. • Slowing down growth rates of GDP and population could effectively control Suzhou's emissions. • Low carbon development policies were also recommended for other Chinese cities

  7. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  8. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  9. Integrated response toward HIV: a health promotion case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Wang, Debin; Yang, Sen; Duan, Mingyue; Bu, Pengbin; Green, Andrew; Zhang, Xuejun

    2011-06-01

    Integrated HIV response refers to a formalized, collaborative process among organizations in communities with HIV at-risk populations. It is a both comprehensive and flexible scheme, which may include community-based environment promotion, skill coalition, fund linkage, human resource collaboration and service system jointly for both HIV prevention and control. It enables decisions and actions responds over time. In 1997, the Chinese government developed a 10-year HIV project supported by World Bank Loan (H9-HIV/AIDS/STIs). It was the first integrated STI/HIV intervention project in China and provides a unique opportunity to explore the long-term comprehensive STI/HIV intervention in a low-middle income country setting. Significant outcomes were identified as development and promotion of the national strategic plan and its ongoing implementation; positive knowledge, behavioral and STI/HIV prevalence rate change; and valuable experiences for managing integrated HIV/STI intervention projects. Essential factors for the success of the project and the key tasks for the next step were identified and included well-designed intervention in rural and low economic regions, unified program evaluation framework and real-time information collection and assessment.

  10. Regional Disparities in Emissions of Rural Household Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the emissions status of multiple rural areas from the perspective of a field survey and make up for the defects of the traditional emission cognition of single type of area. The basic data in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected through household questionnaire surveys, and emissions from rural household energy consumption were calculated in the paper. In addition, the grey relational analysis method was used to identify influential factors of emission disparities. The results show that the total emissions of the plain, loess tableland, and Qinling piedmont areas are 1863.20, 1850.43, and 2556.68 kg, respectively. Regional disparities in emissions of rural household energy consumption vary greatly. CO2 emissions are highest in the Qinling piedmont area, followed by the loess tableland area. For other emissions, there is no fixed order of the three areas, which suggests that disparities in emissions are connected with the dominant type of energy consumption. Diversification of energy use might not necessarily produce higher emissions, but the traditional biomass energy pattern does generate more emissions. The regional supply capacity of household energy is the original influence factor of disparities in emissions, and factors that influence these disparities are directly related to differences among farmers, followed by the age structure, educational background, income level, occupation, and so on.

  11. SUBTYPE COASTLINE DETERMINATION IN URBAN COAST BASED ON MULTISCALE FEATURES: A CASE STUDY IN TIANJIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In urban coast, coastline is a direct factor to reflect human activities. It is of crucial importance to the understanding of urban growth, resource development and ecological environment. Due to complexity and uncertainty in this type of coast, it is difficult to detect accurate coastline position and determine the subtypes of the coastline. In this paper, we present a multiscale feature-based subtype coastline determination (MFBSCD method to extract coastline and determine the subtypes. In this method, uncertainty-considering coastline detection (UCCD method is proposed to separate water and land for more accurate coastline position. The MFBSCD method can well integrate scale-invariant features of coastline in geometry and spatial structure to determine coastline in subtype scale, and can make subtypes verify with each other during processing to ensure the accuracy of final results. It was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Operational Land Imager (OLI images of Tianjin, China, and the accuracy of the extracted coastlines was assessed with the manually delineated coastline. The mean ME (misclassification error and mean LM (Line Matching are 0.0012 and 24.54 m respectively. The method provides an inexpensive and automated means of coastline mapping with subtype scale in coastal city sectors with intense human interference, which can be significant for coast resource management and evaluation of urban development.

  12. Subtype Coastline Determination in Urban Coast Based on Multiscale Features: a Case Study in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Ai, Y.; Zhu, H.

    2018-04-01

    In urban coast, coastline is a direct factor to reflect human activities. It is of crucial importance to the understanding of urban growth, resource development and ecological environment. Due to complexity and uncertainty in this type of coast, it is difficult to detect accurate coastline position and determine the subtypes of the coastline. In this paper, we present a multiscale feature-based subtype coastline determination (MFBSCD) method to extract coastline and determine the subtypes. In this method, uncertainty-considering coastline detection (UCCD) method is proposed to separate water and land for more accurate coastline position. The MFBSCD method can well integrate scale-invariant features of coastline in geometry and spatial structure to determine coastline in subtype scale, and can make subtypes verify with each other during processing to ensure the accuracy of final results. It was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) images of Tianjin, China, and the accuracy of the extracted coastlines was assessed with the manually delineated coastline. The mean ME (misclassification error) and mean LM (Line Matching) are 0.0012 and 24.54 m respectively. The method provides an inexpensive and automated means of coastline mapping with subtype scale in coastal city sectors with intense human interference, which can be significant for coast resource management and evaluation of urban development.

  13. Public Awareness of Drinking Water Safety and Contamination Accidents: A Case Study in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand public awareness about drinking water safety and water contamination accidents in rural areas of China, two rural counties of Hainan Province were selected as pilot sites for investigation. We explored the degree of public satisfaction with drinking water quality, public trust of drinking water safety, and public awareness about drinking water problems and solutions. The results showed that 80.3% of respondents were satisfied with the quality of their drinking water. About 78.8% of respondents paid special attention or comparatively high attention to drinking water quality and contamination accidents, especially regarding potential damage to the human body and health, the influence scope, and the causes of accidents. A total 52.4% of respondents solved drinking water problems by themselves; few respondents complained to the health department or called the local telephone hotline. Age and sex did not play significant roles in the degree of public satisfaction with water quality or in the public perception of water pollution accidents; however, residents in rural areas within a drinking water quality monitoring network were more satisfied with their drinking water quality and more aware of drinking water contamination accidents than in areas outside of such a network. Respondents with higher education levels had greater awareness than those with lower education levels with respect to water quality and water pollution accidents.

  14. Regional Cultural Enterprises and Cultural Markets in Early Republican China: The Motion Picture as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the motion picture from foreign amusement to local enterprise was primarily the result of transnational commercial activity linking investors, entrepreneurs, and entertainment professionals. Amid the ongoing urbanization of China’s early Republican period, the enterprises emerging from this activity became increasingly profitable and, as a result, film production and exhibition became regularized phenomena, rooted in identifiable genres and standardized approaches to engaging audiences within the immersive space of the theater. By the early 1920s, those closest to the nascent industry were eager to legitimize its power by portraying the medium as a tool for political and social reform. However, commercial strategies and aesthetics remained relatively undisturbed despite this progressive rhetoric. In geographic terms, motion picture–related enterprises and culture remained strongly regional: affected and constrained by the non-Chinese national industries operating in politically divided China, by competing forms of local popular culture, and by existing geographies of exchange and infrastructure. The early Republican “experimental” period in Chinese cinema was, from an enterprise-centered perspective, one of numerous coexisting subnational cultural centers and zones.

  15. Characterizing drought in terms of changes in the precipitation-runoff relationship: a case study of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Feng, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fu, Bojie

    2018-03-01

    The frequency and intensity of drought are increasing dramatically with global warming. However, few studies have characterized drought in terms of its impacts on ecosystem services, the mechanisms through which ecosystems support life. As a result, little is known about the implications of increased drought for resource management. This case study characterizes drought by linking climate anomalies with changes in the precipitation-runoff relationship (PRR) on the Loess Plateau of China, a water-limited region where ongoing revegetation makes drought a major concern. We analyzed drought events with drought durations ≥ 5 years and mean annual precipitation anomaly (PA) values ≤ -5 % during drought periods. The results show that continuous precipitation shifts are able to change the water balance of watersheds in water-limited areas, and multi-year drought events cause the PRR to change with a significantly decreasing trend (p runoff ratio decreased from 10 to 6.8 % during 1991-1999. The joint probability and return period gradually increase with increasing of drought duration and severity. The ecosystem service of water yield is easily affected by drought events with durations equal to or greater than 6 years and drought severity values equal to or greater than 0.55 (precipitation ≤ 212 mm). At the same time, multi-year drought events also lead to significant changes in the leaf area index (LAI). Such studies are essential for ecosystem management in water-limited areas.

  16. Application of HEC-RAS for flood forecasting in perched river-A case study of hilly region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Wang, Shuqian; Gan, Hong; Liu, Bin; Jia, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in small and medium rivers are seriously threatening the safety of human beings’ life and property. The simulation forecasting of the river flood and bank risk in hilly region has gradually become a hotspot. At present, there are few studies on the simulation of hilly perched river, especially in the case of lacking section flow data. And the method of how to determine the position of the levee breach along the river bank is not much enough. Based on the characteristics of the sections in hilly perched river, an attempt is applied in this paper which establishes the correlation between the flow profile computed by HEC-RAS model and the river bank. A hilly perched river in Lingshi County, Shanxi Province of China, is taken as the study object, the levee breach positions along the bank are simulated under four different design storm. The results show that the flood control standard of upper reach is high, which can withstand the design storm of 100 years. The current standard of lower reach is low, which is the flooding channel with high frequency. As the standard of current channel between the 2rd and the 11th section is low, levee along that channel of the river bank is considered to be heighten and reinforced. The study results can provide some technical support for flood proofing in hilly region and some reference for the reinforcement of river bank.

  17. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated

  18. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty — A case study of Dongying, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K., E-mail: zhangkaibetter@126.com; Li, Y.P., E-mail: yongping.li@iseis.org; Huang, G.H., E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca; You, L., E-mail: youli_ncepu@126.com; Jin, S.W., E-mail: jinshuwei2014@126.com

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. - Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed. • STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions. • STSP is applied to planning

  19. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty--A case study of Dongying, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; You, L; Jin, S W

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority-inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty — A case study of Dongying, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; You, L.; Jin, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. - Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed. • STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions. • STSP is applied to planning

  1. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  2. Coalbed methane accumulation and dissipation patterns: A Case study of the Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fu, Xuehai; Yang, Xuesong; Ge, Yanyan; Quan, Fangkai

    2018-07-01

    The Junggar Basin is a potential replacement area of coalbed methane (CBM) development in China. To improve the efficiency of CBM exploration, we investigated CBM accumulation and dissipation patterns of coal profiles located in the northwestern, southern, eastern, and central Junggar Basin based on the following criteria: burial depth, hydrogeological zone, CBM origin, CBM phase, and CBM migration type. We identified four types of CBM accumulation patterns: (1) a self-sourcing CBM pattern containing adsorbed gas of biogenic origin from shallow-depth coal within a weak runoff zone; (2) an endogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from the medium and deep coals within a stagnant zone; (3) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from deep coal within a stagnant zone; and (4) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed and free gas of thermogenic origin from ultra-deep coal within a stagnant zone. We also identified two types of CBM dissipation patterns: (1) shallow-depth coal within a runoff zone with mixed origin CBM; and (2) shallow and medium-deep coal seams with mixed origin CBM. CBM migration in low-rank coals was more substantial than that adsorbed in high-rank coal. CBM in shallow coal could easily escape, in the absence of closed structures or hydrogeological seals. CBM reservoirs occurred in deep coal where oversaturated gas may accumulate. Future exploration should focus on gas-water sealing structures in shallow coalbeds. CBM that occurred in adsorbed and free phases and other unconventional natural gas dominated by free gas in the coal stratum should be co-explored and co-developed.

  3. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  4. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2014-04-01

    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  5. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  6. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Ni, Minjie; Wang, Jun; Huang, Dongren; Chen, Huorong; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Mengyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P) to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas. PMID:27777951

  7. Case Study: Effects of a Partial-Debris Dam on Riverbank Erosion in the Parlung Tsangpo River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Edward Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two successive debris flows that deposited a total of 1.4 million m3 of sediment into the Parlung Tsangpo River in China in 2010. As a result of these deposits, a partial-debris dam was formed in the river. This dam rerouted the discharge in the river along one of the riverbanks, which supported a highway. The rerouted discharge eroded the riverbank and the highway eventually collapsed. To enhance our understanding of the threat posed by partial-debris dams, a field investigation was carried out to measure the discharge in the river and to collect soil samples of the collapsed riverbank. Findings from the field investigation were then used to back-analyze fluvial erosion along the riverbank using a combined erosion framework proposed in this study. This combined framework adopts a dam-breach erosion model which can capture the progressive nature of fluvial erosion by considering the particle size distribution of the soil being eroded. The results from the back-analysis were then evaluated against unique high-resolution images obtained from satellites. This case study not only highlights the consequences of the formation of partial-debris dams on nearby infrastructure, but it also proposes the use of a combined erosion framework to provide a first-order assessment of riverbank stability. Unique high-resolution satellite images are used to assess the proposed erosion framework and key challenges in assessing erosion are discussed.

  8. Spatial Evolution of Producer Service Sectors and Its Influencing Factors in Cities: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer service industries are an important feature in the current development of a metropolis. Researchers from different countries are increasingly concerned about location changes and the motives of producer service sectors in cities. Given the rapid development of producer service sectors in developing countries, this study examines changes in the distribution of producer service sectors over the past decade and factors influencing them in a case study using the city of Hangzhou in China. Results show that Hangzhou’s producer service sector is still mainly concentrated in the central business district (CBD. However, a distinct trend of diffusion to suburban areas was observed, which formed several secondary clusters on the periphery of the city. Locations of the CBD, sub-centers, and professional clusters of producer service sectors established by the government are the most important factors that affect the spatial distribution of producer service sectors. The main influencing factors for the spatial evolution of producer service sectors are: (1 the high development cost and residential suburbanization of the central areas of the city promote the development of producer service sectors toward the periphery; (2 city planning has guided the clustering of producer service sectors on the city’s CBD and secondary city centers; (3 city renewal has provided personalized and diversified development space for producer service sectors; (4 incentive policies introduced by the government, such as rentals, and taxes have enhanced the orderly aggregation of producer service sectors.

  9. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption for an freeway during its operation period: A case study for Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, DuoQi; Wang, DuanYi

    2016-01-01

    Freeways have become the main subject of energy conservation reviews in China because of their large energy consumption. Decomposition analysis has been widely applied in energy consumption studies. However, most studies have only analyzed the driving forces of energy consumption on the national level, and seldom at smaller levels, e.g. for departments like toll stations and maintenance centers. Based on the characteristics of the freeway operation period, this paper serves as a preliminary attempt at applying the logarithm mean Divisia index method I on the department level to analyze the energy consumption of freeways during the operation period. To elucidate the evolution of energy consumption during the operational period, the logarithm mean Divisia index analysis was performed to disentangle the energy consumption based on a real case in Guangdong from 2005 to 2013. The analyses establish that the traffic volume influences energy consumption. The results show that some departments can influence the total energy consumption. For example, the tunnels and toll stations are key factors that influence the total energy consumption of the whole road. The decomposition in the departments revealed that energy efficiency improvements caused by the use of alternate materials and energy-saving technologies mainly contributed to energy conservation. - Highlights: • Decomposition model was used to analyze energy consumption of freeway management. • This attempt finds the impact of traffic volume on management energy consumption. • Tunnels and toll stations mainly affect the management energy consumption. • Using alternate materials and energy-saving technology improved energy efficiency.

  10. Technology choice and CDM projects in China: case study of a small steel company in Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Shinji; Yonamine, Asaka; Jung, Tae Yong

    2006-01-01

    Corporate motives and strategies of both investing and hosting country affect the outcomes of a clean development mechanism (CDM) project-who introduces what technology to whom-and result in large differences in economic viability and the CO 2 emission reductions. This is particularly true for steel industry in which steel making consists of many detailed and complex processes, a given strategy could produce cumulative effects of the individual technologies used, leading to large energy savings overall. The objective of this study is to demonstrate some analytical methods that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of technology selection on the profit performance of CDM projects. Specifically, in this study we analyze a CDM project to introduce energy saving technology from Japan to a small steel manufacturer in China's Shandong Province, and conduct a simulation of the quantitative relationships between various technology options and profitability. Based on these results, we examine the environmental and economic significance of technology selection for CDM projects. To take this further, we then reconsider the profitability of a project as typical FDI activity (i.e., without the CDM), and by comparing this outcome with the CDM case, we clarify the significance and potential of the CDM

  11. Gender Gap in the National College Entrance Exam Performance in China: A Case Study of a Typical Chinese Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to investigate gender achievement gap in the National College Entrance Exam in a typical municipality in China, which is the crucial examination for the transition from high school to higher education in that country. Using ordinary least square model and quantile regression model, the study consistently finds that…

  12. Optical image modulation above the submarine bottom topography: a case study on the Taiwan Banks, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Jianyu; Li, Jing; Fu, Bin; Ma, Liming

    2003-05-01

    A possible mechanism to explain the correlation between submarine topography and the direct sunlight specially reflected from the sea surface with variable roughness caused by the bottom-current effect was suggested fifteen years ago by Henning et al. in International Journal of Remote Sensing, 9, 45-67, after comparing radar satellite image and Skylab satellite photograph of the North American east coast (Nantucket Shoals) with submarine relief features. A case study is carried out in the famous sand waves field located at the Taiwan banks of Taiwan Strait in August 1998. The TM images, either visible bands (TM1, TM2, TM3) or near infrared bands (TM4, TM5, TM7), shows submarine relief features for sand waves, with wavelength of 300 to 2000 meters, riding on the lager scale sand ridges and channel system. Sea truth data including 660 nm beam attenuation coefficient profiles were conducted in the same period. We compare signals of TM images, attenuation coefficient profiles, and sounding maps of the Taiwan Bands. The subsurface upwelling signals with contributions of the water column and the bottom, either estimated by single or quasi-single-scattering theory or revealed by the TM images after removing the contribution of direct sunlight reflected signals from sea surface, were too weak to distinguish the ridges and troughs of bedforms especially for red and near infrared bands. However, the direct sunlight specially reflected signals from the sea surface, approximately at same level in water-leaving reflectance not only for visible bands (TM1, TM2, TM3) but also for near infrared bands (TM4, TM5, TM7), was the major submarine bottom topography signals especially for those pixels towards the direction of the sun azimuth. Following a physical description for the lee waves appeared on free surface when the current flows round an underwater obstacle, the direct sunlight reflected signals related wave face slope, is dominated by the height and depth of sand waves and

  13. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  14. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru [Guangdong Inst. of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou (China); Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death ({+-}5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish

  15. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (±5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was

  16. Case Study on Incentive Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Retrofit in Coal-Fueled Power Plant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO2e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR of the project is only −0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO2, the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China.

