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Sample records for china case study

  1. developing countries: case study of china and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary products na 35 13 19 l8 16. Foods na 15 4 6 5 3. Share of rural population 83 81 76 72 71 70. Source: State Statistical Bureau, China Statistical Yearbook, various issues; and China Rural Statistical Yearbook, various issues. Generally, the importance of China's agriculture is seen in the challenge of meeting the ...

  2. Paediatric lymphoma in China: a clinicopathological study of 213 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Xv; Shen, Yuetian; Xi, Zhengjun

    2012-12-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate information on paediatric lymphoma in China. We reviewed the pathological files of patients less than 12 years of age with lymphoma in Shanghai Xinhua Hospital from January 1982 to June 2009. SPSS version 11.0 was used to analyse the results. Of the 213 subjects, 176 (82.6%) had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and 37 (17.4%) had Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). All NHL cases had diffuse and high grade tumours, and 33.5% of these tumours primarily involved extra-nodal sites. Of the NHL cases, 56.6%, 43.3%, and 1.7% were derived from T, B, and null cells, respectively. Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL, 50.6%), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL, 28.4%), and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, 12.5%) comprised the majority of the NHL cases. A significant difference was found in the frequency of stage I/II cases between LL and ALCL. Paediatric HL resembled the disease in adults. Paediatric lymphoma in China is different from that in Western countries with respect to the incidence rate of HL and BL. The distribution pattern of NHL histological subtypes is more similar to that in Japan than that in Pakistan. These features suggest ethnic or geographic variations.

  3. developing countries: case study of china and sub-saharan africa (ssa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CASE STUDY OF CHINA AND. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (SSA). Andzio-Bika Herve Lezin Wilfrid and Kamitewoko Edwige. Abstract. This paper analyzed the influence of agriculture in GDP of China and three SSA countries. Data used for the study was drawn from the Food and Agriculture ...

  4. MARKET STRATEGY STUDYCASE UNIVERTICAL CHINA CO., LTD

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Univertical China is a foreign invested enterprise in China, it has good products and market reputation but the market share increasing is not satisfied by the shareholder. Since the author has been worked for Univertical China for 3 years therefore Univertical China consigned the author for analyzing the market situation and looking forward to find the possible solution. The subject of the report was to propose the market strategies for enlarging the market share. At the beginning th...

  5. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yiu Fai

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the world. Informed by intersectional and transnational feminist scholarship, this empirical study zooms in on one group of women, ethnic Chinese born and/or growing up in the Netherlands, to identify and recuperate their neglected lived experience in a particular historical-cultural context. It takes their own voices as central, hopefully to contribute to their visibility. It aims to provide an understanding of diasporic Chinese women as living in the dynamics not only of their multiple subordinations but also of their subjective consciousness, experienced autonomy, and agency. Drawing insights from the subjective accounts of both contestants and audiences of Miss China Europe, I suggest that one way to foreground marginalized women's agency is to understand their intersectionality in terms of movements and sensory experiences. On the one hand, while the contestants articulated a readiness to perform their modern and yet Chinese selves, they were making movements along two intersecting axes of inequality and power relations - Chineseness and Dutchness - precisely to negotiate their sense of inequality and power relations. On the other hand, among the audiences, two major topics - the blood issue (or whether Chineseness should be defined by ancestry) and the language problem (or whether Chineseness should be defined by the ability to speak Chinese) - were raised regularly, underscoring a complex viewing experience of seeing and hearing, of the tension between visual and audio identifications.

  6. Cultural Awareness, a Form of Risk Management in International Business: Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Fadun Solomon Olajide

    2014-01-01

    Mutual awareness of cultural references is essential in international business as levels of formality vary greatly among cultures. The emergence of capitalism into China induces international firms¡¯ investment in the country. This resulted to creation of a production base to explore the inexpensive factors of production, particularly low-cost labour. The study examines cultural awareness as a form of risk management in international business, using China as a case study. The study uses ¡®XYZ...

  7. Moving, sensing intersectionality: a case study of Miss China Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Y.F.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Miss China Europe, a transnational beauty pageant organized for the Chinese diaspora, is held in the Netherlands. The hypervisuality of Chinese diasporic women at the event stands in painful contrast to their everyday invisibility, whether in the Netherlands, China, or elsewhere in the

  8. Development of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the energy shortage in China's coastal areas, which has exerted severe impact on economy development, a growing number of attentions have been paid to ocean energy utilization. In this paper, a review of related researches as well as development of ocean energy in China is given. The main part of this paper is the investigation into ocean energy distribution and technology status of tidal energy, wave energy, and thermal energy, especially that of the tidal energy and wave energy. Finally, some recommendations for the future development of ocean energy in China are also provided. For further research in this field and development of ocean energy utilization in China, this review can be taken as reference.

  9. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.

  10. A Case Study of Inventory Management in a Manufacturing Company in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on inventory management in a manufacturing company in China. This study aims to identify the key factors that influence inventory management practices, investigate efficient and effective inventory management approaches, and examine the impact of supplier cooperation on supply chain improvement. A case study approach is used to identify the key factors that influence inventory management in a factory. Efficient and effective inventory management practices are derived from the case study and may provide practical guidance for foreign manufacturers in China. This study provides a valuable tool for identifying the key factors in inventory management which can be applied to similar problems encountered in actual manufactories.

  11. Historically-informed nursing: A transnational case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Grypma, Sonya; Cao, Yingjuan; Bu, Lijuan; Shen, Lin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2018-01-01

    The term 'nurse' (hushi-'caring scholar') did not enter the Chinese language until the early 20th century. Modern nursing-a fundamentally Western notion popularized by Nightingale and introduced to China in 1884-profoundly changed the way care of the sick was practiced. For 65 years, until 1949, nursing developed in China as a transnational project, with Western and Chinese influences shaping the profession of nursing in ways that linger today. Co-authored by Chinese, Canadian, and American nurses, this paper examines the early stages of nursing in one province of China as an exemplar of the transnational nature of nursing development. By identifying sociopolitical influences on the early development of nursing in Shandong, the authors aimed not only to contribute to the nascent body of knowledge on China nursing history, but also to heighten readers' sensitivity to the existence of historical echoes, residue, and resonances in their own nursing practices. Tracing current issues, values, or practices back to their roots provides context and helps us to better understand the present. Whether we are aware of the details or not, the gestalt of nursing practice in a particular place has been shaped by its history-including in Shandong province in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For many farmers such conditions simply don't exist, and as a result they obtain poor results from high-tech seeds offered by the formal research system. In China a group of researchers and extension agents is building bridges to close the gap between scientists and resource-poor farmers. It is market day in GuzHai ...

  13. Understanding Student Recruitment in Mainland China: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, John A.; Wong, Isabella Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    While China continues to be perhaps the most important student recruitment region for many leading international universities, changes in this market, resulting in more regional mobility of students, are fast becoming apparent. This, the increasing penetration and efforts of the traditional recruiting institutions and the entry of new universities…

  14. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and

  15. CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... Maize is now the most important feed crop and the third most important food crop in China. ... that enable indigenous women and men in local communities to conserve biodiversity; and to find ways to involve those communities in the design and implementation of on-farm biodiversity conservation.

  16. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  17. THE DETERMINANTS OF FDI IN RETAIL INDUSTRIES IN CHINA-THE CASE STUDIES OF CARREFOUR AND TESCO

    OpenAIRE

    LIN, CHING-HUI

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in retail industries in China by using case studies of Carrefour and Tesco, and the purpose of this research is to utilise the limited successful leading retailers in China as case studies, Carrefour and Tesco, and other academic studies have been conducted about entry determinants in China's retail sector to find out the key determinants and entry strategies of foreign retailing firms. Furthermore, the motivation of this...

  18. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  19. Religion and Media in China : Insights and Case Studies from the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the intersection of religion and the media in China, bringing interdisciplinary approaches to bear on the role of religion in the lives of individuals and greater shifts within Chinese society in an increasingly media-saturated environment. With case studies focusing on

  20. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  1. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-01-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. PMID:21845155

  2. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  3. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  4. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  5. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  6. Community service contracting for older people in urban China: a case study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Contracting of community services to non-governmental service-providing organisations - mainly social work agencies - is an emerging phenomenon and a social innovation with regard to delivering community services in urban China. Contracting of community services for the older person, which is the focus of this study, is embedded in the macro context of the development of social service contracting in China. Qualitative research techniques, including document analysis, case study, participant observation and in-depth interviews, were adopted for this study. Nine government officials, three staff working in Community Residents' Committees, 15 staff working in social work agencies and 41 older people were interviewed in an effort to understand the impact and challenges of community service contracting in urban China. The findings showed that the involvement of social work agencies in the community service provision system results in integration of community resources, expansion of service coverage and enhancement of older people's access to community services. However, several problems may impede the development of community service provision in the context of contracting in China. These include purchaser-oriented rather than user-oriented service provision, older people's negative attitude towards social work services, inappropriate performance measurement, reliance of non-government organisations on government funding and ambiguous definition of community services.

  7. A case-control study of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X; Han, S G; Zhuang, H

    1998-12-01

    A case-control study was carried out to investigate risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Henan, China. A total of 152 patients with HCC and 115 control patients with nonhepatic disease were included in this study. The risk factor analysis indicated that individual history of liver disease (odds ratio [OR]=11.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.94-35.18), family history of liver disease (OR=11.80, 95% CI=2.75-50.61), drinking of alcohol (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.10), corn consumption (OR=19.43, 95% CI=3.67-102.98), peanut and peanut oil consumption (OR=13.75, 95% CI=3.69-51.16), and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR=44.59, 95% CI=12.54-158.49) were significantly different between the case and control groups (P case-control study was performed. One hundred thirteen of 152 HCC patients were randomly selected to be pair-matched by sex and age (+/-5 years) with the controls with nonhepatic disease. The results from the 1:1 pair-matched case-control study were consistent with the results from the group-matched case-control study. The findings of this study suggest that hepatitis virus (HBV, HCV) infection, drinking of alcohol, and dietary exposure to aflatoxin are likely etiologic agents of HCC in Henan, China.

  8. Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should

  9. Application of Lean Agile Resilient Green Paradigm Framework on China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAN RAI WAQASAZFAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has recently emerged as the technological and economic giant and an attractive place for investment for MCNs (Multi-National Companies. Many of the high ranked MNC?s have shifted their production facilities to China due to low production cost.Finished products are transported through sea routes passing through Singapore and Sri Lanka, to different Middle Eastern, European and American countries. This major transition has lead to complete transformation of the global SC (Supply Chain;which resulted into extended transportation, distances and led time,thus affecting the four paradigms of SC i.e. lean, agile, resilient and green. Effective integration of all of these paradigms poses a significant challenge for the academia and industry related to SC.The common and critical success factors among these paradigms are reduction in transportation distances and most importantly lead time. Scenario planning technique is used in this study to analyze different trade routes originating from central China. CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor was identified as the most feasible and economical route owing to its reduced transportation distance and led time. CPEC route also provides us an opportunity to perform trade-offs between the four paradigms; focusing primarily on the critical success factors. These tradeoffs provide us a common ground which lead us to propose a new LARG (Lean Agile Resilient Green framework. This framework was further validated with the help of results obtained from CPEC case study using scenario planning technique

  10. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1 the 'Kundun' incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2 the production of 'Mulan 'in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a telling example to study the local operation of global capitalism, especially in terms of its interaction with the state. While many believe that the advent of globalization will open more free markets for fair competition, this study reveals how government policy intervenes in the global entertainment industry, and sheds light on the political and economic struggles behind the silver screen.

  11. Clinical features of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a study of 64 cases in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong-mei; Wu, Xin-tong; Yan, Bo; Mu, Jie; Zhou, Dong

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the clinical features of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in people in southwest China. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pure PNES by video/EEG monitoring were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 64 patients with PNES were included, 32 (50%) of whom were male. Twenty (31.3%) patients had previously been misdiagnosed and treated for epilepsy. Psychological trauma and head injuries were considered antecedent traumatic factors. A history of abuse was rare. The PNES cases were divided into three subtypes: psychogenic minor motor seizures, psychogenic major motor seizures, and unresponsive seizures. Age at onset was identified as a predictor of prognosis. The results of this study demonstrated a higher prevalence of PNES in males compared with previous studies. The semiology of PNES in China is similar to that in Western countries. Classification of semiology may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of PNES. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Henan, China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D; Yin, H; Xili, L; Song, J; Wang, Z

    1994-12-01

    A population based case-control study to evaluate Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine efficacy was carried out in Gusi County, Henan Province, China from June to September in 1991. This study showed that the JE vaccine had a strong protective effect. The estimate of the vaccine efficacy was 78% (95% CI = 16-94%). An unimmunized child was at 4.54 times greater risk of developing JE than were fully immunized children during the study period. The present study may have underestimated the vaccine efficacy due to evaluation based on routine vaccination which might have been affected by vaccination management and the local cold chain system.

  13. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Feng Chang; Shu-Juan Zhu; Fu-Gui Han; Sheng-Nnian Zhong; Qiang-Qiang Wang; Jian-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the...

  14. Dietary factors and risk of kidney stone: a case-control study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Zhao, Ai; Liu, Aiping; You, Lili; Wang, Peiyu

    2013-03-01

    Formation of kidney stones is a multifactorial disease, and diet and lifestyle are suggested to contribute remarkably to increased prevalence. The population of Guangzhou, China has a high prevalence rate of kidney stones; however, its risk factors are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary risk factors for kidney stones in southern China. A case-control study was carried out. This study was carried out at the Department of Health Management Center, Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital, China. This study involved 1,019 newly diagnosed kidney stone patients and 987 healthy control subjects. A questionnaire regarding dietary patterns and supplements was used to investigate the risk factors for kidney stone formation. Food intake frequency, beverage and alcohol consumption, food supplements, and anthropometry were assessed. In the analysis, we found positive associations of kidney stones with consumption of grains (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 4.02) and bean products (OR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.61, 7.59) in women. The variable "fluid drinking" showed a significant protective effect against kidney stones in men (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.88). Consuming leafy vegetables more than 3 times per day was positively associated with stones in both men and women (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.91 and OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.48, 10.04, respectively). Other dietary factors, dietary supplements, and specific food were not related to kidney stone formation in Guangzhou, China. The results confirmed that specific diet can affect stone formation in the Chinese population, and varied risk factors were found for different genders. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  16. CHANGES IN THE SECURITY AGENDA: CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND HUMAN SECURITY. THE CASE OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen THI THUY HANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War the meaning of security has fundamentally changed. Issues which are labeled as non-traditional security namely human development, economic crises, environmental degradation, natural disaster, poverty, epidemics… have become a crucial part of the security agenda. These changes have been intensified with the development of the two approaches: Critical Security Studies and Human Security. This article explores how the meaning of security has changed and how the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional security have become blurred. The case of China is taken as empirical evidence to support the assertion that security has evolved beyond its traditional focus on the state.

  17. Tourists' Attitudes Towards Tea Tourism: A Case Study in Xinyang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shaowen; Xu, Feifei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yuting

    2010-01-01

    Tea tourism as a new niche market has become more and more popular. Through a case study in Xinyang, China, this research explores tourists' attitudes and perceptions toward tea and tea tourism, identifies who the potential tea tourists are, and compares their attitudes with others. One hundred seventy-nine questionnaires were administered; one-way ANOVA and chi-square test were used based on their willingness of tea tourism. The results suggest that tea tourists and non-tea tourists have sig...

  18. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Li, Jiang; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakaya, Naoki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2008-07-01

    To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. We carried out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

  19. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers case-control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case-control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  20. Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Bao, L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To study the associations between dorm environment and occupants' health, a nested case-control study on 348 college students was carried out in 2006-2007 at Tianjin University, China. Two hundred and twenty-three dorm rooms where the 'cases' and 'controls' resided were inspected. Measured...

  1. Tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer incidence: a case-control study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin-Ye; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Luo, Jian-Feng; Zhong, Lai-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relation of tea consumption with the risk of oral cancer incidence. A multicenter case-control study based on hospitalized population was conducted for evaluating the association of tea consumption with oral cancer risk in China. Black tea and green tea were separately analyzed. 723 cases and 857 controls were included. Unconditional multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral cancer for tea consumption. The ORs for green tea consumption⩾8g/day compared withconsumption⩾6g/day compared withconsumption was associated with decreased oral cancer risk. The results of this study indicated that green tea consumption may decrease the risk of oral cancer in men especially for those smoking heavily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A business model improvement proposal for Finnish enterprises doing business in China : case study: Hankintatukku Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mengzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a more adaptable business model for Finnish Hankintatukku Oy to help it be more successful in China. To achieve the objective, inductive research approach with qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in this thesis. With inductive research approach, data is collected to analyze the main elements inside a business model and marketing development trend in China. As a result, the final proposal comes out based on the marketing development trend in China ...

  3. Risk factors for rural young suicide in China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Ning; Tu, Xin-Ming; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Jia, Cunxian

    2011-03-01

    Suicide is the fifth most important cause of death in China and the leading cause of death among young adults aged 15-34 years. The suicide rate in rural China is three times higher than the urban suicide rate, and the rate in women is higher than in men. Sixteen counties from three provinces were selected as sampling sites in which 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls were obtained. For each suicide case and control there were two informants who provided the target person's information. A structured questionnaire including demographics, social and familial environments, and personal characteristics was administered to the informants. Mental disorders and high hopelessness were found to be strongly related to suicide among Chinese rural young adults. Other suicide risk factors among this population were negative life events, never married but dating, suicide history in family, lack of positive coping skills, lack of social support, dysfunctional impulsivity, and not being a Communist Party/League member. The prevalence of mental disorders, although the strongest risk factor among rural young adult suicides in this study, was markedly lower than that in Western countries. Some of the risk factors found in the comprehensive analyses are specific to Chinese culture. "Being a Communist Party/League member" as a protective factor for suicide among Chinese rural youths requires further study and appropriate interpretation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lack of evidence of hepatitis in patients with oral lichen planus in China: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; JI, XIAOLI; Su, Sha; Liu, Xiaodan; Xu, Si; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Background China has been one of the countries with high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver disease. And lichen planus is an extrahepatic manifestation of patients with chronic HCV infection. This case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between oral lichen planus (OLP) and HBV/HCV infection in China. Material and Methods A total of 776 patients, including 150 patients with OLP (Group OLP), 429 inpatients from the Trauma War...

  5. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  6. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  7. Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Qingying; Luo, Ganfeng; Li, Zhihao; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-10-01

    In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) during 2011-2014 in Guangdong were gathered. A dengue search index was constructed for developing the predictive models in combination with climate factors. The observed year and week were also included in the models to control for the long-term trend and seasonality. Several machine learning algorithms, including the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm, step-down linear regression model, gradient boosted regression tree algorithm (GBM), negative binomial regression model (NBM), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) linear regression model and generalized additive model (GAM), were used as candidate models to predict dengue incidence. Performance and goodness of fit of the models were assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and R-squared measures. The residuals of the models were examined using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation function analyses to check the validity of the models. The models were further validated using dengue surveillance data from five other provinces. The epidemics during the last 12 weeks and the peak of the 2014 large outbreak were accurately forecasted by the SVR model selected by a cross-validation technique. Moreover, the SVR model had the consistently smallest prediction error rates for tracking the dynamics of dengue and forecasting the outbreaks in other areas in China. The proposed SVR model achieved a superior performance in comparison with other forecasting techniques assessed in this study. The findings can help the government and community respond early to dengue epidemics.

  8. Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue.Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during 2011-2014 in Guangdong were gathered. A dengue search index was constructed for developing the predictive models in combination with climate factors. The observed year and week were also included in the models to control for the long-term trend and seasonality. Several machine learning algorithms, including the support vector regression (SVR algorithm, step-down linear regression model, gradient boosted regression tree algorithm (GBM, negative binomial regression model (NBM, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO linear regression model and generalized additive model (GAM, were used as candidate models to predict dengue incidence. Performance and goodness of fit of the models were assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE and R-squared measures. The residuals of the models were examined using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation function analyses to check the validity of the models. The models were further validated using dengue surveillance data from five other provinces. The epidemics during the last 12 weeks and the peak of the 2014 large outbreak were accurately forecasted by the SVR model selected by a cross-validation technique. Moreover, the SVR model had the consistently smallest prediction error rates for tracking the dynamics of dengue and forecasting the outbreaks in other areas in China.The proposed SVR model achieved a superior performance in comparison with other forecasting techniques assessed in this study. The findings can help the government and community respond early to dengue

  9. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    Solutions towards sustainable cities are of vital importance for China's stakeholders due to the rapid urbanizations, serious resources depletion and environmental contaminations in China. China as the second largest economy is suffering from the dilemma of rapid industrialization and urbanization......, and sustainable development. One of the most severe problems affecting China's sustainable urban development is the resource dependent city, in which resource mining and process industries dominate the local economy. With the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of environment, the concept...... of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...

  10. The use of microblog-based case studies in a pharmacotherapy introduction class in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansheng; Wang, Fei; Shi, Luwen

    2013-09-08

    Microblog is a Web 2.0 technology that provides an online social networking platform for communicating and sharing information among web users. Pharmacy educators have previously used microblog to promote active engagement of students. However, there is very little research to demonstrate how to use microblogging effectively to enhance pedagogy in a blended or face-to-face classroom environment. We used the most popular microblog website in China to create a "space" within the classroom to evaluate an interactive microblogging forum for the integration of pharmacotherapy case studies. This study is aimed to determine students' attitudes toward microblog-based case studies (MBC) in a pharmacotherapy class. We created a group on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblog website in China, to explore the possibilities of using microblog-based case discussions in pharmacy education to promote and motivate student learning. The class teaching activities began in November 2011; individual group assignments to a single case study were administered to 21 groups with a total of 126 participating pharmacy students. Each group was required to share a discussion care plan on the microblogging platform. Individual students were expected to participate in an online discussion related to at least two other group cases by posting their comments on the microblog platform. All postings were tracked and analyzed, and then a post MBC survey was administered anonymously to determine students' opinions towards MBC. A total of 126 students posted 592 messages and 112 students (89%) completed the survey. More than 80% of students agreed that MBC improved communication; nearly 70% agreed that MBC increased the amount of interaction, and over 50% found value in reading other students' messages. However, 25% students believed the collaborative learning was not effective and 22% indicated the quality of interaction was low. MBC appears to be well-accepted learning method to students in this study

  11. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxu; Zheng, Rongshou; He, Yutong; Sun, Xibin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.57), diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48-5.92) and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.10) were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  13. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  14. Modes and Experience of Green Mine Construction in Yunnan, China: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui; Yang, Shuran; Xu, Jun; Fan, Youcai; Xu, Gang; Yang, Jiaqing; Yuan, Jia; Qi, Wufu

    2017-12-01

    Yunnan is one of most important provinces with mineral resources and exploration in China. Meanwhile, Yunnan is Chinese ecological protective screen and try to be Pacesetter of ecological civilization. However, mining industry always disturbs ecological environment seriously. So green mine construction is inevitable and the best choice for Yunnan. In this paper, achievement of green mine construction in Yunnan was summarized. Then the paper takes two mines from Dahongshan and 4 mines from Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co., Ltd (YPC for short) as case studies. Technological innovation in Dahongshan Fe Mine and Dahongshan Cu Mine guarantees their success of green mine construction. Land rehabilitation and harmonious community are highlights of 4 mines from YPC. These modes and experience could be referential to construct green mine.

  15. Rural Christians' view of sickness treatment behavior: a case study from a Shandong village, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Honge; Wang, Wei; Wang, Libin

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies of Christian views of disease and treatment behavior in rural China. Based on Village G in Shandong Province, this paper describes how, under conditions of rural social and medical deprivation, Christians regard physical (routi) and mental (jingshen) sickness as resulting from disturbances to communal peace. Sickness occurs when everyday sinful words and actions allow the devil to enter or when God uses the devil to test worshippers' beliefs. In either case, it is the devil who directly causes sickness. Christian treatment is through scripture, communal and individual prayer, and expurgation. Diagnosis and treatment thus reflect both theodicy and the emergence of a kind of devil culture in the context of rural social crises.