  17. Case Study on Incentive Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Retrofit in Coal-Fueled Power Plant in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO2e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only −0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO2, the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China. PMID:23365532

  18. Examining the impacts of disaster resettlement from a livelihood perspective: a case study of Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuesong; Kapucu, Naim

    2018-04-01

    Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement. The results indicate that conflicts may occur during and after resettlement owing to the difference or disparity between the concerns of resettled peasants and those of the government. Consequently, the risks related to livelihoods need to be taken seriously. Effective risk communication is critical to bridge the gap between different stakeholders. The paper concludes with some practical and policy recommendations. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  19. Power Generation Expansion Optimization Model Considering Multi-Scenario Electricity Demand Constraints: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable and effective power planning contributes a lot to energy efficiency improvement, as well as the formulation of future economic and energy policies for a region. Since only a few provinces in China have nuclear power plants so far, nuclear power plants were not considered in many provincial-level power planning models. As an extremely important source of power generation in the future, the role of nuclear power plants can never be overlooked. In this paper, a comprehensive and detailed optimization model of provincial-level power generation expansion considering biomass and nuclear power plants is established from the perspective of electricity demand uncertainty. This model has been successfully applied to the case study of Zhejiang Province. The findings suggest that the nuclear power plants will contribute 9.56% of the total installed capacity, and it will become the second stable electricity source. The lowest total discounted cost is 1033.28 billion RMB and the fuel cost accounts for a large part of the total cost (about 69%. Different key performance indicators (KPI differentiate electricity demand in scenarios that are used to test the model. Low electricity demand in the development mode of the comprehensive adjustment scenario (COML produces the optimal power development path, as it provides the lowest discounted cost.

  20. Case study on incentive mechanism of energy efficiency retrofit in coal-fueled power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO(2)e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only -0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO(2), the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO(2) emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China.

  1. Does Private Tutoring Improve Students' National College Entrance Exam Performance?--A Case Study from Jinan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing attention on improving student achievement, private tutoring has been expanding rapidly worldwide. However, the evidence on the effect of private tutoring is inconclusive for education researchers and policy makers. Employing a comprehensive dataset collected from China in 2010, this study tries to identify the effect of…

  2. On Reflective Teaching of EFL Teachers in Local Universities of China--A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zou; Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Presently, China plays a vital role in the world. Therefore, Chinese passion for English has reached an unprecedented level. Nevertheless, various problems occur in EFL teaching. Thus, EFL teachers must make the teaching qualities better by reflective teaching, an effective way to improving EFL teaching. The paper is to study the definitions,…

  3. The Construct of Teachers' Pay Satisfaction: A Case Study of Primary and Secondary Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yonghong; Bi, Yan; Wang, Li; Cravens, Xiu Chen; Li, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    The construct of teachers' pay satisfaction is important to the systemic appraisal of teachers' compensation. The study aims to probe the components of teachers' pay satisfaction and verify this construct in primary and secondary schools in China. In-depth interviews with 24 teachers were conducted to propose a construct model for teachers' pay…

  4. Study on Karst Rock Desertification by Human-Nature Interaction: A Case Study of Fengshan County of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Su, C.; Zhang, R.; Shi, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Rocky desertification is a process of soil erosion leading to the bareness of bedrock, and is a kind of typical natural disaster in karst areas, which seriously constrains the developments of local society and economy. This paper studies the impact of human activities on the changes of rocky desertification. With the interpretation of remote sensing images of Fengshan County, GuangXi, China covering 1990, 1995 and 2005, this paper analyzes the relationship of the changes of social and economic index (including population density, agricultural population, rural per capital net income, and farmland) and the changes of rocky desertification in recent 15 years. The results indicate that: in recent 15 years, the average annual growth rate of rocky desertification, rate of change of population density, agricultural population, rural per capita net income, and farmland area are 8.7375 km2 /year, 0.7 person/km2.year, 1153 person/year, 85 Yuan/year, and -269.1 ha/year, respectively. The first three of social and economic indicators at different degrees of growth, show a positive correlation with rocky desertification change. However, farmland area, which has been diminishing, shows a negative correlation with rocky desertification. The influence of human activities for karst rocky desertification can be regarded as population growth - steep slope reclamation - the destruction of vegetation - erosion - rocky desertification - poverty.

  5. Opportunities and barriers for implementing CO2 capture ready designs: A case study of stakeholder perceptions in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Xi Liang; Cockerill, Tim; Gibbins, Jon; Reiner, David

    2012-01-01

    China has been building at least 50 gigawatt (GW) of new coal-fired power plants every year since 2004. In the absence of CO 2 capture ready (CCR) designs, a large fraction of new coal power plants built in the next decade could face ‘carbon lock-in’. Building on the existing engineering and economic literature on CO 2 capture ready, the aim of this study is to understand the opportunities and challenges in implementing CCR in China. In early 2010, opinion-leaders perceptions towards implementing CCR in Guangdong with two empirical phases are presented: an online consultation of 31 respondents (out of a sample of 82), three face-to-face focus group discussions including 16 officials from five power plants and two oil companies in the Guangdong province. A majority of respondents in the online survey were engineers. The survey results are compared with an earlier study of stakeholders’ views on demonstrating CCS in China, conducted in April 2009 as part of the EU–UK–China Near Zero Emissions Coal initiative (NZEC) project. - Highlights: ► Without national support, interests from project management and local government help deploy CCR. ► Space on-site and access to storage sites are two essential criteria. ► It is also necessary to investigate the local plant design conventions and regulations. ► Five potential barriers to implementing CCR are identified. ► Four potential drivers may accelerate the implementation of CCR.

  6. An analysis of energy strategies for CO2 emission reduction in China. Case studies by MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangya

    1994-12-01

    The China's energy system has been analyzed by using the MARKAL model in this study and the time period is from the year 1990 to 2050. The MARKAL model is applied here to evaluate the cost effective energy strategies for CO 2 emission reduction in China. Firstly the Reference Energy System (RES) of China and its database were established, and the useful energy demand was projected on the basis of China's economic target and demographic forecasting. Four scenarios, BASE1-BASE4 were defined with different assumptions of crude oil and natural uranium availability. Analytical results show that without CO 2 emission constrains coal consumption will continue to hold a dominant position in primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions in 2050 will be 9.55 BtCO 2 and 10.28 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Under the CO 2 emission constraints, nuclear and renewable energy will play important roles in CO 2 emission reduction, and feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction estimated by this study is 3.16 BtCO 2 in 2050. The cumulative CO 2 emission from 1990 to 2050 will be 418.25 BtCO 2 and 429.16 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Total feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction from 1990 to 2050 is 95.97 BtCO 2 . (author)

  7. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cooking and their speciation: A case study for Shanghai with implications for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lina; Jing, Shengao; Lou, Shengrong; Tao, Shikang; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Li, Li; Lin, Li; Chen, Ying; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Chen, Changhong

    2018-04-15

    Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens. VOC species profiles and their chemical reactivities have been determined. The results showed that 51.26%±23.87% of alkane and 24.33±11.69% of oxygenated VOCs (O-VOCs) dominate the VOC cooking emissions. Yet, the VOCs with the largest ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) were from the alkene and aromatic categories, accounting for 6.8-97.0% and 73.8-98.0%, respectively. Barbequing has the most potential of harming people's heath due to its significant higher emissions of acetaldehyde, hexanal, and acrolein. Methodologies for calculating VOC emission factors (EF) for restaurants that take into account VOCs emitted per person (EF person ), per kitchen stove (EF kitchen stove ) and per hour (EF hour ) are developed and discussed. Methodologies for deriving VOC emission inventories (S) from restaurants are further defined and discussed based on two categories: cuisine types (S type ) and restaurant scales (S scale ). The range of S type and S scale are 4124.33-7818.04t/year and 1355.11-2402.21t/year, respectively. We also found that S type and S scale for 100,000 people are 17.07-32.36t/year and 5.61-9.95t/year, respectively. Based on Environmental Kuznets Curve, the annual total amount of VOCs emissions from catering industry in different provinces in China was estimated, which was 5680.53t/year, 6122.43t/year, and 66,244.59t/year for Shangdong and Guangdong provinces and whole China, respectively

  9. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic uveitis in HIV-negative patients in China: A retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Yewen; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Zhiguo; Jia, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Syphilitic chorioretinitis should be included in differential diagnosis of any form of ocular inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with ocular syphilis as compared to HIV-negative cases have been reported in published studies. However, the clinical signs and symptoms are more insidious in HIV-negative patients who are easily misdiagnosed. We report a series of cases of ocular syphilis and describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic chorioretinitis in HIV-negative patients in China.This was a retrospective case series study. The clinical records of patients with syphilis chorioretinitis were reviewed. Demographic information and findings of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. All patients received the standard treatment. Ophthalmology examination and laboratory evaluation were repeated every 3 months. All changes were recorded. The treatment was considered successful if the patients had no inflammation in both eyes and rapid plasma reagin titer was negative after therapy.The study examined 41 eyes of 28 HIV-negative patients. The main complaints were blurry vision, floaters, and visual field defect. Twenty-seven eyes presented with panuveitis, and all had posterior involvement, including uveitis, vasculitis, chorioretinitis, and optic neuritis. The most common manifestations were uveitis and retinal vasculitis. Disc hyperfluorescence and persistent dark spots were the most common findings on FFA and ICGA. The ill-defined inner segment/outer segment junction was the most frequent manifestation on SD-OCT. Patients were diagnosed with syphilitic uveitis based on positive serological tests. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was improved in 34 eyes after treatment. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed before serological tests were performed. The delay in treatment

  10. Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and

  11. Effects of Urbanization on Landscape Patterns in a Mountainous Area: A Case Study in the Mentougou District, Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the process of urbanization in a mountainous area to seek a sustainable urbanization strategy. Previous urbanization research has mainly focused on flat terrain and coastal areas, and urbanization in mountainous areas remains poorly understood. This study integrated geographic information systems, remote sensing, and statistical analysis to quantify landscape patterns dynamics in response to urbanization, with a case study of Mentougou District in Beijing, China from 1985 to 2014. We found that the total built-up area increased along with the population and economic indicators. The built-up area increased by one-third over the study period, with 73.38% of the increase from converted cropland and 12.22% from converted orchard. The urban expansion area was concentrated in the plain sub-region (<200 m elevation, comprising 68.85% of the expansion area. The landscape patterns varied over this period. For the whole region, the low mountain sub-region and the high mountain sub-region, landscape patterns gradually became more heterogeneous and fragmented, but they showed the opposite trend in the plain sub-region. None of the urbanization indicators (population, economic and built-up land area were significantly correlated with landscape metrics for the whole region, but they were significantly correlated in the plain sub-region. The impacts of urbanization on landscape patterns were mainly focused on the plain sub-region, and the effects in the low mountain and high mountain sub-regions were weak. Future urban development in mountainous areas should focus on the protection of cropland and local industries as part of a sustainable development strategy for the whole region.

  12. Characterizing drought in terms of changes in the precipitation–runoff relationship: a case study of the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of drought are increasing dramatically with global warming. However, few studies have characterized drought in terms of its impacts on ecosystem services, the mechanisms through which ecosystems support life. As a result, little is known about the implications of increased drought for resource management. This case study characterizes drought by linking climate anomalies with changes in the precipitation–runoff relationship (PRR on the Loess Plateau of China, a water-limited region where ongoing revegetation makes drought a major concern. We analyzed drought events with drought durations  ≥  5 years and mean annual precipitation anomaly (PA values  ≤  −5 % during drought periods. The results show that continuous precipitation shifts are able to change the water balance of watersheds in water-limited areas, and multi-year drought events cause the PRR to change with a significantly decreasing trend (p < 0.05 compared to other historical records. For the Loess Plateau as a whole, the average runoff ratio decreased from 10 to 6.8  % during 1991–1999. The joint probability and return period gradually increase with increasing of drought duration and severity. The ecosystem service of water yield is easily affected by drought events with durations equal to or greater than 6 years and drought severity values equal to or greater than 0.55 (precipitation  ≤  212 mm. At the same time, multi-year drought events also lead to significant changes in the leaf area index (LAI. Such studies are essential for ecosystem management in water-limited areas.

  13. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  14. To what extent does wind power deployment affect vested interests? A case study of the Northeast China Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sufang; Zou, Yasheng; Yao, Jin

    2013-01-01

    China's wind power is in an embarrassing state. Along with its dramatic development since 2005, its curtailment ratio has been rising. Although this could be attributed to both physical and institutional factors, it is the institutional obstacles, mainly resulting from the adjustment difficulties of interests distribution, that have exercised a greater impact. The stakeholders relating to wind power integration are thermal power companies, grid companies and local governments. The extent to which wind power deployment affects these vested interests determines the core institutional obstacles to be addressed. Mainly based on quantitative and case analyses, we argue that currently wind deployment in China has a little impact on the interests of thermal companies, moderate impact on the interests of grid companies and great impact on local governments. We recommend that it is crucial to elevate the role of environmental protection and renewable energy increase while de-emphasize the role of economic growth in the evaluation of local governments’ performance, as well as provide incentives for grid companies to attend more to their social responsibilities rather than their scale expansion and revenue growth. - highlights: • China's wind deployment has little impact on the interests of thermal plants. • Wind deployment has limited impact on the interests of grid companies. • The taxation per year from a thermal plant is higher than from a wind farm. • Local economic growth is comparatively greatly affected by wind power. • It is crucial to induce local governments to be concerned about renewable energy increase

  15. Factors associated with low cure rate of tuberculosis in remote poor areas of Shaanxi Province, China: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongwei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The directly observed therapy-short course (DOTS strategy was introduced in Shaanxi province, China to improve tuberculosis (TB control by means of improved case detection (target: > = 70% and treatment success rates (target: > = 85% in new smear positive (SS+ TB patients. At a provincial level the targets were both reached in 2005. However in 30 (28% out of 107 counties of Shaanxi province the cure rate was below 85%. This study aimed to investigate patient and treatment characteristics associated with non-cure after tuberculosis (TB treatment in these counties. Methods In this case-control study, new smear positive TB cases in 30 counties with a cure rate Results Of the 659 patients included, 153 (23.2% did not have cure as treatment outcome. Interruption of treatment was most strongly associated with non-cure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI 3.9-18.4. Other independent risk factors were co-morbidity, low education level, lack of appetite as an initial symptom of TB disease, diagnosis of TB outside of the government TB control institutes, missing sputum re-examinations during treatment, and not having a treatment observer. Twenty-six percent of patients did not have a treatment observer. The non-cure rate was better for those with a doctor (odds ratio (OR 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.17-0.88 as treatment observer than for those with a family member (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.37-1.03. The main reason for interrupted treatment mentioned by patients was presence of adverse effects during treatment (46.5%. Conclusions Interruption of treatment was most strongly associated with non-cure. Although treatment observation by medical staff is preferred, in order to diminish the proportion of patients who do not have a treatment observer and thereby reduce the proportion of patients who interrupt treatment, we suggest making it possible for family members, after sufficient training, to be treatment observers in remote areas where it is logistically

  16. Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in...

  17. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief

  18. A model of destination image promotion with a case study of Nanjing, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Li; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    Destination image has long been a popular research topic in tourism studies. However, methods used to integrate image in real marketing practice and evaluating the market performance in a systematic way are still puzzling to practitioners. A destination image promotion model is proposed in this paper as an effort to solve the problem. The roles of some major factors...

  19. Human resilience in a degrading environment: A case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, A.J.; Yu, Z.R.; Vijver, van den F.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation were studied among 753 Chinese farmers. A good fit was found for a structural equation model postulating a relationship between various input variables (i.e. environmental degradation, socio-economic status, education, coping, and locus of control),

  20. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  1. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanshen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Methods Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. Results In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.004-1.071 for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168 for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065 and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195, respectively. Conclusion Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China.

  2. Evapotranspiration management based on the application of SWAT for balancing water consumption: A case study in Guantao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gan, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Rapid social and economic development results in increased demand for water resources. This can lead to the unsustainable development and exploitation of water resources which in turn causes significant environmental problems. Conventional water resource management approaches, such as supply and demand management strategies, frequently fail to restore regional water balance. This paper introduces the concept of water consumption balance, the balance between actual evapotranspiration (ET) and target ET, and establishes a framework to realize regional water balance. The framework consists of three stages: (1) determination of target ET and actual ET; (2) quantification of the water-saving requirements for the region; and (3) reduction of actual ET by implementing various water saving management strategies. Using this framework, a case study was conducted for Guantao County, China. The SWAT model was utilized to aid in the selection of the best water saving management strategy by comparing the ET of different irrigation methods and crop pattern adjustments. Simulation results revealed that determination of SWAT model parameters using remote sensing ET is feasible and that the model is a valuable tool for ET management. Irrigation was found to have a greater influence on the ET of winter wheat as compared to that of maize, indicating that reduction in winter wheat cultivation is the most effective way to reduce regional ET. However, the effect of water-saving irrigation methods on the reduction of ET was not obvious. This indicates that it would be difficult to achieve regional ET reduction using water-saving irrigation methods only. Furthermore, selecting the best water saving management strategy by relying solely on the amount of reduced ET was insufficient, because it ignored the impact of water conservation measures on the livelihood of the agricultural community. Incorporating these considerations with our findings, we recommend changing the current irrigation

  3. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  4. The dust retention capacities of urban vegetation-a case study of Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiwei

    2013-09-01

    Urban vegetation increasingly plays an important role in the improvement of the urban atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the dust retention capacities of four urban tree species (Ficus virens var. sublanceolata, Ficus microcarpa, Bauhinia blakeana, and Mangifera indica Linn) in Guangzhou. The dust-retaining capacities of four tree species are studied under different pollution intensities and for different seasons. Remote sensing imagery was used to estimate the total aboveground urban vegetation biomass in different functional areas of urban Guangzhou, information that was then used to estimate the dust-retaining capacities of the different functional areas and the total removal of airborne particulates in urban Guangzhou by foliage. The results showed that urban vegetation can remove dust from the atmosphere thereby improving air quality. The major findings are that dust retention, or capture, vary between the four species of tree studied; it also varied between season and between types of urban functional area, namely industrial, commercial/road traffic, residential, and clean areas. Dust accumulation over time was also studied and reached a maximum, and saturation, after about 24 days. The overall aboveground biomass of urban vegetation in Guangzhou was estimated to be 52.0 × 10(5) t, its total leaf area 459.01 km(2), and the dust-retaining capacity was calculated at 8012.89 t per year. The present study demonstrated that the foliage of tree species used in urban greening make a substantial contribution to atmospheric dust removal and retention in urban Guangzhou.