  16. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a hospital-based case-control study in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixia; Wang, Yiwei; Ji, Zhaohua; Chen, Xiequn; Pan, Yaozhu; Gao, Guangxun; Gu, Hongtao; Yang, Yang; Choi, Bernard C K; Yan, Yongping

    2012-10-01

    The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that both family history and environmental factors may contribute to its development. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 220 confirmed MM cases and 220 individually matched patient controls, by sex, age and hospital was carried out at 5 major hospitals in Northwest China. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, family history, and the frequency of food items consumed. Based on multivariate analysis, a significant association between the risk of MM and family history of cancers in first degree relatives was observed (OR=4.03, 95% CI: 2.50-6.52). Fried food, cured/smoked food, black tea, and fish were not significantly associated with the risk of MM. Intake of shallot and garlic (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.85), soy food (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75) and green tea (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.27-0.53) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of MM. In contrast, intake of brined vegetables and pickle was significantly associated with an increased risk (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.41-2.93). A more than multiplicative interaction on the decreased risk of MM was found between shallot/garlic and soy food. Our study in Northwest China found an increased risk of MM with a family history of cancer, a diet characterized by low consumption of garlic, green tea and soy foods, and high consumption of pickled vegetables. The effect of green tea in reducing the risk of MM is an interesting new finding which should be further confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Mass and Universal Higher Education on Curriculum and Instruction: Case Studies of China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    Based on case studies of China and Japan, this study undertakes comparative research on major aspects of university curriculum and instruction-teaching activities of academics, their role in curriculum development, and their perceptions of these activities--between a mass and a universal higher education system. Major findings from the APA…

  18. Using Video Case Studies for the Professional Development of Teachers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee Kong Peter

    The purposes of this project are to: (1) develop an ethnographic video case (EVC) CD-ROM of three Chinese teachers teaching the Chinese language in secondary school classrooms in China according to a thinking-skill model developed by Dr. Lin Chongde called "Five Traits of Thinking"; (2) obtain formative data for fixing the improving the…

  19. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  20. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  1. Enhanced recycling network for spent e-bicycle batteries: A case study in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Zhang, Wangyuan; Ma, Jing; Lv, Jie; Yang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries. The findings show that the existing distempered recycling system is the main limitation of spent battery recovery, and the actual recovery rate of spent batteries is lower than the estimated output (QW) for the years 2011-2014. Electric bicycle sellers play a fundamental role in the collection of spent batteries in Xuzhou, accounting for 42.3±8.3% of all batteries recovered. The widespread use of lithium batteries in recent years has resulted in a reduction in spent battery recycling because of lower battery prices. Furthermore, consumer preferences are another important factor affecting the actual recovery rate according to survey results evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis. In this paper, we suggest that a reverse logistics network system for spent battery recycling should be established in the future; in addition, enhancing producer responsibility, increasing publicity, raising of public awareness, developing green public transport, and reducing dependence on e-bicycles also should be pursued. This study seeks to provide guidance for planning construction and management policies for an effective spent battery recycling system in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrative Management of Commercialized Wild Mushroom: A Case Study of Thelephora ganbajun in Yunnan, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Zhou, Zhimei; Yang, Huixian; Xu, Jianchu

    2011-07-01

    The management of wild mushroom is interdisciplinary in nature, whereby the biophysical considerations have to be incorporated into the context of a wide range of social, economic and political concerns. However, to date, little documentation exists illustrating an interdisciplinary approach to management of wild mushrooms. Moreover, the empirical case studies necessary for developing applicable and practical methods are even more rare. This paper adopted an interdisciplinary approach combining participatory methods to improve the habitat management of Thelephora ganbajun, an endemic and one of the most economically valuable mushroom species in Southwest China. The paper documents an empirical case of how an interdisciplinary approach facilitated the development of a scientific basis for policy and management practice, and built the local capacity to create, adopt and sustain the new rules and techniques of mushroom management. With this integrative perspective, a sustainable management strategy was developed, which was found not only technically feasible for farmers, but also acceptable to the government from an ecological and policy-related perspective. More importantly, this approach has greatly contributed to raising the income of farmers. The paper highlights how the integration of biophysical and socioeconomic factors and different knowledge systems provided a holistic perspective to problem diagnosis and resolution, which helped to cope with conventional scientific dilemmas. Finally, it concludes that the success of this interdisciplinary approach is significant in the context of policy decentralization and reform for incorporating indigenous knowledge and local participation in forest management.

  3. Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China: A case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Ndungu, Anne Wairimu; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics have been considered as an emerging pollutant in the aquatic environment. However, research about microplastic pollution in inland freshwaters of China is insufficient. The present study investigated the levels of microplastics in surface water of 20 urban lakes and urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 1660.0±639.1 to 8925±1591n/m(3) for the studied waters, with the highest concentration found in Bei Lake. Microplastic abundance in lakes varied markedly in space, and negatively correlated with the distance from the city center (pUrban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River were found to have relatively lower levels of microplastics than most of the studied lakes. The major type of microplastics among the studied waters was colored plastic, with fiber being the most frequent shape. More than 80% of microplastics in number had a size of <2mm. Polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene were the dominant polymer-types of microplastics analyzed. This study provided important reference for better understanding microplastic levels in inland freshwaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The weaknesses of China's contractors in overseas construction project management: 2 case studies

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    Ph. D. Mo Xuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The practices of international construction contracting have been prevalent increasingly over the past half a centuru, Altough the contractors of highly developed world have dominated this field, there tends to be more players from newly emerging countries like China. The history of China's contractors performing in the overseas construction markets is divided into 3 major phases, namely the planning economy era, reform and openness perios and the latest nwe millennium. However, the know-how and techniques of modern project management have been widely deployed in China for merely 2 decades. While competing with those veterans in overseas markets, China's contractors still lack adequate advantages as well as experiences, leading to the underperformance or even failures. A 2-dimension framework of overseas project management, comprising the external risk and internal function aspects , is proposed. Based on the analysis of 2 recent cases in Saudi Arabia an Poland respectively, it's foung that the low cost strategy management in risk, commerce, cost, human resources, etc. are their fatal weaknesses.

  5. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

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    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  6. Water diversion projects negatively impact lake metabolism: A case study in Lake Dazong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yunlin; Du, Yingyang; Jiang, Xingyu; Li, Min

    2018-02-01

    Water diversion projects are one of the major tools for counteracting water resource shortage in China. Many diversion projects aimed at diverting water from the Yangtze River or other rivers. This study, using one of the lakes receiving Yangtze River water as a case study, illustrated how nutrient, O2, and N2 fluxes across the sediment-water interface (SWI) changed with increasing nitrate loads during in situ benthic chamber incubation. Increasing nitrate loads in the overlying water caused complex changes in the SWI fluxes. Furthermore, responses of the SWI fluxes to increasing nitrate loads were largely driven by season. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), ammonium (NH4(+)), CO2, and N2 fluxes increased with enhanced nitrate loads, likely induced by stimulated anaerobic mineralization. DIC had a stronger response to nitrate additions in late summer versus in winter. Nitrate influxes were enhanced by increasing nitrate loads in winter and showed a similar but stronger response in summer, with a shift from sediment release to influx. Sediment oxygen consumption decreased with increasing nitrate loads in both late summer and, especially, winter. Nitrate addition may have changed the proportions of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, i.e., nitrate competed with O2 as an electron acceptor. With increasing nitrate loads, anaerobic respiration was strengthened in the dark benthic chamber. Water diversion from the heavily polluted Yangtze River to Lake Dazong may be disadvantageous for controlling eutrophication, especially during the summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  8. Social media for informal science learning in China: A case study

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    Ke Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a case study on a popular informal science learning community via social media in China, named GuoKr (meaning “nutshell” in English. Data were collected through a variety of Chinese social media and social networking sites, web-based community portals, and discussion boards. Content analyses and data mining were conducted to investigate how GuoKr successfully attracted and engaged public in informal learning on scientific topics in particular. The study found three key characteristics that contributed to the success of such learning communities: (a utilizing a variety of social media to empower participants with just-in-time, accidental learning opportunities; (b daily tweets related to emerging or ongoing social events or hot topics to provide brief but intriguing knowledge “bites”, which often leads to extended readings and related resources; and (c the integration of social media and traditional face-to-face local events to engage the public in science-related learning and knowledge sharing. Practical and research implications are discussed with suggestions for future research as related to ubiquitous learning communities for informal science learning.

  9. Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    The draft legislation on e-waste prepared by the Chinese national government assigns management responsibility to local governments. It is an urgent task for the municipal government to plan an effective system as soon as possible to divert the e-waste flow from the existing informal e-waste recycling processes. This paper presents a case study implemented in Beijing, the capital city of China, with the purpose of predicting the amount of obsolete equipment for five main kinds of electronic appliances from urban households and to analyse the flow after the end of their useful phase. The amount to be handled was 885,354 units in 2005 and is predicted to double by 2010. Due to consumption growth and the expansion of urbanization it is estimated that the amount will increase to approximate 2,820,000 units by 2020: 70% of the obsolete appliances will be awaiting collection for possible recycling, 7% will be stored at the owner's home for 1 year on average and 4% will be discarded directly and enter the municipal solid waste collecting system. The remaining items will be reused for about 3 years on average after the change of ownership. The results of this study will assist the waste management authorities of Beijing to plan the collecting system and facilities needed for management of e-waste generated in the near future.

  10. Mixed vaccination strategy for the control of tuberculosis: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Li, Yong; Bi, Yingjie; Huang, Qingdao

    2017-06-01

    This study first presents a mathematical model of TB transmission considering BCG vaccination compartment to investigate the transmission dynamics nowadays. Based on data reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the basic reproduction number is estimated approximately as R0=1.1892. To reach the new End TB goal raised by WHO in 2015, considering the health system in China, we design a mixed vaccination strategy. Theoretical analysis indicates that the infectious population asymptotically tends to zero with the new vaccination strategy which is the combination of constant vaccination and pulse vaccination. We obtain that the control of TB is quicker to achieve with the mixed vaccination. The new strategy can make the best of current constant vaccination, and the periodic routine health examination provides an operable environment for implementing pulse vaccination in China. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the theoretical results and help to design the final mixed vaccination strategy once the new vaccine comes out.

  11. Case studies emphasising the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis in rural China

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    Gray Darren J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is caused by the accidental ingestion of the eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE occurs frequently in rural western China due to the poor levels of hygiene, the close contact of people with dogs, and the lack of appropriate facilities for the correct and rapid diagnosis of the disease. Findings We describe a case of a patient with hepatic AE, and AE metastases of the brain. She was mistakenly diagnosed with suspected undifferentiated metastatic cancer of the liver and brain, and with a pulmonary bacterial infection, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed during a follow-up field survey for echinococcosis. The diagnosis of brain AE was confirmed by pathological examination of tissue biopsies removed during neurosurgery. We also briefly describe other symptomatic and asymptomatic AE cases, identified by chance, likely due to the inadequate facilities available in rural communities in China for AE diagnosis and management, since the rapid and accurate diagnosis of metastatic AE requires a high level of expertise in the appropriate diagnostic procedures. Conclusions This report highlights the necessity for an upgrade in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of AE in rural China.

  12. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Networks: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

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    Daniel (Jian Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit is developing rapidly in major cities of China and has become a key component of urban transport. Nevertheless, the security and reliability in operation are significant issues that cannot be neglected. In this paper, the network and station vulnerabilities of the urban rail transit system were analyzed based on complex network and graph theories. A vulnerability evaluation model was proposed by accounting metro interchange and passenger flow and further validated by a case study of Shanghai Metro with full-scale network and real-world traffic data. It is identified that the urban rail transit network is rather robust to random attacks, but is vulnerable to the largest degree node-based attacks and the highest betweenness node-based attacks. Metro stations with a large node degree are more important in maintaining the network size, while stations with a high node betweenness are critical to network efficiency and origin-destination (OD connectivity. The most crucial stations in maintaining network serviceability do not necessarily have the highest passenger throughput or the largest structural connectivity. A comprehensive evaluation model as proposed is therefore essential to assess station vulnerability, so that attention can be placed on appropriate nodes within the metro system. The findings of this research are of both theoretical and practical significance for urban rail transit network design and performance evaluation.

  14. LID-BMPs planning for urban runoff control and the case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Yao, Hairong; Tang, Ying; Yu, Shaw L; Field, Richard; Tafuri, Anthony N

    2015-02-01

    Low Impact Development Best Management Practices (LID-BMPs) have in recent years received much recognition as cost-effective measures for mitigating urban runoff impacts. In the present paper, a procedure for LID-BMPs planning and analysis using a comprehensive decision support tool was proposed. A case study was conducted to the planning of an LID-BMPs implementation effort at a college campus in Foshan, Guangdong Province, China. By examining information obtained, potential LID-BMPs were first selected. SUSTAIN was then used to analyze four runoff control scenarios, namely: pre-development scenario; basic scenario (existing campus development plan without BMP control); Scenario 1 (least-cost BMPs implementation); and, Scenario 2 (maximized BMPs performance). A sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess the impact of the hydrologic and water quality parameters. The optimal solution for each of the two LID-BMPs scenarios was obtained by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Finally, the cost-effectiveness of the LID-BMPs implementation scenarios was examined by determining the incremental cost for a unit improvement of control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Students' Perceptions of Their ICT-Based College English Course in China: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinan, Wen; Sai, George Teoh Boon

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated foreign language students' perceptions about their Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based College English Course (CEC) in China. The research used a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire based on Simsek (2008). A factor analysis confirmed the construct validity of the questionnaire and 6 factors were…

  16. Hand-spinning chrysotile exposure and risk of malignant mesothelioma: A case-control study in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoqiang; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Junqiang; Ying, Shibo; Gao, Zhibin; He, Xianglei; Miao, Chao; Yu, Min; Feng, Lingfang; Xia, Hailing; Wu, Wei; Chen, Riping; Morinaga, Kenji; Lou, Jianlin; Zhang, Xing

    2018-02-01

    While chrysotile has been commonly used by Chinese textile industry for many years, investigations on the association of chrysotile exposure with risk of mesothelioma in China are scarce. We conducted a case-control study in a county located at Southeastern China, including 46 cases and 230 individually matched controls. A semi-quantitative method based on experts' assessment was used for evaluating hand-spinning chrysotile exposure. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of asbestos exposure with risk of mesothelioma. We found that hand-spinning chrysotile exposure was associated with significantly elevated risk of mesothelioma, reaching OR =10 (95% CIs: 1.4-65) for possible exposure and 64 (12-328) for definite exposure. Our data suggested a dose-response relationship of chrysotile exposure duration with risk of mesothelioma, reaching 28 (6-134) for mesothelioma was found, reaching 28 (6-137) for CEI at 0-0.5 fibers per milliliter years (f/mL-year), 36 (7-184) for CEI at 0.5-28.6 f/mL-years and 79 (14-451) for CEI > 28.6 f/mL-years. We found a dose-response relationship of chrysotile exposure duration and CEI with risk of mesothelioma in Southeastern China, adding valuable information on health hazards of chrysotile exposure in China where chrysotile is still used nationwide. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

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    X. G. Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20–27 September 2011. Mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles as well as aerosol optical properties were concurrently measured at the Beijing urban atmospheric environment monitoring station. Gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, O3, CO and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Meanwhile, aerosol spatial distribution and the height of planetary boundary layer (PBL were retrieved from the signal of satellite and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Concentrations of NO, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO observed during 23–27 September had exceeded the national ambient air quality standards for residents. The mass concentration of PM2.5 gradually accumulated during the measurement and reached at 220 μg m−3 on 26 September, and the corresponding atmospheric visibility was only 1.1 km. The daily averaged AOD in Beijing increased from ~ 0.16 at λ = 500 nm on 22 September and reached ~ 3.5 on 26 September. The key factors that affected the formation and evolution of this haze episode were stable anti-cyclone synoptic conditions at the surface, decreasing of the height of PBL, heavy pollution emissions from urban area, number and size evolution of aerosols, and hygroscopic growth for aerosol scattering. This case study may provide valuable information for the public to recognize the formation mechanism of the regional haze event over the megacity, which is also useful for the government to adopt scientific approach to forecast and eliminate the occurrence of regional haze in China.

  18. Physical illness and suicide risk in rural residents of contemporary China: a psychological autopsy case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cun-Xian; Wang, Lin-Lin; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Dai, Ai-Ying; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Physical illness is linked with an increased risk of suicide; however, evidence from China is limited. To assess the influence of physical illness on risk of suicide among rural residents of China, and to examine the differences in the characteristics of people completing suicide with physical illness from those without physical illness. In all, 200 suicide cases and 200 control subjects, 1:1 pair-matched on sex and age, were included from 25 townships of three randomly selected counties in Shandong Province, China. One informant for each suicide or control subject was interviewed to collect data on the physical health condition and psychological and sociodemographic status. The prevalence of physical illness in suicide cases (63.0%) was significantly higher than that in paired controls (41.0%; χ² = 19.39, p suicide cases without physical illness, people who were physically ill and completed suicide were generally older, less educated, had lower family income, and reported a mental disorder less often. Physical illness denoted a significant risk factor for suicide with an associated odds ratio of 3.23 (95% CI: 1.85-5.62) after adjusted for important covariates. The elevated risk of suicide increased progressively with the number of comorbid illnesses. Cancer, stroke, and a group of illnesses comprising dementia, hemiplegia, and encephalatrophy had a particularly strong effect among the commonly reported diagnoses in this study population. Physical illness is an important risk factor for suicide in rural residents of China. Efforts for suicide prevention are needed and should be integrated with national strategies of health care in rural China.

  19. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ge; Haibo Zhang; Wen Dou; Wenfang Chen; Ning Liu; Yuan Wang; Yulin Shi; Wenxin Rao

    2017-01-01

    Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With ...

  20. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  1. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the effective control of point source (PS pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which includes pollution from housing, and from livestock and crop production, is the main source. Based on the NPS pollution statutes, an index system for integrated evaluation of water quality, and a zoning scheme for rural water conservation were established. Using the method of one-dimensional Euclidean distance, this country is divided into 9 sub-zones at the provincial level, which are the first level zones. The zoning themes include natural resources, socio-economic development, water use efficiency, and pollutants emission intensity. According to pollution types of livestock, agriculture, or both, the first level zones are divided into 25 second level zones. The third class zoning is divided also based on pollution intensity of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. On the basis of the second level zoning, there were formed 70 rural water conservation third level zones. This case study in the Ashihe river watershed indicated that the main pollution sources are consistent with the zoning research result, and this zoning has shown a good way to guide the agricultural NPS pollution control in not only the wide rural area of China but also other parts of the world.

  2. Regional salinity management based on shallow groundwater controlling : a case study in the north china plain

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Changming; TANG, Changyuan; SHINDO, Shizuo

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] This paper deals with regional salinity management of the North China Plain. The authors of present paper paid careful attention to the fact that the basic characteristics of salinity dynamics are in close relation to water. Particularly in semiarid and semihumid flat areas, the water is not only a driving force for salts, but also the most important state variable having a decisive influence on soil salinity. On basis of such principle, the authors studied the approaches to contro...

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature: a case study in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Z. X. Xu; Z. X. Xu; X. J. Yang; D. P. Zuo; D. P. Zuo; Q. Chu; W. F. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature in Yunnan Province, China, were analyzed by using observed daily data at 28 meteorological stations from 1958–2013 in this study. Nine extreme precipitation indices and 6 extreme temperature indices were adopted, and the tendency of those indices was investigated by using Mann–Kendal test method. In order to distinguish the spatial characteristics, the region was divided into 5 regions according to clima...

  4. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiliang, Zhang; Gan, Lin; Shuhua, Gu; Wenqiang, Liu

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building, and to international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development an...

  5. Discrimination Based on Health Grounds : Case Study: Hepatitis B Virus Discrimination in China Labour Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B in China, millions of carriers are faced with discrimination when they come to work, study, health care or even marriage. The same situation also happens to those physically disadvantageous people especially in the access to employment. Employment discrimination detracts from the principle of equality and directly impairs social justice and human dignity. Series of institutional responses are needed to effectively prevent employment discrimi...

  6. A Case Study of Foreigner’s Intercultural Identity in China via WeChat Moments

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    Bei Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of communication and culture are interrelated with each other and with semiotics. This study attempts to explore the intercultural identity of foreigners via their use of social media in China. As the most popular social media used in China, a foreign teacher from America (named as Liz’s posts via WeChat Moments from 2013 to 2015 were coded based upon photos and texts to indicate her identity in China. As a result of semiotic analyses, five main themes were identified in her posts, ranging from personal interests and needs, occupation, family, Chinese traits to American traits. Based upon these identified themes, Liz’s intercultural identity as Chinese culture experiencer and promoter is reflected by her description of Chinese traditions, showing contrasts between American and Chinese culture, and using Chinese characters in writing. Overall, not much anxiety and stress during Liz’s acculturation process are shown while most cultural posts reflect her active and ongoing adaption to Chinese culture.

  7. Evaluation and Optimization of the Financial Sustainability of Public Rental Housing Projects: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Chinese governments have launched ambitious plans in developing public rental housing (PRH, which are almost impossible to accomplish without the involvement of the private sector. Yet, very few quantitative studies have been carried out to evaluate the financial sustainability of PRH projects in China, especially from the perspective of the private sector. This knowledge gap is bridged through the evaluation of the financial sustainability of a hypothetical privately owned PRH project in Nanjing, China as a case study, utilizing data of a state-owned PRH project and the classic discounted cash flow method. The results indicate that the studied project is financially infeasible, which means that private companies would not be willing to participate in the provision of public rental housing, if they merely focus on profits. Then, the most cost-effective optimization measure of the studied case is quantitatively selected from four possible optimization scenarios, leading to a financial balance. This paper presents the current financial status of Chinese PRH projects, thereby providing policy makers with useful references to effectively accelerate the private sector’s provision of PRH in China.

  8. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

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    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  9. Meeting the Demand for Accountability: Case Study of a Teacher Education Program in China

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    Tak Cheung CHAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for accountability, a teacher education program in a university located in South China has established processes at the college, the program, and the faculty levels to assure its program quality. Highlights of the processes are: involvement of stakeholders and the examination of program effectiveness. Although much has been done to help program candidates succeed, more effort is needed in the areas of program assessment and continuous improvement to assure program quality. An accountability implementation plan, a beginning teacher mentoring program, and a comparative study of beginning teacher performance were recommended to further enforce its strategies toward program accountability.

  10. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform--a case study on Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Yuxin

    2012-12-18

    In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China's state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China's poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were -0.0024 (urban) and -0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and -0.0177 (urban) and -0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: -0.0615 in 2002,-0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably. Optimizing benefit packages in public health insurance is

  11. Cenozoic exhumation history of South China: A case study from the Xuefeng Mt. Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Beihang; Zhao, Heng

    2018-01-01

    New apatite fission track (AFT) dating was applied to the Xuefeng Mt. Range and Yuanma Basin to constrain the Cenozoic exhumation process of the southeastern Yangtze Block, South China. The analyzed samples in this study have AFT ages ranging from 27.9 ± 2.5 to 61.5 ± 5.9 Ma, which are younger than the deposition or crystallization ages of the host rocks. The AFT analysis and thermal history modeling indicate that both the Xuefeng Mt. Range and the Yuanma Basin underwent significant exhumation during the early Cenozoic (ca. 60-40 Ma). These samples were rapidly exhumed to near the surface during this period. Our results suggest that an important tectonic event occurred along or near regional fault zones (e.g., the Qinhang Fault) in South China during the early Cenozoic (ca. 60-40 Ma). However, it is difficult to relate this event to the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, which is much older and is characterized by large-scale folding and thrusting. Combined with fieldwork in the Yuanma, Xupu, and Xinning basins, we refute the Cretaceous "Pan-Yangtze Basin" that was proposed to have been separated by the uplifted Xuefeng Mt. Range after the Late Cretaceous. The exhumation stage from ca. 60 Ma to 40 Ma was an important period during which plate movements across the eastern Asian and Pacific regions were reorganized. The early Cenozoic tectonothermal event in South China can be attributed to a change in the direction and speed of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. An Oligocene-Miocene cooling event was also recorded in the eastern Xuefeng Mt. Range, which we tentatively attribute to the activity of dextral faults in this area as a far-field effect of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

  12. Ecological risk Evaluation and Green Infrastructure planning for coping with global climate change, a case study of Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyao; Xiao, He; Li, Xiang; Hu, Wenhao; Gu, Shoubai; Yu, Zhenrong

    2018-01-01

    Coping with various ecological risks caused by extreme weather events of global climate change has become an important issue in regional planning, and storm water management for sustainable development. In this paper, taking Shanghai, China as a case study, four potential ecological risks were identified including flood disaster, sea-source disaster, urban heat island effect, and land subsidence. Based on spatial database, the spatial variation of these four ecological risks was evaluated, and the planning area was divided into seven responding regions with different green infrastructure strategy. The methodology developed in this study combining ecological risk evaluation with spatial regionalization planning could contribute to coping with global climate change.

  13. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  14. Investigating Yield Variability and Inefficiency in Rice Production: A Case Study in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihai Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient and high variability in rice yield is a threat to food security in China, prompting the need for strategies to mitigate yield variability and increase productivity. This study investigates the presence of production risk and technical inefficiency for a sample of rice farms in the Xiangyang city of China using a stochastic production frontier framework. Results from the risk function reveal that labor and better soil quality have significant risk-reducing effects while machinery exerts a significant risk-increasing effect on rice production. The estimated mean technical efficiency score is 84%, suggesting that, on average, farmers could increase their rice production by 16%, without increasing the existing input levels by improving their management techniques. Factors that significantly affect technical efficiency are the age of farmers, female ratio, access and use of extension services, off-farm income, and the size of cultivated land. Results from this study suggest that yield variability and technical inefficiency in rice production can be reduced by appropriate choice of input combinations and elimination of mistakes in the production process through efficient management practices. Strategies, such as providing better extension services, loosening liquidity constraints facing farmers, and expanding rice farmers’ producing area, would help to achieve minimum inefficiency in production.

  15. Case-control study of anaemia among middle-aged and elderly women in three rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengkun; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Wang, Chunrong; Meng, Liping; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-18

    To propose a feasible suggestion to reduce the high prevalence of anaemia in middle-aged and elderly women by investigating risk factors, particularly nutritional factors, and analysing the effect on anaemia in three different rural areas of China. A case-control study. Three counties of China. Women aged 50-75 years in the three counties. Adjusted OR (95% CI) of anaemia associated with diet, lifestyle and blood biochemical indices. Compared with controls, women with anaemia had lower body mass index (22.1 (3.2) kg/m(2) vs 23.2 (3.5) kg/m(2); pAnaemia was significantly associated with BMI(OR=0.90, 95% CI (0.87 to 0.92)), food shortage experience (OR=1.39, 95% CI (1.15 to 1.69)), total protein (OR=0.66, 95%CI (0.54 to 0.80)), Albumin (OR=0.72, 95%CI (0.59 to 0.87)) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index, experience of food shortage, total protein and albumin were independently related to anaemia. Among middle-aged and elderly women in rural China, the nutrition status of anaemic cases is far below that of controls. Lower body mass index and a greater experience of food shortage are closely related to anaemia. Improving the blood protein status by consuming protein-sufficient foods such as soy food is a feasible approach for elderly anaemic women. Further research is needed on the effect of chronic inflammation and infectious disease on anaemia in elderly women in rural China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Area Studies: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    The guide outlines a course of study for elementary students on the history, geography, language, and general culture of China. Course objectives are to identify the major mountains, the major cities, and the types of climate affecting each region of China; locate and record on a time line the important events in the development of Chinese…

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Residents′ Perceptions of Tourism Impacts on Historic Districts: A Case Study of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Linlin; Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jun; Wan, Li; Wu, Bihu

    2017-01-01

    ...′ social-demographic features and their perceptions of tourism development. The framework is applied to the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing, China, which is a typical tourism destination benefitting from its traditional urban forms...

  18. A case study of industrial symbiosis. Nanning Sugar Co., Ltd. in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shanlin; Feng, Nanping [Management School of Hefei University of Technology, 270 Mail Box, Hefei, Anhui Province 230009 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Industrial symbiosis activities are being implemented in the philosophy of 'circular economy' in China. Integrating industrial symbiosis into the corporate development plans to optimize materials and energy flows is a feasible strategy for many corporations in their transition between nonsustainable and sustainable development. By constructing industrial ecosystems, Nanning Sugar Co., Ltd. in China, has achieved the successful transition from a traditional corporation to a sustainable corporation, or rather, a circular corporation. This study expounds on its whole transition course to a circular complex in the past decade, in which four factors are essential to making this symbiosis achievable: rational production structures; raw materials advantages; technical supports and correct diversification. The corporation is in charge of almost all the aspects of its affiliated companies and the management mode, in particular, differing from that of industrial symbiosis systems in Kalundborg, is considered another potential factor contributing to the corporate success. The transition mode in question is hoped to point to a feasible development path for similar corporations. (author)

  19. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  20. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  1. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  2. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  3. White rice consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-07-10

    This study investigated the association between white rice consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in remote northwest China, where the cancer incidence is known to be high. A case-control study was conducted during 2008-2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual white rice consumption was obtained by personal interview using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between white rice consumption and the esophageal cancer risk. Confounding variables including socio-demographics, family history, dietary and lifestyle factors were adjusted in the multivariate model. The esophageal cancer patients reported lower consumption levels of white rice-based products, including cooked white rice and porridge, when compared to the control group. Overall, regular consumption of white rice foods was inversely associated with the esophageal cancer risk, the adjusted OR being 0.34 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.52) for the highest (>250 g) versus the lowest (consumption levels of cooked white rice and porridge. In conclusion, habitual white rice consumption was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer for adults residing in northwest China. Our findings provide evidence to support the continued consumption of white rice.

  4. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  5. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  6. Roles of scholars in the practice of combating-desertification: a case study in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Lan, Zhiyong; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the perceived importance of scholars' participation in combating-desertification programs in northwest China and analyzed the underlying factors and mechanisms. Our results show that, while various experts, professors, and researchers have participated in combating-desertification programs, their actions were often not effective. Only those scholars who understood the local situations adequately had important and positive impacts. These scholars served as information brokers between the governments and other stakeholders, entrepreneurial activity organizers for farmers, governmental representatives, or advocators for local affairs themselves. They played indispensible roles in facilitating efforts in combating desertification. The study also identified key factors that led to the success of scholars' participation in combating-desertification activities. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of scholars' participation in land restoration and environmental management.

  7. Green University Initiatives in China: A Case of Tsinghua University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanxia; Zou, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China's green university pioneer, as a case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to…

  8. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  9. Lack of evidence of hepatitis in patients with oral lichen planus in China: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Ji, Xiaoli; Su, Sha; Liu, Xiaodan; Xu, Si; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    China has been one of the countries with high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver disease. And lichen planus is an extrahepatic manifestation of patients with chronic HCV infection. This case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between oral lichen planus (OLP) and HBV/HCV infection in China. A total of 776 patients, including 150 patients with OLP (Group OLP), 429 inpatients from the Trauma Ward of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department (Group A), 110 patients with other oral mucosal diseases, but without a reported association with HCV infection (Group B) and 87 patients with oral lichenoid lesion (Group OLL), were compared with their seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody (HCVAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the parameters of liver functions. Moreover, the clinical characteristics of OLP were also observed, such as gender, age, chief complaint, course of the disease, clinical type, sites involved and so on. The positive rates of HCVAb and HBsAg in OLP patients were 0.7% and 4%, respectively. Neither HCVAb nor HBsAg was associated with OLP as demonstrated by both the univariate and the multivariate analyses. The clinical features and liver functions of OLP patients with negative or positive HBsAg were nearly the same. Our findings verify that there is no association between OLP and hepatitis and there is no need to run a screening test for HCV or HBV in OLP patients in China.

  10. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiong Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents' attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents' support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people's sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  11. A perspective on emerging law, consumer trust and social responsibility in China's food sector: the "bleaching" case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Trust underpins the Chinese social system, and yet it is lacking from a Chinese food system that is riddled with safety disasters and disgruntled consumers. Government and industry play a major role in rehabilitating consumer trust in China. To this end, food safety and quality laws have been constructed to foster this process; however, safety scandals continue even in the face of stricter regulations and increased enforcement. A potential toll to abate food-safety problems and to build trust is the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility ("CSR"). Mandates by the government promote CSR in enterprise activity, including Article 3 of the 2009 China Food Safety Law. Officials have also recently touted the need for "moral education" of operators in the food industry. Regardless of government activity or whether CSR is employed by food enterprises, it is imperative that the food industry recognizes how critical it is to establish trust with Chinese consumers, who increasingly expect safe, quality food. The case study with pistachios highlights this evolving consumer expectation and the principles of social responsibility in the framework of the relationship between government and industry and consumers, while demonstrating the benefits of doing the right thing for food companies doing business in China.

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a case-control study in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Lee, A H; Xu, F; Zhang, T; Lei, J; Binns, C W

    2014-01-01

    The north-western region of China carries a big burden of esophageal cancer with incidence above the national average. This study ascertained the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in this remote part of China. A case-control study was undertaken in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the associations. The esophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less fruits (mean 364.3, standard deviation [SD] 497.4 g) and vegetables (mean 711.4, SD 727.9 g) daily than their counterparts without the disease (mean 496.5, SD 634.4 g and mean 894.5, SD 746.1 g, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios were 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.33-0.71) and 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.68) for consuming at least 515 g of fruits and 940 g of vegetables per day, respectively, relative to at most 170 g and 520 g. With respect to nutrients contained in fruits and vegetables, intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-cryptoxanthin, potassium, and magnesium at high levels also reduced the esophageal cancer risk. In conclusion, inverse associations were evident between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of esophageal cancer for adults residing in north-west China. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. Effectiveness of endoscopic gastric cancer screening in a rural area of Linzhou, China: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Yu, Liang; Hao, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jin-Wu; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Guo, Lan-Wei; Quan, Pei-Liang; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Ya-Wei; Sun, Xi-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In China, a large burden of gastric cancer has remained, and endoscopic screening was expected to reduce gastric cancer mortality. Therefore, a population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the screening effect. The gastric cancer screening program was initiated in Linzhou in the year 2005, and endoscopic examination with indicative biopsy, for residents aged 40-69 years, was used to detect early cancer and precancerous lesion. In this study, cases were defined as individuals who had died of gastric cancer, which were selected from Linzhou Cancer Registry database. Controls were residents (six per case), who had not died of gastric cancer, from the same area as the case, and matched by gender and age (±2 years). The exposure status, whether cases and controls ever attended the screening or not, was acquired by inspecting the well-documented screening records. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 313 cases and 1876 controls were included in our analysis. Compared with subjects who never participated in screening, the overall OR for individuals who ever participated in screening was 0.72(95% CI: 0.54-0.97). The OR for lag time 4 years or longer was 0.68(95% CI: 0.47-0.98) and the OR for those who were aged 50-59 years were 0.56 (0.37-0.85). The results suggest a 28% reduction in risk of gastric cancer mortality by endoscopic screening, which may have significant implications for gastric cancer screening in rural areas of China. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A regional strategy for ecological sustainability: A case study in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Hou, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yueqiu; Dong, Shikui; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-24

    Partitioning, a method considering environmental protection and development potential, is an effective way to provide regional management strategies to maintain ecological sustainability. In this study, we provide a large-scale regional division approach and present a strategy for Southwest China, which also has extremely high development potential because of the "Western development" policy. Based on the superposition of 15 factors, including species diversity, pattern restriction, agricultural potential, accessibility, urbanization potential, and topographical limitations, the environmental value and development benefit in the region were quantified spatially by weighting the sum of indicators within environmental and development categories. By comparing the scores with their respective median values, the study area was divided into four different strategy zones: Conserve zones (34.94%), Construction zones (32.95%), Conflict zones (16.96%), and Low-tension zones (15.16%). The Conflict zones in which environmental value and development benefit were both higher than the respective medians were separated further into the following 5 levels: Extreme conflict (36.20%), Serious conflict (28.07%), Moderate conflict (12.28%), Minor conflict (6.55%), and Slight conflict (16.91%). We found that 9.04% of nature reserves were in Conflict zones, and thus should be given more attention. This study provides a simple and feasible method for regional partitioning, as well as comprehensive support that weighs both the environmental value and development benefit for China's current Ecological Red Line and space planning and for regional management in similar situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing Change in English Language Teaching through a Journey of Learning: A Case Study from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wang

    2010-01-01

    In the last two years, English language teaching at the level of basic education in China has been changing very fast due to the new Standard Curriculum. The paper takes a school in the northwest of China as an example, illustrating the process of implementing the Curriculum, summarizing the work the school has done, the problems encountered and…

  16. Institutions policies and soil degradation:theoretical examinations and case studies in Southeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Qu Futian,; Huang Xianjin,; Heerink, N.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Southeast China is one of the severe soil degradation areas in China. Taking this area for example, this paper examines theoretically the impact of some important institutional arrangements and policies like land management pattern, the rural off-farm employment, land property change and changes in

  17. Zoning for management in wetland nature reserves: a case study using Wuliangsuhai Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Yamian; Jia, Yifei; Jiao, Shengwu; Feng, Duoduo; Bridgewater, Peter; Lei, Guangchun

    2012-01-01

    Zoning is a fundamental tool for the effective management of nature reserves. A three-zone model (core zone, buffer zone, and experimental zone) has been applied to nature reserves in China since 1980s; however, this model appears not fit for all types of nature reserves, especially wetlands. Wuliangsuhai is such a typical wetland reserve, which can represent most of the other wetland reserves in China, for both its human utilization, and for its function as the bird habitat. The "Component-Process-Service" (CPS) framework of the Convention on Wetlands allows a determination of the "ecological character" of the wetland and also allows identification of potential threats, providing thus a perspective for management opportunities and challenges. Applying the CPS framework to Wuliangsuhai wetland nature reserve, we have had a better understanding of the ecosystem services and its relationship with the ecological process and components of the wetland. A comparison of effectiveness in maintaining ecosystem services by the two zoning models (the existing three-zone model, and the new zoning model) was made. The study suggested introducing an additional risk-control zone to be more effective in managing and alleviating threats to the ecological character than the standard 3-zone system. Furthermore, a "dynamic" zoning that takes into account the annual variation in habitat and avifauna distribution, as an elaboration of the Four-zone structure, may achieve the desired conservation objectives in an even more effective manner. The proposed zonation structure has the added benefit of promoting harmonization between nature conservation and local sustainable development.

  18. Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study of Health Care Planning in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Tian, Lingling; Luo, Lei; Yi, Hong; Wang, Fahui

    2017-01-01

    A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed "two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI)." The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.

  19. Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study of Health Care Planning in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.

  20. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qulin Tan; Leijuan Li; Senlin Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... With the rapid development of China's high-speed railway, it puts a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent...

  1. Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pi Guo; Tao Liu; Qin Zhang; Li Wang; Jianpeng Xiao; Qingying Zhang; Ganfeng Luo; Zhihao Li; Jianfeng He; Yonghui Zhang; Wenjun Ma

    2017-01-01

    .... Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue...

  2. Inter-basin water transfer: case studies from Australia, United States, Canada, China, and India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghassemi, F; White, I

    2007-01-01

    ... operating in these countries. It examines the water resources of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, and explores inter-basin water transfer projects in the United States, Canada, China and India, examining their benefits...

  3. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken...

  4. Application of Lean Agile Resilient Green Paradigm Framework on China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN RAI WAQASAZFAR; NAEEM SHAHZAD; SADAF MUMTAZ

    2017-01-01

    China has recently emerged as the technological and economic giant and an attractive place for investment for MCNs (Multi-National Companies). Many of the high ranked MNC?s have shifted their production facilities to China due to low production cost.Finished products are transported through sea routes passing through Singapore and Sri Lanka, to different Middle Eastern, European and American countries. This major transition has lead to complete transformation of the global SC (Supply Chain);w...

  5. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  6. Improving Management of Green Retrofits from a Stakeholder Perspective: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green retrofits, which improve the environment and energy efficiency of buildings, are considered a potential solution for reducing energy consumption as well as improving human health and productivity. They represent some of the riskiest, most complex, and most uncertain projects to manage. As the foundation of project management, critical success factors (CSFs have been emphasized by previous research. However, most studies identified and prioritized CSFs independently of stakeholders. This differs from the reality, where the success of green retrofits is tightly interrelated to the stakeholders of projects. To improve the analysis from a stakeholder perspective, the present study proposed an innovative method based on a two-mode social network analysis to integrate CSF analysis with stakeholders. The results of this method can provide further understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and CSFs, and the underlying relationship among CSFs through stakeholders. A pilot study was conducted to apply the proposed method and assess the CSFs for green retrofits in China. The five most significant CSFs are identified in the management of green retrofit. Furthermore, the interrelations between stakeholders and CSFs, coefficient and clusters of CSFs are likewise discussed.

  7. Improving Management of Green Retrofits from a Stakeholder Perspective: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping; Guo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Green retrofits, which improve the environment and energy efficiency of buildings, are considered a potential solution for reducing energy consumption as well as improving human health and productivity. They represent some of the riskiest, most complex, and most uncertain projects to manage. As the foundation of project management, critical success factors (CSFs) have been emphasized by previous research. However, most studies identified and prioritized CSFs independently of stakeholders. This differs from the reality, where the success of green retrofits is tightly interrelated to the stakeholders of projects. To improve the analysis from a stakeholder perspective, the present study proposed an innovative method based on a two-mode social network analysis to integrate CSF analysis with stakeholders. The results of this method can provide further understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and CSFs, and the underlying relationship among CSFs through stakeholders. A pilot study was conducted to apply the proposed method and assess the CSFs for green retrofits in China. The five most significant CSFs are identified in the management of green retrofit. Furthermore, the interrelations between stakeholders and CSFs, coefficient and clusters of CSFs are likewise discussed. PMID:26516897

  8. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  9. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  10. How Long, Narrowly Constructed Wetlands Purify Irrigation Return Water: A Case Study of Ulansuhai Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of raw wastewater in China has proved to be very successful in recent decades. However, it is not known whether surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively purify irrigation return water. To investigate the performance of a constructed wetland in terms of meeting the goals of pollutant purification, the 8th drainage of Ulansuhai Lake was used for this study. Pollutant removal performances, as well as hydrological characteristic variations in relation to specific characteristics of plants, were investigated utilizing two years of monthly average data. The results indicated that surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively change the physical characteristics of return water and lead to a sharp decrease in pollutant concentrations. The 1200 m long, narrowly constructed wetland resulted in the average reduction rates of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP of up to 22.1% and 21.5%, respectively. The overall purification efficient of the constructed wetland presented seasonal variations in four different monitoring periods (May, July, September, and November. Constructed wetlands with multiple types of plants exhibited higher efficiencies in pollutants removal than those with a single type of plant. The current study can provide meaningful information for the treatment of agricultural wastewater.

  11. Effects of the Rainstorm on Urban Road Traffic Speed — a Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Hao, X.; Wang, W.; Wu, A.; Xie, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The adverse weather may significantly impact urban traffic speed and travel time. Understanding the influence of the rainstorm to urban traffic speed is of great importance for traffic management under stormy weather. This study aims to investigate the impact of rainfall intensity on traffic speed in the Shenzhen (China) during the period 1 July 2015-31 August 2016. The analysis was carried out for five 1-h periods on weekdays during the morning periods (6:00 AM-11:00 AM). Taxi-enabled GPS tracking data obtained from Shenzhen city are used in the analysis. There are several findings in this study. Firstly, nearly half of the roads are significantly affected by the rainstorm. Secondly, the proportion of positive correlated roads is about 35 %, but there still are some roads with uncorrelated traffic speed variation rates (SVR) and rainfall intensities. Thirdly, the impact of the rainstorm on traffic speed is not homogeneous but with obvious spatial difference. This research provides useful information that can be used in traffic management on a city-wide scale under stormy weather.

  12. Lake Fluctuation Effectively Regulates Wetland Evapotranspiration: A Case Study of the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and wetlands provide valuable water resources. Wetland evapotranspiration (ET is a key hydrologic component; however, the effects of lake fluctuation on wetland ET remain unclear. The Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and experiences a dramatic fluctuation in water level and inundated area. This study used remote sensing data to estimate the wetland ET for Poyang Lake and to illustrate the distribution of wetland ET and its response to lake fluctuations. Our results showed that wetland ET was related to lake fluctuation both spatially and temporally. Within the same year, the difference between annual water evaporation (Ewater and wetland ET (ETwetland was primarily attributed to lake fluctuation through its effects on inundated area and exposure days. A 1% increase in inundated area would result in a 7.87 ± 1.13 mm a−1 reduction in annual Ewater-to-ETwetland differences, and a 10-day elongation of exposure could lead to an 11.1 ± 1.6 mm a−1 increase in annual Ewater-to-ETwetland differences, on average. Inter-annually, the Ewater-to-ETwetland differences were attributed to the combined effects of atmospheric and environmental variables and lake fluctuation. The lake fluctuation contributed 73% to the inter-annual ET difference, followed by relative humidity (19%, net radiation (5%, and wind speed (4%. Overall, lake fluctuation effectively regulates wetland ET, and its effect should receive careful consideration in hydrological and water resources studies under the current changing climate.

  13. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  14. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  15. Chinese-English Bilingual Education in China: A Case Study of College Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuhui; Shi, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examines current practice and challenges of Chinese-English bilingual education in Chinese tertiary institutions and presents a case study of a bilingual course by investigating learners' attitudes toward this educational and language policy. Using a convenience sampling strategy with an instrument modified from a…

  16. The Evolution of River–Lake and Urban Compound Systems: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river–lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments. Urban systems and river–lake systems are not isolated and static, there is a relation between them which is constantly changing. Based on the idea of system research, the urban system is simplified into four subsystems: environment, infrastructure, social, and economic. These four components interact together, influencing the river–lake system to form a compound system. This paper aims to reflect the features and evolution laws of the compound system, by building a Collaborative Development Model to study the changing of the compound system in Wuhan, China over a 10-year period. The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river–lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. However, in order to improve the sustainability of the compound system in Wuhan, the status of the river–lake system, social system and environment system, which are still comparatively substandard, should be constantly improved. The Collaborative Development Model could also be used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development.

  17. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services – a case study in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Lü

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US$ 1, and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  18. Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. Overall, the results show that consumers in the low-income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high-income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high-income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Wu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding cropped areas were detected from NVDI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values using an unsupervised method. Field samples and agricultural statistics were used to estimate the accuracy of the classification. Historical data concerning irrigation/drainage and the groundwater table were used to analyze the relation between changes in soil salinity and land and water management practices. Results showed that: (1 the overall accuracy of remote sensing in detecting soil salinity was 90.2%, and in detecting cropped area, 98%; (2 the installation/innovation of the drainage system did help to control salinity; and (3 a low ratio of cropped land helped control salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. These findings suggest that remote sensing is a useful tool to detect soil salinity and has potential in evaluating and improving land and water management practices.

  20. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-04-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors.

  1. Spatial–Temporal Patterns and Driving Factors of Rapid Urban Land Development in Provincial China: A Case Study of Jiangsu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its economic reform and opening-up, China has undergone unprecedented urbanization, where massive areas of rural land have been converted into urban use. Urban land development plays an important role in dynamic urban economic development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of urban land development and its mechanisms in China. We conceptualized the mechanism of urban land development from multiple perspectives based on a case study in Jiangsu Province. We employed the methods of global and local spatial auto-correlation detection and spatial lag model to analyze the provincial land use conveyance and survey data from 2004 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 to understand the dynamics of urban land development. The results show that urban land development varies significantly across different time periods, spatial scales, and regions in Jiangsu. Higher absolute urban land development mainly occurred in Sunan, expanding to Subei and Suzhong, while faster development occurred mainly in Subei, where the initial bases were lower but had strong economic growth potential. The regression analysis shows that market activities and administrative levels had played a more critical role in driving urban land development, which suggests that rapid urban land development has institutional and market foundations. Urban land development was not only a consequence of economic development but also a strategy of local governments to stimulate and govern the urban economy. This study enriches the literature on urban dynamics by providing an institutional understanding of rapid urban land development in a transitional economy.

  2. A Typology of Sex Offending Against Minors: An Empirical Study of Rape and Molestation Cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Hu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to classify sexual offending and offenders continued to evolve over the years based on criteria such as offender and victim characteristics, offender-victim relationships, the nature of sexual offenses, and other situational factors. This current study draws up a typology of sexual offending against minors based on 436 adjudicated rape and child molestation cases in China. Specifically, sexual offending against minors is classified into six major categories, including opportunistic offenses, serial offenses, dating couple offenses, educator abuses, gang/party offenses, and incest offenses. Based on this empirical typology, a number of crime prevention measures are suggested. These suggestions aim at involving multiple players and institutions to focus on education, target hardening, and crime investigation. This study makes a significant contribution to comparative studies in this field, and the results could be potentially applied in other cultures.

  3. A case control study on family history as a risk factor for herpes zoster and associated outcomes, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Luodan; Lu, Li; Li, Juan; Sun, Mu; Wang, Haihong; Peng, Xinhui; Yang, Fan; Pang, Xinghuo; Marin, Mona; Wang, Chengbin

    2017-05-09

    Hospital-based case control studies have found family history of herpes zoster (HZ) was associated with risk of HZ, but the role of family history is not fully examined for other HZ-associated outcomes such as recurrent HZ, occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and HZ with different pain severities. We conducted a population-based matched case control study. HZ cases that occurred during December 1, 2011 to November 30, 2012 were identified by face-to-face interview with all residents of eight selected communities/villages from three districts of Beijing, China. Medical records were reviewed for those who sought healthcare for HZ. For each case-patient, three, age-matched controls (±5 years) without HZ were enrolled from the same community/village of the matched case. Data on family history of HZ were collected by interview and only defined among first-degree relatives. A total of 227 case-patients and 678 matched controls were enrolled. Case-patients were more likely to report a family history of HZ [odds ratio (OR) =2.4, P = 0.002]. Compared with controls, association of family history decreased from HZ with PHN to HZ without PHN (OR = 6.0 and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.002 for trend), from recurrent HZ to primary HZ (OR = 9.4 and 2.2, respectively; P = 0.005 for trend), and from HZ with moderate or severe pain to HZ with mild or no pain (OR = 3.2 and 0.8, respectively; P Family history of HZ was associated with HZ occurrence and was more likely in HZ case-patients with PHN, recurrences, and painful HZ.

  4. Case study of the constraints and potential contributions regarding wind curtailment in Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    The wind power industry in China is faced with the obstacle of ineffective use due to severe wind curtailment recently. With detailed representation of the electricity and heat sectors in an energy-system-modeling tool, we evaluated the potential of technical improvements that could be implemented...... to increase wind integration in Northeast China. First, different regulation modes are compared and analyzed. Then, sector integration between the heat and electricity sectors is simulated assuming heat storage and large-scale heat pump utilization. While current regulation rules hamper wind integration......, there are no apparent technical barriers to ramp up/down more flexible for wind power generation in Northeast China. The results also indicate that the implementation of heat storage and heat pump could enhance the flexibility of an energy system, making it able to accommodate an increase of wind penetration. Thus...

  5. Extraction of Rocky Desertification from Disp Imagery: a Case Study of Liupanshui, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wu, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Y.; Mao, G.; Huang, Y.; Jia, B.; Gao, G.; Chen, P.

    2017-09-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a typical type of land degradation in Guizhou Province, China. It causes great ecological and economical implications to the local people. This paper utilized the declassified intelligence satellite photography (DISP) of 1960s to extract the karst rocky desertification area to analyze the early situation of karst rocky desertification in Liupanshui, Guizhou, China. Due to the lack of ground control points and parameters of the satellite, a polynomial orthographic correction model with considering altitude difference correction is proposed for orthorectification of DISP imagery. With the proposed model, the 96 DISP images from four missions are orthorectified. The images are assembled into a seamless image map of the karst area of Guizhou, China. The assembled image map is produced to thematic map of karst rocky desertification by visual interpretation in Liupanshui city. With the assembled image map, extraction of rocky desertification is conducted.

  6. A CASE STUDY OF CHINA ́S WIND POWER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yanping

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, China is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the increasing pressure to cut GHS emissions and to improve energy efficiency, China is now changing its traditional energy mix, mainly through consuming more renewable energy instead of fossil energy. This change has resulted in a policy adjustment which in turn boosts the utilization of the wind power resources. However, the development of the wind power resources in China is confronted with some significant challenges, such as greater installed electricity capacity than the electricity generation, greater electricity generation than the electricity transmission capacity and greater inland wind power generation than the offshore wind power generation. Therefore, the further development of China’s wind power electricity in the coming years depends largely on the ways these challenges will be addressed.