  5. The characteristics of bike-sharing usage : case study in Zhongshan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Tom; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Public bike systems have grown in popularity and are expanding rapidly across cities worldwide. Such systems provide access to pickup and drop-off public bikes at numerous bike stations for free or for an affordable fee and aim at increasing bike use and extending the accessibility of traditional public transport systems. A variety of studies have examined the characteristics of bike-sharing systems, mostly in American and European cities and with a focus on user demographics. The objective o...

  6. [Adaptability of APSIM model in Southwestern China: A case study of winter wheat in Chongqing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tong; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Zhang, Jian-ping; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    Field experimental data of winter wheat and parallel daily meteorological data at four typical stations in Chongqing City were used to calibrate and validate APSIM-wheat model and determine the genetic parameters for 12 varieties of winter wheat. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the simulated and observed growth periods from sowing to emergence, flowering and maturity of wheat. Root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between simulated and observed emergence, flowering and maturity were 0-3, 1-8, and 0-8 d, respectively. Normalized root mean squared errors (NRMSEs) between simulated and observed above-ground biomass for 12 study varieties were less than 30%. NRMSE between simulated and observed yields for 10 varieties out of 12 study varieties were less than 30%. APSIM-wheat model performed well in simulating phenology, aboveground biomass and yield of winter wheat in Chongqing City, which could provide a foundational support for assessing the impact of climate change on wheat production in the study area based on the model.

  7. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763 from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health, psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use and one adaption policy (increasing resilience brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  8. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  9. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  10. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar's East Asian foreign relations: case studies on China, Japan and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    Energy is an important factor in international relations and recently the global energy paradigm has been seen to be shifting towards the East. In light of such change, a comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar’ East Asian foreign relations will be conducted by taking China, Japan and South Korea as case studies. The research aimed to assess each of the bilateral relationship in terms of their origin and development in the energy sector generating an interpretation of their grow...

  12. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiji Huang

    Full Text Available Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare.To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma.A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85, 3.76 (2.30, 6.16, 4.89 (3.04, 7.89, 6.06 (3.27, 11.21, 6.99 (4.37, 11.19 and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21, respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80, 0.44 (0.27, 0.71, 0.41 (0.26, 0.64, 0.40 (0.24, 0.66, 0.30 (0.22, 0.41, 0.23 (0.14, 0.39 and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15, respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same.Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings.

  13. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  14. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  15. Impact of land cover and population density on land surface temperature: case study in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Yongbin; Ying, Shen; Yu, Zhonghai; Li, Zhen; Lan, Honghao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, the standard of living has improved, but changes to the city thermal environment have become more serious. Population urbanization is a driving force of residential expansion, which predominantly influences the land surface temperature (LST). We obtained the land covers and LST maps of Wuhan from Landsat-5 images in 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2009, and discussed the distribution of land use/cover change and LST variation, and we analyzed the correlation between population distribution and LST values in residential regions. The results indicated massive variation of land cover types, which was shown as a reduction in cultivatable land and the expansion of building regions. High-LST regions concentrated on the residential and industrial areas with low vegetation coverage. In the residential region, the population density (PD) had effects on the LST values. Although the area or variation of residential regions was close, lower PD was associated with lower mean LST or LST variation. Thus, decreasing the high-LST regions concentration by reducing the PD may alleviate the urban heat island effect on the residential area. Taken together, these results can provide supports for urban planning projects and studies on city ecological environments.

  16. Impacts of urbanization on regional nonpoint source pollution: case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaosha; Chen, Lei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-04-01

    Due to limits on available data, the effects of urban sprawl on regional nonpoint source pollution (NPS) have not been investigated over long time periods. In this paper, the characteristics of urban sprawl from 1999 to 2014 in Beijing were explored by analyzing historical land-use data. The Event Mean Concentration data have been collected from all available references, which were used to estimate the variation in urban NPSs. Moreover, the impacts of variation in urban sprawl on regional NPSs were qualified. The results indicated that the urbanization process showed different influences on pollutants, while COD and TN were identified as key NPS pollutants. Residential areas contributed more NPS pollutants than did roads, which played a tremendous role in the control of urban NPS. The results also suggested in part that the impact of urban sprawl on the variation of COD decreased while TN increased in Beijing during the study period. These results would provide insight into the impacts of urban sprawl on NPS variation over a long period, as well as the reference for reasonable urban planning directives.

  17. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  18. Characterization of Drought Development through Remote Sensing: A Case Study in Central Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawaid Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the applicability of remote sensing data for retrieval of key drought indicators including the degree of moisture deficiency, drought duration and areal extent of drought within different land cover types across the landscape. A Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI is devised, combining remotely sensed climate data to retrieve key drought indicators over different vegetation cover types and a lag-time relationship is established based on preceding rainfall. The results indicate that during the major drought event of spring 2010, Evergreen Forest (EF experienced severe dry conditions for 48 days fewer than Cropland (CL and Shrubland (SL. Testing of vegetation response to drought conditions with different lag-time periods since the last rainfall indicated a highest correlation for CL and SL with the 4th lag period (i.e., 64 days whereas EF exhibited maximum correlation with the 5th lag period (i.e., 80 days. Evergreen Forest, which includes tree crops, appears to act as a green reservoir of water, and is more resistant than CL and SL to drought due to its water retention capacity with deeper roots to tap sub-surface water. Identifying differences in rainfall lag-time relationships among land cover types using a remote sensing-based integrated drought index enables more accurate drought prediction, and can thus assist in the development of more specific drought adaptation strategies.

  19. Simulation of Urban Rainfall-Runoff in Piedmont Cities: A Case Study in Jinan City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, X.; Xu, Z.; Zhao, G.; Li, H.

    2017-12-01

    During the past decades, frequent flooding disasters in urban areas resulted in catastrophic impacts such as human life casualties and property damages especially in piedmont cities due to its specific topography. In this study, a piedmont urban flooding model was developed in the Huangtaiqiao catchment based on SWMM. The sub-catchments in this piedmont area were divided into mountainous area, plain area and main urban area according to the variations of underlying surface topography. The impact of different routing mode and channel roughness on simulation results was quantitatively analyzed under different types of scenarios, and genetic algorithm was used to optimize model parameters. Results show that the simulation is poor (with a mean Nash coefficient of 0.61) when using the traditional routing mode in SWMM model, which usually ignores terrain variance in piedmont area. However, when the difference of routing mode, percent routed and channel roughness are considered, the prediction precision of model were significantly increased (with a mean Nash coefficient of 0.86), indicating that the difference of surface topography significantly affects the simulation results in piedmont cities. The relevant results would provide the scientific basis and technical support for rainfall-runoff simulation, flood control and disaster alleviation in piedmont cities.

  20. Sustainable Urbanization Synergy Degree Measures—A Case Study in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urbanization emphasizes properly handling the relationships between people, people and society, and people and nature in the process of urban development. However, sometimes these interactions are difficult to quantify. Through an analysis of the structure and functions of the sustainable urbanization system, this paper introduced synergetic theory and constructed a sustainable urbanization synergy system (SUSS with five subsystems; demographic change, economic development, spatial structure, environmental quality, and social development; to study the synergistic development and orderly evolution trend of the sustainable urbanization composite system. Using sustainable urbanization in Henan province as an example, a mathematical quantitative model was established to measure the subsystem order degrees and the composite system synergy degree from 2006 to 2015. The results were consistent with the actual situation and indicated that over time, sustainable urbanization in Henan developed towards a more harmonious and orderly state, though the overall synergy degree was not high. It was found that the model was a sound basis for scientific judgment and effective decision-making when seeking to coordinate sustainable urbanization.

  1. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete, permeable pavement (bricks with round holes, shrub coverage (Buxus megistophylla Levl., lawns (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev, and roadside trees (Sophora japonica Linn. in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and soil moisture content (SMC. The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and

  2. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    industries in a systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies.

  3. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies.

  4. A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation - a case study in Shunde, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. We needed to select a group of indexes useful for land consolidation according to the concrete demand. In this paper, a fuzzy measure, which can describe the importance of a single feature or a group of features, is adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral that is based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. We obtained the optimal solution for a fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. The fuzzy integrals can be transformed to a set of linear equations. We applied the L1-norm regularization method to solve the linear equations, and we found a solution with the fewest nonzero elements for the fuzzy measure; this solution shows the contribution of corresponding features or the combinations of decisions. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land index system when preparing to conduct the research, such as we describe herein, on land consolidation. Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project provides the data for this work. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove

  5. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2017-04-01

    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  6. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  7. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pconflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  9. Entrepreneurship and Interracial Dynamics: A Case Study of Self-Employed Africans and Chinese in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Min; Xu, Tao; Shenasi, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Guangzhou is the most popular gateway city for African migration to China. Unlike stereotypical international migrants, Africans in Guangzhou are predominantly self-made entrepreneurs, doing business face-to-face with Chinese entrepreneurs who are predominantly internal migrants with truncated citizenship rights. African-Chinese encounters in local markets and residential neighborhoods offer a rare opportunity for studying interracial dynamics beyond the classic black-white dichotomy and trad...

  10. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  11. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

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    Gao Weimin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian

  12. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zemin; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Tang, Lili; Sun, Guiju; Tang, Yuntian; Xie, Yin; Wang, Shaokang; Hu, Xu; Gao, Weimin; Cox, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic

  13. Regional disparity and cost-effective SO2 pollution control in China: A case study in 5 mega-cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada, Momoe; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Yujiro; Togawa, Takuya; Geng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development, increasing sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission becomes a key environmental issue in China. To respond to this challenge, the Chinese government established a top-down scheme to reduce its SO 2 emissions. However, regional disparity and the associated cost differences brought uncertainties to the policy effectiveness and efficiency. Few studies focus on this field. Therefore, this study tries to fill such a gap by investigating the differences of SO 2 emissions, reduction potential, and cost-effectiveness through use of the GAINS-China model in five mega-cities in China, namely, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, and Hong Kong. A scenario analysis approach is employed, focusing on two technologies named flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and limestone injection (LINJ). Results demonstrated that a large SO 2 reduction potential exists, as well as a great disparity, among the five mega-cities. Chongqing had the largest reduction potential with lowest unit cost, while Beijng and Hong Kong showed the lowest reduction potential with higher unit cost. In Beijing and Shanghai, FGD and LINJ in the power generation sector had the larger reduction potential with the highest cost-effectiveness. However, in Chongqing, the industry sectors also had large reduction potentials. Finally, appropriate SO 2 control strategies and policies are raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • The cost-effectiveness of SO 2 control policy was analyzed in five mega-cities in China. • Reduction potential and cost-effectiveness were closely linked to regional disparity. • Beijing and Hong Kong showed lower reduction potential and higher marginal reduction cost. • Chongqing showed the largest reduction potential and the lowest marginal reduction cost

  14. Improving tuberculosis case detection in underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions with high disease burden: a case study of integrated control program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yan; Peng, Yong; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2017-11-29

    In the underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions of China, high tuberculosis (TB) burden and regional inequity in access to healthcare service increase the challenge of achieving the End TB goals. Among all the provinces, the highest TB burden is reported in Xinjiang, where ethnic minorities and older people have suffered most. However, current case-finding strategy is inadequate given the complex social determinants and suboptimal case detection rates. Thus, we developed an integrated TB control program to improve case detection and conducted a pilot in Xinjiang from 2014 to 2015. In this case study, we summarized the activities and key findings. We also shared the experiences and challenges of implementing interventions and provided recommendations to inform the TB control program in the future. The pilot interventions were implemented in one selected town in Yining based on local TB control programs. By applying tailor-made educational materials, outreach TB educational activities were conducted in diverse ways. In 22 Masjids, the trained imams promoted TB education to the Muslims, covering 20,440 person-times in 88 delivered preaching sessions. In seven schools, 1944 students were educated by the teachers and contributed to educating 6929 family members. In the village communities, 13,073 residents participated in household education and screening. Among them, 12,292 people aged under 65 years were investigated for suspicious pulmonary TB symptoms, where six TB patients were diagnosed out of 89 TB suspects; 781 older people were mobilized for screening directly by chest X-ray, where 10 patients were diagnosed out of 692 participants. Supportive healthcare system, multi-sectoral cooperation and multi-channel financing mechanism were the successful experiences of implementation. The interventions were proved to be more effective than the previous performance: the number of TB suspects consulting doctors and patients detected increased by 50% and 26%, respectively

  15. Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Junkun Niu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Yunnan Province, a southwestern highland region of China.In this nested case-control study, newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC cases in 2 cities in Yunnan Province and Crohn's disease (CD cases in 16 cities in Yunnan Province were recruited between 2008 and 2013. Controls were matched by geography, sex and age at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected using the designed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs.A total of 678 UC and 102 CD cases were recruited. For UC, various factors were associated with an increased risk of developing UC: dietary habits, including frequent irregular meal times; consumption of fried foods, salty foods and frozen dinners; childhood factors, including intestinal infectious diseases and frequent use of antibiotics; and other factors, such as mental labor, high work stress, use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and allergies (OR > 1, p 1, p < 0.05, whereas physical activity may have reduced this risk (OR < 1, p < 0.05.This study is the first nested case-control study to analyze the association between environmental factors and IBD onset in a southwestern highland region of China. Certain dietary habits, lifestyles, allergies and childhood factors may play important roles in IBD, particularly UC.

  16. Urban Boundary Extraction and Urban Sprawl Measurement Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images: a Case Study of China's Provincial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Ning, X.; Zhang, H.; Liu, Y.; Yu, F.

    2018-04-01

    Urban boundary is an important indicator for urban sprawl analysis. However, methods of urban boundary extraction were inconsistent, and construction land or urban impervious surfaces was usually used to represent urban areas with coarse-resolution images, resulting in lower precision and incomparable urban boundary products. To solve above problems, a semi-automatic method of urban boundary extraction was proposed by using high-resolution image and geographic information data. Urban landscape and form characteristics, geographical knowledge were combined to generate a series of standardized rules for urban boundary extraction. Urban boundaries of China's 31 provincial capitals in year 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were extracted with above-mentioned method. Compared with other two open urban boundary products, accuracy of urban boundary in this study was the highest. Urban boundary, together with other thematic data, were integrated to measure and analyse urban sprawl. Results showed that China's provincial capitals had undergone a rapid urbanization from year 2000 to 2015, with the area change from 6520 square kilometres to 12398 square kilometres. Urban area of provincial capital had a remarkable region difference and a high degree of concentration. Urban land became more intensive in general. Urban sprawl rate showed inharmonious with population growth rate. About sixty percent of the new urban areas came from cultivated land. The paper provided a consistent method of urban boundary extraction and urban sprawl measurement using high-resolution remote sensing images. The result of urban sprawl of China's provincial capital provided valuable urbanization information for government and public.

  17. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems, recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been considered a promising sustainable urban rail system, which is expected to further improve the energy efficiency and to reduce environmental pollution. The first commercial EDLC tram produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. has been applied at Guangzhou Metro Corp. recently. From the view point of scientific research, the system design and energy management of EDLC rail systems have been extensively studied in the literature, while the stationary charging station design for the EDLC energy storage-type urban rail vehicles has been rarely reported. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report a stationary charging station that has been successfully applied in the EDLC rail system produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China.

  18. Particle size distribution, chemical composition and meteorological factor analysis: A case study during wintertime snow cover in Zhengzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Qun; Yan, Qishe; Jiang, Nan; Wei, Junhua; Wei, Zhiyuan; Yin, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    There was a significant snowfall event in North China from November 23 to 25 in 2015. Considering that most of the bare surface and road dust were covered by snow, the effect of dust and soil could be ignored. Atmospheric particle samples were collected in Zhengzhou, China during a haze event from November 28 to December 4, 2015. To better understand the formation and evolution of this hazy event, the size distribution, particle number, composition of particles and meteorological parameters were measured and analyzed. Results show that the meteorological conditions played an important role in the occurrence and elimination of this event. The hourly fine particle matter (PM2.5) concentration was positively correlated with relative humidity (r = 0.84, p NH4+) on hazy days was higher than that on clean days. The higher NH4+ concentration in this case may be contributed by traffic and coal-power emission. Crustal matter accounted for 2.4% in PM2.5 on hazy days, and it confirmed that the contribution of dust emission source was negligible during this event. The ratios of NO3-/SO42 - ranging from 0.41 to 0.67 indicated the relative importance of stationary combustion. The ratios of OC/EC varied from 2.73 to 3.42 and indicated the presence of secondary organic carbon. Effective haze mitigation should enforce pollutant control measures for primary emission (dust) and secondary aerosol gaseous precursor (NH3, NO2 and SO2).

  19. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  20. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS ON SEEPAGE AND STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF EARTH-ROCK DAM: A CASE STUDY OF XIQUANYAN DAM IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing GUO

    2016-07-01

    . The earth-rock dam of Xiquanyan Reservoir near Harbin city in China is also selected as case study to illustrate the described method.

  1. Study of decision framework of offshore wind power station site selection based on ELECTRE-III under intuitionistic fuzzy environment: A case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunna; Zhang, Jinying; Yuan, Jianping; Geng, Shuai; Zhang, Haobo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel MCDM framework is applied to assist group decision in OWPS site selection. • The index system consisting of veto and evaluation criteria is constructed. • A case study is carried five sites in coastal areas of Shandong in East China. - Abstract: Offshore wind power projects have been rapidly proposed in China due to policy promotion. Site selection immensely decides the success of any offshore wind power development and is a complex multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. However, canonical MCDM methods tend to fail the site selection process due to the following three problems. Firstly, the compensation problem exists in information processing. Secondly, there exists the problem of incomplete utilization of decision information and information loss in the decision process. Thirdly, the interaction problem in the fuzzy environment is easy to be ignored. To deal with the above problems, this study builds a framework for offshore wind farm site selection decision utilizing Elimination et Choix Traduisant la Realité-III (ELECTRE-III) in the intuitionistic fuzzy environment. First of all, the comprehensive index system of OWPS site selection consisting of veto criteria and evaluation criteria is constructed. Then, the intuitionistic fuzzy set is used in the group decision for the decision makers to express the imperfect knowledge. Moreover, the generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric interaction averaging (GIFWGIA) operator is applied to deal with the interaction problem. Together with the likelihood-based valued comparisons, imprecise decision information is reasonably used and information loss problem is rationally avoided. Then a case of China is studied based on the proposed framework, demonstrating the site selection methodology valid and practical. This study implements evaluation method for offshore wind power site selection and also provides a theoretical basis for the development of offshore wind power

  2. Effects of External Digital Elevation Model Inaccuracy on StaMPS-PS Processing: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China

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    Yanan Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available External Digital Elevation Models (DEMs with different resolutions and accuracies cause different topographic residuals in differential interferograms of Multi-temporal InSAR (MTInSAR, especially for the phase-based StaMPS-PS. The PS selection and deformation parameter estimation of StaMPS-PS are closely related to the spatially uncorrected error, which is directly affected by external DEMs. However, it is still far from clear how the high resolution and accurate external DEM affects the results of the StaMPS-PS (e.g., PS selection and deformation parameter calculation on different platforms (X band TerraSAR, C band ENVISAT ASAR and L band ALOS/PALSAR1. In this study, abundant synthetic tests are performed to assess the influences of external DEMs on parameter estimations, such as the mean deformation rate and the deformation time-series. Real SAR images, covering Shenzhen city in China, are also selected to analyze the PS selection and distribution as well as to validate the results of synthetic tests. The results show that the PS points selected by the 5 m TanDEM-X DEM are 10.32%, 4.25% and 0.34% more than those selected by the 30 m SRTM DEM at X, C and L bands SAR platforms, respectively, when a multi-look geocoding operation is adopted for X band in the SRTM DEM case. We also find that the influences of external DEMs on the mean deformation rate are not significant and are inversely proportional to the wavelength of the satellite platforms. The standard deviations of the mean deformation rate difference for the X, C and L bands are 0.54, 0.30 and 0.10 mm/year, respectively. Similarly, the influences of external DEMs on the deformation time-series estimation for the three platforms are also slight, except for local artifacts whose root-mean-square error (RMSE ≥ 6 mm. Based on these analyses, some implications and suggestions for external DEMs on StaMPS-PS processing are discussed and provided.

  3. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private investment, which is important in initiating a PPP project. This study develops a robust model to determine the financing structure through considering the uncertainties in operation. A case study in Hangzhou demonstrates the process of the model. The relevant findings provide private investors and the local government with effective references for negotiating the financing structure of a PPP project.

  4. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  5. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

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    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  6. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  7. Daily extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on rice yield—A case study over the tropical island in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Luo, Wei; Li, Hailiang; Liu, Enping; Li, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    Frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on agricultural production. Tropical agriculture has been playing an important role in national economy in China. A precise understanding of variability in extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on crop yields are of great value for farmers and policy makers at county level, particularly in tropical China where almost all agriculture is rainfed. This research has studied observed trends in extreme precipitation indices (a total of 10) during 1988-2013 over Hainan island, tropical China. Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was adopted for trend detection and the results showed that most of precipitation indices showed increasing trend. Since rice is the most important staple food in Hainan island, the impacts of extreme precipitation indices on rice yields were also analyzed through simple correlations. In general, the rainy days and rain intensity in late rice growing season showed increasing trend over Hainan island. The rice yield presented ninth-degree polynomial technological trend at all stations and increasing trend for early rice yield. Late rice yield showed a decreasing trend in some parts of Hainan island. Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that the correlation was more pronounced between extreme precipitation indices and yields at Haikou site for early rice, and Haikou, Sanya, and Qionghai stations for late rice, respectively. Further results also indicated that there were statistically significant positive trends of R10 and R20 (number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm and precipitation ≥20 mm, respectively) from July to November at Haikou (located in north of Hainan island), and this positive trend may be a disadvantage for late rice yield. The cut-off value of extreme precipitation indices and its correlation with rice yield anomaly indices for Hainan island provided a foundation for vulnerability assessment as well as a contribution to set up

  8. Short-term effects of floods on Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong, China, 2007-2012: A time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-09-01

    This time-stratified case-crossover study aimed to quantify the impact of floods on daily Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases from 2007 to 2012 in Nanchong city of Sichuan Province, China. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at different lagged days, adjusting for daily average temperature (AT) and daily average relative humidity (ARH). A total of 370 JE cases were notified during the study period, with the median patient age being 4.2years. The seasonal pattern of JE cases clustered in July and August during the study period. Floods were significantly associated with an increased number of JE cases from lag 23 to lag 24, with the strongest lag effect at lag 23 (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52). Similarly, AT and ARH were positively associated with daily JE cases from lag 0 to lag 8 and from lag 0 to lag 9, respectively. Floods, with AT and ARH, can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in the study area. Based on the results of this study, recommendations include undertaking control measures before the number of cases increases, especially for regions with similar geographic, climatic, and socio-economic conditions as those in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  10. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  11. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  13. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  14. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  15. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  16. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic matter (SOM, pH, available phosphorus (avail. P, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al, and iron (Fe. These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

  17. Application of biochar to soil reduces cancer risk via rice consumption: a case study in Miaoqian village, Longyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar; Reid, Brian J; Li, Gang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of rice contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a major pathway for human exposure to PTEs. This is particularly true in China's so called "Cancer Villages". In this study, sewage sludge biochar (SSBC) was applied to soil (at 5% and 10%) to suppress PTE phytoavailability and as a consequence to reduce PTE levels in rice grown in mining impacted paddy soils. Risk assessment indicated that SSBC addition (10%) markedly (P≤0.05) decreased the daily intake, associated with the consumption of rice, of PTEs (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn by: 68, 42, 55, 29, 43, 38 and 22%, respectively). In treatments containing SSBC (10%) the health quotient (HQ) indices for PTEs (except for As, Cu and Mn) were iAs (AsIII+AsV) associated with the consumption of rice was significantly (P≤0.01) reduced by 66%. These findings suggest that SSBC could be a useful soil amendment to mitigating PTE exposure, through rice consumption, in China's "Cancer Villages". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  19. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618-1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  20. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  1. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-12-22

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  2. Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China: A case study of risk assessment in mega-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guyu; Xu, Pei; Zhu, Bangshang; Bai, Mengyu; Li, Daoji

    2018-03-01

    Microplastics, which are plastic debris with a particle diameter of less than 5 mm, have attracted growing attention in recent years. Its widespread distributions in a variety of habitats have urged scientists to understand deeper regarding their potential impact on the marine living resources. Most studies on microplastics hitherto are focused on the marine environment, and research on risk assessment methodology is still limited. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers, this study investigated river sediments in Shanghai, the largest urban area in China. Seven sites were sampled to ensure maximum coverage of the city's central districts, and a tidal flat was also included to compare with river samples. Density separation, microscopic inspection and μ-FT-IR analysis were conducted to analyze the characteristics of microplastics and the type of polymers. The average abundance of microplastics in six river sediment samples was 802 items per kilogram of dry weight. The abundance in rivers was one to two orders of magnitude higher than in the tidal flat. White microplastic spheres were most commonly distributed in river sediments. Seven types of microplastics were identified, of which polypropylene was the most prevailing polymers presented. The study then conducted risk assessment of microplastics in sediments based on the observed results, and proposed a framework of environmental risk assessment. After reviewing waste disposal related legislation and regulations in China, this study conclude that in situ data and legitimate estimations should be incorporated as part of the practice when developing environmental policies aiming to tackle microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Integrated Multi-Sensor Approach to Monitor Desert Environments by UAV and Satellite Sensors: Case Study Kubuqi Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lin, C. W.; vanGasselt, S.; Lin, S.; Lan, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Expanding deserts have been causing significant socio-economical threats by, e.g., hampering anthropogenic activities or causing decline of agricultural productivity. Countries in the Asian-Pacific regions in particular have been suffering from dust storms originating in the arid deserts of China, Mongolia and central Asia. In order to mitigate such environmental interferences by means of, e.g. combat desertification activities and early warning systems, the establishment of reliable desert monitoring schemes is needed. In this study, we report on a remote sensing data fusion approach to constantly and precisely monitor desert environments. We have applied this approach over a test site located in the Kubuqi desert located in Northeast China and which is considered to be a major contributor of dust storms today. In order to understand spatial and temporal trends of desertification, the planimetric distribution and 3D shape and size of sand dunes were reconstructed using Digital Terrain Models (DTM) derived from stereo observations made by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Based on this, the volumetric change of sand dunes was directly estimated through co-registered DTMs. We furthermore derived and investigated topographic parameters, such as the aerodynamic roughness length, the protrusion coefficient, the Normalized Difference Angular Index, and the phase coherence derived from spaceborne optical/synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing assets with the calibration index from UAV observation. Throughout such a multi-data approach, temporal changes of a target's environmental parameters can be traced, analyzed and correlated with weather conditions. An improved understanding of aeolian processes in sand deserts will be a valuable contribution for desertification combat activities and early warning systems for dust storm generation. Future research needs to be conducted over more extensive spatial and temporal domains, also by combining investigations on the

  4. Application of DNA Barcodes in Asian Tropical Trees--A Case Study from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-cui; Ci, Xiu-qin; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Within a regional floristic context, DNA barcoding is more useful to manage plant diversity inventories on a large scale and develop valuable conservation strategies. However, there are no DNA barcode studies from tropical areas of China, which represents one of the biodiversity hotspots around the world. A DNA barcoding database of an Asian tropical trees with high diversity was established at Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China using rbcL and matK as standard barcodes, as well as trnH-psbA and ITS as supplementary barcodes. The performance of tree species identification success was assessed using 2,052 accessions from four plots belonging to two vegetation types in the region by three methods: Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and BLAST. We corrected morphological field identification errors (9.6%) for the three plots using rbcL and matK based on Neighbor-Joining tree. The best barcode region for PCR and sequencing was rbcL (97.6%, 90.8%), followed by trnH-psbA (93.6%, 85.6%), while matK and ITS obtained relative low PCR and sequencing success rates. However, ITS performed best for both species (44.6-58.1%) and genus (72.8-76.2%) identification. With trnH-psbA slightly less effective for species identification. The two standard barcode rbcL and matK gave poor results for species identification (24.7-28.5% and 31.6-35.3%). Compared with other studies from comparable tropical forests (e.g. Cameroon, the Amazon and India), the overall performance of the four barcodes for species identification was lower for the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, possibly because of species/genus ratios and species composition between these tropical areas. Although the core barcodes rbcL and matK were not suitable for species identification of tropical trees from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, they could still help with identification at the family and genus level. Considering the relative sequence recovery and the species identification performance, we recommend the

  5. Environmental and socio-economic sustainability appraisal of contaminated land remediation strategies: A case study at a mega-site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinan; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Junli; O'Connor, David; Li, Guanghe; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Shupeng; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has become a global trend in the contaminated land remediation field. Growing numbers of countries have adopted GSR procedures published in regulatory and/or technical guidance. China is fast becoming one of the largest remediation markets in the world, and is beginning to engage with GSR. Among other efforts, a taskforce is currently developing the first Chinese technical standard on GSR. This paper presents the context positioning and development of a sustainable remediation assessment indicator set for China. This sustainability indicator set was formed based on existing sustainable remediation guidelines and literature. LCA was used to evaluate environmental impacts, and the results combined with social and economic appraisal via MCA. The indicator set was applied to a remediation 'mega-site' in China. The results showed that compared to excavation and landfill, an alternative treatment strategy of soil washing, thermal desorption and S/S brought about relatively less waste generation, better worker safety, and preferable local impacts, leading to higher scores in the environmental and social-economic domains. However, the social-economic scores were limited by a lack of public engagement. The results of the case study have shown that the indicator set is valid, with lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Public willingness to pay for CO2 mitigation and the determinants under climate change: a case study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zou, Liping; Lin, Tiansheng; Wu, Ying; Wang, Haikun

    2014-12-15

    This study explored the factors that influence respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO2 mitigation under climate change. A questionnaire survey combined with contingent valuation and psychometric paradigm methods were conducted in the city of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province in China. Respondents' traditional demographic attributes, risk perception of greenhouse gas (GHG), and attitude toward the government's risk management practices were established using a Tobit model to analyze the determinants. The results showed that about 55% of the respondents refused to pay for CO2 mitigation, respondent's WTP increased with increasing CO2 mitigation percentage. Important factors influencing WTP include people's feeling of dread of GHGs, confidence in policy, the timeliness of governmental information disclosure, age, education and income level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  8. Is college education an equalizer for social disparities in health literacy? A case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anning; Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to illustrate the immediate effect of the college education process (across college grades) on the strength of association between parental education and college attendees' health literacy. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on data from a random sample of students in one university in Shanghai, China ( N = 574). Exploratory factor analysis was used to generate factors of different dimensions of health literacy. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to investigate how college education process alters the family-based disparity in health literacy. The link between parental education and health-related skills did not vary significantly across grades of participants, but participants in their third ( p equalizer effect, nevertheless, is contingent on the particular dimensions of health literacy.

  9. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuirong, Wang; Zhaoping, Yang; Huaxian, Liu; Fang, Han; Wenjin, Xia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  10. Evaluating urban eco-tourism resources and environment: a case study in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Yin, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China has been selected as the study area. The overall status and the development conditions of resources and environment have been analyzed for the park. The eco-tourism resources and environment of Chenshan Botanical Garden were further evaluated synthetically by using expert analysis and questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation system including 16 indices has been initially established from three aspects of tourism resource element value, resource development condition and eco-environment condition. The characteristics of eco-tourism resources and the score of each indicator for Chenshan Botanical Garden have subsequently been generated. The results show that the comprehensive evaluation score of eco-tourism resources and environment for Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden is 72.06, which belongs to third level of excellent tourism resources and environment. Finally, five suggestions are proposed for future development of its eco-tourism resources and environment.

  11. Socioeconomic status is inversely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk: results from a population-based case-control study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Chen; Yuan, Ziyu; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Yuechan; Jin, Li; Lu, Ming; Chen, Xingdong; Ye, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected to influence the risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China, however, the evidence is still inconclusive and the selection of SES indicators remains inconsistent. In current study, we examined the association between SES and risk of ESCC based on a population-based case-control study in Taixing, China, with 1298 histopathology-confirmed cases and 1900 controls recruited between October 2010 and September 2013. Data on SES indicators was collected using a structured questionnaire. We constructed a composite wealth score based on the ownership of a series of household appliances and other variables by using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ESCC in association with SES indicators. SES was inversely associated with ESCC risk in current study. Higher education (secondary high school or above vs illiteracy, OR=0.60, 95%CI, 0.41-0.87), larger house area per person (>70 vs 5 years also had a lower ESCC risk. Whereas physical labor (very active vs sedentary, OR=1.69, 95%CI, 1.27-2.26) and larger families (≥6 vs <3 in household, OR=1.63, 95%CI, 1.30-2.03) increased the risk of ESCC. These findings confirm the strong inverse association between SES and ESCC risk. Future studies are needed to verify these findings and identify contributing factors underlying the observed associations. PMID:29467939

  12. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  15. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  17. A case study of the highly time-resolved evolution of aerosol chemical and optical properties in urban Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the chemical and optical properties of aerosols in urban Shanghai and their relationship were studied over a three-day period in October 2011. A suite of real-time instruments, including an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA, a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS, a nephelometer and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, was employed to follow the quick changes of the aerosol properties within the 72 h sampling period. The origin of the air mass arriving in Shanghai during this period shifted from the East China Sea to the northwest area of China, offering a unique opportunity to observe the evolution of aerosols influenced by regional transport from the most polluted areas in China. According to the meteorological conditions and temporal characterizations of the chemical and optical properties, the sampling period was divided into three periods. During Period 1 (00:00–23:00 LT, 13 October, the aerosols in urban Shanghai were mainly fresh and the single scattering albedo varied negatively with the emission of elemental carbon, indicating that local sources dominated. Period 2 (23:00 LT on 13 October to 10:00 LT on 15 October was impacted by regionally transported pollutants and had the highest particulate matter (PM mass loading and the lowest particle acidity, characterized by large fractions of aged particles and high secondary ion (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium mass concentrations. Comparison between ATOFMS particle acidity and quantitative particle acidity by MARGA indicated the significance of semi-quantitative calculation in ATOFMS. Two sub-periods were identified in Period 2 based on the scattering efficiency of PM1 mass. Period 3 (from 10:00 LT on 15 October to 00:00 LT on 16 October had a low PM1/PM10 ratio and a new particle formation event. The comparison of these sub-periods highlights the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol optical properties

  18. Research on Cold Core Eddy Change and Phytoplankton Bloom Induced by Typhoons: Case Studies in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 8 typhoons which passed by coldcore eddy (CCE areas in the South China Sea (SCS from 1997 to 2009 were observed and evaluated. The changes in the preexisting CCE acted upon by typhoons were described by eddy kinetic energy (EKE and eddy available gravitational potential energy (EAGPE. The mechanical energy of CCE was estimated from a two-layer reduced gravity model. Comparing with the scenario that typhoon passes by the region without CCEs, the preexisting CCE area plays an important role in the increase of chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentration in the CCEs impacted by the typhoons. The preexisting chl-a in CCE is about 25%~45% (8%~25% of postexisting chl-a in CCE for higher (slower transit speed typhoons. If the EAGPE of CCE increases greatly after typhoon passing by with slow transit speed, so does the chl-a in the CCE area. The EKE (EAGPE changes of the preexisting CCE are in the order of O(1014~1015 J. EKE and EAGPE of CCE are dominantly enhanced by typhoon with slow transit speed (<3 m/s and the posttyphoon EAGPE is always larger than posttyphoon EKE for 8 cases. The maximum EAGPE change of the preexisting CCE reaches 5.11×1015 J, which was induced by typhoon Hagibis.