  7. New strategies of civil society in China: a case study of the network governance approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, Andreas; Li, YanYan; Song, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Since the turn of the millennium a second generation of Chinese civil society organisations (CSO) have started taking on issues such as rural migrant integration, social service provision, as well as community building. Organisations such as Beijing-based Shining Stone Community Action (SSCA) can be seen as the avant-garde of a second wave of humanistic, community-based CSO which are willing to help improve the strained state-society relationship in the People´s Republic of China (PR China). ...

  8. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  9. Paradox of Student Gender: A Case Study of Economic Education from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Fangbin; Li, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    In many Chinese universities and colleges, female students outperform male students in social science subjects. This paper presents a case study, which examines gender difference in economic education in a Chinese university. We look at a sample of students from the Chinese university and find that holding constant observed student…

  10. Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction: A case study of Wenchuan County, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.X.; Lin, Y.L.; Wang, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction emphasizes strategies, safety, memorials and institutional arrangements. It is closely related to earthquake recovery plans. This article reviews general studies on urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction, before focussing on the case of

  11. Meteorological and chemical impacts on ozone formation: A case study in Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Ying, Fang; White, Stephen J.; Jang, Carey; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Hong, Shengmao; Shen, Jiandong; Azzi, Merched; Cen, Kefa

    2017-11-01

    Regional ozone pollution has become one of the most challenging problems in China, especially in the more economically developed and densely populated regions like Hangzhou. In this study, measurements of O3, CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), together with meteorological data, were obtained for the period July 1, 2013-August 15, 2013 at three sites in Hangzhou. These sites included an urban site (Zhaohui ;ZH;), a suburban site (Xiasha ;XS;) and a rural site (Qiandaohu ;QDH;). During the observation period, both ZH and XS had a higher ozone level than QDH, with exceeding rates of 41.3% and 47.8%, respectively. Elevated O3 levels in QDH were found at night, which could be explained by less prominent NO titration effect in rural area. Detailed statistical analysis of meteorological and chemical impacts on ozone formation was carried out for ZH, and higher ozone concentration was observed when the wind direction was from the east. This is possibly due to emissions of VOCs from XS, a typical chemical industrial park located in 30 km upwind area of ZH. A comprehensive comparison between three ozone episode periods and one non-episode period were made in ZH. It was concluded that elevated concentrations of precursors and temperatures, low relative humidity and wind speed and easterly-dominated wind direction contribute to urban ozone episodes in Hangzhou. VOCs reactivity analysis indicated that reactive alkenes like isoprene and isobutene contributed most to ozone formation. Three methods were applied to evaluate O3-VOCs-NOx sensitivity in ZH: VOCs/NOx ratio method, Smog Production Model (SPM) and Relative Incremental Reactivity (RIR). The results show that summer ozone in urban Hangzhou mostly presents VOCs-limited and transition region alternately. Our study implies that the increasing automobiles and VOCs emissions from upwind area could result in ozone pollution in urban Hangzhou, and synergistic reduction of VOCs and NOx will be more effective.

  12. Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China is emerging as a major power in the global economy. The broad-based nature of its industrial development has generated a sustained and high demand for oil and raw materials, a significant reason for the current strength of oil and other commodity prices. An earlier project (104103) enabled the African Economic ...

  13. High Education as a Common Good in China: A Case Study for Ideas and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangang

    2016-01-01

    China began its modern system of higher education with the establishment of the former Peking University in Beijing in 1898. The traditional Confucian philosophy of education has been replaced dramatically by modern western philosophy. However, since the communist party came to power in 1949, the philosophy of higher education has experienced many…

  14. The Emergence of Regulated Individualism: Case Study of an Educational Journal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kwok Wah

    Based on the theory of pedagogic discourse developed by Basil Bernstein, this paper discusses the relationship between the production of intellectual discourse and the Chinese State which emerged after the Cultural Revolution. The paper identifies three dominant ideological positions in China between 1949 and 1993: traditional collectivism (before…

  15. How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    disproportionate reaction to a slight offense. There were off-ramps on the road to war, but China was wedded to its own image as the power broker in... blood and treasure, but those instruments must have the mandate, resourcing, and support of the nation’s highest leaders in order to succeed. Oftentimes

  16. A Case Study of Teacher Appraisal in Shanghai, China: In Relation to Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Ng, Ho Ming

    2011-01-01

    Literature has confirmed that teacher appraisal can and should facilitate the professional development of teachers. In the past, teacher appraisal in China has been conducted mainly for administrative purposes; nowadays, it is increasingly being viewed as a means of teacher professional development. However, the way in which teacher appraisal…

  17. Structural change and the environment : a case study of China's production recipe and carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, J.; Lenzen, M.; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Moran, D.; Kanemoto, K.; Murray, J.; Geschke, A.

    We use the input-output tables in constant prices extended with carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for examining the development of China, a country undergoing rapid growth. We undertake this empirical analysis in terms of a new and therefore rarely applied methodology: instead of average coefficients

  18. Development of a hybrid model to predict construction and demolition waste: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiliao; Wang, Yong; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yixin

    2017-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is currently a worldwide issue, and the situation is the worst in China due to a rapid increase in the construction industry and the short life span of China's buildings. To create an opportunity out of this problem, comprehensive prevention measures and effective management strategies are urgently needed. One major gap in the literature of waste management is a lack of estimations on future C&DW generation. Therefore, this paper presents a forecasting procedure for C&DW in China that can forecast the quantity of each component in such waste. The proposed approach is based on a GM-SVR model that improves the forecasting effectiveness of the gray model (GM), which is achieved by adjusting the residual series by a support vector regression (SVR) method and a transition matrix that aims to estimate the discharge of each component in the C&DW. Through the proposed method, future C&DW volume are listed and analyzed containing their potential components and distribution in different provinces in China. Besides, model testing process provides mathematical evidence to validate the proposed model is an effective way to give future information of C&DW for policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 271-case Retrospective Study at a Single Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Penetrating ocular trauma is the most frequent cause of pediatric endophthalmitis in China. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species are the most commonly identified organisms in exogenous pediatric endophthalmitis whereas Fusarium species are commonly seen in endogenous endophthalmitis. In this research, in spite of aggressive management with antibiotics and vitrectomy, the visual prognosis was found to be generally poor.

  20. Estimation of obsolete cellular phones generation: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Yan, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development of electronic technique has led to decreasing lifespan of electronic products. Meanwhile, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is rapidly growing in recent years especially in China. The generation amount of WEEE is one of the basic information for waste management. In our study, the generation of obsolete cellular phones and metals containing of cellular phones were estimated from 1997 to 2025. The future average possession in per 100 inhabitants of cellular phones was predicted using logistic model. Moreover, the lifespan distribution of cellular phones was analyzed using Weibull distribution. Meanwhile, the generation amount of obsolete cellular phones and its metals containing were estimated by using population balance model (PBM) and substance flow analysis (SFA), respectively. The estimated results indicate that the average possession in per 100 inhabitants will reach to 111.2 and 118.3 units in 2020 and 2025, respectively, which is about two times higher than the average possession in 2010. In addition, the total possession amount of cellular phones are expected to exceed 1.64 billion units in 2025. Moreover, the estimated results show that 781 million units obsolete cellular phones were generated in 2015, and the number will grow up to 877 and 937 million units in 2020 and 2025, respectively. In 2025, the total weight of annual generation amount of obsolete cellular phones will exceed 140Gg. The precious metals such as silver, gold contains in obsolete cellular phones will reach 56,250 and 28,130kg, respectively, in 2025. The obsolete cellular phones are the typical secondary metal resources especially for precious metals. In order to improve the recycling efficiency, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive system of waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient safety culture in China: a case study in an outpatient setting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the patient safety culture in an outpatient setting in Beijing and explore the meaning and implications of the safety culture from the perspective of health workers and patients. A mixed methods approach involving a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews was adopted. Among the 410 invited staff members, 318 completed the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC). Patient safety culture was described using 12 subscale scores. Inter-subscale correlation analysis, ANOVA and stepwise multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of the patient safety culture scores. Interviewees included 22 patients selected through opportunity sampling and 27 staff members selected through purposive sampling. The interview data were analysed thematically. The survey respondents perceived high levels of unsafe care but had personally reported few events. Lack of 'communication openness' was identified as a major safety culture problem, and a perception of 'penalty' was the greatest barrier to the encouragement of error reporting. Cohesive 'teamwork within units', while found to be an area of strength, conversely served as a protective and defensive mechanism for medical practice. Low levels of trust between providers and consumers and lack of management support constituted an obstacle to building a positive patient safety culture. This study in China demonstrates that a punitive approach to error is still widespread despite increasing awareness of unsafe care, and managers have been slow in acknowledging the importance of building a positive patient safety culture. Strong 'teamwork within units', a common area of strength, could fuel the concealment of errors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous and hilly regions with an integrated strategy: a longitudinal case study in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Zi-Song; Liang, Song; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Ma, Xiao

    2017-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China. Since 2004, an integrated strategy was developed to control the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. However, the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission remains unknown in the mountainous and hilly regions of China until now. This longitudinal study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy on transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province from 2005 through 2014. The data regarding replacement of bovines with machines, improved sanitation, access to clean water, construction of public toilets and household latrines, snail control, chemotherapy, and health education were captured from the annual report of the schistosomiasis control programmes in Sichuan Province from 2005 to 2014, and S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy. During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, a total of 536 568 machines were used to replace bovines, and 3 284 333 household lavatories and 15 523 public latrines were built. Tap water was supplied to 19 116 344 residents living in the endemic villages. A total of 230 098 hm 2 snail habitats were given molluscicide treatment, and 357 233 hm 2 snail habitats received environmental improvements. There were 7 268 138 humans and 840 845 bovines given praziquantel chemotherapy. During the 10-year study period, information, education and communication (IEC) materials were provided to village officers, teachers and schoolchildren. The 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy resulted in a great reduction in S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails. Since 2007, no acute infection was detected, and no schistosomiasis cases or infected bovines were identified since 2012. In addition, the snail habitats reduced by 62.39% in 2014 as compared to that in 2005, and no S

  3. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  4. Sandstone type uranium deposits in the Ordos Basin, Northwest China: A case study and an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shamim; Yang, Xiaoyong; Pirajno, Franco

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review on studies of sandstone type uranium deposits in the Ordos Basin, Northwest China. As the second largest sedimentary basin, the Ordos Basin has great potential for targeting sandstone type U mineralization. The newly found and explored Dongsheng and Diantou sandstone type uranium deposits are hosted in the Middle Jurassic Zhilou Formation. A large number of investigations have been conducted to trace the source rock compositions and relationship between lithic subarkose sandstone host rock and uranium mineralization. An optical microscopy study reveals two types of alteration associated with the U mineralization: chloritization and sericitization. Some unusual mineral structures, with compositional similarity to coffinite, have been identified in a secondary pyrite by SEM These mineral phases are proposed to be of bacterial origin, following high resolution mapping of uranium minerals and trace element determinations in situ. Moreover, geochemical studies of REE and trace elements constrained the mechanism of uranium enrichment, displaying LREE enrichment relative to HREE. Trace elements such as Pb, Mo and Ba have a direct relationship with uranium enrichment and can be used as index for mineralization. The source of uranium ore forming fluids and related geological processes have been studied using H, O and C isotope systematics of fluid inclusions in quartz veins and the calcite cement of sandstone rocks hosting U mineralization. Both H and O isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions reveal that ore forming fluids are a mixture of meteoric water and magmatic water. The C and S isotopes of the cementing material of sandstone suggest organic origin and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR), providing an important clue for U mineralization. Discussion of the ore genesis shows that the greenish gray sandstone plays a crucial role during processes leading to uranium mineralization. Consequently, an oxidation-reduction model for

  5. Government Support, FDI Clustering and Semiconductor Sustainability in China: Case Studies of Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi in the Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Lung Chou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the case studies of Shanghai, Suzhou, and Wuxi, in the Yangtze Delta, China, this paper demonstrates the local possibilities and various development paths for developing an indigenous semiconductor industry, using the government support within foreign direct investment (FDI-dominated clusters for the New Industrializing Countries (NICs. Two important policy lessons are identified. The first is that the government may attract FDI and develop high-tech clustering by using policy support, but it does not necessarily provide conducive and positive influences on the sustainable development of domestic semiconductors. The second lesson is that the sustainability of the domestic semiconductor industry in the FDI cluster may start from three connected elements: (1 a pragmatic goal of government support; (2 complementarities of the domestic semiconductors with international leading firms in the market, technology and equipment linkages; and (3 a sustainable capacity of technical learning to drive local developments.

  6. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Security Strategy: Case Studies on the South China Sea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    wielding soft power. One camp of academics points to China’s success in the Global South—specifically on the African continent, in Latin America ...combination of both hard and soft power that true strategy emerges. — Robert D. Kaplan, Geography Rules The purpose of this study was to determine...news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-07/27/c_135542397.htm. Kaplan, Robert D. “ Geography Rules: It’s All About Spheres of Influence.” Stratfor, August 21, 2013

  7. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  8. People's familiarity with and attitudes towards native and exotic plant and animal species - case studies from Argentina, Colombia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Nates Jimenez, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studied people’s familiarity with and attitudes towards native and exotic species in Argentina, Colombia and China with a focus on amphibians and the effect of a workshop on perception and appreciation of local plants and animals.

  9. Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong

    2013-05-20

    There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential spatial accessibility of health services in Donghai County. We also give some advice on how to alleviate the unequal spatial accessibility of health services in areas that are more remote and isolated. The shortest traffic times of from hospitals to villages are calculated with an O-D matrix of GIS extension model. This paper applies an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method to study the spatial accessibility of health services and to determine areas with physician shortages in Donghai County. The sensitivity of the E2SFCA for assessing variation in the spatial accessibility of health services is checked using different impedance coefficient valuesa. Geostatistical Analyst model and spatial analyst method is used to analyse the spatial pattern and the edge effect of potential spatial accessibility of health services. The results show that 69% of villages have access to lower potential spatial accessibility of health services than the average for Donghai County, and 79% of the village scores are lower than the average for Jiangsu Province. The potential spatial accessibility of health services diminishes greatly from the centre of the county to outlying areas. Using a smaller impedance coefficient leads to greater disparity among the villages. The spatial accessibility of health services is greater along highway in the county. Most of villages are in underserved health services areas. An unequal distribution of health service resources and the reimbursement policies of the

  10. Media Representation of Tongxinglian in China: A Case Study of the People's Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yixiong

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the worldwide lesbian and gay movements have diversified and increased their rights claims. The achievement of gay rights claims in society is the result of an interplay among various social factors and forces. Media is one of most influential players in building homosexual images and promoting mutual understanding. Chinese homosexuals were not treated as criminals or mental illness patients anymore in 1997 and 2001, respectively, after decriminalization and depathologization. Thus this article aims to explore how homosexuals were portrayed in the official media of China, particularly the People's Daily, to illustrate the changing perception of homosexuals in China's political and social spheres. It argues that representation of homosexuals in the People's Daily changed gradually from a negative perception to a more positive one with less discrimination and prejudice as shown by the article's quantitative and qualitative results.

  11. A sustainable biogas model in China: The case study of Beijing Deqingyuan biogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lihong, Chen; Cong, Ronggang; Shu, Bangrong

    2017-01-01

    an representative biogas project (the Deqingyuan project, DQY) in Beijing and conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the whole value chain. DQY is the first large-scale biogas project in China that utilizes 100% chicken manure as a feedstock and integrates biogas production with ecological agriculture using advanced...... technologies. DQY uses 80,000 t of chicken manure and 100,000 t of sewage each year to produce biogas, which generates 14 million KWh of power annually, and obtains an additional revenue of RMB 8 million yuan each year through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Operating as an example of a sustainable......, mitigating pollution, and increasing employment, among other benefits. This paper aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the typical demonstration model (DQY) in utilization of agricultural waste in China, and further proposes a general development model of Chinese biogas in the future....

  12. Cross-Cultural Communication in Teacher Education: A Case Study of an Australian Pre-Service Teacher Placement in Liaoning, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aijing; Cooper, Maxine; Golding, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the experiences and reflections of four fourth year pre-service teachers from Federation University Australia who completed their three-week teaching placement in Anshan, Liaoning Province, China, in April 2014. The study also explores the perspectives and opinions of both the Chinese mentor teachers and Chinese…

  13. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818. Controls (n = 935, selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  14. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shurong; Qian, Yun; Huang, Xingyu; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie; Han, Renqiang; Su, Jian; Du, Wencong; Zhou, Jinyi; Dong, Meihua; Yu, Xiaojin; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B van; Kampman, Ellen; Wu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  15. China’s Out of Area Naval Operations: Case Studies, Trajectories, Obstacles, and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    blue water,20 out of area navigation exercises (to Zengmu Reef , the southernmost islets in the South China Sea). The fleet was organized around the... mines , and serve as reconnaissance for the task force. The Gulf of Aden deployments each enjoyed the use of two helicopters, a woefully inadequate...War, and Spanish- American War, thus cutting off access to coal , supplies, and repair facilities during hostilities.72 The political repercussions of

  16. The Development of Creative Tourism in China: The Case Studies of Hangzhou, Xiamen and Qingdao

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jingyao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the application of creativity has referred to each field including tourism industry. Based on the idea of creativity, creative industry has showed its importance for economic growth. Western countries paid earlier attention to the potential of creativity and creative industry, while developing countries such as China also found out the possibility of usage of creativity. On the other hand, as an extension of cultural tourism, creative tourism adopts creativity into the touris...

  17. Implications of China’s Growing Demand for Oil: A Case Study in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Beijing is spending $200 million annually to fund a network of international schools to teach the Chinese language.65 This network of Confucian...Taiwan-Costa Rica Diplomatic Ties Cut,” China Post, June 8, 2007. 174 Saunders, China’s Global Activism, 45. 175 Marilyn Ibarra and Jennifer Koncz...Management. Report to U.S. Department of Energy, 2005. Ibarra , Marilyn and Jennifer Koncz. “Direct Investment Position for 2006: Country and Industry

  18. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief introduction, Chapter 2 discusses some economic aspects of climate change. This in turn will serve as a good guide to pursuing the case study for CO 2

  19. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Liu, Zhiwei; Hildesheim, Allan; Liu, Qing; Cai, Yonglin; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Guomin; Xie, Shang-Hang; Cao, Su-Mei; Shao, Jian-Yong; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Yuming; Liao, Jian; Chen, Yufeng; Lin, Longde; Ernberg, Ingemar; Vaughan, Thomas L; Adami, Hans-Olov; Huang, Guangwu; Zeng, Yi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Ye, Weimin

    2017-06-15

    The magnitude and patterns of associations between smoking and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in high-incidence regions remain uncertain. Associations with active and passive tobacco smoking were estimated using multivariate logistic regression in a population-based case-control study of 2,530 NPC cases and 2,595 controls in Guangdong and Guangxi, southern China, in 2010-2014. Among men, risk of NPC was significantly higher in current smokers compared with never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53) but not in former smokers (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.17). Risk increased with smoking intensity (per 10 cigarettes/day, OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16), smoking duration (per 10 years, OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and cumulative smoking (per 10 pack-years, OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12). Risk decreased with later age at smoking initiation (per year, OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98) but not greater time since smoking cessation. Exposures to passive smoking during childhood (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.48) and from a spouse during adulthood (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.63) were independently associated with increased NPC risk in never-smoking men and women, but exposure-response trends were not observed. In conclusion, active and passive tobacco smoking are associated with modestly increased risk of NPC in southern China; risk is highest among long-term smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Clinical study of 459 polydactyly cases in China, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ying; Bian, Jingxia; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yunlan; Fu, Qihua

    2016-09-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary limb malformations, involving additional digits on the hands and/or feet, which is a very attractive model to appreciate clinical and genetic heterogeneity. A high level of heterogeneity in polydactyly has been identified in different regions. However, such data of the medical literatures for Asian populations are relatively limited. This study was intended to shed light on the phenotypic manifestations of polydactyly in the recruited Chinese population and to characterize the medical literature on this condition. A total of 459 well-characterized polydactyly cases from Shanghai Children's Medical Center were recruited. Their phenotypes, inheritance patterns, and clinical heterogeneity were obtained from clinical medical records. It was found that 4.8% of cases were familial and 95.2% were sporadic. The proportions of preaxial and postaxial polydactyly types were 74.7% and 25.3%, respectively. In preaxial polydactyly, type I formed the overwhelming majority (95.9%). Among the postaxial polydactyly cases, type A was most prevalent at 69.8% and type B was witnessed in 30.2% of cases. Familial and sporadic polydactyly patients mainly had unilateral presentations. A total of 583 limbs with additional digits were recorded in the 459 subjects. Upper limb involvement was more common than lower, and right hand involvement was more common than left for preaxial polydactyly, and lower limb involvement was more common than upper in postaxial polydactyly. This cohort added useful clinical/epidemiological information to the polydactyly literature in the Chinese population and highlighted its marked clinical heterogeneity. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Traditional Cantonese diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a large-scale case-control study in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei-Hua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is rare in most parts of the world but is a common malignancy in southern China, especially in Guangdong. Dietary habit is regarded as an important modifier of NPC risk in several endemic areas and may partially explain the geographic distribution of NPC incidence. In China, rapid economic development during the past few decades has changed the predominant lifestyle and dietary habits of the Chinese considerably, requiring a reassessment of diet and its potential influence on NPC risk in this NPC-endemic area. Methods To evaluate the association between dietary factors and NPC risk in Guangdong, China, a large-scale, hospital-based case-control study was conducted. 1387 eligible cases and 1459 frequency matched controls were recruited. Odds ratios (ORs and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, dialect, and habitation household type. Results Observations made include the following: 1 consumption of canton-style salted fish, preserved vegetables and preserved/cured meat were significantly associated with increased risk of NPC, with enhanced odds ratios (OR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.03-2.94, 3.17(95% CI: 2.68-3.77 and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.22-3.60 respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum during childhood; 2 consumption of fresh fruit was associated with reduced risk with a dose-dependent relationship (p = 0.001; and 3 consumption of Canton-style herbal tea and herbal slow-cooked soup was associated with decreased risk, with ORs of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68-1.03 and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.72 respectively in the highest intake frequency stratum. In multivariate analyses, these associations remained significant. Conclusions It can be inferred that previously established dietary risk factors in the Cantonese population are still stable and have contributed to the incidence of NPC.

  3. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  4. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-01-06

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  5. International technology sourcing between a developing country and the rest of the world. A case study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    We study the patterns and drivers of international technology transfer to and from China and the rest of the world. Our analysis makes use of patent-based measures of cross-border ownership of inventions. To quantify these technology flows, we a patent database providing a worldwide coverage of patents. We use a gravity model to explain the drivers of the international technology transfer. Although China exhibits a large deficit in international technology transfer, the flow of technology fro...

  6. Obstetrical Disease Spectrum in China: An Epidemiological Study of 111,767 Cases in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Luo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of some obstetrical diseases is still high in the mainland of China. The CS rate is much higher than World Health Organization recommendations, in which CS delivery by maternal request (CDMR accounted for a large proportion. The government should propose solutions to reduce CS rate, especially the rate of CDMR. Most obstetrical complications have higher incidence in tertiary hospitals compared with secondary hospitals. It is important to manage the health of pregnant women systematically, especially those with high-risk factors.

  7. Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Behavior Concerning Land Degradation: A Theoretical Framework and a Case Study in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; Liu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    In an era of global environmental change, social actors from an individual level to a national level are increasingly seeking adaptation strategies to better manage risks from environmental hazards. Vulnerability arises where adaptation capacity is not sufficient in dealing with a changing environment. Adaptation on an individual level and community level is important because of the location specific nature of environmental change. Land degradation is drawing much attention from both governments and academics, because it tends to affect the most vulnerable human populations and ecological systems most significantly. Despite these efforts, there is limited scientific knowledge regarding how farmers at a local level perceive the risks associated with degraded land and how their background, attitude, and living situation may affect their adaptation behavior. This poses a challenge to policy makers who are tasked to enhance the resilience of the society in response to environmental changes. Degradation of land by pollutant chemicals is particularly serious in China due to aggressive urbanization and industrialization activities over the last four decades. A report by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) in 2014 suggested that 16.1 percent of the nation's soil is polluted. Other studies suggest that shallow groundwater contamination is even more wide spread, with 80 90 percent being polluted. The government has realized the seriousness of land contamination, and vowed to give high priority to land remediation. Millions of hectares of contaminated agricultural land are expected to be remediated over the next decade. However, farmer's perception and adaptation behavior under this social and environmental change remain unknown. In this presentation, we report a conceptual framework and research hypothesis based on theoretical methodologies found in existing literature. We applied this framework to a case study of degraded land in an arid region in Northwest of

  8. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  9. Fengshui forests conserve genetic diversity: a case study of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y J; Liu, Y J; Shen, A H; Lin, X C

    2015-03-20

    Fengshui forests (sacred groves) are important in traditional Chinese culture and home to many endangered species. These forests may provide protection for some endangered plant species outside the nature reserves, but little is known about their role in genetic conservation. Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, we compared the genetic diversity of 6 populations of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang, a commercially important woody species, which is under second-class national protection and endemic to China. Samples were collected from the nature reserves and Fengshui forests in southern China. Herein, we show that Fengshui forest populations are capable of maintaining some level of genetic diversity. For nature reserve populations, the average NA and NE were 1.58 and 1.39, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 1.39 and 1.12, respectively. For nature reserve populations, Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's index (I) were 0.32 and 0.11, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 0.22 and 0.07, respectively. We discuss the reasons for the genetic differences between populations of the Fengshui forests and nature reserves and propose conservation strategies for the Fengshui forest.

  10. Carbon balance of plastic greenhouse ecosystems : a case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) has played a vital role in increasing incomes of smallholder farmers. A dramatic expansion in PGVC usage has taken place in the last several decades. However, carbon sequestration potential after conversion from conventional open field vegetable cultivation (CVC) to PGVC has been poorly quantified with regards to carbon emissions that will occur due to the intensification in agricultural practices. A full carbon cycle analysis was used to estimate the net carbon flux from PGVC systems based on the combination of data from both field observations and literatures. Carbon fixation was evaluated at two pre-selected locations in China.Results suggest that: (1) the carbon sink of PGVC is 1.21 and 1.23 Mg C ha -1 yr -1 for temperate and subtropical area, respectively; (2) the conversion from CVC to PGVC could substantially enhance carbon sink potential by 8.6 times in the temperate area and by 1.3 times in the subtropical area; (3) the expansion of PGVC usage could enhance the potential carbon sink of arable land in China overall.

  11. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  12. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  13. Risk factors for non-syndromic oral clefts: a matched case-control study in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Yang, M; Gong, T; Shen, M; Du, Y

    2015-01-01

    To explore the risk factors for CL/P in Hubei Province, China. A hospital-based, matched case-control study was conducted. One hundred and eight cases with CL/P were matched by age and sex with 108 normal controls. Their parents were retrospectively interviewed using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to calculate the relative risk by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Univariate analysis identified ten factors as significantly related to CL/P (P bad mood (OR = 8.69, 95% CI: 1.35-55.84), first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week, OR = 6.72, 95% CI: 1.23-36.69), and first-trimester maternal sexual activity (OR = 5.98, CI 95%:1.14-31.49) were risk factors for CL/P. In our study, we identified that paternal occupational exposure, first-trimester maternal illness, first-trimester maternal bad mood, first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week), and first-trimester maternal sexual activities were significantly associated with increased CL/P. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [A case of human highly pathogenic avian influenza in Shenzhen, China: application of field epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xiang; Cheng, Jin-Quan; Ma, Han-Wu; He, Jian-Fan; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Jiang, Li-Juan; Mou, Jin; Wu, Chun-Li; Lv, Xing; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Ya-De; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Xin

    2008-03-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of a case with human avian influenza and the effects of field epidemiological study. An emergency-response-system was started up to follow the probable human Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza case initially detected by the "Undefined Pneumonia Surveillance System of Shenzhen". Public health professionals administered several epidemiologic investigations and giving all the contacts of the patient with a 7-day-long medical observation for temporally related influenza-like illness. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers for H5 and N1 was applied to test respiratory tract samples and/or throat swabs of the patient and all his contacts specific for the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A H5N1. Activities and strategies such as media response,notification in the public, communications with multiple related sectors, social participation and information exchange with Hong Kong were involved in field control and management. The patient was a male, 31 years old,with an occupation as a truck driver in a factory,and had been residing in Shenzhen for 7 years. Started with an influenza-like syndrome, the patient received treatment on the 4th day of the onset, from a clinic and on the 6th day from a regular hospital. On the 8th day of the disease course, he was confirmed by Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention as human avian flu case and was then transferred to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the 83rd day of commence, the patients was healed and released from the hospital. The patient had no significant exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from the illness before the onset of the disease. The patient and five family members lived together, but no family member was affected and no contact showed positive results for H5N1. A small food market with live poultry, which was under formal supervision and before illness the patient once visited, located near his apartment. Totally, 35 swabs from live

  15. Quantitative evaluation of reactive nitrogen emissions with urbanization: a case study in Beijing megacity, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Chaofan; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lu, Fei; Xiao, Yang; Li, Yanmin

    2016-09-01

    The rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) load in urbanized environment threatens urban sustainability. In this study, we estimated the amount of reactive N (Nr) as an index of N pollution potential caused by human activities, using the megacity of Beijing as a case study. We investigated the temporal changes in Nr emissions in the environment from 2000 to 2012 using a multidisciplinary approach with quantitative evaluation. The Nr emissions presented slightly increasing during study period, and the annual emission was 0.19 Tg N, mainly resulting from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the Nr output intensity resulting from inhabitants' livelihoods and material production had weakened over the study period. The evaluation results showed that the environmental measures to remove Nr in Beijing were efficient in most years, suggesting that progress in mitigating the growth of the Nr load in this urban environment was significant. Further measures based on N offset are suggested that could help alleviate the environmental pressure resulting from anthropogenic Nr emissions. These could provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of megacities.

  16. Life-cycle-based multicriteria sustainability evaluation of industrial parks: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as "Ecoindustrial Park" and "Low Carbon Industrial Park" are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks.

  17. Life-Cycle-Based Multicriteria Sustainability Evaluation of Industrial Parks: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as “Ecoindustrial Park” and “Low Carbon Industrial Park” are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks.

  18. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  19. Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuncheng; Shi, Longyu

    2017-02-01

    Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes. Since 2011, most areas of China have been affected by frequent smog. Most research on smog has been concentrated on its causes, alert systems, and prevention measures, whereas in-depth research on the public perception of smog has not yet been conducted. When a risky environmental event such as smog occurs, consequences may be more serious than the event itself will cause if people take irrational measures because of lacking relevant knowledge. Therefore, investigating people's attitude and response to smog is both theoretically and practically significant.

  20. Effects of vegetation on debris flow mitigation: A case study from Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Meng, Xingmin; Chen, Guan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Muqi; Zeng, Runqiang

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are traditionally controlled using civil engineering structures such as check dams. However, the misuse of such strategies may sometimes trigger environmental hazards such as the catastrophic landslide in 2010 in Zouqu county, China, and therefore other methods such as the use of vegetation as an eco-engineering tool are increasingly being adopted. The aim of the present research was to investigate the bioengineering effects of vegetation over time in an area prone to debris flows in Gansu province, China. We collected detailed data from 2012 to 2014 on vegetation type, density, and root system morphology, and measured profiles across the valley. In addition, we assessed the increased soil cohesion provided by the root development of three monospecific stands of Robinia pseudoacacia of different ages growing within the debris valley, and on a larger scale, their effects on channel morphology. These data were incorporated into a modified form of BSTEM (Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model) and a cellular braided-stream model. The results indicate that with increasing age, the FOS (factor of safety) of the bank would be significantly increased, and that the flooded area in the valley caused by simulated flood events would be decreased by 18-24%, on average. Subsequently, field data were incorporated into a cellular model to simulate sediment movement and the effects of vegetation on the channel dynamics. The results demonstrate that the stability provided by vegetation could result in a less active valley system and that overall the development of debris-controlling vegetation could make a major contribution to ecosystem restoration. However, careful management is essential for making optimum use of the vegetation.

  1. Climate change and water resources: Case study of Eastern Monsoon Region of China

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    Jun Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of climate change on the water cycle and resource changes in the Eastern Monsoon Region of China (EMRC. It also represents a summary of the achievements made by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2010CB428400, where the major research focuses are detection and attribution, extreme floods and droughts, and adaptation of water resources management. Preliminary conclusions can be summarized into four points: 1 Water cycling and water resource changes in the EMRC are rather complicated as the region is impacted by natural changes relating to the strong monsoon influence and also by climate change impacts caused by CO2 emissions due to anthropogenic forcing; 2 the rate of natural variability contributing to the influence on precipitation accounts for about 70%, and the rate from anthropogenic forcing accounts for 30% on average in the EMRC. However, with future scenarios of increasing CO2 emissions, the contribution rate from anthropogenic forcing will increase and water resources management will experience greater issues related to the climate change impact; 3 Extreme floods and droughts in the EMRC will be an increasing trend, based on IPCC-AR5 scenarios; 4 Along with rising temperatures of 1 °C in North China, the agricultural water consumption will increase to about 4% of total water consumption. Therefore, climate change is making a significant impact and will be a risk to the EMRC, which covers almost all of the eight major river basins, such as the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Haihe River, and Pearl River, and to the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (middle line. To ensure water security, it is urgently necessary to take adaptive countermeasures and reduce the vulnerability of water resources and associated risks.

  2. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics: a case study of mobile phones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B Y; Chan, Y C; Middendorf, A; Gu, X; Zhong, H W

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg(-1). The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28 g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg(-1), respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  3. Statistical analysis and a case study of tropical cyclones that trigger the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen

    2017-10-06

    This paper addresses whether a tropical cyclone can trigger the onset of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SM). We conducted a statistical analysis of tropical cyclones (TCs) generated over the western North Pacific (WNP) between late-April and May. The results showed that there were cases in which TCs were generated before the onset of the SCSSM, accounting for 43.2% of the TCs generated during this season. This study examined a representative case, Super Typhoon Chanchu (0601), which was determined to be influential in the onset of the SCSSM. With a northwestward track, Chanchu brought strong convection and westerly winds to the SCS on 12 May, which triggered the intrusion of the southwesterly winds from the Bay of Bengal and the eastward retreat of the western Pacific subtropical high. Super Typhoon Chanchu provides an example in which a TC triggered the onset of the SCSSM. The negative correlation between the onset date of the SCSSM and the number of TCs generated over the WNP used to be interpreted as the influence of the monsoon trough on TC genesis. This work provides a supplementary illustration that this relationship also includes the impact of TCs on the onset of the SCSSM.

  4. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-01-01

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved. PMID:28545246

  5. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-05-23

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved.

  6. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

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    Qulin TAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Subgrade is an important component of railway engineering construction, which supports the upper loads of tracks and trains. Subgrade stability directly affects the high- speed train safety and passenger comfort. With the rapid development of China’s high-speed railway, it put a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent. In the paper, we studied the measurement methods, instruments, observation point set, observation frequency, precision and data prediction analysis etc. Using the subgrade settlement measured data of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway as a case study; we analyzed the relationship between the subgrade settlement and time, and applied hyperbolic model, exponential model and Poisson model to predict subgrade post-construction settlement. The results show that cumulative settlement of subgrade measuring point is 6.4 mm from the beginning to 118th day after roadbed filling construction, and the sedimentation rate becomes steady at 0.001 mm/d. Comparative analysis shows that the hyperbolic model has the best fitting performance among the three curve regression models. And the predicted roadbed post-construction settlement of 3.22 mm has met the subgrade requirements for ballastless-track laying.

  7. Building capacity for health promotion--a case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kwok-Cho; Nutbeam, Don; Kong, Lingzhi; Wang, Ruotao; Yan, Jun

    2005-09-01

    During the period 1997-2000 a technical assistance project to build capacity for community-based health promotion was implemented in seven cities and one province in China. The technical assistance project formed part of a much larger World Bank supported program to improve disease prevention capabilities in China, commonly known as Health VII. The technical assistance project was funded by the Australian Agency for International Development. It was designed to develop capacity within the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the cities and province in the management of community-based health promotion projects, as well as supporting institutional development and public health policy reform. There are some relatively unique features of this technical assistance which helped shape its implementation and impact. It sought to provide the Chinese MOH and the cities and province with an introduction to comprehensive health promotion strategies, in contrast to the more limited information, education and communication strategies. The project was provided on a continuing basis over 3 years through a single institution, rather than as a series of ad hoc consultancies by individuals. Teaching and learning processes were developmental, leading progressively to a greater degree of local Chinese input and management to ensure sustainability and maintenance of technical support for the project. Based on this experience, this paper presents a model for capacity building projects of this type. It describes the education, training and planning activities that were the key inputs to the project, as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project. It describes how the project evolved over time to meet the changing needs of the participants, specifically how the content of the project shifted from a risk-factor orientation to a settings-based focus, and the delivery of the project moved from an expert-led approach to a more participatory, problem based learning approach. In

  8. Rapid Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Crowdsourced Geographic Information: A Case Study of Beijing, China

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    Yuan Meng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change (LCC detection is a significant component of sustainability research including ecological economics and climate change. Due to the rapid variability of natural environment, effective LCC detection is required to capture sufficient change-related information. Although such information has been available through remotely sensed images, the complicated image processing and classification make it time consuming and labour intensive. In contrast, the freely available crowdsourced geographic information (CGI contains easily interpreted textual information, and thus has the potential to be applied for capturing effective change-related information. Therefore, this paper presents and evaluates a method using CGI for rapid LCC detection. As a case study, Beijing is chosen as the study area, and CGI is applied to monitor LCC information. As one kind of CGI which is generated from commercial Internet maps, points of interest (POIs with detailed textual information are utilised to detect land cover in 2016. Those POIs are first classified into land cover nomenclature based on their textual information. Then, a kernel density approach is proposed to effectively generate land cover regions in 2016. Finally, with GlobeLand30 in 2010 as baseline map, LCC is detected using the post-classification method in the period of 2010–2016 in Beijing. The result shows that an accuracy of 89.20% is achieved with land cover regions generated by POIs, indicating that POIs are reliable for rapid LCC detection. Additionally, an LCC detection comparison is proposed between remotely sensed images and CGI, revealing the advantages of POIs in terms of LCC efficiency. However, due to the uneven distribution, remotely sensed images are still required in areas with few POIs.

  9. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of HEC-RAS for flood forecasting in perched river-A case study of hilly region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Wang, Shuqian; Gan, Hong; Liu, Bin; Jia, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in small and medium rivers are seriously threatening the safety of human beings’ life and property. The simulation forecasting of the river flood and bank risk in hilly region has gradually become a hotspot. At present, there are few studies on the simulation of hilly perched river, especially in the case of lacking section flow data. And the method of how to determine the position of the levee breach along the river bank is not much enough. Based on the characteristics of the sections in hilly perched river, an attempt is applied in this paper which establishes the correlation between the flow profile computed by HEC-RAS model and the river bank. A hilly perched river in Lingshi County, Shanxi Province of China, is taken as the study object, the levee breach positions along the bank are simulated under four different design storm. The results show that the flood control standard of upper reach is high, which can withstand the design storm of 100 years. The current standard of lower reach is low, which is the flooding channel with high frequency. As the standard of current channel between the 2rd and the 11th section is low, levee along that channel of the river bank is considered to be heighten and reinforced. The study results can provide some technical support for flood proofing in hilly region and some reference for the reinforcement of river bank.

  11. The role of fog in haze episode in Tianjin, China: A case study for November 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianyi; Han, Suqin; Chen, Shucheng; Shan, Xiaolin; Zai, Ziying; Qiu, Xiaobin; Yao, Qing; Liu, Jingle; Chen, Jing; Meng, Lihong

    2017-09-01

    A severe haze episode that heavy fog appeared in its later stage emerged in Tianjin, east-central China, from November 27 to December 2, 2015. With meteorological data and pollutants monitoring data, the characteristics of this event and the role of fog in haze were investigated. During this process, the visibility was less than 600 m, especially in the haze and fog coexisting period (below 100 m). The peak value of PM2.5 mass concentration appeared in the haze only period was 446 μg/m3. The fog played a role in scavenging and removing PM2.5 during haze and fog coexisting period. The surface high humidity province can match well with the high PM2.5 concentration region in pollutants removal period. The fog top height was reduced to about 200 m by cold air. Although the cold air has arrived in Tianjin high altitude, the saturated layer below 200 m maintained for nearly 12 h. The heavy fog prevented the momentum in upper atmosphere from transmitting downward and caused the high altitude cold air difficult to reach the ground. The latent heat flux was transmitted upward ahead of sensible heat flux in pollutants removal period, indicating the increasing tendency of mechanical turbulence after fog dissipation. Turbulent kinetic energy (Etk) and the surface mean kinetic energy (E) also enhanced after fog dissipation. It demonstrates that the termination of haze was delayed by heavy fog.

  12. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

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    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  13. Interprovincial Reliance for Improving Air Quality in China: A Case Study on Black Carbon Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Tao, Wei; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-04-05

    Black carbon (BC) is of global concern because of its adverse effects on climate and human health. It can travel long distances via atmospheric movement and can be geographically relocated through trade. Here, we explored the integrated patterns of BC transport within 30 provinces in China from the perspective of meteorology and interprovincial trade using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model and multiregional input-output analysis. In general, cross-border BC transport, which accounts for more than 30% of the surface concentration, occurs mainly between neighboring provinces. Specifically, Hebei contributes 1.2 μg·m(-3) BC concentration in Tianjin. By contrast, trade typically drives virtual BC flows from developed provinces to heavily industrial provinces, with the largest net flow from Beijing to Hebei (4.2 Gg). Shanghai is most vulnerable to domestic consumption with an average interprovincial consumption influence efficiency of 1.5 × 10(-4) (μg·m(-3))/(billion Yuan·yr(-1)). High efficiencies (∼8 × 10(-5) (μg·m(-3))/(billion Yuan·yr(-1))) are also found from regions including Beijing, Jiangsu, and Shanghai to regions including Hebei, Shandong, and Henan. The above source-receptor relationship indicates two control zones: Huabei and Huadong. Both mitigating end-of-pipe emissions and rationalizing the demand for pollution-intense products are important within the two control zones to reduce BC and other pollutants.

  14. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

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    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  15. Regional Cultural Enterprises and Cultural Markets in Early Republican China: The Motion Picture as Case Study

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    Matthew D. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the motion picture from foreign amusement to local enterprise was primarily the result of transnational commercial activity linking investors, entrepreneurs, and entertainment professionals. Amid the ongoing urbanization of China’s early Republican period, the enterprises emerging from this activity became increasingly profitable and, as a result, film production and exhibition became regularized phenomena, rooted in identifiable genres and standardized approaches to engaging audiences within the immersive space of the theater. By the early 1920s, those closest to the nascent industry were eager to legitimize its power by portraying the medium as a tool for political and social reform. However, commercial strategies and aesthetics remained relatively undisturbed despite this progressive rhetoric. In geographic terms, motion picture–related enterprises and culture remained strongly regional: affected and constrained by the non-Chinese national industries operating in politically divided China, by competing forms of local popular culture, and by existing geographies of exchange and infrastructure. The early Republican “experimental” period in Chinese cinema was, from an enterprise-centered perspective, one of numerous coexisting subnational cultural centers and zones.

  16. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty — A case study of Dongying, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K., E-mail: zhangkaibetter@126.com; Li, Y.P., E-mail: yongping.li@iseis.org; Huang, G.H., E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca; You, L., E-mail: youli_ncepu@126.com; Jin, S.W., E-mail: jinshuwei2014@126.com

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. - Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed. • STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions. • STSP is applied to planning

  17. Modeling for regional ecosystem sustainable development under uncertainty--A case study of Dongying, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; You, L; Jin, S W

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a superiority-inferiority two-stage stochastic programming (STSP) method is developed for planning regional ecosystem sustainable development. STSP can tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and probability distributions; it can be used to analyze various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. STSP is applied to a real case of planning regional ecosystem sustainable development in the City of Dongying, where ecosystem services valuation approaches are incorporated within the optimization process. Regional ecosystem can provide direct and indirect services and intangible benefits to local economy. Land trading mechanism is introduced for planning the regional ecosystem's sustainable development, where wetlands are buyers who would protect regional ecosystem components and self-organization and maintain its integrity. Results of regional ecosystem activities, land use patterns, and land trading schemes have been obtained. Results reveal that, although large-scale reclamation projects can bring benefits to the local economy development, they can also bring with negative effects to the coastal ecosystem; among all industry activities oil field is the major contributor with a large number of pollutant discharges into local ecosystem. Results also show that uncertainty has an important role in successfully launching such a land trading program and trading scheme can provide more effective manner to sustain the regional ecosystem. The findings can help decision makers to realize the sustainable development of ecological resources in the process of rapid industrialization, as well as the integration of economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

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    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  19. Understanding Stakeholders’ Influence on Project Success with a New SNA Method: A Case Study of the Green Retrofit in China

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    Xin Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders strongly influence project success, particularly for complex projects with heterogeneous stakeholders, and hence, understanding their influence is essential for project management and implementation. This paper proposes an original model based on social network analysis (SNA, which first introduces critical success factors (CSFs as intermediate variables between stakeholders and project success. The model can demonstrate the interrelation between stakeholders and CSFs, and the results can reveal how stakeholders influence project success. Green retrofit is a typical type of complex project. The stakeholder relationship in green retrofit projects is more complex than in new projects, since more stakeholders (e.g., tenants and facility managers who have particular interrelations (e.g., lease contract and split incentives between owners and tenants are involved. Therefore, a case study of green retrofit in China was conducted to illustrate how the proposed model works. The results indicated the priorities and similarities of stakeholders in green retrofit. Stakeholders are categorized into five clusters according to their relationship. Based on the results, the important role of stakeholders in green retrofit projects was discussed. The main contribution of this study is providing a novel method to reveal how stakeholders influence the success of complex projects.

  20. Decoupling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution from Crop Production: A Case Study of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Area, China

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    Qingshan Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture often leads to nonpoint source pollution. From the perspective of a decoupling analysis, this research evaluates the relationship between crop production and agricultural nonpoint source pollution (via fertilizer application, using the Heilongjiang land reclamation area as a case study. As it is the largest commodity grain base and green food base in China, more than 80% of water pollution in this area comes from fertilizer application. This study adopts an export coefficient model to hindcast nitrogen loss delivered to surface water via fertilizer application and conduct a further analysis of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from crop production. The results indicated that weak decoupling frequently occurred. However, this tendency was not steady in the period 2001–2012, and weak decoupling was typical in each branch based on the average value. Regarding the example of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from rice production, weak decoupling occurred more often, but this tendency was not steady over time. In addition, expansive coupling occurred in 2006, 2010 and 2012, and there were no definite signs of it improving. All branches, except for the Suihua branch, reached the degree of weak decoupling. A basic fact is that a decoupling tendency and environmental deterioration coexist in both the past and present. The decoupling analysis will contribute to localized strategies for sustainable agricultural development.

  1. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  2. Is sustainability being a driver of service innovation in the public transport sector? : A case study of BRT in Changzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chaoren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of the thesis is to examine whether the sustainability ideology in public transport service development can act as a driving force for the service oriented innovations. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a qualitative research approach, by using a case study to undertake the analysis of sustainability and service innovation in Changzhou (China) public transportation system. Findings – The study reveals and proposes a viable model of how sustainability could drive...

  3. Evolution of Hydrological Drought in Human Disturbed Areas: A Case Study in the Laohahe Catchment, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979 and the disturbed period (1980–2009. A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months. These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management.

  4. Spatial multicriteria decision analysis of flood risks in aging-dam management in China: a framework and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites.

  5. Case study on incentive mechanism of energy efficiency retrofit in coal-fueled power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO(2)e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only -0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO(2), the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO(2) emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China.

  6. A Case Study of the Pedagogical Tensions in Teacher's Questioning Practices When Implementing Reform-Based Mathematics Curriculum in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lianchun; Seah, Wee Tiong; Clarke, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a teacher's questioning strategies in mathematics classrooms in China when implementing reform-based mathematics curriculum. It explores teacher's strategies to deal with the tensions involved in the creation of opportunities for students to express and communicate mathematics ideas while ensuring the productivity of…

  7. Transmission of Cantonese Opera in the Conservatory Tradition: Two Case Studies in South China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo-Wah

    2015-01-01

    The Cantonese opera was traditionally transmitted by an apprenticeship approach, which has faded out in the mid-twentieth century. Instead, the conservatory approach adapted from the West has replaced the major mode of nurturing professional artists in China and Hong Kong. This study aims to investigate and examine the current practice of the…

  8. Parental Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Macrosomia: a Population-Based Case-Control Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoping; Zhou, Aifen; Xiong, Chao; Yang, Rong; Bassig, Bryan A; Hu, Ronghua; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Qian, Zhengmin; Trevathan, Edwin; Flick, Louise; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of macrosomia has risen markedly worldwide, including in China, during the past two decades. Few epidemiological studies, however, have investigated the risk factors for macrosomia in China. This study was designed to investigate the associations between parental anthropometric characteristics, gestational weight gain (GWG), and risk of macrosomia in China. This population-based, case-control study in Wuhan, China, included a total of 6341 subjects (870 cases and 5471 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mothers or fathers who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of giving birth to a macrosomic infant compared with their normal weight counterparts. Women with GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation had an adjusted OR of 6.09 [95% CI 5.04, 7.35] for delivering a macrosomic infant compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendation. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), women who were underweight or normal weight before pregnancy were observed to have a higher risk of macrosomia birth associated with greater GWG. Parental pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG during pregnancy were highly associated with macrosomia. The association with GWG was most pronounced in mothers who had a normal or underweight pre-pregnancy BMI. Weight control efforts before pregnancy for mothers and fathers as well as control of maternal gain during pregnancy may reduce the risk of macrosomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study on Karst Rock Desertification by Human-Nature Interaction: A Case Study of Fengshan County of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Su, C.; Zhang, R.; Shi, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Rocky desertification is a process of soil erosion leading to the bareness of bedrock, and is a kind of typical natural disaster in karst areas, which seriously constrains the developments of local society and economy. This paper studies the impact of human activities on the changes of rocky desertification. With the interpretation of remote sensing images of Fengshan County, GuangXi, China covering 1990, 1995 and 2005, this paper analyzes the relationship of the changes of social and economic index (including population density, agricultural population, rural per capital net income, and farmland) and the changes of rocky desertification in recent 15 years. The results indicate that: in recent 15 years, the average annual growth rate of rocky desertification, rate of change of population density, agricultural population, rural per capita net income, and farmland area are 8.7375 km2 /year, 0.7 person/km2.year, 1153 person/year, 85 Yuan/year, and -269.1 ha/year, respectively. The first three of social and economic indicators at different degrees of growth, show a positive correlation with rocky desertification change. However, farmland area, which has been diminishing, shows a negative correlation with rocky desertification. The influence of human activities for karst rocky desertification can be regarded as population growth - steep slope reclamation - the destruction of vegetation - erosion - rocky desertification - poverty.