  19. A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

  20. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  1. Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: A case study of the impacts of CRT monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qingbin; Wang Zhishi; Li Jinhui; Zeng Xianlai

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator’ 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step—the end-of-life stage—can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China.

  2. Comparison of copepod collection efficiencies by three commonly used plankton nets: A case study in Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongju; Yu, Hao; Liu, Guangxing

    2016-12-01

    Selection of net with a suitable mesh size is a key concern in the quantitative assessment of zooplankton, which is crucial to understand pelagic ecosystem processes. This study compared the copepod collecting efficiency of three commonly used plankton nets, namely, the China standard coarse net (505 μm mesh), the China standard fine net (77 μm), and the WP-2 net (200 μm). The experiment was performed at six stations in the Bohai Sea during the autumn of 2012. The coarse net substantially under-sampled small individuals (body widths copepod species but failed to collect rare species. The WP-2 net appeared to be a compromise of the two other nets, collecting both small copepods and rare species. The abundance of copepods collected by the coarse net (126.4 ± 86.5 ind m-3) was one to two orders of magnitude lower than that by the WP-2 net (5802.4 ± 2595.4 ind m-3), and the value of the fine net (11117.0 ± 4563.41 ind m-3) was nearly twice that of the WP-2 net. The abundance of large copepods ( i.e., adult Calanus sinicus) in the three nets showed no significant differences, but the abundance of small copepods declined with decreasing mesh size. The difference in abundance resulted from the under-sampling of small copepods with body widths < 672 μm and < 266 μm by the coarse and WP-2 nets, respectively.

  3. Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: a case study of the impacts of CRT monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2012-10-01

    Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator' 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step-the end-of-life stage-can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosols and their CCN activity: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijun; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yu; Shang, Dongjie; Du, Zhoufei; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM 1 ) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events. With the growth of the ultrafine particles, the organic fraction of PM 1 increased significantly. The ratio of oxygen to carbon (O:C), which had an average value of 0.23±0.04, did not show an obvious enhancement, indicating that a significant chemical aging process of the biomass-burning aerosols was not observed during the course of events. This finding might have been due to the fact that the biomass-burning events occurred in the late afternoon and grew during the nighttime, which is associated with a low atmospheric oxidation capacity. On average, organics and black carbon (BC) were dominant in the biomass-burning aerosols, accounting for 60±10% and 18±3% of PM 1 . The high organic and BC fractions led to a significant suppression of particle hygroscopicity. Comparisons among hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA)-derived, cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc)-derived, and aerosol mass spectrometer-based hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values were consistent. The mean κ values of biomass-burning aerosols derived from both HTDMA and CCNc measurements were approximately 0.1, regardless of the particle size, indicating that the biomass-burning aerosols were less active. The burst in particle count during the biomass-burning events resulted in an increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation (SS)=0.2-0.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  6. Energy consumption and environmental changes in rural China. Case studies from three counties in Central China (Pingyi), in Inner Mongolia (Zhenglanqi) and in Tibet (Taktse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Mario Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to broaden the model-theoretic and empirical knowledge on energetic geographic development processes. Therefore household surveys collected in three rural and penalized regions of China. The main focus of this survey is on the energy ladder model, postulating a higher degree of energetic sustainability when the income of population is rising. This survey tries to verify the model or rather point out parameters which cause regular deviations from the model. The model must consider regional, cultural and political characteristics coevally. The core of this survey is a data collection in 180 households. Besides demographic and microeconomic information the data collection particularly provides data on energy consumption (energy mix, energy efficiency, future energy-preferences etc.). Last but not least the environmental impacts of energetic use are determined by the appraisals of the concerned households. The descriptive and correlative data analysis provides insightful data for the following four explored sectors (1) ''socio-economic situation'', (2) ''energy use'', (3) ''environmental awareness'' and (4) ''demanded support''. The analysis allows conclusions on three different levels: a. A highly sophisticated picture of the selected regions emerges, that is presented by a multiple analogy among each other. b. The overall data afford an overview of interactions between the essential parameters of the study: Those are energy use, energy efficiency, access to energy, environmental behavior, health and education. c. On the basis of those two levels the following modification of the model is devised: The peripheral location, the cultural situation and the interventions from government as well as from civil society are parameters that significantly codetermine the choice for energy sources in rural areas. The analysis of demanded support in the energy sector as well as the conclusions of the families on environmental awareness establishes the basis for a

  7. The development of Haze Events observed by multi-satellite retrievals and Meteorological Analysis: A Case Study over Eastern China in December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Binbin; Du, Yong; Yao, Lingling; Huang, Dasong

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and urbanization, the haze has been one of the environment disasters in eastern China. It is necessary that building a model of monitoring the haze for preventing and solving it in the future. In this study, NPP/AOT(550nm) >1and GOCI/AOT(555nm) >1 are adopted to dynamically monitor severe haze events in December 2013 over eastern China. Meanwhile, wind field data from CDAS-NCEP/DOE Reanalysis data and air temperature data from CDAS-NCEP/FNL are adopted to study the mechanism of the occurrence, migration and decay of the haze events. The haze event is composed of two consecutive cases. The first case occurred during 4-9 December is an exogenous haze for Yangtze River Delta, whereas the second case appeared during 11-15 December is an endogenous haze. This result shows:1) With the improved two-stream approximation model, GOCI is successful used to retrieve AOT with compared AERONET AOT, which demonstrates to be feasible in monitoring severe haze events. 2)Because of the large-scale observation capacity of NPP/AOT(550nm) product (×6km) and the high temporal resolution of GOCI/AOT(555nm), this study establishes a framework that detect the large-scale haze events using both data sets. 3)Weak wind speed of less than 5 m*s-1 is important for the development of the haze but the inversion is not a necessary condition for the haze. The strong cold air mass from the northern Siberia area and from East China Sea is the main force for the immigration, diffusion and decay of this haze event. 4)The air quality around Yangtze River Delta in winter is apt to suffer widely divergent influences including exogenous hazes carried by winter northwestward monsoon flows from northern Asia, and endogenous hazes induced by the rapid development of urbanization. The hit of multiple hazes over Yangtze River Delta lead to one of the most severe polluted regions of haze in China. Key words: NPP/AOT;GOCI/AOT; Haze;dynamic monitoring

  8. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...

  9. Towards a 90% renewable energy future: A case study of an island in the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bin; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, JingJing; Miao, Lixin; Li, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy dominated power system is applied to an isolated island. • Cost-effective comparison study between hydrogen and battery energy storage. • CO_2 reduction potential estimation of the renewable energy power system. • Cost reduction effect of DSM is estimated to be approximately 20% - Abstract: Exploiting renewable energy is a critical greenhouse gases reduction strategy for China, especially in areas where new power plants are needed. Challenges in energy storage, however, always complicate the design of renewable energy-dominated power generation systems. This study attempt to provide a solution to the energy storage problem through the synergy of both the power supply and demand sides. Based on local natural energy resources endowments, this paper applies the hybrid optimization model for multiple energy resources and load types to analyse the feasibility of satisfying energy demand. To verify the model’s technological and economic feasibility, this research applies its synergy model to a 2.8 km"2 isolated island in the South China Sea. The simulation results demonstrate that the cost of energy and net present cost of the power supply system are $0.212/kW h and $127 M when hydrogen energy storage equipment is used, and $0.178/kW h and $101 M when traditional-battery energy storage equipment is utilized. This study also reveals that using flywheels to supplement the hydrogen and traditional-battery energy storage equipment could reduce the cost of energy by 5.6% and 3.4%, respectively. In addition, power system demand-side management can further reduce the cost of energy by approximately 20% for all technology scenarios considered in this study. A carbon emissions analysis demonstrates that the carbon reduction rates of the proposed power systems are between 87.7% and 95.1% compared with a fossil-energy based power system. In brief, this study indicates that solar and wind energy combined with appropriate energy storage

  10. Geothermal area detection using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data and its mechanistic analysis—A case study in Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Ning; Nan, Peng; Chai, Leilei

    2011-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using TIR data from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. Based on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and emissivity calculation, a simple but efficient single channel algorithm with acceptable precision is applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) of study area. The LST anomalous areas with temperature about 4-10 K higher than background area are discovered. Four geothermal areas are identified with the discussion of geothermal mechanism and the further analysis of regional geologic structure. The research reveals that the distribution of geothermal areas is consistent with the fault development in study area. Magmatism contributes abundant thermal source to study area and the faults provide thermal channels for heat transfer from interior earth to land surface and facilitate the present of geothermal anomalies. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect LST anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  11. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  12. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Modeling the dynamics of urban growth using multinomial logistic regression: a case study of Jiayu County, Hubei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Yu; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Kun; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei

    2008-10-01

    Urban growth modeling, one of the most important aspects of land use and land cover change study, has attracted substantial attention because it helps to comprehend the mechanisms of land use change thus helps relevant policies made. This study applied multinomial logistic regression to model urban growth in the Jiayu county of Hubei province, China to discover the relationship between urban growth and the driving forces of which biophysical and social-economic factors are selected as independent variables. This type of regression is similar to binary logistic regression, but it is more general because the dependent variable is not restricted to two categories, as those previous studies did. The multinomial one can simulate the process of multiple land use competition between urban land, bare land, cultivated land and orchard land. Taking the land use type of Urban as reference category, parameters could be estimated with odds ratio. A probability map is generated from the model to predict where urban growth will occur as a result of the computation.

  14. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  15. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1 the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2 the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3 the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management.

  16. Uncertainty of Hydrological Drought Characteristics with Copula Functions and Probability Distributions: A Case Study of Weihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sensitivity and uncertainty of hydrological droughts frequencies and severity in the Weihe Basin, China during 1960–2012, by using six commonly used univariate probability distributions and three Archimedean copulas to fit the marginal and joint distributions of drought characteristics. The Anderson-Darling method is used for testing the goodness-of-fit of the univariate model, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC is applied to select the best distribution and copula functions. The results demonstrate that there is a very strong correlation between drought duration and drought severity in three stations. The drought return period varies depending on the selected marginal distributions and copula functions and, with an increase of the return period, the differences become larger. In addition, the estimated return periods (both co-occurrence and joint from the best-fitted copulas are the closet to those from empirical distribution. Therefore, it is critical to select the appropriate marginal distribution and copula function to model the hydrological drought frequency and severity. The results of this study can not only help drought investigation to select a suitable probability distribution and copulas function, but are also useful for regional water resource management. However, a few limitations remain in this study, such as the assumption of stationary of runoff series.

  17. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P. [China Univ. Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Inst. of Land Reclamation and Ecological Reconstruction

    2010-07-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM 2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM 10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 and PM 10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM 2.5 and PM 10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  19. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  20. Local stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms – case study of a small scale hydropower project in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm; Filzmoser, Eva

    2014-01-01

    and China’s stakeholder participation policies in environment impact assessment at project level, the PDD of this project and similar projects were analyzed providing an overall impression of the stakeholder participations process and results in such projects. Afterwards, we focused on a single case, where...... that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board should collect information on practices for local stakeholder consultation in collaboration with the Designated National Authorities (DNA) Forum and provide technical assistance for the development of guidelines for local stakeholder participation......, if a country requests assistance. Learning from a case study of how local stakeholder participation is practiced in CDM in a small scale hydropower project in China, this paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses of how the concept is applied in practice. To understand the execution of both CDM policies...

  1. A Visualization Approach to Air Pollution Data Exploration—A Case Study of Air Quality Index (PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, frequent occurrences of significant air pollution events in China have routinely caused panic and are a major topic of discussion by the public and air pollution experts in government and academia. Therefore, this study proposed an efficient visualization method to represent directly, quickly, and clearly the spatio-temporal information contained in air pollution data. Data quality check and cleansing during a preliminary visual analysis is presented in tabular form, heat matrix, or line chart, upon which hypotheses can be deduced. Further visualizations were designed to verify the hypotheses and obtain useful findings. This method was tested and validated in a year-long case study of the air quality index (AQI of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. We found that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may be emitted by the same sources, and strong winds may accelerate the spread of pollutants. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was greater than the AQI value of 50 over the six-year study period. Furthermore, arable lands exhibited considerably higher concentrations of air pollutants than vegetation-covered areas. The findings of this study showed that our visualization method is intuitive and reliable through data quality checking and information sharing with multi-perspective air pollution graphs. This method allows the data to be easily understood by the public and inspire or aid further studies in other fields.

  2. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  3. Quantifying species' range shifts in relation to climate change: a case study of Abies spp. in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Kou

    Full Text Available Predicting species range shifts in response to climatic change is a central aspect of global change studies. An ever growing number of species have been modeled using a variety of species distribution models (SDMs. However, quantitative studies of the characteristics of range shifts are rare, predictions of range changes are hard to interpret, analyze and summarize, and comparisons between the various models are difficult to make when the number of species modeled is large. Maxent was used to model the distribution of 12 Abies spp. in China under current and possible future climate conditions. Two fuzzy set defined indices, range increment index (I and range overlapping index (O, were used to quantify range shifts of the chosen species. Correlation analyses were used to test the relationships between these indices and species distribution characteristics. Our results show that Abies spp. range increments (I were highly correlated with longitude, latitude, and mean roughness of their current distributions. Species overlapping (O was moderately, or not, correlated with these parameters. Neither range increments nor overlapping showed any correlation with species prevalence. These fuzzy sets defined indices provide ideal measures of species range shifts because they are stable and threshold-free. They are reliable indices that allow large numbers of species to be described, modeled, and compared on a variety of taxonomic levels.

  4. Combining satellite remote sensing and surveys to understand persistent yield variation--- a case study in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lobell, D. B.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large gap between maize yields on average farmers' fields and the highest yields achieved by either experiment or farmers is typical throughout the developing world, including in the North China Plain (NCP). This maize yield gap as identified by previous studies indicates large opportunities for raising yield by improving agronomy. Quzhou county is typical of the winter-wheat summer-maize system in NCP where the average plot size is as small as 0.25 hectares. To analyze this cropping system amidst the challenge of substantial heterogeneity, we identified fields that were either persistently higher or lower yielding according to the remote sensing yield estimates, and then conducted detailed field surveys. We found irrigation facility to be a major constraint to yield both in terms of irrigation water quality and farmers' access to wells. In total, improving the access to unsalty water would be associated with a 0.32t/ha (4.2%) increase in multi-year average yield. In addition, farmers' method of choosing cultivar, which likely relates to their overall knowledge level, significantly explained yield variation. In particular, those choosing cultivars according to technician advice, personal experiences and high yielding neighbors' advice had on average higher yield than farmers that either followed seed sellers' advice or collectively purchased seeds. Overall, the study presents a generalizable methodology of assessing yield gap as well as its persistent factors using a combination of satellite and survey data.

  5. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  6. The Association between Air Pollution and Population Health Risk for Respiratory Infection: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaolin; Zhang, An; Liang, Shi; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Ye, Yanjun

    2017-08-23

    Nowadays, most of the research on air pollution and its adverse effects on public health in China has focused on megacities and heavily-polluted regions. Fewer studies have focused on cities that are slightly polluted. Shenzhen used to have a favorable air environment, but its air quality has deteriorated gradually as a result of development in recent years. So far, no systematic investigations have been conducted on the adverse effects of air pollution on public health in Shenzhen. This research has applied a time series analysis model to study the possible association between different types of air pollution and respiratory hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Respiratory hospital admission was divided into two categories for comparison analysis among various population groups: acute upper respiratory infection and acute lower respiratory infection. The results showed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was significantly associated with acute respiratory infection hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Children under 14 years old were the main susceptible population of acute respiratory infection due to air pollution. PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO₂ were the primary air pollutants threatening respiratory health in Shenzhen. Though air pollution level is generally relatively low in Shenzhen, it will benefit public health to control the pollution of particulate matter as well as other gaseous pollutants.

  7. Improving ASTER GDEM Accuracy Using Land Use-Based Linear Regression Methods: A Case Study of Lianyungang, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal-Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM is important to a wide range of geographical and environmental studies. Its accuracy, to some extent associated with land-use types reflecting topography, vegetation coverage, and human activities, impacts the results and conclusions of these studies. In order to improve the accuracy of ASTER GDEM prior to its application, we investigated ASTER GDEM errors based on individual land-use types and proposed two linear regression calibration methods, one considering only land use-specific errors and the other considering the impact of both land-use and topography. Our calibration methods were tested on the coastal prefectural city of Lianyungang in eastern China. Results indicate that (1 ASTER GDEM is highly accurate for rice, wheat, grass and mining lands but less accurate for scenic, garden, wood and bare lands; (2 despite improvements in ASTER GDEM2 accuracy, multiple linear regression calibration requires more data (topography and a relatively complex calibration process; (3 simple linear regression calibration proves a practicable and simplified means to systematically investigate and improve the impact of land-use on ASTER GDEM accuracy. Our method is applicable to areas with detailed land-use data based on highly accurate field-based point-elevation measurements.

  8. Dengue Baidu Search Index data can improve the prediction of local dengue epidemic: A case study in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF in Guangzhou, Guangdong province in China is an important public health issue. The problem was highlighted in 2014 by a large, unprecedented outbreak. In order to respond in a more timely manner and hence better control such potential outbreaks in the future, this study develops an early warning model that integrates internet-based query data into traditional surveillance data.A Dengue Baidu Search Index (DBSI was collected from the Baidu website for developing a predictive model of dengue fever in combination with meteorological and demographic factors. Generalized additive models (GAM with or without DBSI were established. The generalized cross validation (GCV score and deviance explained indexes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and root mean squared error (RMSE, were respectively applied to measure the fitness and the prediction capability of the models. Our results show that the DBSI with one-week lag has a positive linear relationship with the local DF occurrence, and the model with DBSI (ICC:0.94 and RMSE:59.86 has a better prediction capability than the model without DBSI (ICC:0.72 and RMSE:203.29.Our study suggests that a DSBI combined with traditional disease surveillance and meteorological data can improve the dengue early warning system in Guangzhou.