  10. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out.

  11. Coevolution of Interorganizational Psychological Contract and Interorganizational Relationship: A Case Study of Manufacturing Company in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei He

    2017-01-01

    ...) from a micro perspective provides a new angle to study interorganizational relationship (IOR). This paper studies the interrelation and coevolution of IORs and IPCs by building a system dynamics...

  12. Water footprint assessment for crop production based on field measurements: A case study of irrigated paddy rice in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinchun, Cao; Mengyang, Wu; Rui, Shu; La, Zhuo; Dan, Chen; Guangcheng, Shao; Xiangping, Guo; Weiguang, Wang; Shuhai, Tang

    2018-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a comprehensive measure of water consumption by human activities and can be used to assess the impact on both water volume and quality. This study aims to explore the feasibility of evaluating green, blue and grey WFs of crop production based on field measurements. The irrigated paddy rice grown in three different experimental sites in different typical irrigation districts in Huai'an, East China over 2011 to 2014 was taken as study case. With fixed irrigation and fertilization, on the basis of measuring field water and fertilizer balance at daily step, we calculated WF of crop production under different test treatments. Results show that crop water requirement of rice was measured as 667.1mm and 6.2% of the total nitrogen (T-N) was washed away from farmland accompany with drainage and percolation. Average annual WF of paddy rice during 2011-2014 in Huai'an was 1.760m3/kg (33.3% green, 25.8% blue and 40.9% grey). The level of WF and blue water proportion in different locations (irrigation districts) and different years changed slightly, while the proportion of green and grey WF changed with the variance of precipitation. Green water proportion was 25.1%, 34.2 and 44.2%, while 48.0%, 40.2% and 31.0% for grey water proportion under precipitation levels of 400, 600 and 800mm, respectively. The reduced grey WF was due to increased drainage. This study not only proved the feasibility of assessing WF of crop production with field experiments, but also provided a new method for WF calculation based on field water and fertilizer migration processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, X. G; Li, J; Qu, Y; Han, T; Hou, L; Gu, J; Chen, C; Yang, Y; Liu, X; Yang, T; Zhang, Y; Tian, H; Hu, M

    2013-01-01

      The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20-27 September 2011...

  14. A case-control study of hepatitis B and C virus infection as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Dai, M; Wang, X; Lu, W Q; Li, D S; Zhang, M X; Wang, K J; Dai, L P; Han, S G; Zhou, Y F; Zhuang, H

    1998-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and is particularly prevalent in China. China is also a hyperendemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Although a strong association between HBV infection and HCC has been established previously, the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the interaction between HBV and HCV in the development of HCC has not been adequately explored. The major objective of this study is to determine the relationship between HBV or HCV infection and HCC by use of case-control study in Henan, China. In all, 152 HCC patients and 115 control patients were collected from four hospitals in Henan, China between January 1994 and October 1995. The demographic characteristics of the two groups were comparable. In further analysis, a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study was performed. Of 152 HCC patients, 113 were randomly selected to be pair-matched by sex and age (+/-5 years) to controls with non-hepatic disease. All the cases and controls were interviewed during hospitalization by two specially trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. All sera were tested for HBV and HCV markers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for HCC risk factors were calculated by logistic regression model controlling for possible confounding factors such as sex and age. The multivariate analysis was done on the basis of the univariate analysis. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) were much higher in HCC patients (63.2% and 11.2% respectively) than in the control patients (5.2%, 3.5%). The difference between two groups was significant (P case-control study also showed that HBV infection was an important risk factor for HCC, which was consistent with the results from the group-matched case-control study. This is the first reported case-control study of HCC in Henan, China. This study provides further evidence that chronic HBV

  15. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Methods Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs) for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. Results In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004-1.071) for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168) for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065) and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195), respectively. Conclusion Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China. PMID:20920362

  16. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanshen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Methods Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. Results In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.004-1.071 for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168 for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065 and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195, respectively. Conclusion Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China.

  17. Sustainable Agriculture Management : A study case in the Ili-Balkhash basin. Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jequier Quintas, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Water is the source of life. Leonardo da Vinci, constructor of the drainage system of a swamp area north of Rome, said that “water is the blood of the soil”. Without water there is not fertile soil and without any of them there is no harvest. Sustainable Agriculture Management is all about how to develop and improve the use of different resources to make agriculture more sustainable. This study is about how to apply this concept into the study area. The Balkhash Lake is among the biggest lake...

  18. Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in...

  19. A model of destination image promotion with a case study of Nanjing, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Li; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    Destination image has long been a popular research topic in tourism studies. However, methods used to integrate image in real marketing practice and evaluating the market performance in a systematic way are still puzzling to practitioners. A destination image promotion model is proposed in this paper as an effort to solve the problem. The roles of some major factors...

  20. Human resilience in a degrading environment: A case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, A.J.; Yu, Z.R.; Vijver, van den F.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation were studied among 753 Chinese farmers. A good fit was found for a structural equation model postulating a relationship between various input variables (i.e. environmental degradation, socio-economic status, education, coping, and locus of control),

  1. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief

  2. Parental Factors and Early English Education as a Foreign Language: A Case Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2014-01-01

    As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalisation, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners' socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents' SES and their behaviours and beliefs about English…

  3. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  4. An evaluation of Korean SNS in China : A case study of Cyworld

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, NAYOUNG

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to 1) identify the difference between Chinese and Koreas in terms of motivations and evaluations in Cyworld and 2) examine differences between attitudes (positive and negative) and between cultural proximities (high and low) with regard to Chinese motivations and evaluations. The data were collected from Chinese (n=50) and Korean students (n=50) who study in Nottingham university. Factor analysis identified four dimensions of Chinese motivations (e.g. Interest information seek...

  5. Territorial Disputes and Nationalism: A Comparative Case Study of China and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Cotillon

    2017-01-01

    In autocracies, nationalism appears to have merged with geopolitical thinking. In light of this geopoliticisation of nationalism, it is surprising that the literature has paid virtually no attention to the role of territorial disputes as a conditioning factor. The present study seeks to further enhance the field by factoring in the role of territorial disputes in triggering different expressions of nationalism. It develops an analytical framework for typologies of nationalism according to fou...

  6. The dust retention capacities of urban vegetation-a case study of Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiwei

    2013-09-01

    Urban vegetation increasingly plays an important role in the improvement of the urban atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the dust retention capacities of four urban tree species (Ficus virens var. sublanceolata, Ficus microcarpa, Bauhinia blakeana, and Mangifera indica Linn) in Guangzhou. The dust-retaining capacities of four tree species are studied under different pollution intensities and for different seasons. Remote sensing imagery was used to estimate the total aboveground urban vegetation biomass in different functional areas of urban Guangzhou, information that was then used to estimate the dust-retaining capacities of the different functional areas and the total removal of airborne particulates in urban Guangzhou by foliage. The results showed that urban vegetation can remove dust from the atmosphere thereby improving air quality. The major findings are that dust retention, or capture, vary between the four species of tree studied; it also varied between season and between types of urban functional area, namely industrial, commercial/road traffic, residential, and clean areas. Dust accumulation over time was also studied and reached a maximum, and saturation, after about 24 days. The overall aboveground biomass of urban vegetation in Guangzhou was estimated to be 52.0 × 10(5) t, its total leaf area 459.01 km(2), and the dust-retaining capacity was calculated at 8012.89 t per year. The present study demonstrated that the foliage of tree species used in urban greening make a substantial contribution to atmospheric dust removal and retention in urban Guangzhou.

  7. The Role of Urban Villages in China: Case study from Shenzhen

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Concerning the role of urban village in the rental market, early renewal damages the immigration of the lower income groups, thus affect the supply of the primary labor force. Therefore, a right time of urban village renewal play an important role in labor flow which is a critical attribute to economy growth. Previous studies mostly focus on the urban planning and social problems in these areas. But this thesis will regard the urban villages as an indispensible part of the housing market espe...

  8. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Yubi Zhu; Jingang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort...

  9. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiji Huang

    Full Text Available Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare.To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma.A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85, 3.76 (2.30, 6.16, 4.89 (3.04, 7.89, 6.06 (3.27, 11.21, 6.99 (4.37, 11.19 and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21, respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80, 0.44 (0.27, 0.71, 0.41 (0.26, 0.64, 0.40 (0.24, 0.66, 0.30 (0.22, 0.41, 0.23 (0.14, 0.39 and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15, respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same.Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings.

  10. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  11. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  12. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763 from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health, psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use and one adaption policy (increasing resilience brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  13. Evaluating the Sustainability of Nature Reserves Using an Ecological Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

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    Xiaoman Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are established to protect ecosystems and rare flora and fauna. However, with the rapid development of the social economy, many nature reserves are facing enormous pressures from human activities. The assessment of the sustainability of nature reserves is a fundamental task for the planning and management of such areas. In this study, the sustainability of China’s 319 national nature reserves (NRRs was evaluated based on an ecological footprint (EF method. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprints of all national nature reserves increased 85.86% from 2000 to 2010. Meanwhile, the per capita biocapacity (BC of all national nature reserves increased slightly, with a rate of increase of 1.79%. The ‘traffic light’ method was adopted to identify the sustainability status of those national nature reserves. It was found that currently (2010 45% of NRRs were in the condition of ecological deficit. In terms of dynamic changes in EF and BC, only 16% of NRRs were sustainable. The 124 national nature reserves that were in the red light state were mainly distributed in Anhui Province, Chongqing City, Hunan, Guizhou, Fujian, Shandong Province, and Inner Mongolia. The percentage of nature reserves at the red light state in these areas were 83.3%, 66.7%, 64.7%, 62.5%, 58.3%, 57.1%, and 56.5%, respectively. The reserves in the red light state should be included in the priority concern level and should be strictly controlled in terms of population growth and the intensity of exploitation. The results of this study will provide more effective data for reference and for decision making support in nature reserve protection.

  14. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

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    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  16. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

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    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pconflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  18. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

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    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  19. Environmental assessment of recycled printing and writing paper: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2012-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted using IMPACT2002+ to estimate the environmental impact of producing printing and writing paper, which is entirely made with wastepaper. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted using Taylor series expansion. Printing and writing paper produced from wood pulp was assessed for comparison. Compared with the wood pulp contained scenario, printing and writing paper made from wastepaper represented environmental benefit on non-carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories. In both scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to the potential impacts of non-carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy. The influence of the technologies on the way other categories affect the environment was negligible. Improved efficiency in electricity consumption, decreased transport distance from raw material buyers to suppliers, and change in the end-life treatment of solid waste from landfill to incineration are the key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Drought Development through Remote Sensing: A Case Study in Central Yunnan, China

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    Sawaid Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the applicability of remote sensing data for retrieval of key drought indicators including the degree of moisture deficiency, drought duration and areal extent of drought within different land cover types across the landscape. A Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI is devised, combining remotely sensed climate data to retrieve key drought indicators over different vegetation cover types and a lag-time relationship is established based on preceding rainfall. The results indicate that during the major drought event of spring 2010, Evergreen Forest (EF experienced severe dry conditions for 48 days fewer than Cropland (CL and Shrubland (SL. Testing of vegetation response to drought conditions with different lag-time periods since the last rainfall indicated a highest correlation for CL and SL with the 4th lag period (i.e., 64 days whereas EF exhibited maximum correlation with the 5th lag period (i.e., 80 days. Evergreen Forest, which includes tree crops, appears to act as a green reservoir of water, and is more resistant than CL and SL to drought due to its water retention capacity with deeper roots to tap sub-surface water. Identifying differences in rainfall lag-time relationships among land cover types using a remote sensing-based integrated drought index enables more accurate drought prediction, and can thus assist in the development of more specific drought adaptation strategies.

  1. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort, and that wetlands can effectively regulate the microclimate. The fragmentation of urban wetlands caused by urban sprawl decreases their microclimate regulation function, a decrease that is particularly evident in summer. Additionally, wetlands stabilize the microclimate in all seasons. For every land cover type in wetlands, vegetation has a better stabilizing effect on temperature, whereas a water body has a better stabilizing effect on wind speed and humidity. Meteorological conditions also affect the microclimate regulation function of wetlands. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed influence the cooling function of urban wetlands, while solar radiation modifies the humidifying function of urban wetlands.

  2. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies.

  3. A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation - a case study in Shunde, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision-making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. A group of indexes need to be selected for land consolidation. In this article, a fuzzy measure was adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. The optimal solution with the fewest non-zero elements was obtained for the fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land-index system when preparing to conduct land consolidation. This new research was applied to Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project which provides the data. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove to be consistent, and the new model is more automatic and intelligent. The results of this estimation system are significant for informing decision-making in land consolidation.

  4. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

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    Zhiyong Yang

    industries in a systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies.

  5. A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation - a case study in Shunde, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. We needed to select a group of indexes useful for land consolidation according to the concrete demand. In this paper, a fuzzy measure, which can describe the importance of a single feature or a group of features, is adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral that is based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. We obtained the optimal solution for a fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. The fuzzy integrals can be transformed to a set of linear equations. We applied the L1-norm regularization method to solve the linear equations, and we found a solution with the fewest nonzero elements for the fuzzy measure; this solution shows the contribution of corresponding features or the combinations of decisions. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land index system when preparing to conduct the research, such as we describe herein, on land consolidation. Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project provides the data for this work. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove

  6. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2017-04-01

    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  7. MNC Headquarter monitoring mechanism and the subsidiary’s marketing strategy in China : Case study of Volvo and Ford

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Weihan; Xu, Yunyun

    2014-01-01

    Multinational Corporations (MNCs) commence expansion worldwide and adopt local adaptation or global standardization marketing strategies in foreign countries. This thesis is to study whether there is any relationship between the subsidiaries’ marketing strategies and headquarters’ (HQ) monitoring mechanism, focusing on the China. How adaptation/standardization strategy affects the entire firm, how monitoring mechanism influences the relationship between subsidiary and HQ have been paid increa...

  8. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

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    Gao Weimin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian

  9. A multiyear assessment of air quality benefits from China's emerging shale gas revolution: Urumqi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Chang, Yunhua; Liu, Xuejun; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; He, Guixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Christie, Peter; Zheng, Mei; Dore, Anthony J; Tian, Changyan

    2015-02-17

    China is seeking to unlock its shale gas in order to curb its notorious urban air pollution, but robust assessment of the impact on PM2.5 pollution of replacing coal with natural gas for winter heating is lacking. Here, using a whole-city heating energy shift opportunity offered by substantial reductions in coal combustion during the heating periods in Urumqi, northwest China, we conducted a four-year study to reveal the impact of replacing coal with natural gas on the mass concentrations and chemical components of PM2.5. We found a significant decline in PM2.5, major soluble ions and metal elements in PM2.5 in January of 2013 and 2014 compared with the same periods in 2012 and 2011, reflecting the positive effects on air quality of using natural gas as a heating fuel throughout the city. This occurred following complete replacement with natural gas for heating energy in October 2012. The weather conditions during winter did not show any significant variation over the four years of the study. Our results indicate that China and other developing nations will benefit greatly from a change in energy source, that is, increasing the contribution of either natural gas or shale gas to total energy consumption with a concomitant reduction in coal consumption.

  10. Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Junkun Niu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Yunnan Province, a southwestern highland region of China.In this nested case-control study, newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC cases in 2 cities in Yunnan Province and Crohn's disease (CD cases in 16 cities in Yunnan Province were recruited between 2008 and 2013. Controls were matched by geography, sex and age at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected using the designed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs.A total of 678 UC and 102 CD cases were recruited. For UC, various factors were associated with an increased risk of developing UC: dietary habits, including frequent irregular meal times; consumption of fried foods, salty foods and frozen dinners; childhood factors, including intestinal infectious diseases and frequent use of antibiotics; and other factors, such as mental labor, high work stress, use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and allergies (OR > 1, p 1, p < 0.05, whereas physical activity may have reduced this risk (OR < 1, p < 0.05.This study is the first nested case-control study to analyze the association between environmental factors and IBD onset in a southwestern highland region of China. Certain dietary habits, lifestyles, allergies and childhood factors may play important roles in IBD, particularly UC.

  11. Effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on land surface processes: A case study of the Haihe River Basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhan, Chesheng; Qin, Peihua; Sun, Qin; Jia, Binghao; Xia, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we incorporated a groundwater exploitation scheme into the land surface model CLM3.5 to investigate the effects of the anthropogenic exploitation of groundwater on land surface processes in a river basin. Simulations of the Haihe River Basin in northern China were conducted for the years 1965-2000 using the model. A control simulation without exploitation and three exploitation simulations with different water demands derived from socioeconomic data related to the Basin were conducted. The results showed that groundwater exploitation for human activities resulted in increased wetting and cooling effects at the land surface and reduced groundwater storage. A lowering of the groundwater table, increased upper soil moisture, reduced 2 m air temperature, and enhanced latent heat flux were detected by the end of the simulated period, and the changes at the land surface were related linearly to the water demands. To determine the possible responses of the land surface processes in extreme cases (i.e., in which the exploitation process either continued or ceased), additional hypothetical simulations for the coming 200 years with constant climate forcing were conducted, regardless of changes in climate. The simulations revealed that the local groundwater storage on the plains could not contend with high-intensity exploitation for long if the exploitation process continues at the current rate. Changes attributable to groundwater exploitation reached extreme values and then weakened within decades with the depletion of groundwater resources and the exploitation process will therefore cease. However, if exploitation is stopped completely to allow groundwater to recover, drying and warming effects, such as increased temperature, reduced soil moisture, and reduced total runoff, would occur in the Basin within the early decades of the simulation period. The effects of exploitation will then gradually disappear, and the variables will approach the natural state and

  12. Acceptability and adoption of handheld computer data collection for public health research in China: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Raymond, H Fisher; Wen, Tiancai; Ding, Ding; Wang, Qian; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Yang, Gonghuan; Chai, Wanxing; Zhang, Peng; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-06-26

    Handheld computers for data collection (HCDC) and management have become increasingly common in health research. However, current knowledge about the use of HCDC in health research in China is very limited. In this study, we administered a survey to a hard-to-reach population in China using HCDC and assessed the acceptability and adoption of HCDC in China. Handheld computers operating Windows Mobile and Questionnaire Development Studio (QDS) software (Nova Research Company) were used for this survey. Questions on tobacco use and susceptibility were drawn from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and other validated instruments, and these were programmed in Chinese characters by local staff. We conducted a half-day training session for survey supervisors and a three-day training session for 20 interviewers and 9 supervisors. After the training, all trainees completed a self-assessment of their skill level using HCDC. The main study was implemented in fall 2010 in 10 sites, with data managed centrally in Beijing. Study interviewers completed a post-survey evaluation questionnaire on the acceptability and utility of HCDC in survey research. Twenty-nine trainees completed post-training surveys, and 20 interviewers completed post-data collection questionnaires. After training, more than 90% felt confident about their ability to collect survey data using HCDC, to transfer study data from a handheld computer to a laptop, and to encrypt the survey data file. After data collection, 80% of the interviewers thought data collection and management were easy and 60% of staff felt confident they could solve problems they might encounter. Overall, after data collection, nearly 70% of interviewers reported that they would prefer to use handheld computers for future surveys. More than half (55%) felt the HCDC was a particularly useful data collection tool for studies conducted in China. We successfully conducted a health-related survey using HCDC. Using handheld computers for data

  13. Improving tuberculosis case detection in underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions with high disease burden: a case study of integrated control program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yan; Peng, Yong; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2017-11-29

    In the underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions of China, high tuberculosis (TB) burden and regional inequity in access to healthcare service increase the challenge of achieving the End TB goals. Among all the provinces, the highest TB burden is reported in Xinjiang, where ethnic minorities and older people have suffered most. However, current case-finding strategy is inadequate given the complex social determinants and suboptimal case detection rates. Thus, we developed an integrated TB control program to improve case detection and conducted a pilot in Xinjiang from 2014 to 2015. In this case study, we summarized the activities and key findings. We also shared the experiences and challenges of implementing interventions and provided recommendations to inform the TB control program in the future. The pilot interventions were implemented in one selected town in Yining based on local TB control programs. By applying tailor-made educational materials, outreach TB educational activities were conducted in diverse ways. In 22 Masjids, the trained imams promoted TB education to the Muslims, covering 20,440 person-times in 88 delivered preaching sessions. In seven schools, 1944 students were educated by the teachers and contributed to educating 6929 family members. In the village communities, 13,073 residents participated in household education and screening. Among them, 12,292 people aged under 65 years were investigated for suspicious pulmonary TB symptoms, where six TB patients were diagnosed out of 89 TB suspects; 781 older people were mobilized for screening directly by chest X-ray, where 10 patients were diagnosed out of 692 participants. Supportive healthcare system, multi-sectoral cooperation and multi-channel financing mechanism were the successful experiences of implementation. The interventions were proved to be more effective than the previous performance: the number of TB suspects consulting doctors and patients detected increased by 50% and 26%, respectively

  14. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China

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    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems, recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been considered a promising sustainable urban rail system, which is expected to further improve the energy efficiency and to reduce environmental pollution. The first commercial EDLC tram produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. has been applied at Guangzhou Metro Corp. recently. From the view point of scientific research, the system design and energy management of EDLC rail systems have been extensively studied in the literature, while the stationary charging station design for the EDLC energy storage-type urban rail vehicles has been rarely reported. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report a stationary charging station that has been successfully applied in the EDLC rail system produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China.

  15. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though

  16. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private investment, which is important in initiating a PPP project. This study develops a robust model to determine the financing structure through considering the uncertainties in operation. A case study in Hangzhou demonstrates the process of the model. The relevant findings provide private investors and the local government with effective references for negotiating the financing structure of a PPP project.

  17. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  18. Effects of External Digital Elevation Model Inaccuracy on StaMPS-PS Processing: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available External Digital Elevation Models (DEMs with different resolutions and accuracies cause different topographic residuals in differential interferograms of Multi-temporal InSAR (MTInSAR, especially for the phase-based StaMPS-PS. The PS selection and deformation parameter estimation of StaMPS-PS are closely related to the spatially uncorrected error, which is directly affected by external DEMs. However, it is still far from clear how the high resolution and accurate external DEM affects the results of the StaMPS-PS (e.g., PS selection and deformation parameter calculation on different platforms (X band TerraSAR, C band ENVISAT ASAR and L band ALOS/PALSAR1. In this study, abundant synthetic tests are performed to assess the influences of external DEMs on parameter estimations, such as the mean deformation rate and the deformation time-series. Real SAR images, covering Shenzhen city in China, are also selected to analyze the PS selection and distribution as well as to validate the results of synthetic tests. The results show that the PS points selected by the 5 m TanDEM-X DEM are 10.32%, 4.25% and 0.34% more than those selected by the 30 m SRTM DEM at X, C and L bands SAR platforms, respectively, when a multi-look geocoding operation is adopted for X band in the SRTM DEM case. We also find that the influences of external DEMs on the mean deformation rate are not significant and are inversely proportional to the wavelength of the satellite platforms. The standard deviations of the mean deformation rate difference for the X, C and L bands are 0.54, 0.30 and 0.10 mm/year, respectively. Similarly, the influences of external DEMs on the deformation time-series estimation for the three platforms are also slight, except for local artifacts whose root-mean-square error (RMSE ≥ 6 mm. Based on these analyses, some implications and suggestions for external DEMs on StaMPS-PS processing are discussed and provided.

  19. The increasing importance of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in a malaria elimination setting: an observational study of imported cases in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Yaobao; Cotter, Chris; Zhou, Huayun; Zhu, Guoding; Tang, Jianxia; Tang, Feng; Lu, Feng; Xu, Sui; Gu, Yaping; Zhang, Chao; Li, Julin; Cao, Jun

    2016-09-07

    Following initiation of China's National Malaria Elimination Action Plan in 2010, indigenous malaria infections in Jiangsu Province decreased significantly. Meanwhile imported Plasmodium infections have increased substantially, particularly Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Given the risk for malaria resurgence, there is an urgent need to understand the increase in imported P. ovale and P. malariae infections as China works to achieve national malaria elimination. An observational study of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, China was carried out for the period of 2011-2014. A total of 1268 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2014. Although imported Plasmodium falciparum cases (n = 1058) accounted for 83.4 % of all reported cases in Jiangsu, P. ovale cases (14, 19, 30, and 46) and their proportion (3.7, 9.6, 8.8, and 13.0 %) of all malaria cases increased over the 4 years. Similarly, P. malariae cases (seven, two, nine, and 10) and proportion (1.9, 1.0, 2.6, and 2.8 %) of all malaria cases increased slightly during this time. A total of 98 cases of Plasmodium ovale curtisi (47/98, 48 %) and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri (51/98, 52 %) were identified as well. Latency periods were significant among these Plasmodium infections (p = 0.00). Also, this study found that the latency periods of P. ovale sp., P. malariae and Plasmodium vivax were significantly longer than P. falciparum. However, for both P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri infections, the latency period analysis was not significant (p = 0.81). Misdiagnosis of both P. ovale and P. malariae was greater than 71.5 and 71.4 %, respectively. The P. ovale cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (35 cases, 32.1 %), P. vivax (43 cases, 39.4 %) by lower levels of CDCs or hospitals. And, the P. malariae cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (ten cases, 35.7 %), P. vivax (nine cases, 32.1 %) and P. ovale sp. (one case, 3.6 %). Geographic distribution of

  20. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  1. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  2. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  3. Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Tang, Yuan; Nan, Qiong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Gang; Dong, Xiangqian; Huang, Qi; Xia, Shuxian; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Yunnan Province, a southwestern highland region of China. In this nested case-control study, newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) cases in 2 cities in Yunnan Province and Crohn's disease (CD) cases in 16 cities in Yunnan Province were recruited between 2008 and 2013. Controls were matched by geography, sex and age at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected using the designed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs). A total of 678 UC and 102 CD cases were recruited. For UC, various factors were associated with an increased risk of developing UC: dietary habits, including frequent irregular meal times; consumption of fried foods, salty foods and frozen dinners; childhood factors, including intestinal infectious diseases and frequent use of antibiotics; and other factors, such as mental labor, high work stress, use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and allergies (OR > 1, p 1, p China. Certain dietary habits, lifestyles, allergies and childhood factors may play important roles in IBD, particularly UC.

  4. The relationships between urban parks, residents' physical activity, and mental health benefits: A case study from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiao; Li, Feng; Li, Juanyong; Zhang, Yuyang

    2017-04-01

    The role of urban parks in improving public health has been analyzed in the context of urban design in developed countries, but has seldom been considered in developing countries such as China. Previous studies have found positive correlations between parks and residents' physical activity and mental health status. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate respondents' physical activity status and its relationship with urban parks. The impact of different activities engaged in during park use on positive mental health was examined. The average physical activity level of the sample was 92.7 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Park users were more active in all forms of physical activity, except transport walking, than non-users. The presence of a park within 500 m from home and park use were significantly associated with total physical activity. Physical activity in parks significantly restored visitors' moods and energy levels, and interaction with nature brought mental health benefits in terms of relaxation and self-perceived confidence. Overall, this study found a positive correlation of urban parks with public physical activity and positive mental health benefits. However, further research is needed to improve the understanding of this relationship in the context of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on rice yield—A case study over the tropical island in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Luo, Wei; Li, Hailiang; Liu, Enping; Li, Yuping

    2017-03-01

    Frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on agricultural production. Tropical agriculture has been playing an important role in national economy in China. A precise understanding of variability in extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on crop yields are of great value for farmers and policy makers at county level, particularly in tropical China where almost all agriculture is rainfed. This research has studied observed trends in extreme precipitation indices (a total of 10) during 1988-2013 over Hainan island, tropical China. Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was adopted for trend detection and the results showed that most of precipitation indices showed increasing trend. Since rice is the most important staple food in Hainan island, the impacts of extreme precipitation indices on rice yields were also analyzed through simple correlations. In general, the rainy days and rain intensity in late rice growing season showed increasing trend over Hainan island. The rice yield presented ninth-degree polynomial technological trend at all stations and increasing trend for early rice yield. Late rice yield showed a decreasing trend in some parts of Hainan island. Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that the correlation was more pronounced between extreme precipitation indices and yields at Haikou site for early rice, and Haikou, Sanya, and Qionghai stations for late rice, respectively. Further results also indicated that there were statistically significant positive trends of R10 and R20 (number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm and precipitation ≥20 mm, respectively) from July to November at Haikou (located in north of Hainan island), and this positive trend may be a disadvantage for late rice yield. The cut-off value of extreme precipitation indices and its correlation with rice yield anomaly indices for Hainan island provided a foundation for vulnerability assessment as well as a contribution to set up

  6. Trace elements are associated with urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level: a case study of college students in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyou; Ren, Lu; Fang, Jianzhang; Ji, Jiajia; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Ruorong; Lin, Kai; Fan, Ruifang

    2016-05-01

    Many trace heavy elements are carcinogenic and increase the incidence of cancer. However, a comprehensive study of the correlation between multiple trace elements and DNA oxidative damage is still lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the body burden of multiple trace elements and DNA oxidative stress in college students in Guangzhou, China. Seventeen trace elements in urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative stress, was also measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The concentrations of six essential elements including manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), and molybdenum (Mo), and five non-essential elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), stibium (Sb), and thallium (Tl), were found to be significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels. Moreover, urinary levels of Ni, Se, Mo, As, Sr, and Tl were strongly significantly correlated with 8-OHdG (P < 0.01) concentration. Environmental exposure and dietary intake of these trace elements may play important roles in DNA oxidative damage in the population of Guangzhou, China.

  7. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  8. Land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction and building damage level assessment - a case study of Datun, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi-yan Feng; Gang-jun Liu; Lei Meng; Er-jiang Fu; Hai-rong Zhang; Ke-fei Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Engineering

    2008-12-15

    As in many parts of the world, long-term excessive extraction of groundwater has caused significant land-surface subsidence in the residential areas of Datun coal mining district in East China. The recorded maximum level of subsidence in the area since 1976 to 2006 is 863 mm, and the area with an accumulative subsidence more than 200 mm reached 33.1 km{sup 2} by the end of 2006. Over ten cases of building crack due to ground subsidence have already been observed. Spatial variation in ground subsidence often leads to a corresponding pattern of ground deformation. Buildings and underground infrastructures have been under a higher risk of damage in locations with greater differential ground deformation. Governmental guideline in China classifies building damages into four different levels, based on the observable measures such as the width of wall crack, the degree of door and window deformation, the degree of wall inclination and the degree of structural destruction. Building damage level (BDL) is estimated by means of ground deformation analysis in terms of variations in slope gradient and curvature. Ground deformation analysis in terms of variations in slope gradient has shown that the areas of BDL III and BDL II sites account for about 0.013 km{sup 2} and 0.284 km{sup 2} respectively in 2006, and the predicted areas of BDL (define this first) III and II sites will be about 0.029 km{sup 2} and 0.423 km{sup 2} respectively by 2010. The situation is getting worse as subsidence continues. That calls for effective strategies for subsidence mitigation and damage reduction, in terms of sustainable groundwater extraction, enhanced monitoring and the establishment of early warning systems. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  10. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  11. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  12. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  13. Networked or Un-Networked? A Preliminary Study on KIBS-Based Sustainable Urban Development: The Case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhui Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly pertinent linkages of cities via knowledge intensive business services (KIBS in the 21st century have opened a new window for academia to reconsider the approach to achieving urban sustainability. In this study, city network was investigated with an aim of identifying its attributes in the framework of sustainable urban development. Data about China’s KIBS, which are compiled in an inter-regional input–output table, were calculated following the procedure of social network analysis. It was found that: (1 the degree of nodes (i.e., out-degree, in-degree and betweenness in China varies distinctively from city to city; (2 the hierarchy of the city network is very tiny; and (3 that the network structure is subject to both “a small world” and core–periphery effects. Furthermore, city nodes in China fall into four categories, namely high centrality and power, high centrality and low power, low centrality and high power, and low centrality and power. The implication is that governmental efforts should be made to secure a reasonable decentralization of key city nodes to ensure that urban sustainability is built on a city-to-city basis.

  14. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic matter (SOM, pH, available phosphorus (avail. P, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al, and iron (Fe. These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

  15. The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Pu, Lijie; Peng, Buzhuo; Gao, Zhonggui

    2011-04-01

    At a stage of rapid economic development and urbanization in China, most cities are faced with serious problems caused by environment deterioration such as pollution, space press, afforestation degradation, and disordering. Kunshan City, one of the most economically vigorous regions in China, has suffered a more prominent conflict between urbanization and environmental safety. In this paper, urban land expansion in Kunshan City in the Yangtze River Delta was measured with reference to the Landsat data recorded in 1982, 1991, 1995, and 2003 and change in land-use pattern in 1981, 1991, 1995, and 2004 as well as that in nutrients in soils of different purposes between the periods were analyzed to study the effect of urban land-use expansion on soil characteristics. To get a better understanding of soil nutrients, heavy metal content, and pollution, on-the-spot investigation, sampling and laboratory analysis were all conducted, and the geo-accumulation factors and revised Nemerow comprehensive index method were adopted for evaluation of the findings. The results show that the content of organic matter, total nitrogen, rapidly available nitrogen, and available phosphorus in the soil (except available potassium) all increased, and the average content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn prove to be 8.61, 0.12, 83.53, 32.49, 29.93, 30.45, 0.27, 0.24, and 93.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, showing degradation in soil quality.

  16. Application of biochar to soil reduces cancer risk via rice consumption: a case study in Miaoqian village, Longyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar; Reid, Brian J; Li, Gang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of rice contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a major pathway for human exposure to PTEs. This is particularly true in China's so called "Cancer Villages". In this study, sewage sludge biochar (SSBC) was applied to soil (at 5% and 10%) to suppress PTE phytoavailability and as a consequence to reduce PTE levels in rice grown in mining impacted paddy soils. Risk assessment indicated that SSBC addition (10%) markedly (P≤0.05) decreased the daily intake, associated with the consumption of rice, of PTEs (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn by: 68, 42, 55, 29, 43, 38 and 22%, respectively). In treatments containing SSBC (10%) the health quotient (HQ) indices for PTEs (except for As, Cu and Mn) were consumption of rice was significantly (P≤0.01) reduced by 66%. These findings suggest that SSBC could be a useful soil amendment to mitigating PTE exposure, through rice consumption, in China's "Cancer Villages". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China: A case study of risk assessment in mega-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guyu; Xu, Pei; Zhu, Bangshang; Bai, Mengyu; Li, Daoji

    2018-03-01

    Microplastics, which are plastic debris with a particle diameter of less than 5 mm, have attracted growing attention in recent years. Its widespread distributions in a variety of habitats have urged scientists to understand deeper regarding their potential impact on the marine living resources. Most studies on microplastics hitherto are focused on the marine environment, and research on risk assessment methodology is still limited. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers, this study investigated river sediments in Shanghai, the largest urban area in China. Seven sites were sampled to ensure maximum coverage of the city's central districts, and a tidal flat was also included to compare with river samples. Density separation, microscopic inspection and μ-FT-IR analysis were conducted to analyze the characteristics of microplastics and the type of polymers. The average abundance of microplastics in six river sediment samples was 802 items per kilogram of dry weight. The abundance in rivers was one to two orders of magnitude higher than in the tidal flat. White microplastic spheres were most commonly distributed in river sediments. Seven types of microplastics were identified, of which polypropylene was the most prevailing polymers presented. The study then conducted risk assessment of microplastics in sediments based on the observed results, and proposed a framework of environmental risk assessment. After reviewing waste disposal related legislation and regulations in China, this study conclude that in situ data and legitimate estimations should be incorporated as part of the practice when developing environmental policies aiming to tackle microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing Major Accident Risks to Support Land-Use Planning Using a Severity-Vulnerability Combination Method: A Case Study in Dagushan Peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuming; Zhang, Shushen; Yu, Chen; Zheng, Hongbo; Song, Guobao; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Chai, Yingying

    2015-08-01

    Major accident risks posed by chemical hazards have raised major social concerns in today's China. Land-use planning has been adopted by many countries as one of the essential elements for accident prevention. This article aims at proposing a method to assess major accident risks to support land-use planning in the vicinity of chemical installations. This method is based on the definition of risk by the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS (ARAMIS) project and it is an expansion application of severity and vulnerability assessment tools. The severity and vulnerability indexes from the ARAMIS methodology are employed to assess both the severity and vulnerability levels, respectively. A risk matrix is devised to support risk ranking and compatibility checking. The method consists of four main steps and is presented in geographical information-system-based maps. As an illustration, the proposed method is applied in Dagushan Peninsula, China. The case study indicated that the method could not only aid risk regulations on existing land-use planning, but also support future land-use planning by offering alternatives or influencing the plans at the development stage, and thus further enhance the roles and influence of land-use planning in the accident prevention activities in China. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Environmental and socio-economic sustainability appraisal of contaminated land remediation strategies: A case study at a mega-site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinan; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Junli; O'Connor, David; Li, Guanghe; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Shupeng; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has become a global trend in the contaminated land remediation field. Growing numbers of countries have adopted GSR procedures published in regulatory and/or technical guidance. China is fast becoming one of the largest remediation markets in the world, and is beginning to engage with GSR. Among other efforts, a taskforce is currently developing the first Chinese technical standard on GSR. This paper presents the context positioning and development of a sustainable remediation assessment indicator set for China. This sustainability indicator set was formed based on existing sustainable remediation guidelines and literature. LCA was used to evaluate environmental impacts, and the results combined with social and economic appraisal via MCA. The indicator set was applied to a remediation 'mega-site' in China. The results showed that compared to excavation and landfill, an alternative treatment strategy of soil washing, thermal desorption and S/S brought about relatively less waste generation, better worker safety, and preferable local impacts, leading to higher scores in the environmental and social-economic domains. However, the social-economic scores were limited by a lack of public engagement. The results of the case study have shown that the indicator set is valid, with lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of DNA Barcodes in Asian Tropical Trees--A Case Study from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-cui; Ci, Xiu-qin; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Within a regional floristic context, DNA barcoding is more useful to manage plant diversity inventories on a large scale and develop valuable conservation strategies. However, there are no DNA barcode studies from tropical areas of China, which represents one of the biodiversity hotspots around the world. A DNA barcoding database of an Asian tropical trees with high diversity was established at Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China using rbcL and matK as standard barcodes, as well as trnH-psbA and ITS as supplementary barcodes. The performance of tree species identification success was assessed using 2,052 accessions from four plots belonging to two vegetation types in the region by three methods: Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and BLAST. We corrected morphological field identification errors (9.6%) for the three plots using rbcL and matK based on Neighbor-Joining tree. The best barcode region for PCR and sequencing was rbcL (97.6%, 90.8%), followed by trnH-psbA (93.6%, 85.6%), while matK and ITS obtained relative low PCR and sequencing success rates. However, ITS performed best for both species (44.6-58.1%) and genus (72.8-76.2%) identification. With trnH-psbA slightly less effective for species identification. The two standard barcode rbcL and matK gave poor results for species identification (24.7-28.5% and 31.6-35.3%). Compared with other studies from comparable tropical forests (e.g. Cameroon, the Amazon and India), the overall performance of the four barcodes for species identification was lower for the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, possibly because of species/genus ratios and species composition between these tropical areas. Although the core barcodes rbcL and matK were not suitable for species identification of tropical trees from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, they could still help with identification at the family and genus level. Considering the relative sequence recovery and the species identification performance, we recommend the

  1. Estimation of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies under high mass loading: case study for the megacity of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Chen, Changhong; Gao, Jian; Wang, Shuxiao; Watson, John G; Wang, Hongli; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Buying; Zhou, Min; Chow, Judith C; Pitchford, Marc L; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-20

    Aerosol mass scattering efficiency (MSE), used for the scattering coefficient apportionment of aerosol species, is often studied under the condition of low aerosol mass loading in developed countries. Severe pollution episodes with high particle concentration frequently happened in eastern urban China in recent years. Based on synchronous measurement of aerosol physical, chemical, and optical properties at the megacity of Shanghai for two months during autumn 2012, we studied MSE characteristics at high aerosol mass loading. Their relationships with mass concentrations and size distributions were examined. It was found that MSE values from the original US IMPROVE algorithm could not represent the actual aerosol characteristics in eastern China. It results in an underestimation of the measured ambient scattering coefficient by 36%. MSE values in Shanghai were estimated to be 3.5 ± 0.55 m(2)/g for ammonia sulfate, 4.3 ± 0.63 m(2)/g for ammonia nitrate, and 4.5 ± 0.73 m(2)/g for organic matter, respectively. MSEs for three components increased rapidly with increasing mass concentration in low aerosol mass loading, then kept at a stable level after a threshold mass concentration of 12–24 μg/m(3). During severe pollution episodes, particle growth from an initial peak diameter of 200–300 nm to a peak diameter of 500–600 nm accounts for the rapid increase in MSEs at high aerosol mass loading, that is, particle diameter becomes closer to the wavelength of visible lights. This study provides insights of aerosol scattering properties at high aerosol concentrations and implies the necessity of MSE localization for extinction apportionment, especially for the polluted regions.

  2. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    respects, physicians trained in traditional medi- cine and those trained in Western medicine constitute separate groups with diflerent interests. For...China: Rule by Purge," Asian Survey, 25, No. 6, June 1985, 638-58. Schram, Stuart R. "To Utopia and Back: A Cycle in the History of Chinese Communist

  3. Towards Internationalising the Curriculum: A Case Study of Chinese Language Teacher Education Programs in China and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…

  4. Morphological characterization of coral reefs by combining lidar and MBES data: A case study from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yang, Fanlin; Zhang, Hande; Su, Dianpeng; Li, QianQian

    2017-06-01

    The correlation between seafloor morphological features and biological complexity has been identified in numerous recent studies. This research focused on the potential for accurate characterization of coral reefs based on high-resolution bathymetry from multiple sources. A standard deviation (STD) based method for quantitatively characterizing terrain complexity was developed that includes robust estimation to correct for irregular bathymetry and a calibration for the depth-dependent variablity of measurement noise. Airborne lidar and shipborne sonar bathymetry measurements from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea, were merged to generate seamless high-resolution coverage of coral bathymetry from the shoreline to deep water. The new algorithm was applied to the Yuanzhi Island surveys to generate maps of quantitive terrain complexity, which were then compared to in situ video observations of coral abundance. The terrain complexity parameter is significantly correlated with seafloor coral abundance, demonstrating the potential for accurately and efficiently mapping coral abundance through seafloor surveys, including combinations of surveys using different sensors.

  5. Public willingness to pay for CO2 mitigation and the determinants under climate change: a case study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zou, Liping; Lin, Tiansheng; Wu, Ying; Wang, Haikun

    2014-12-15

    This study explored the factors that influence respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO2 mitigation under climate change. A questionnaire survey combined with contingent valuation and psychometric paradigm methods were conducted in the city of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province in China. Respondents' traditional demographic attributes, risk perception of greenhouse gas (GHG), and attitude toward the government's risk management practices were established using a Tobit model to analyze the determinants. The results showed that about 55% of the respondents refused to pay for CO2 mitigation, respondent's WTP increased with increasing CO2 mitigation percentage. Important factors influencing WTP include people's feeling of dread of GHGs, confidence in policy, the timeliness of governmental information disclosure, age, education and income level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-01-11

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  8. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  9. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  10. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr−1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater component of WF was 811 million m3 yr−1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  11. A case study of the highly time-resolved evolution of aerosol chemical and optical properties in urban Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the chemical and optical properties of aerosols in urban Shanghai and their relationship were studied over a three-day period in October 2011. A suite of real-time instruments, including an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA, a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS, a nephelometer and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, was employed to follow the quick changes of the aerosol properties within the 72 h sampling period. The origin of the air mass arriving in Shanghai during this period shifted from the East China Sea to the northwest area of China, offering a unique opportunity to observe the evolution of aerosols influenced by regional transport from the most polluted areas in China. According to the meteorological conditions and temporal characterizations of the chemical and optical properties, the sampling period was divided into three periods. During Period 1 (00:00–23:00 LT, 13 October, the aerosols in urban Shanghai were mainly fresh and the single scattering albedo varied negatively with the emission of elemental carbon, indicating that local sources dominated. Period 2 (23:00 LT on 13 October to 10:00 LT on 15 October was impacted by regionally transported pollutants and had the highest particulate matter (PM mass loading and the lowest particle acidity, characterized by large fractions of aged particles and high secondary ion (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium mass concentrations. Comparison between ATOFMS particle acidity and quantitative particle acidity by MARGA indicated the significance of semi-quantitative calculation in ATOFMS. Two sub-periods were identified in Period 2 based on the scattering efficiency of PM1 mass. Period 3 (from 10:00 LT on 15 October to 00:00 LT on 16 October had a low PM1/PM10 ratio and a new particle formation event. The comparison of these sub-periods highlights the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol optical properties

  12. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  13. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  14. The development of Haze Events observed by multi-satellite retrievals and Meteorological Analysis: A Case Study over Eastern China in December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Binbin; Du, Yong; Yao, Lingling; Huang, Dasong

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and urbanization, the haze has been one of the environment disasters in eastern China. It is necessary that building a model of monitoring the haze for preventing and solving it in the future. In this study, NPP/AOT(550nm) >1and GOCI/AOT(555nm) >1 are adopted to dynamically monitor severe haze events in December 2013 over eastern China. Meanwhile, wind field data from CDAS-NCEP/DOE Reanalysis data and air temperature data from CDAS-NCEP/FNL are adopted to study the mechanism of the occurrence, migration and decay of the haze events. The haze event is composed of two consecutive cases. The first case occurred during 4-9 December is an exogenous haze for Yangtze River Delta, whereas the second case appeared during 11-15 December is an endogenous haze. This result shows:1) With the improved two-stream approximation model, GOCI is successful used to retrieve AOT with compared AERONET AOT, which demonstrates to be feasible in monitoring severe haze events. 2)Because of the large-scale observation capacity of NPP/AOT(550nm) product (×6km) and the high temporal resolution of GOCI/AOT(555nm), this study establishes a framework that detect the large-scale haze events using both data sets. 3)Weak wind speed of less than 5 m*s-1 is important for the development of the haze but the inversion is not a necessary condition for the haze. The strong cold air mass from the northern Siberia area and from East China Sea is the main force for the immigration, diffusion and decay of this haze event. 4)The air quality around Yangtze River Delta in winter is apt to suffer widely divergent influences including exogenous hazes carried by winter northwestward monsoon flows from northern Asia, and endogenous hazes induced by the rapid development of urbanization. The hit of multiple hazes over Yangtze River Delta lead to one of the most severe polluted regions of haze in China. Key words: NPP/AOT;GOCI/AOT; Haze;dynamic monitoring

  15. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  16. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and PM10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  17. Impact of Social Media on Public leadership: A case-study of Public Officials in Lanzhou, China

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    Sajjad Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the changing leadership role of executives in public sector organizations in Lanzhou city (China in response to new developments and innovations in organizational and social life. As the internet and technology has transformed the workplaces, so do the managing and leading; and this is one of the crippling challenge for the leadership. Gone are the days of conventional motivational tactics; employees of today are more informed, knowledgeable and smarter than ever before; they can be better enticed through the power of social media.  The study involves gleaning empirical data from the mid and upper-mid career officers working in various public sector departments. The findings show that the public officials cannot stay away from the social media and use it frequently at workplaces to connect with their friends and family, and to lesser extent for the organizational purposes, and they adopt the transformational leadership style. The findings of this study are useful to help understand leadership styles adopted by the public sector officials and how the social media impacts their work behavior.

  18. Uncertainty of Hydrological Drought Characteristics with Copula Functions and Probability Distributions: A Case Study of Weihe River, China

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    Panpan Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sensitivity and uncertainty of hydrological droughts frequencies and severity in the Weihe Basin, China during 1960–2012, by using six commonly used univariate probability distributions and three Archimedean copulas to fit the marginal and joint distributions of drought characteristics. The Anderson-Darling method is used for testing the goodness-of-fit of the univariate model, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC is applied to select the best distribution and copula functions. The results demonstrate that there is a very strong correlation between drought duration and drought severity in three stations. The drought return period varies depending on the selected marginal distributions and copula functions and, with an increase of the return period, the differences become larger. In addition, the estimated return periods (both co-occurrence and joint from the best-fitted copulas are the closet to those from empirical distribution. Therefore, it is critical to select the appropriate marginal distribution and copula function to model the hydrological drought frequency and severity. The results of this study can not only help drought investigation to select a suitable probability distribution and copulas function, but are also useful for regional water resource management. However, a few limitations remain in this study, such as the assumption of stationary of runoff series.

  19. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  20. The impact of ambient air pollution on suicide mortality: a case-crossover study in Guangzhou, China.

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    Lin, Guo-Zhen; Li, Li; Song, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Shen, Shuang-Quan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-08-30

    Preventing suicide is a global imperative. Although the effects of social and individual risk factors of suicide have been widely investigated, evidence of environmental effects of exposure to air pollution is scarce. We investigated the effects of ambient air pollution on suicide mortality in Guangzhou, China during 2003-2012. A conditional logistic regression analysis with a time-stratified case-crossover design was performed to assess the effects of daily exposure to three standard air pollutants, including particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), on suicide mortality, after adjusting for the confounding effects of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunshine duration. Further analyses were stratified by season, gender, age group, educational attainment and suicide type. Between 2003 and 2012, there were a total of 1 550 registered suicide deaths in Guangzhou. A significant increase in suicide risk were associated with interquartile-range increases in the concentration of air pollutant, with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.27) and 1.15 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.28) for PM10 and NO2 at lag 02, and 1.12 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.23) for SO2 at lag 01, respectively. The suicide risks related to air pollution for males and people with high education level were higher than for females and those with low education level, respectively. Significant air pollution effects were found on violent suicide mortality and in cool season but not on non-violent suicide mortality or in warm season. Suicide risk was positively associated with ambient air pollution levels. This finding would provide important information for the health impact assessment of air pollution and for the development of effective strategies and interventions for the prevention of suicide.

  1. A Visualization Approach to Air Pollution Data Exploration—A Case Study of Air Quality Index (PM2.5 in Beijing, China

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    Huan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, frequent occurrences of significant air pollution events in China have routinely caused panic and are a major topic of discussion by the public and air pollution experts in government and academia. Therefore, this study proposed an efficient visualization method to represent directly, quickly, and clearly the spatio-temporal information contained in air pollution data. Data quality check and cleansing during a preliminary visual analysis is presented in tabular form, heat matrix, or line chart, upon which hypotheses can be deduced. Further visualizations were designed to verify the hypotheses and obtain useful findings. This method was tested and validated in a year-long case study of the air quality index (AQI of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. We found that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may be emitted by the same sources, and strong winds may accelerate the spread of pollutants. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was greater than the AQI value of 50 over the six-year study period. Furthermore, arable lands exhibited considerably higher concentrations of air pollutants than vegetation-covered areas. The findings of this study showed that our visualization method is intuitive and reliable through data quality checking and information sharing with multi-perspective air pollution graphs. This method allows the data to be easily understood by the public and inspire or aid further studies in other fields.