  9. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  10. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  11. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the county level. Our results show that farmland abandonment has striking spatial relativity, and there are two clustering zones with a high index of farmland abandonment (IFA in the Dongting plain and the basin in south-central Hunan, while a clustering zone of low IFA can be found in the mountains of southwest Hunan. Farmland abandonment at the regional level is negatively affected by the land productive potentialities, proportion of mechanized planting, ratio of effective irrigation, and distance to provincial capital, while it is positively associated with the variables mountainous terrain, per capita farmland area, and labor shortage. Additionally, farmland abandonment is also affected by adjacent areas through its spatial dependence. In short, seasonal farmland abandonment is also driven integratedly by the socioeconomic and environmental dimensions and spatial interaction of farm abandonment.

  12. Ethnic Identity Construction in the Schooling Context: A Case Study of a Tibetan Neidi Boarding School in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the studies concerning ethnic identity construction in the schooling context. Next, it outlines a conceptual framework about theories of ethnic identity. Finally, it demonstrates a case study of ethnic identity construction of Neidi Tibet School with data collection and analysis. (Contains 1 note, 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  13. Impact of China's Public Hospital Reform on Healthcare Expenditures and Utilization: A Case Study in ZJ Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available High drug costs due to supplier-induced demand (SID obstruct healthcare accessibility in China. Drug prescriptions can generate markup-related profits, and the low prices of other medical services can lead to labor-force underestimations; therefore, physicians are keen to prescribe drugs rather than services. Thus, in China, a public hospital reform has been instituted to cancel markups and increase service prices.A retrospective pre/post-reform study was conducted in ZJ province to assess the impact of the reform on healthcare expenditures and utilization, ultimately to inform policy development and decision-making. The main indicators are healthcare expenditures and utilization.Post-reform, drug expenditures per visit decreased by 8.2% and 15.36% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively; service expenditures per visit increased by 23.03% and 27.69% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Drug utilization per visit increased by 5.58% in outpatient care and underwent no significant change in inpatient care. Both were lower than the theoretical drug-utilization level, which may move along the demand curve because of patient-initiated demand (PID; this indicates that SID-promoted drug utilization may decrease. Finally, service utilization per visit increased by 6% in outpatient care and by 13.10% in inpatient care; both were higher than the theoretical level moving along the demand curve, and this indicates that SID-promoted service utilization may increase.The reform reduces drug-prescription profits by eliminating drug markups; additionally, it compensates for service costs by increasing service prices. Post-reform, the SID of drug prescriptions decreased, which may reduce drug-resource waste. The SID of services increased, with potentially positive and negative effects: accessibility to services may be promoted when physicians provide more services, but the risk of resource waste may also increase. This warrants further research

  14. Spatial variation and driving factors of soil moisture at multi-scales: a case study in Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the ecological restoration of the Loess Plateau has led to significant achievements such as increases in vegetation coverage, decreases in soil erosion, and enhancement of ecosystem services. Soil moisture shortages, however, commonly occur as a result of limited rainfall and strong evaporation in this semiarid region of China. Since soil moisture is critical in regulating plant growth in these semiarid regions, it is crucial to identify the spatial variation and factors affecting soil moisture at multi-scales in the Loess Plateau of China. In the last several years, extensive studies on soil moisture have been carried out by our research group at the plot, small watershed, watershed, and regional scale in the Loess Plateau, providing some information for vegetation restoration in the region. The main research results are as follows: (1) the highest soil moisture content was in the 0-0.1 m layer with a large coefficient of variation; (2) in the 0-0.1m layer, soil moisture content was negatively correlated with relative elevation, slope and vegetation cover, the correlations among slope, aspect and soil moisture increased with depth increased; (3) as for the deep soil moisture content, the higher spatial variation of deep SMC occurred at 1.2-1.4 m and 4.8-5.0m; (4) the deep soil moisture content in native grassland and farmland were significant higher than that of introduced vegetation; (5) at regional scale, the soil water content under different precipitation zones increased following the increase of precipitation, while, the influencing factors of deep SMC at watershed scale varied with land management types; (6) in the areas with multi-year precipitation of 370 - 440mm, natural grass is more suitable for restoration, and this should be treated as the key areas in vegetation restoration; (7) appropriate planting density and species selection should be taken into account for introduced vegetation management; (8) it is imperative to take the local

  15. From case to law: A study on how cases fulfil the role of a source of law in the Netherlands and its implications for China and comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how cases fulfil the role of a source of law in one particular continental European civil law jurisdiction: the Netherlands. By doing so, this study aims to achieve two purposes: (1) contributing new knowledge and insights to the existing literature on the role of cases in civil

  16. Redox zonation for different groundwater flow paths during bank filtration: a case study at Liao River, Shenyang, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaosi; Lu, Shuai; Yuan, Wenzhen; Woo, Nam Chil; Dai, Zhenxue; Dong, Weihong; Du, Shanghai; Zhang, Xinyue

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of redox zones in an aquifer is important when designing groundwater supply systems. Redox zonation can have direct or indirect control of the biological and chemical reactions and mobility of pollutants. In this study, redox conditions are characterized by interpreting the hydrogeological conditions and water chemistry in groundwater during bank infiltration at a site in Shenyang, northeast China. The relevant redox processes and zonal differences in a shallow flow path and deeper flow path at the field scale were revealed by monitoring the redox parameters and chemistry of groundwater near the Liao River. The results show obvious horizontal and vertical components of redox zones during bank filtration. Variations in the horizontal extent of the redox zone were controlled by the different permeabilities of the riverbed sediments and aquifer with depth. Horizontally, the redox zone was situated within 17 m of the riverbank for the shallow flow path and within 200 m for the deep flow path. The vertical extent of the redox zone was affected by precipitation and seasonal river floods and extended to 10 m below the surface. During bank filtration, iron and manganese oxides or hydroxides were reductively dissolved, and arsenic that was adsorbed onto the medium surface or coprecipitated is released into the groundwater. This leads to increased arsenic content in groundwater, which poses a serious threat to water supply security.

  17. Oasis Irrigation-Induced Hydro-Climatic Effects: A Case Study in the Hyper-Arid Region of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Shan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of potential evapotranspiration (ET0 to widespread irrigation is important to fully understand future regional climate changes and to infer adaptive management of agricultural water resources. The quantitative impact of irrigation on ET0 from 1960 to 2013 was evaluated using historical time series data of daily meteorological observations in the hyper-arid region of northwest China. The decreasing trends in ET0 were accelerated for meteorological stations in regions with oasis agriculture, especially in the summer and during the growing season. Irrigation led to a cooling effect on temperature, increased relative humidity and precipitation. All of these changes contributed to a larger decrease of ET0 trend. The findings of this study advance our insight into the effects of irrigation on dynamics in ET0 and meteorological factors. Further investigations to understand how ET0 responds to climate change and agricultural irrigation could provide guidance for determining effective measures of water resources for adapting to global change.

  18. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuirong Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  19. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  20. Assessment of the Effects of Urban Expansion on Terrestrial Carbon Storage: A Case Study in Xuzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon storage is closely connected to the productivities and climate regulation capacities of ecosystems. Assessing the effects of urban expansion on carbon storage has become increasingly important for achieving urban sustainability. This study analyzed the effects of urban expansion on terrestrial carbon storage in Xuzhou City, China during 2000–2025. The cellular automata (CA model was developed to simulate future urban expansion under three scenarios, namely, the business as usual (BAU, ecological protection (ECO, and planning strengthened (PLS scenarios. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST model was further applied to explore the consequences of urban expansion on carbon storage. The results show that urban expansion resulted in 6.099 Tg of carbon storage loss from 2000–2015. Moreover, significant differences in the effects of the urban expansion scenarios on carbon storage were identified in terms of both magnitude and spatial pattern from 2015–2025. Compared with the other scenarios, the PLS scenario could be considered as a good option that would allow future development to achieve the objectives of the lowest carbon storage losses. The findings improve the understanding of the effects of urban expansion on carbon storage and may be used to support urban planning and management.

  1. Water quality assessment and analysis for rehabilitate and management of wetlands: a case study in Nanhai wetland of Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jing tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plays an irreplaceable role in many aspects and waters are important part of wetland, the water quality can easily reflect the situation of Wetland. In this study, water quality was assessed on the basis of 5 parameters (DO, NH4+-N, TN, TP and CODcr that were monitored monthly at 5 sites (N1,N2,N3,N4 and N5from April, 2014 to March, 2015 of the Nanhai Lake in Baotou, China by water pollution index method and comprehensive water quality identification index method. The twelve monitoring months were divided into wet season (Mar., Aug. and Sep., normal season (Jan., Feb., Apr., Nov. and Dec. and dry season (May., Jun. and Jul.. The assessment results determined using the water pollution index method showed that the water quality of all the five monitoring sites were inferior Ⅴ, the main contamination was COD. The comprehensive water quality identification index showed that the water quality of the Nanhai Lake were classesⅤ, except for the N2 in wet season and dry season, the N1 in dry season and the N5 in normal season, which were classes inferiorⅤ. All the five monitoring sites don’t achieving the desired water quality standard. According to the analysis, domestic discharge, industrial activities and developed recreation were major threats to water quality of Nanhai Lake.

  2. A Novel Comprehensive Detection Method for the Dynamic Characteristics of Coalface Overburden: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and efficient acquisition of information about the dynamic characteristics of coalface overburden can provide an important theoretical basis for green mining in coal producing regions in western China. In this study, a novel method for comprehensively detecting the dynamic behavior of coalface overburden is proposed in order to address deficiencies of the existing detection methods. The new method combines surface radon measurement, overburden borehole imaging, and underground pressure observation into a comprehensive detection technology system, resulting in spatial and temporal integration of surface, overburden, and underground detection. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, a field experiment was carried out at #1103 coalface in the Suancigou Coal Mine, which is operated by the Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Co. Ltd. The results of the three approaches are largely consistent and they complement one another. But it must be pointed out that this method needs to be further improved by more field experiments. Based on the experimental results, a technique for forced caving by presplit blasting of the overburden was developed and then implemented to #1103 coalface. The practical use of the technique led to good results: it effectively prevented roof-associated accidents by controlling the first weighting step to about 82 m, contributing to safe and efficient mining; coal production was expected to increase about 126 kilotons.

  3. Seasonal variation of antibiotics concentration in the aquatic environment: a case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Li, Yonggang; Deng, Yamin; Guo, Wei; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-09-15

    25 antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were detected in swine wastewater, river water, rivulet water and in groundwater samples from multi-level monitoring boreholes (with sampling ports, respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m below the land surface) at Jianghan Plain, central China. Except swine wastewater, the antibiotic concentrations in groundwater, river and rivulet water were higher in spring than those in winter. Nineteen antibiotics were detected at 100% frequencies in all kinds of water samples. In groundwater, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the predominant antibiotics and the total concentrations of 25 antibiotics commonly decreased with the aquifer depth. Most groundwater samples collected in spring had high concentrations of norfloxacin, with average values of 65.27 ng · L(-1), 37.28 ng · L(-1) and 46.83 ng · L(-1), respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m deep boreholes. By contrast, the concentrations of sulfamethazine and erythromycin were rather low in groundwater, but high in surface water. Groundwater samples collected from sites close to rivers or rivulets had much higher contents of antibiotics than those from other sites, indicating that the dominant source of antibiotics in groundwater should be the contaminated rivers or rivulets, rather than the scattered pig and poultry farms in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  5. Farmers’ Perception of the Decade-Long Grazing Ban Policy in Northern China: A Case Study of Yanchi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes farmers’ perception of grazing restriction policies, grassland environment and ecological management following the implementation of environmental protection policies in northern China. Understanding farmers’ attitudes and their causes will hopefully aid in the creation and execution of future policies. One hundred and thirty-five households were surveyed at three occasions over the course of a decade to explore the causes and processes of farmers’ perception. Farmers’ ecological awareness tends to be short term. In areas with a degraded environment, farmers were eager to implement policies to improve the environment and recognized the positive impact of the grazing ban policy (GBP. However, as conditions improved, farmers’ recognition and acceptance of the GBP became negative. Although farmers recognized the benefits of the GBP, they showed little awareness of the long-term process of environmental governance. As can be seen from the farmers’ ecological awareness and their attitudes toward the GBP, they are more inclined to value short-term economic interest than ecological protection. We suggest that good environmental protection policy must take into account the ecological and economic interests of farmers.

  6. Variable-Weighted Linear Combination Model for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: Case Study in the Shennongjia Forestry District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility map plays an essential role in urban and rural planning. The main purpose of this study is to establish a variable-weighted linear combination model (VWLC and assess its potential for landslide susceptibility mapping. Firstly, different objective methods are employed for data processing rather than the frequently-used subjective judgments: K-means clustering is used for classification; binarization is introduced to determine buffer length thresholds for locational elements (road, river, and fault; landslide area density is adopted as the contribution index; and a correlation analysis is conducted for suitable factor selection. Secondly, considering the dimension changes of the preference matrix varying with the different locations of the mapping cells, the variable weights of each optimal factor are determined based on the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP. On this basis, the VWLC model is established and applied to regional landslide susceptibility mapping for the Shennongjia Forestry District, China, where shallow landslides frequently occur. The obtained map is then compared with a map using the traditional WLC, and the results of the comparison show that VWLC is more reasonable, with a higher accuracy, and can be used anywhere that has the same or similar geological and topographical conditions.

  7. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  8. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of emerging organic chemicals in urban rivers: Guangzhou as a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng-Jiao; Pan, Chang-Gui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Windfeld, Ronja; Salvito, Daniel; Selck, Henriette; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Urban rivers may receive contamination from various sources including point sources like domestic sewage and nonpoint sources (e.g., runoff), resulting in contamination with various chemicals. This study investigated the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (3 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and 17 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) in six urban rivers of a representative subtropical city, Guangzhou (southern China). Our results showed that EDCs and personal care products were frequently detected in the water phase and sediment phase. 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was the most predominant compound with the highest concentration of 5050ng/L in the water phase and 14,400ng/g dry weight (dw) in the sediment. Generally, higher total concentrations of EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the four urban streams compared to the main stream Zhujiang River and the Liuxi River at the suburb area. A screening-level risk assessment showed that 4-nonylphenol and triclosan (TCS) pose potential risks to aquatic organisms in most sampling sites. For individual taxa, 4-NP may pose risks to various groups of aquatic organisms, while TCS only might pose high risks to algae. Higher contamination of EDCs and PPCPs was observed in rivers in urban area; 4-nonylphenol and triclosan showed RQs>1 in >70% of the reported area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Influence Caused by Tunnel Construction on Groundwater Environment: A Case Study of Tongluoshan Tunnel, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to water inflow during tunnel construction are challenging to designers, workers, and management departments, as they can threaten tunneling project from safety, time, and economic aspects. Identifying the impacts on groundwater environment resulting from tunnel drainage and making a correct assessment before tunnel construction is essential to better understand troubles that would be encountered during tunnel excavation and helpful to adopt appropriate countermeasures to minimize the influences. This study presents an indicator system and quantifies each indicator of Tongluoshan tunnel, which is located in southwest China with a length of 5.2 km and mainly passes through carbonate rocks and sandstones, based on field investigation and related technological reports. Then, an evaluation is made using fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, with a result showing that it had influenced the local groundwater environment at a moderate degree. Information fed back from environmental investigation and hydrologic monitoring carried out during the main construction period proves the evaluation, as the flow of some springs and streams located beside the tunnel route was found experiencing an apparent decline.

  10. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  12. Health and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals pollution in an antimony mining region: a case study from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiang-Chi; Min, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Pang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Yan-Jie; Ke, Yong

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, international research on the toxicity of the heavy metal, antimony, has gradually changed focus from early medical and pharmacological toxicology to environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology. However, little research has been conducted for sources identification and risk management of heavy metals pollution by long-term antimony mining activities. In this study, a large number of investigations were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of antimony and related heavy metal contaminants (lead, zinc, and arsenic), as well as on the exposure risks for the population for the Yuxi river basin in the Hunan province, China. The scope of the investigations included mine water, waste rock, tailings, agricultural soil, surface water, river sediments, and groundwater sources of drinking water. Health and ecological risks from exposure to heavy metal pollution were evaluated. The main pollution sources of heavy metals in the Yuxi River basin were analyzed. Remediation programs and risk management strategies for heavy metal pollution were consequently proposed. This article provides a scientific basis for the risk assessment and management of heavy metal pollution caused by antimony basin ore mining.

  13. Estimation of Gas Hydrate Saturation Using Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion: Case Study from the Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs were observed beneath the seafloor in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS. Acoustic impedance profile was derived by Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion (CSSI method to provide information on rock properties and to estimate gas hydrate or free gas saturations in the sediments where BSRs are present. In general, gas hydrate-bearing sediments have positive impedance anomalies and free gas-bearing sediments have negative impedance anomalies. Based on well log data and Archie's equation, gas hydrate saturation can be estimated. But in regions where well log data is not available, a quantitative estimate of gas hydrate or free gas saturation is inferred by fitting the theoretical acoustic impedance to sediment impedance obtained by CSSI. Our study suggests that gas hydrate saturation in the Taixinan Basin is about 10 - 20% of the pore space, with the highest value of 50%, and free gas saturation below BSR is about 2 - 3% of the pore space, that can rise to 8 - 10% at a topographic high. The free gas is non-continuous and has low content in the southeastern slope of the Dongsha Islands. Moreover, BSR in the northern continental margin of the SCS is related to the presence of free gas. BSR is strong where free gas occurs.

  14. Experimental study on multi-sub-classifier for land cover classification: a case study in Shangri-La, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-ying; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Ping; Hu, Wen-yin; Su, Shao-hua

    2015-12-01

    High accuracy remote sensed image classification technology is a long-term and continuous pursuit goal of remote sensing applications. In order to evaluate single classification algorithm accuracy, take Landsat TM image as data source, Northwest Yunnan as study area, seven types of land cover classification like Maximum Likelihood Classification has been tested, the results show that: (1)the overall classification accuracy of Maximum Likelihood Classification(MLC), Artificial Neural Network Classification(ANN), Minimum Distance Classification(MinDC) is higher, which is 82.81% and 82.26% and 66.41% respectively; the overall classification accuracy of Parallel Hexahedron Classification(Para), Spectral Information Divergence Classification(SID), Spectral Angle Classification(SAM) is low, which is 37.29%, 38.37, 53.73%, respectively. (2) from each category classification accuracy: although the overall accuracy of the Para is the lowest, it is much higher on grasslands, wetlands, forests, airport land, which is 89.59%, 94.14%, and 89.04%, respectively; the SAM, SID are good at forests classification with higher overall classification accuracy, which is 89.8% and 87.98%, respectively. Although the overall classification accuracy of ANN is very high, the classification accuracy of road, rural residential land and airport land is very low, which is 10.59%, 11% and 11.59% respectively. Other classification methods have their advantages and disadvantages. These results show that, under the same conditions, the same images with different classification methods to classify, there will be a classifier to some features has higher classification accuracy, a classifier to other objects has high classification accuracy, and therefore, we may select multi sub-classifier integration to improve the classification accuracy.

  15. China's foreign trade and climate change. A case study of CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunfeng, Yan [Business School, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Laike, Yang [Center of International Finance and Risk Management, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The globalization of trade has numerous environmental implications. Trade creates a mechanism for consumers to shift environmental pollution associated with their consumption to other countries. Carbon leakage exerts great influences on international trade and economy. Applying an input-output approach, the paper estimates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) embodied in China's foreign trade during 1997-2007. It is found that 10.03-26.54% of China's annual CO{sub 2} emissions are produced during the manufacture of export goods destined for foreign consumers, while the CO{sub 2} emissions embodied in China's imports accounted for only 4.40% (1997) and 9.05% (2007) of that. We also estimate that the rest of world avoided emitting 150.18 Mt CO{sub 2} in 1997, increasing to 593 Mt in 2007, as a result of importing goods from China, rather than manufacturing the same type and quantity of goods domestically. During 1997-2007, the net 'additional' global CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from China's exports were 4894 Mt. Then, the paper divides the trade-embodied emissions into scale, composition and technical effect. It was found that scale and composition effect increased the CO{sub 2} emissions embodied in trade while the technical effect offset a small part of them. Finally, its mechanism and policy implications are presented. (author)

  16. China's foreign trade and climate change: A case study of CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Yunfeng, E-mail: yyf007@126.co [Business School, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Yang Laike, E-mail: lkyang@bs.ecnu.edu.c [Center of International Finance and Risk Management, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The globalization of trade has numerous environmental implications. Trade creates a mechanism for consumers to shift environmental pollution associated with their consumption to other countries. Carbon leakage exerts great influences on international trade and economy. Applying an input-output approach, the paper estimates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) embodied in China's foreign trade during 1997-2007. It is found that 10.03-26.54% of China's annual CO{sub 2} emissions are produced during the manufacture of export goods destined for foreign consumers, while the CO{sub 2} emissions embodied in China's imports accounted for only 4.40% (1997) and 9.05% (2007) of that. We also estimate that the rest of world avoided emitting 150.18 Mt CO{sub 2} in 1997, increasing to 593 Mt in 2007, as a result of importing goods from China, rather than manufacturing the same type and quantity of goods domestically. During 1997-2007, the net 'additional' global CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from China's exports were 4894 Mt. Then, the paper divides the trade-embodied emissions into scale, composition and technical effect. It was found that scale and composition effect increased the CO{sub 2} emissions embodied in trade while the technical effect offset a small part of them. Finally, its mechanism and policy implications are presented.

  17. Microplastics in a wind farm area: A case study at the Rudong Offshore Wind Farm, Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Zou, Xinqing; Li, Baojie; Yao, Yulong; Li, Jiasheng; Hui, Hejiu; Yu, Wenwen; Wang, Chenglong

    2018-03-01

    Despite the rapid construction of offshore wind farms, the available information regarding the risks of this type of development in terms of emerging pollutants, particularly microplastics, is scarce. In this study, we quantified the level of microplastic pollution at an offshore wind farm in the Yellow Sea, China, in 2016. The abundance of microplastics was 0.330 ± 0.278 items/m 3 in the surface water and 2.58 ± 1.14 items/g (dry) in the sediment. To the best of our knowledge, the level of microplastic pollution in our study area was slightly higher than that in coastal areas around the world. The microplastics detected in the surface waters and sediments were mainly fibrous (75.3% and 68.7%, respectively) and consisted of some granules and films. The microplastics in the samples might originate from garments or ropes via wastewater discharge. The abundance of plastic in the water and sediment samples collected from the wind farm area was lower than that in the samples collected from outside the wind farm area. The anthropogenic hydrodynamic effect was the main factor affecting the local distribution of microplastics. The presence of a wind farm could increase the bed shear stress during ebb tide, disturbing the bed sediment, facilitating its initiation and transport, and ultimately increasing the ease of washing away the microplastics adhered to the sediment. This study will serve as a reference for further studies of the distribution and migration of microplastics in coastal zones subjected to similar marine utilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  19. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  20. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  1. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  3. Spatial point pattern analysis of human settlements and geographical associations in eastern coastal China - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-03-10

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley's K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  4. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning. PMID:24619117

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Air Pollution and Climate Change Policies: Case Study in the Thermal Power Sector in Chongqing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of environmental degradation has already had a dramatic impact on the Chinese economy. In order to curb these trends, the government of China has introduced stricter regulations. With this in mind, it is important to quantify the potential co-benefits of introducing air pollution and climate change mitigation policies. This study proposes relevant scenarios ranging from the current trends (baseline to the introduction of different policies in the thermal power sector, including different carbon tax rates, technology innovation promotion, and technology cost reduction methods. We aim to comparatively evaluate the impact of the proposed policies within the thermal sector and within the entire socio-economic system. To this end, we used a dynamic input–output (I-O model, into which high-efficiency technologies were incorporated as new thermal power industries in order to estimate policy impact during the time period 2010–2025. The results of this study demonstrated that the introduction of one or more of the following policies: carbon taxes, subsidies, technology innovation, and technology cost reduction, has no notable impact on the environment or the economy without the implementation of environment regulations. In contrast, the strong support of a government subsidy coupled with strict environmental regulations will promote technological innovation, for example through the natural gas combined cycle (NGCC and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC. Our study also showed that the reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as well as energy consumption would curb economic development to a certain extent. Taking this into consideration, innovation must also be promoted in other economic sectors. This research provides a strong reference for policy-makers to identify effective polices under different types of environmental regulations.

  6. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  7. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Li; Jun Peng; Weirong Liu; Zhiwu Huang

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems), recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been con...

  8. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SETTING UP AN OWN COFFEE SHOP IN CHINA : Using Starbucks as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei , ChiJiao

    2016-01-01

    The thesis aimed to find out a suitable marketing strategy and making a marketing plan for setting up an own coffee shop in Shanghai, China. Coffee was one of the most popular drinks in the world and coffee has been accepted by more and more Chinese people. Coffee industry was well-received choice for the entrepreneurs to start up their own business in China. Marketing strategy played an important role in the intense market competition. A successful marketing strategy could help the coffee co...

  9. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    the crustal metasomatism through melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channels. Continental basalts of Mesozoic to Cenozoic ages from eastern China are used as a case example to illustrate the above petrogenetic mechanism. Subduction of the paleo-Pacific oceanic slab beneath the eastern edge of Eurasian continent in the Early Mesozoic would have transferred the crustal signatures into the mantle sources of these basalts. This process would be associated with rollback of the subducting slab at that time, whereas the partial melting of metasomatites takes place mainly in the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic to produce the continental basalts. Therefore, OIB-like continental basalts are also the product of subduction-zone magmatism though they occur in intraplate settings.

  10. Influence of seasonal variation and anthropogenic activity on phosphorus cycling and retention in mangrove sediments: A case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Yushan; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2018-03-01

    Mangroves are known for sequestering and storing large quantities of phosphorus (P) within their sediments. In the present study, the sediment P cycle (including phosphatase activity intensity, total sedimentary P, P fractions distinguished by a sequential extraction method, as well as diffusion-adsorption processes) in a mangrove swamp in a subtropical estuary in China was studied. In the spring, the acid phosphatase activity varied between 1.3 and 1.9 units in the four sites in the estuary. The activity of alkaline phosphatase varied from 0.8 to 1.4 units. The total sedimentary P ranged from 821 to 1689 mg kg-1 with a dominance of redox-sensitive (Fe/Al bound) P. In the autumn, activities of both phosphatases and the total sediment P amount increased, probably due to enhanced inputs of organic matter and Fe oxides. In addition to seasonal variation, P in the mangrove sediment was influenced by anthropogenic activities. In particular, redox-sensitive P decreased significantly while phosphatase activity increased in the site that was flushed with aquaculture pond effluents. In contrast, sediment P enrichment was observed in the site that received domestic sewage. Both sources of anthropogenic P increased the eutrophication risk of the mangrove sediment because of a decrease in the amount of P adsorption and an enhancement of P release via diffusion. Diesel contamination due to the presence of a dock depressed phosphatase activity in the surficial sediment. The overlap between seasonal rhythm and human influences may introduce significant variations in P cycling, which warrants further attention from coastal management.

  11. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few studies quantitatively characterize the freshwater service flow. This paper aims to quantify the effect of freshwater ecosystem service flow on downstream areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China over 2000, 2005 and 2010. We computed the freshwater ecosystem service provision with InVEST model. We calculated freshwater ecosystem service consumption with water quota method. We simulated the freshwater ecosystem service flow using our simplified flow model and assessed the regional water security with the improved freshwater security index. The freshwater provision service mainly depends on climatic factors that cannot be influenced by management, while the freshwater consumption service is constrained by human activities. Furthermore, the decrease of water quota for agricultural, domestic and industrial water counteracts the impact of increasing freshwater demand. The analysis of freshwater ecosystem service flow reveals that the majority area of the BTH (69.2%) is affected by upstream freshwater. If freshwater ecosystem service flow is considered, the water safety areas of the whole BTH account for 66.9%, 66.1%, 71.3%, which increase 6.4%, 6.8% and 5.7% in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant freshwater ecosystem service provision and local freshwater ecosystem service use. This approach therefore helps managers choose specific management and investment strategies for critical upstream freshwater provisions across different regions.

  12. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation index and its influencing factors—a case study of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Yu, Ge

    2017-11-01

    The coastal zone is an area characterized by intense interaction between land and sea, high sensitivity to regional environmental changes, and concentrated human activities. Little research has investigated vegetation cover changes in coastal zones resulting from climate change and land-use change, with a lack of knowledge about the driving mechanism. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can be used as an indicator for change of the coastal environment. In this study, we analyzed the interannual changes and spatial distribution of NDVI in the coastal zone around Jiaozhou Bay in Qingdao, a coastal city undergoing rapid urbanization in northeast China. The underlying causes of NDVI variations were discussed in the context of climate change and land-use change. Results showed that the spatio-temporal distribution of NDVI displayed high spatial variability in the study area and showed a typical trend of gradually increasing from coastal to inland regions. The significant increase area of NDVI was mainly found in newly added construction land, extending along the coastline towards the inland. Land vegetation cover demonstrated a certain response relationship to sea-land climate change and land-based activities. The impact of land-based human activities was slightly greater than that of sea-land climate change for land vegetation cover. The results indicate that promoting ecological policies can build an ecological security framework of vegetation suitable for the resource characteristics of coastal cities. The framework will buffer the negative effects of sea-land climate change and land-based human activities on vegetation cover and thereby achieve the balance of regional development and ecological benefits in the coastal zone.

  14. Application of residual modification approach in seasonal ARIMA for electricity demand forecasting: A case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanyuan; Wang Jianzhou; Zhao Ge; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting could prove to be a useful policy tool for decision-makers; thus, accurate forecasting of electricity demand is valuable in allowing both power generators and consumers to make their plans. Although a seasonal ARIMA model is widely used in electricity demand analysis and is a high-precision approach for seasonal data forecasting, errors are unavoidable in the forecasting process. Consequently, a significant research goal is to further improve forecasting precision. To help people in the electricity sectors make more sensible decisions, this study proposes residual modification models to improve the precision of seasonal ARIMA for electricity demand forecasting. In this study, PSO optimal Fourier method, seasonal ARIMA model and combined models of PSO optimal Fourier method with seasonal ARIMA are applied in the Northwest electricity grid of China to correct the forecasting results of seasonal ARIMA. The modification models forecasting of the electricity demand appears to be more workable than that of the single seasonal ARIMA. The results indicate that the prediction accuracy of the three residual modification models is higher than the single seasonal ARIMA model and that the combined model is the most satisfactory of the three models. - Highlights: ► Three residual modification models are proposed to improve the precision of seasonal ARIMA. ► Accurate electricity demand forecast is helpful for a power production sector to come to a correct and reasonable decision. ► The results conclude that the residual modification approaches could enhance the prediction accuracy of seasonal ARIMA. ► The modification models could be applied to forecast electricity demand.

  15. Social Determinants of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Related Lifestyle and Behaviors among Urban Men in China: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Liang; Han, Qingrong; Ye, Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In order to find key risk factors of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) among urban men in China, an age-matched case-control study was performed from September 2012 to May 2013 in Yichang, Hubei Province, China. Methodology. A total of 279 patients and 558 controls were recruited in this study. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, including demographics, diet and lifestyle, psychological status, and a physical exam. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze collected data. Results. Chemical factors exposure, night shift, severity of mood, and poor self-health cognition were entered into the regression model, and result displayed that these four factors had odds ratios of 1.929 (95% CI, 1.321–2.819), 1.456 (95% CI, 1.087–1.949), 1.619 (95% CI, 1.280–2.046), and 1.304 (95% CI, 1.094–1.555), respectively, which suggested that these four factors could significantly affect CP/CPPS. Conclusion. These results suggest that many factors affect CP/CPPS, including biological, social, and psychological factors. PMID:27579305

  16. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-10-01

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Green stormwater infrastructure eco-planning and development on the regional scale: a case study of Shanghai Lingang New City, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haishun; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Cai, Yongli

    2016-06-01

    Urban underlying surface has been greatly changed with rapid urbanization, considered to be one of the major causes for the destruction of urban natural hydrological processes. This has imposed a huge challenge for stormwater management in cities. There has been a shift from gray water management to green stormwater management thinking. The green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is regarded as an effective and cost-efficient stormwater management eco-landscape approach. China's GSI practice and the development of its theoretical framework are still in the initial stage. This paper presents an innovative framework for stormwater management, integrating green stormwater infrastructure and landscape security patterns on a regional scale based on an urban master plan. The core concept of green stormwater infrastructure eco-planning is to form an interconnected GSI network (i.e., stormwater management landscape security pattern) which consists of the location, portion, size, layout, and structure of GSI so as to efficiently safeguard natural hydrological processes. Shanghai Lingang New City, a satellite new town of Shanghai, China was selected as a case study for GSI studies. Simulation analyses of hydrological processes were carried out to identify the critical significant landscape nodes in the highpriority watersheds for stormwater management. GSI should be planned and implemented in these identified landscape nodes. The comprehensive stormwater management landscape security pattern of Shanghai Lingang New City is designed with consideration of flood control, stormwater control, runoff reduction, water quality protection, and rainwater utilization objectives which could provide guidelines for smart growth and sustainable development of this city.

  18. An Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Customer Retention in Tourism Resort Industry: A Case Study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer retention is an important factor in today’s increasingly tourism competitive markets which should be concerned seriously. At present, many academic customer retention researches mostly focused on the business market research in the hotel industry. In view of the tourism resort, especially the urban cultural themes attraction, analyzing the influencing factors of customer retention in such resort has its special significance. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the relationship among the cultural attractive, attraction operation, promotion strategy and tourist costs on customer retention in the urban cultural themes attraction. A quantitative research method was adopted to collect empirical data from the case study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China and the analysis of the influencing factors base on the integrated research approach for the urban cultural themes resort. The results indicate what extent these individual factors can have an impact on customer retention is beneficial for the resort marketing practices and several strategies are suggested about improving the degree of the customer retention to the urban cultural themes resorts in China.

  19. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. A Case Study--the Nordic Centre at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Sigrid

    1996-01-01

    The Nordic Centre at Fudan University (China) links it with Norwegian universities, and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on…

  20. Hydropower and local community : A case study of the Kamchay dam, a China-funded hydropower project in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pheakdey, Heng

    2017-01-01

    To solve its chronic power shortage, the Government of Cambodia has placed the development of hydropower as one of the national priorities. With a total of US$2.4bn in investment, China is the most prominent player in hydropower development in Cambodia. The increase of hydropower projects and

  1. A method to identify the variable ecosystem services relationship across time: a case study on Yanhe Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Zheng; Bojie Fu; Haitang Hu; Ge Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as the foundations of a well-functioning society. Large-scale ecological restoration projects have been implemented around China with the goal of restoring and sustaining ecosystem services, especially in vulnerable semi-arid regions where soil and water resources are most stressed due to historic human activities. The...

  2. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p DOC (R2 = 0.79, p DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  3. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  4. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Model analysis of urbanization impacts on boundary layer meteorology under hot weather conditions: a case study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Meigen; Wang, Yongwei

    2016-08-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, configured with a single-layer urban canopy model, was employed to investigate the influence of urbanization on boundary layer meteorological parameters during a long-lasting heat wave. This study was conducted over Nanjing city, East China, from 26 July to 4 August 2010. The impacts of urban expansion and anthropogenic heat (AH) release were simulated to quantify their effects on 2-m temperature, 2-m water vapor mixing ratio, and 10-m wind speed and heat stress index. Urban sprawl increased the daily 2-m temperature in urbanized areas by around 1.6 °C and decreased the urban diurnal temperature range (DTR) by 1.24 °C. The contribution of AH release to the atmospheric warming was nearly 22 %, but AH had little influence on the DTR. The urban regional mean surface wind speed decreased by about 0.4 m s-1, and this decrease was successfully simulated from the surface to 300 m. The influence of urbanization on 2-m water vapor mixing ratio was significant over highly urbanized areas with a decrease of 1.1-1.8 g kg-1. With increased urbanization ratio, the duration of the inversion layer was about 4 h shorter, and the lower atmospheric layer was less stable. Urban heat island (UHI) intensity was significantly enhanced when synthesizing both urban sprawl and AH release and the daily mean UHI intensity increased by 0.74 °C. Urbanization increased the time under extreme heat stress (about 40 %) and worsened the living environment in urban areas.

  6. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in estuarine waters: case study of the Pearl River estuary, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanzhi; Lin Hui; Chen, Chuqun; Chen Liding; Zhang Bing; Gitelson, Anatoly A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to estimate chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the Pearl River estuary in China. To test the performance of algorithms for the estimation of the chl-a concentration in these productive turbid waters, the maximum band ratio (MBR) and near-infrared-red (NIR-red) models are used in this study. Specific focus is placed on (a) comparing the ability of the models to estimate chl-a in the range 1-12 mg m -3 , which is typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) to estimate chl-a concentrations. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected at 13 stations with chl-a ranging from 0.83 to 11.8 mg m -3 and total suspended matter from 9.9 to 21.5 g m -3 . A close relationship was found between chl-a concentration and total suspended matter concentration with the determining coefficient (R 2 ) above 0.89. The MBR calculated in the spectral bands of MODIS proved to be a good proxy for chl-a concentration (R 2 > 0.93). On the other hand, both the NIR-red three-band model, with wavebands around 665, 700, and 730 nm, and the NIR-red two-band model (with bands around 665 and 700 nm) explained more than 95% of the chl-a variation, and we were able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a root mean square error below 1 mg m -3 . The two- and three-band NIR-red models with MERIS spectral bands accounted for 93% of the chl-a variation. These findings imply that the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl-a in the Pearl River estuary.

  7. Assess the potential of solar irrigation systems for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions - A case study in Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yingdong; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Miao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We figured out the appropriate indicators for solar irrigation. → We analyzed the economic benefits of solar irrigation system. → The geographic allocation of grasslands suitable for solar irrigation in Qinghai province is presented. → The appropriate region for solar irrigation is also discussed. → The problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation are considered. - Abstract: The combined impact of global climate change and increasing human activities has led to the severe deterioration of grasslands in China. Using the solar irrigation systems is an effective way for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions. A solar irrigation system is the device that uses the solar cell from the sun's radiation to generate electricity for driving the pump. And photovoltaic pump consists of an array of photovoltaic cells and pumps water from a well or reservoir for irrigation. Although ecologists and organizations constantly work and find ways to conserve grasslands through irrigation systems that use solar energy, issues on water resources are not yet thoroughly discussed. This paper takes into account the main factors in the study of water resources, including precipitation and groundwater, to analyze the feasibility of using a photovoltaic (PV) pumping irrigation. The appropriate area for such a PV pumping irrigation in Qinghai Province is also presented. The results show that the grasslands appropriate for PV pumping cover about 8.145 million ha, accounting for 22.3% of the grasslands in the entire province. Finally, the problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation, including the impact on regional water balance, groundwater level and highland permafrost, are also considered.

  8. Quantification of Environmental Flow Requirements to Support Ecosystem Services of Oasis Areas: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China on the basis of three ecosystem services: (1 maintenance of riverine ecosystem health, (2 assurance of the stability of oasis–desert ecotone and riparian (Tugai forests, and (3 restoration of oasis–desert ecotone groundwater. The identified consumptive and non-consumptive water requirements are used to quantify and determine the EFRs in Qira oasis by employing the summation and compatibility rules (maximum principle. Results indicate that the annual maximum, medium, and minimum EFRs are 0.752 × 108, 0.619 × 108, and 0.516 × 108 m3, respectively, which account for 58.75%, 48.36%, and 40.29% of the natural river runoff. The months between April and October are identified as the most important periods to maintain the EFRs. Moreover, the water requirement for groundwater restoration of the oasis–desert ecotone accounts for a large proportion, representing 48.27%, 42.32%, and 37.03% of the total EFRs at maximum, medium, and minimum levels, respectively. Therefore, to allocate the integrated EFRs, focus should be placed on the water demand of the desert vegetation’s groundwater restoration, which is crucial for maintaining desert vegetation to prevent sandstorms and soil erosion. This work provides a reference to quantify the EFRs of oasis areas in arid regions.

  9. Analysis of an optimal public transport structure under a carbon emission constraint: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linling; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Yang, Tong

    2018-02-01

    Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies. The objective functions of these factors were transformed into satisfaction functions, and a multi-objective programming model was used to solve for the optimal proportions of the ground bus and rail transit, and the carbon emission reduction potential was analyzed in different scenarios. The study showed that the actual proportion of rail transit in Shanghai was slightly lower than the optimal value, and accompanied by low satisfaction with each factor relative to the optimal value. It was difficult to achieve the traffic emission reduction targets by only reducing satisfaction with other factors except carbon emissions assuming a fixed proportion of public transport. As the proportion of total travel represented by public transport increased, rail transit became the main mode of public transport and the usage trend was more obvious, but the structure of public transport gradually reached a relatively stable state after a certain level of development. Compared to reducing carbon emissions by changing satisfaction with other factors, it was easier to achieve traffic emission reduction targets by increasing the proportion of public transport. To increase the proportion of public transport travel and achieve the goal of traffic reduction in the future, further improvements are needed in the quality of public transport system services, public transport

  10. Microplastics in Freshwater River Sediments in Shanghai, China: A Case Study of Risk Assessment in Mega Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Xu, P.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics are plastics that measure less than 5 mm, which attracted exponential interest in recent years. Microplastics are widely distributed in water, sediments, and biotas. Most of distribution studies focus on the marine environment, yet methods to conduct risk assessment are limited. Widespread of microplastics has raised alarm for the well-being of marine living resources because of its negative ecological effects that has been proved. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers and source of marine microplastics, we investigated into river sediments in Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Seven sampling sites covered most of city central districts including one sampling site from a tidal flat. Density separation, microscopic inspection and identification were conducted to analyze microplastic abundance, shape and color. It is found that pellets were the most prevalent shape, followed by fiber and fragment. White microplastics were the most common type in terms of color. White foamed microplastic pellets were widely distributed in urban river sediments. Microplastic abundance from rivers was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that from the tidal flat. The significant difference between river and tidal flat samples lead to the conclusion that coastal rivers may be the source of microplastics, therefore in situ data and legitimate estimation should be considered by policy-makers. Seven types of microplastics were identified by μ-FT-IR analysis, indicating a secondary source. Comparison between two types of μ-FT-IR instruments was summarized. Framework for environmental risk assessment for microplastics in sediments was proposed. Indicators and ranks were select for the assessment of microplastic in sediments. It is recommended to select the index, integrate statistical data, follow expert opinions extensively and construct comprehensive evaluation method and ecological risk assessment system for the Chinese context.

  11. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  12. An Account for Implementing Just-in-time: A Case Study of the Automotive Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Just-in-time (JIT has been a popular operation strategy partly because of its success in the japanese automobile industry. Various benefits such as inventory reduction, improved operations efficiency, and faster response, have been studied widely in previous studies. Therefore, successful implementation of JIT is vital to many companies. This research makes use of a case study to explore five key research themes, which are information system, production planning, inventory management, quality management, and suppliers management, and the success factors surrounding implementation of JIT for an automotive company. This case study also provides evidences for supporting the benefits of employing JIT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect relevant data. The research finding indicates that JIT system is crucial for the success of automobile companies, and operates JIT system can lead to many advantages to the case company. The major contribution of this paper lies in the discussions of the successful factors as a practical guide to implement JIT systems.

  13. Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight: A nested case-control study of the Health Baby Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenqian; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Huang, Kai; Zhu, Yingshuang; Wu, Chuansha; Peng, Yang; Jiang, Minmin; Hu, Jie; Chang, Huailong; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, has been demonstrated to affect fetal development in animal studies, but findings in human studies have been inconsistent. We investigated whether maternal exposure to BPA during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant low birth weight (LBW). A total 452 mother-infant pairs (113 LBW cases and 339 matched controls) were selected from the participants enrolled in the prospective Health Baby Cohort (HBC) in Wuhan city, China, during 2012-2014. BPA concentrations were measured in maternal urine samples collected at delivery, and the information of birth outcomes was retrieved from the medical records. A conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between urinary BPA levels and LBW. Mothers with LBW infants had significantly higher urinary BPA levels (median: 4.70μg/L) than the control mothers (median: 2.25μg/L) (p<0.05). Increased risk of LBW was associated with higher maternal urinary levels of BPA [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13 for the medium tertile, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 8.08; adjusted OR=2.49 for the highest tertile, 95% CI: 0.98, 6.36]. The association was more pronounced among female infants than among male infants, with a statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to higher levels of BPA may potentially increase the risk of delivering LBW infants, especially for female infants. This is the first case-control study to examine the association in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of performance-related pay of hospital doctors on hospital behaviour: a case study from Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recognition that public hospitals are often productively inefficient, reforms have taken place worldwide to increase their administrative autonomy and financial responsibility. Reforms in China have been some of the most radical: the government budget for public hospitals was fixed, and hospitals had to rely on charges to fill their financing gap. Accompanying these changes was the widespread introduction of performance-related pay for hospital doctors – termed the "bonus" system. While the policy objective was to improve productivity and cost recovery, it is likely that the incentive to increase the quantity of care provided would operate regardless of whether the care was medically necessary. Methods The primary concerns of this study were to assess the effects of the bonus system on hospital revenue, cost recovery and productivity, and to explore whether various forms of bonus pay were associated with the provision of unnecessary care. The study drew on longitudinal data on revenue and productivity from six panel hospitals, and a detailed record review of 2303 tracer disease patients (1161 appendicitis patients and 1142 pneumonia patients was used to identify unnecessary care. Results The study found that bonus system change over time contributed significantly to the increase in hospital service revenue and hospital cost recovery. There was an increase in unnecessary care and in the probability of admission when the bonus system switched from one with a weaker incentive to increase services to one with a stronger incentive, suggesting that improvement in the financial health of public hospitals was achieved at least in part through the provision of more unnecessary care and drugs and through admitting more patients. Conclusion There was little evidence that the performance-related pay system as designed by the sample of Chinese public hospitals was socially desirable. Hospitals should be monitored more closely

  15. A Comparative Assessment of the Role of Energy in Qatar's East Asian Foreign Relations: Case Studies on China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebekah

    Energy is an important factor in international relations and recently the global energy paradigm has been seen to be shifting towards the East. In light of such change, a comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar' East Asian foreign relations will be conducted by taking China, Japan and South Korea as case studies. The research aimed to assess each of the bilateral relationship in terms of their origin and development in the energy sector generating an interpretation of their growing interdependence, taking into consideration the various domestic, regional and international influencing factors. At this level, LNG development and trade was adopted to see the extent of energy cooperation. In general, energy cooperation played the leading role in the three relationships, but to different degrees. Furthermore, all three bilateral relationship pertain to the 'complex interdependence approach' that is supported by the use of institutionalism and soft power.

  16. Condensation Dripping Water Detection and Its Control Method from Exhaust Pipe of Gasohol Vehicle under Low Environmental Temperature Conditions: A Case Study in Harbin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is one of renewable clean alternative energies, which is widely used around the world. Gasohol had been raised to be used in 9 provinces of China since 2001. However, its closed use was merely promoted in Heilongjiang province since November 1, 2004. Moreover, this issue aroused extensive discussions and controversies. One of them is the condensation dripping water issue from exhaust pipe in cold winter. Does the ethanol cause the road freezing in cold winter? To deal with this issue, taking the Harbin city as a case study, this work designs detection experiments of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe. Moreover, the amount of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe for gasohol and gasoline vehicles with the same working condition is obtained and measured, and their results are compared and analyzed. Simultaneously, the method of reducing the condensation dripping water is proposed. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Changes in ecosystem services associated with planting structures of cropland: A case study in Minle County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqun; Song, Wei; Mu, Fengyun

    2017-12-01

    The cropland ecosystem provides essential direct and indirect products and services to mankind such as food, fiber, biodiversity and soil conservation. A change of crop planting structure can change the ecosystem services of cropland by affecting land use type. In recent years, under the influence of regional comparative advantage and consumer demand changes, the crop planting structure in China has changed rapidly. However, there is still a lack of deep understanding on the effect of such a change in planting structure on the ecosystem services of cropland. Therefore, this research selected Minle County in the Heihe River Basin, which has small scattered croplands and a complex planting structure, as a study area. Based on the key time phase and optimal threshold of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data of the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images, this study used the decision tree algorithm to classify and extract the crop planting structure in Minle County in 2007 and 2012 and to analyze the changes in its temporal and spatial patterns. Then, the market value method was adopted to estimate the effect of the change in crop planting structure on the ecosystem services of the cropland. From 2007 to 2012, the planting area of corn and rapeseed in Minle County increased by 5.86 × 103 ha and 5.10 × 103 ha, respectively. Conversely, the planting area of wheat and barley was reduced by 3.26 × 103 ha and 6.34 × 103 ha, respectively. These changes directly caused the increase of the ecosystem services value of corn and rapeseed by 1062.82 × 104 USD and 842.54 × 104 USD, respectively. The resulting reduction in the ecosystem services value of wheat and barley was 488.24 × 104 USD and 828.29 × 104 USD, respectively. Besides, the total ecosystem services value of cropland increased by 1564.98 × 104 USD. Further analysis found that the change in the crop planting structure caused an increase in the ecosystem services

  18. The impact of polybrominated diphenyl ether prohibition: A case study on the atmospheric levels in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan; Kobara, Yuso; Nam, Jae-Jak; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere is an important medium which could directly reflect the changes of pollutant sources. Worldwide, the commercial products of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been officially restricted and subsequently prohibited. For the purpose of evaluating their concentration after prohibition, passive air samplers (PASs) were therefore deployed again across the East Asia during two periods in 2008 after the initial deployment 4 years ago. When compared with the data in 2004, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs have declined significantly. Spatially, the PBDE level in China was still the highest, with a mean value of 15.4 pg m- 3, and in Japan was the lowest (2.47 ± 1.12 pg m- 3) in the East Asia. Moreover, the relatively high concentrations were observed at sites where there are electronic or e-waste recycling industries, and this is particularly true in China, suggesting that illegally imported e-waste is still a typical source of PBDEs in this region.

  19. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  1. Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage water resources in agricultural production, it is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint (WF and the influences of agricultural inputs. Employing spatial autocorrelation analysis and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model, we explored the spatial variations of the WF and their relationships with agricultural inputs from 1998 to 2012 in Northeast China. The results indicated that: (1 the spatial distribution of WFs for the 36 major maize production prefectures was heterogeneous in Northeast China; (2 a cluster of high WFs was found in southeast Liaoning Province, while a cluster of low WFs was found in central Jilin Province, and (3 spatial and temporal differentiation in the correlations between the WF of maize production and agricultural inputs existed according to the GWR model. These correlations increased over time. Our results suggested that localized strategies for reducing the WF should be formulated based on specific relationships between the WF and agricultural inputs.

  2. Problems in the online marketing of online shops in China : Case study: the Taobao online marketing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lu

    2013-01-01

    With the development and popularization of the Internet, more and more people are choosing to trade via the Internet. For the Chinese market, online marketing is still in its infancy, and inevitably several problems exist. Taobao is the fastest developing of all online marketing shopping platforms in China and accounts for the largest share of the online shopping market. In such a rapidly expanding market, Taobao's rise is a cause for concern. This thesis will examine the current online m...

  3. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Xu XP; Deng DN; Gu YH; Ng CS; Cai X; Xu J; Zhang XS; Ke DG; Yu QH; Chan CK

    2018-01-01

    Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing att...

  4. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  5. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  6. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in estuarine waters: case study of the Pearl River estuary, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhi; Lin Hui [Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, Yuen Yuen Research Centre for Satellite Remote Sensing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Chen, Chuqun [South China Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Chen Liding [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang Bing [Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gitelson, Anatoly A, E-mail: yuanzhizhang@cuhk.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT), School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this work is to estimate chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the Pearl River estuary in China. To test the performance of algorithms for the estimation of the chl-a concentration in these productive turbid waters, the maximum band ratio (MBR) and near-infrared-red (NIR-red) models are used in this study. Specific focus is placed on (a) comparing the ability of the models to estimate chl-a in the range 1-12 mg m{sup -3}, which is typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) to estimate chl-a concentrations. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected at 13 stations with chl-a ranging from 0.83 to 11.8 mg m{sup -3} and total suspended matter from 9.9 to 21.5 g m{sup -3}. A close relationship was found between chl-a concentration and total suspended matter concentration with the determining coefficient (R{sup 2}) above 0.89. The MBR calculated in the spectral bands of MODIS proved to be a good proxy for chl-a concentration (R{sup 2} > 0.93). On the other hand, both the NIR-red three-band model, with wavebands around 665, 700, and 730 nm, and the NIR-red two-band model (with bands around 665 and 700 nm) explained more than 95% of the chl-a variation, and we were able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a root mean square error below 1 mg m{sup -3}. The two- and three-band NIR-red models with MERIS spectral bands accounted for 93% of the chl-a variation. These findings imply that the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl-a in the Pearl River estuary.

  7. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  8. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  9. Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor G196A and Attempted Suicide: A Case-Control Study in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Xin-Ting; Wang, Lin-Lin; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is an important public problem, the mechanism of which has not been clarified. Many studies have focused on the molecular, biological and genetic mechanisms of suicide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) G196A is one of the most leading loci in recent studies, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a 1:1 age- and sex-matched case-control study in rural areas of Shandong Province, China. A total of 365 pairs of cases and controls were finally recruited into our study. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of BDNF 196G/G and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariate conditional logistic regression models. No association between BDNF polymorphisms and attempted suicide was found in the overall population. However, the BDNF 196G/G genotype was significantly related to attempted suicide in the elderly population (AOR = 7.85, 95% CI: 1.12-54.90, p = 0.038), while the associations were not significant in young and middle-aged groups. Our study suggests that the BDNF 196G/G genotype increases the risk of attempted suicide in elderly people. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.