  2. How to improve early case detection in low endemic areas with pockets of leprosy: a study of newly detected leprosy patients in Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlan; Yang, Lili; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hang; Liu, Jie; Cross, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    Although leprosy in China is controlled at a low endemic level, the number of new cases in Guizhou province has shown no significant decrease over the past 20 years. Guizhou remains the province with the second highest prevalence in China. The authors conducted a study in which the characteristics of newly detected leprosy cases, found between 2008 and 2012 in Guizhou, were analysed. These cases represented people from pocket areas of leprosy in a generally low endemic environment. The purpose of the study was to understand characters of newly detected cases, strong points and weakness of routine detection approaches for improving the effectiveness of early case detection in the future. The analysis considered data that was collected from a 'Leprosy Management Information' report system and also from annual statistical reports of leprosy that reflect the situation throughout the province. 1274 new patients were detected in Guizhou from 2008 to 2012. That number included 58 (4.6%) children (0-14 years old). The average age of patients at diagnosis was 42.6 ± 16.5 years. The proportion of people with WHO Grade 2 disability (WHO DG2) among new patients was 35.7% and the proportion of people with Grade 1 disability (DG1) constituted 10.1%. The average delay before diagnosis after the onset of symptoms of leprosy was 41.7 ± 49.8 months. Suspect survey was a major method by which most cases were detected. Trough this method 790 (62.0%) new patients were detected. It was also in this group that the highest proportion of people with WHO DG2 359 of 790 (45.4%) was reported. Self- reporting, diagnosis at a general skin clinic, household contact examination, and spot surveys accounted for 13.0%, 11.8%, 11.5% and 1.7% of other cases detected respectively. It was generally found that cases detected through household contact examinations were earlier cases (delay to diagnosis leprosy early in low endemic situations where pockets persist was difficult to achieve. The authors

  3. Urban green spaces and plant diversity at different spatial–temporal scales: A case study from Beijing, China

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    Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beijing, the capital city of China, is one of the largest and most rapidly-urbanizing cities in the world. In this work, we present the main results of one decade’s research on urban vegetation and plant diversity changes in different urban structural units. Urban vegetation/plant diversity has been studied at two different levels: at the landscape level (greening percentage, fragmentation degree and at the plant species level (structure, composition, and origin. Finally, concerns with the ability to study Beijing’s plant urban ecology are discussed.Pekín, la capital de China, es una de las urbes más pobladas y a la vez con una de las tasas de expansión urbana más rápidas del mundo. En el presente trabajo, se presentan los principales resultados tras una década de estudio de los cambios en la vegetación y diversidad vegetal urbana a lo largo de las diferentes unidades estructurales urbanas. La vegetación y la diversidad vegetal urbana se han estudiado a dos niveles: a nivel de paisaje (porcentaje de zonas verdes, grado de fragmentación y a nivel de especie (estructura, composición y origen. En último lugar se discuten algunos aspectos relacionados con la metodología de estudio de la ecología urbana en Pekín. [zh] 不同时空尺度上的城市绿地和植物多样性:以北京市为例。— 中国的首都北京是世界上最大且发展最快的城 市之一。本文展示了过去10余年间北京不同城市结构单元中城市绿地和植物多样性变化的主要研究结果。我 们对城市绿地和植物多样性在两个不同的尺度上进行了研究:在景观尺度上(如绿化率,破碎化程度等)和 植物群落尺度上(植物结构,组成和来源等)。最后,我们对未来城市植物学研究谈了几点看法。

  4. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  5. Quantifying species' range shifts in relation to climate change: a case study of Abies spp. in China.

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    Xiaojun Kou

    Full Text Available Predicting species range shifts in response to climatic change is a central aspect of global change studies. An ever growing number of species have been modeled using a variety of species distribution models (SDMs. However, quantitative studies of the characteristics of range shifts are rare, predictions of range changes are hard to interpret, analyze and summarize, and comparisons between the various models are difficult to make when the number of species modeled is large. Maxent was used to model the distribution of 12 Abies spp. in China under current and possible future climate conditions. Two fuzzy set defined indices, range increment index (I and range overlapping index (O, were used to quantify range shifts of the chosen species. Correlation analyses were used to test the relationships between these indices and species distribution characteristics. Our results show that Abies spp. range increments (I were highly correlated with longitude, latitude, and mean roughness of their current distributions. Species overlapping (O was moderately, or not, correlated with these parameters. Neither range increments nor overlapping showed any correlation with species prevalence. These fuzzy sets defined indices provide ideal measures of species range shifts because they are stable and threshold-free. They are reliable indices that allow large numbers of species to be described, modeled, and compared on a variety of taxonomic levels.

  6. The Association between Air Pollution and Population Health Risk for Respiratory Infection: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaolin; Zhang, An; Liang, Shi; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Ye, Yanjun

    2017-08-23

    Nowadays, most of the research on air pollution and its adverse effects on public health in China has focused on megacities and heavily-polluted regions. Fewer studies have focused on cities that are slightly polluted. Shenzhen used to have a favorable air environment, but its air quality has deteriorated gradually as a result of development in recent years. So far, no systematic investigations have been conducted on the adverse effects of air pollution on public health in Shenzhen. This research has applied a time series analysis model to study the possible association between different types of air pollution and respiratory hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Respiratory hospital admission was divided into two categories for comparison analysis among various population groups: acute upper respiratory infection and acute lower respiratory infection. The results showed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was significantly associated with acute respiratory infection hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Children under 14 years old were the main susceptible population of acute respiratory infection due to air pollution. PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO₂ were the primary air pollutants threatening respiratory health in Shenzhen. Though air pollution level is generally relatively low in Shenzhen, it will benefit public health to control the pollution of particulate matter as well as other gaseous pollutants.

  7. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

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    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  8. Interaction between dietary factors and Helicobacter pylori infection in noncardia gastric cancer: a population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Yan, Hong; Terry, Paul D; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Cheng, Li; Wu, Wen-An; Hu, Sen-Ke

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among Helicobacter pylori, dietary factors, and the risk of noncardia gastric cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in China. A case-control study of noncardia gastric cancer was performed at 3 hospitals in Xi'an, China, between September 2008 and July 2010. Participants were 257 men and women with histologically diagnosed primary noncardia gastric cancer and 514 sex- and age-matched (± 5 years) control subjects selected from the communities where the cases were living when diagnosed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding potential risk factors, including diet, and blood samples were obtained to examine H pylori infection status. Positive H pylori status (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-5.9) and high consumption of pickled foods (OR, 27.1; 95%, 8.7-79.1) appeared to increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, whereas high consumption of vegetables (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.89), fruits (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.09-0.81), and soya products (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.3) appeared to decrease the risk. Consumption of meat, cereals, tubers, eggs, oils, nuts, fish, fresh fruit, and red meat was not clearly associated with risk. Effect modification was observed, such that a relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables appeared to attenuate the association of H pylori with risk of noncardia gastric cancer (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that noncardia gastric cancer is highly preventable through modifications in dietary habits. Given the prevalence of H pylori infection worldwide, information regarding potential interaction between H pylori and lifestyle factors in gastric cancer development, including the dietary factors examined in our study, may prove valuable in future efforts at prevention.

  9. [Multicenter study of the nutritional status of premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit in China: report of 974 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-hua

    2009-01-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants secondary to suboptimal nutrition is a major problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This study was designed to investigate the nutritional support and growth of premature infants who were discharged from 10 tertiary NICUs in different areas in China and evaluate the effects of high risk factors on their growth. Data of 1000 premature infants (100 infants from each hospital) were retrospectively collected, the data included their gestational age, the growth parameters at birth, complications, enteral and parenteral nutritional support strategies, the growth parameters at discharge and length of hospital stay from Jan. 1, 2005 to Jun. 30, 2006. The growth parameters, including body weight, length and head circumference, were evaluated according to growth curve of newborns in China with their gestational age at birth and corrected gestational age on discharge. Growth retardation was defined as less than the 10th percentile of the expected value. The risk factors which might result in growth retardation of premature infants were assessed with logistic regression. P body weight of 285 premature infants was nutrition, amino acid solutions were administered in 87.3% of premature infants and median time to begin was 2.5 (2, 3) days of life, median duration of administration was 11 (6, 17) days. Lipid emulsions were supplied in 56.9% of premature infants and median time to begin was 3 (2, 5) days of life, median duration of administration was 12 (7, 18) days. During hospital stay, 74.1% of the premature infants achieved recommended diet indexes of 120 kcal/(kg.d) (including both enteral and parenteral intakes) and mean time for achieving was (16.3 +/- 9.4) days of life, 84.1% of the premature infants reached enteral feeding of 100 kcal/(kg x d) and the mean time to achieve was (17.0 +/- 9.4) days of life. The lower the gestational age of premature infants was, the longer the time for achieving these goals was

  10. Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Lyu, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality which relates closely to human health has become as important as its quantity due to the demand for safe water. In the present study, an entropy-weighted fuzzy water quality index (WQI) has been proposed for performing groundwater quality assessment in and around an industrial park, northwest China, where domestic water requirements are solely met by groundwater. The human health risk was assessed with the model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the sources of major ions and main contaminants were also analyzed. The study shows that groundwater in the study area has been contaminated conjunctively by natural processes and industrial and agricultural activities. Nitrate, manganese (Mn), fluoride, total dissolved solids, total hardness and sulfate are major contaminants influencing groundwater quality. Nitrate and heavy metals such as Mn are mainly affected by human agricultural activities and industrial production, while other contaminants are mainly originated from mineral weathering and water-rock interactions. The results of water quality assessment suggest that half of the groundwater samples collected are of medium quality thus require pretreatment before human consumption. The mean health risk caused by the consumption of contaminated groundwater in the area is 8.42 × 10(-5) per year which surpasses the maximum acceptable level (5 × 10(-5) per year) recommended by the International Commission on Radiologic Protection. The entropy-weighted fuzzy WQI proposed in this study can not only assign proper weights to parameters but also treat uncertainties associated with water quality classification. This study will be of interest to international environmentalists and hydrogeologists. It will also be useful in regional groundwater management and protection.

  11. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  12. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  13. A Novel Comprehensive Detection Method for the Dynamic Characteristics of Coalface Overburden: A Case Study in China

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    Wei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and efficient acquisition of information about the dynamic characteristics of coalface overburden can provide an important theoretical basis for green mining in coal producing regions in western China. In this study, a novel method for comprehensively detecting the dynamic behavior of coalface overburden is proposed in order to address deficiencies of the existing detection methods. The new method combines surface radon measurement, overburden borehole imaging, and underground pressure observation into a comprehensive detection technology system, resulting in spatial and temporal integration of surface, overburden, and underground detection. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, a field experiment was carried out at #1103 coalface in the Suancigou Coal Mine, which is operated by the Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Co. Ltd. The results of the three approaches are largely consistent and they complement one another. But it must be pointed out that this method needs to be further improved by more field experiments. Based on the experimental results, a technique for forced caving by presplit blasting of the overburden was developed and then implemented to #1103 coalface. The practical use of the technique led to good results: it effectively prevented roof-associated accidents by controlling the first weighting step to about 82 m, contributing to safe and efficient mining; coal production was expected to increase about 126 kilotons.

  14. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

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    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  15. Looming hypoxia on outer shelves caused by reduced ventilation in the open oceans: Case study of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lee, Jay; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang

    2014-12-01

    The discharge of nitrate and phosphate from Changjiang (Yangtze River) has increased in recent decades. Eutrophication off the mouth of Changjiang has subsequently become a serious problem, as evidenced by the hypoxia area reaching 12,000 km2. This study demonstrates that in the wide East China Sea (ECS) the nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW) have also increased, but the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration has decreased since as early as 1982, most likely owning to reduced ventilation in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). Conversely, the Kuroshio Tropical Water (KTW) has decreased in the nitrate and phosphate concentrations yet increased in DO concentration. As KIW contributes substantially to the upwelling, the nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the bottom water on the outer shelf of the ECS appear to have increased as well, but the DO has decreased. Given that the nutrient inputs from both the land and the Kuroshio Current have increased, yet the input of DO from the Kuroshio has decreased, more severe eutrophication and hypoxia may occur in the entire ECS. Similar processes may also affect other shelves that come into contact with NPIW.

  16. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Li

    Full Text Available Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP, northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I. The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk.

  17. Estimation of Gas Hydrate Saturation Using Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion: Case Study from the Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs were observed beneath the seafloor in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS. Acoustic impedance profile was derived by Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion (CSSI method to provide information on rock properties and to estimate gas hydrate or free gas saturations in the sediments where BSRs are present. In general, gas hydrate-bearing sediments have positive impedance anomalies and free gas-bearing sediments have negative impedance anomalies. Based on well log data and Archie's equation, gas hydrate saturation can be estimated. But in regions where well log data is not available, a quantitative estimate of gas hydrate or free gas saturation is inferred by fitting the theoretical acoustic impedance to sediment impedance obtained by CSSI. Our study suggests that gas hydrate saturation in the Taixinan Basin is about 10 - 20% of the pore space, with the highest value of 50%, and free gas saturation below BSR is about 2 - 3% of the pore space, that can rise to 8 - 10% at a topographic high. The free gas is non-continuous and has low content in the southeastern slope of the Dongsha Islands. Moreover, BSR in the northern continental margin of the SCS is related to the presence of free gas. BSR is strong where free gas occurs.

  18. Cation exchange capacity (Qv) estimation in shaly sand reservoirs: case studies in the Junggar Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Chun; Luo, Xing-Ping; Deng, Ren-Shuang; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Ren, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Cation exchange capacity (Qv) is a key parameter in resistivity-based water saturation models of shaly sand reservoirs, and the accuracy of Qv calculation is crucial to the prediction of saturations of oil and gas. In this study, a theoretical expression of Qv in terms of shaly sand permeability (Kshaly-sand), total porosity (ϕt), and salinity of formation water (S) is deduced based on the capillary tube model and the physics volume model. Meanwhile, the classical Schlumberger-Doll research (SDR) model has been introduced to estimate Kshaly-sand. On this basis, a novel technique to estimate Qv from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed, and the corresponding model is also established, whose model parameters are calibrated by laboratory Qv and NMR measurements of 15 core samples from the Toutunhe formation of the Junggar Basin, northwest China. Based on the experimental data sets, this technique can be extended to reservoir conditions to estimate continuous Qv along the intervals. The processing results of field examples illustrate that the Qv calculated from field NMR logs are consistent with the analyzed results, with the absolute errors within the scope of  ±0.1 mmol cm-3 for the majority of core samples.

  19. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  1. Pre-, co-, and post- rockslide analysis with ALOS/PALSAR imagery: a case study of the Jiweishan rockslide, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Yin, Y.; Lu, Z.; Yang, C.; Zhu, W.; Li, B.

    2013-11-01

    On 5 June 2009, a catastrophic rockslide debris flow occurred at the crest of the Jiweishan range, Chongqing Municipality, China, killing 74 people and injuring an additional eight. We use L-band ALOS/PALSAR imagery to address landslide processes before, during and after the slide. We employ three different SAR methods, i.e., short baseline subsets (SBAS) interferometric SAR (InSAR), SAR backscattering intensity change, and InSAR stacking algorithm, to study any ground deformation before the rockslide, investigate the affected area, and calculate the topographic change by this slide, respectively. First, continuous deformation has been observed based on the available ALOS/PALSAR InSAR imagery during June and December 2007. Second, the area affected by the landslide can be inferred based on changes in SAR backscattering intensity as well as surface topography, with an estimated area of 0.47 million m2. Last, an InSAR-derived post-slide digital elevation model has allowed us to estimate surface height changes due to the slide, reaching about -80 m at the source region and about 60 m in the deposit region, respectively. Our InSAR-derived estimates have been validated using in situ data and 3-D lidar measurements.

  2. Water quality assessment and analysis for rehabilitate and management of wetlands: a case study in Nanhai wetland of Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jing tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plays an irreplaceable role in many aspects and waters are important part of wetland, the water quality can easily reflect the situation of Wetland. In this study, water quality was assessed on the basis of 5 parameters (DO, NH4+-N, TN, TP and CODcr that were monitored monthly at 5 sites (N1,N2,N3,N4 and N5from April, 2014 to March, 2015 of the Nanhai Lake in Baotou, China by water pollution index method and comprehensive water quality identification index method. The twelve monitoring months were divided into wet season (Mar., Aug. and Sep., normal season (Jan., Feb., Apr., Nov. and Dec. and dry season (May., Jun. and Jul.. The assessment results determined using the water pollution index method showed that the water quality of all the five monitoring sites were inferior Ⅴ, the main contamination was COD. The comprehensive water quality identification index showed that the water quality of the Nanhai Lake were classesⅤ, except for the N2 in wet season and dry season, the N1 in dry season and the N5 in normal season, which were classes inferiorⅤ. All the five monitoring sites don’t achieving the desired water quality standard. According to the analysis, domestic discharge, industrial activities and developed recreation were major threats to water quality of Nanhai Lake.

  3. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuirong Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  4. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  6. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  7. The Educational Philosophy and Development Direction of School of Foreign Studies in Engineering Colleges in China: A Case Study of North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power (NCWU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinqiang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief analysis on the educational advantages and objects of NCWU. It believes that the educational philosophy and development direction of foreign school in engineering colleges must be set up on the basis of need of China and talents need, moreover, the development of the School of Foreign Studies must be analyzed by…

  8. Impact of urbanization on rainfall-runoff processes: case study in the Liangshui River Basin in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China is undergoing rapid urbanization during the past decades. For example, the proportion of urban population in Beijing has increased from 57.6 % in 1980 to 86.3 % in 2013. Rapid urbanization has an adverse impact on the urban rainfall-runoff processes, which may result in the increase of urban flood risk. In the present study, the major purpose is to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes. The intensive human activities, such as the increase of impervious area, changes of river network morphology, construction of drainage system and water transfer, were considered in this study. Landsat TM images were adopted to monitor urbanization process based on Urban Land-use Index (ULI. The SWMM model considering different urbanized scenarios and anthropogenic disturbance was developed. The measured streamflow data was used for model calibration and validation. Precipitation with different return periods was taken as model input to analyse the changes of flood characteristics under different urbanized scenarios. The results indicated that SWMM provided a good estimation for storms under different urbanized scenarios. The volume of surface runoff after urbanization was 3.5 times greater than that before urbanization; the coefficient of runoff changed from 0.12 to 0.41, and the ratio of infiltration decreased from 88 to 60 %. After urbanization, the time of overland flow concentration increased while the time of river concentration decreased; the peak time did not show much difference in this study. It was found that the peak flow of 20-year return-period after urbanization is greater than that of 100-year return-period before urbanization. The amplification effect of urbanization on flood is significant, resulting in an increase of the flooding risk. These effects are especially noticeable for extreme precipitation. The results in this study will provide technical support for the planning and management of urban

  9. Impact of urbanization on rainfall-runoff processes: case study in the Liangshui River Basin in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongxue; Zhao, Gang

    2016-05-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization during the past decades. For example, the proportion of urban population in Beijing has increased from 57.6 % in 1980 to 86.3 % in 2013. Rapid urbanization has an adverse impact on the urban rainfall-runoff processes, which may result in the increase of urban flood risk. In the present study, the major purpose is to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes. The intensive human activities, such as the increase of impervious area, changes of river network morphology, construction of drainage system and water transfer, were considered in this study. Landsat TM images were adopted to monitor urbanization process based on Urban Land-use Index (ULI). The SWMM model considering different urbanized scenarios and anthropogenic disturbance was developed. The measured streamflow data was used for model calibration and validation. Precipitation with different return periods was taken as model input to analyse the changes of flood characteristics under different urbanized scenarios. The results indicated that SWMM provided a good estimation for storms under different urbanized scenarios. The volume of surface runoff after urbanization was 3.5 times greater than that before urbanization; the coefficient of runoff changed from 0.12 to 0.41, and the ratio of infiltration decreased from 88 to 60 %. After urbanization, the time of overland flow concentration increased while the time of river concentration decreased; the peak time did not show much difference in this study. It was found that the peak flow of 20-year return-period after urbanization is greater than that of 100-year return-period before urbanization. The amplification effect of urbanization on flood is significant, resulting in an increase of the flooding risk. These effects are especially noticeable for extreme precipitation. The results in this study will provide technical support for the planning and management of urban storm water and the

  10. Study on disparity of regional economic development based on geoinformatic Tupu and GWR model: a case of growth of GDP per capita in China from 1999 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feixue; Li, Manchun; Liang, Jian

    2007-06-01

    Regional disparity of economic development in China is always greatly concerned by investigators domestic and abroad, and sets of models have been used in the analysis. Spatial dependence, which is hidden in the data with spatial attributes, usually is not taken into account in classical statistics methods, such as ordinary linear regression(OLR) model. Along with the development of spatial statistics, more and more attentions are paid on spatial interactions between observations in the study of regional disparity. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) is a simple but effective model to recognize spatial variation and local difference, which considers the influence of the spatially non-stationarity of the variables. In this study, GWR model and Geo-Informatic Tupu were used to analyze the disparity of regional economic development in China, taking GDP per capita in 1999 and 2003 as a case, which is usually used to measure level of economic development. GDP per capita in the 338 cities in 1999 were selected to simulate GDP per capita in 2003 and to analysis non-stationarity of the growth of GDP per capita. Using Geo-Informatic Tupu, A series of maps were processed to display patterns of local parameter estimates, such as local r-squares, the residual sum of squares, local residual and so on, to gain a better understanding of the degree of spatial non-stationarity in a relationship over space. We tested for geographic heterogeneity in the parameters and compare them to estimates obtained from global regression approaches. The results suggested there was heterogeneity in the regression coefficients across broad regions of China, and a one-size fits all approach to describe growth processes appeared simplistic. The GWR model improved over the OLR model, and it was able to better explain the variation in the data and to simulate GDP per capita with smaller errors than the OLR models.

  11. Risk factors associated with Tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS: A pair-matched case-control study in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhezhe; Lin, Mei; Nie, Shaofa; Lan, Rushu

    2017-01-01

    As one of the poorest provinces in China, Guangxi has a high HIV and TB prevalence, with the annual number of TB/HIV cases reported by health department among the highest in the country. However, studies on the burden of TB-HIV co-infection and risk factors for active TB among HIV-infected persons in Guangxi have rarely been reported. To investigate the risk factors for active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. A surveillance survey was conducted of 1 019 HIV-infected patients receiving care at three AIDS prevention and control departments between 2013 and 2015. We investigated the cumulative prevalence of TB during 2 years. To analyze risk factors associated with active TB, we conducted a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study of newly reported active TB/HIV co-infected patients. Controls were patients with HIV without active TB, latent TB infection or other lung disease, who were matched with the case group based on sex and age (± 3 years). A total of 1 019 subjects were evaluated. 160 subjects (15.70%) were diagnosed with active TB, including 85 clinically diagnosed cases and 75 confirmed cases. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study, with 82 TB/HIV patients and 82 people living with HIV/AIDS based on surveillance site, sex and age (±3) years. According to multivariate analysis, smoking (OR = 2.996, 0.992-9.053), lower CD 4+ T-cell count (OR = 3.288, 1.161-9.311), long duration of HIV-infection (OR = 5.946, 2.221-15.915) and non-use of ART (OR = 7.775, 2.618-23.094) were independent risk factors for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi was 173 times higher than general population in Guangxi. It is necessary for government to integrate control planning and resources for the two diseases. Medical and public health workers should strengthen health education for TB/HIV prevention and treatment and promote smoking cessation. Active TB case

  12. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  13. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use...

  14. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  15. Spatial analysis for susceptibility of second-time karst sinkholes: A case study of Jili Village in Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Yan, Hongbo; Chen, Kunhua; Zhang, Rongting

    2016-04-01

    After a big karst sinkhole happened in Jili Village of Guangxi, China, the local government was eager to quantitatively analyze and map susceptible areas of the potential second-time karst sinkholes in order to make timely decisions whether the residents living in the first-time sinkhole areas should move. For this reason, karst sinkholes susceptibility geospatial analysis is investigated using multivariate spatial data, logistic regression model (LRM) and Geographical Information System (GIS). Ten major karst sinkholes related factors, including (1) formation lithology, (2) soil structure, (3) profile curvature, (4) groundwater depth, (5) fluctuation of groundwater level, (6) percolation rate of soil, (7) degree of karst development, (8) distance from fault, (9) distance from the traffic route, and (10) overburden thickness were selected, and then each of factors was classified and quantitated with the three or four levels. The LRM was applied to evaluate which factor makes significant contributions to sinkhole. The results demonstrated that formation lithology, soil structure, profile curvature, groundwater depth, ground water level, percolation rate of soil, and degree of karst development, the distance from fault, and overburden thickness are positive, while one factor, the distance from traffic routes is negative, which is deleted from LRM model. The susceptibility of the potential sinkholes in the study area is estimated and mapped using the solved impact factors. The susceptible degrees of the study area are classified into five levels, very high, high, moderate, low, and ignore susceptibility. It has been found that that both very high and high susceptibility areas are along Datou Hill and the foothills of the study area. This finding is verified by field observations. With the investigations conducted in this paper, it can be concluded that the susceptibility maps produced in this paper are reliable and accurate, and useful as a reference for local

  16. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SETTING UP AN OWN COFFEE SHOP IN CHINA : Using Starbucks as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei , ChiJiao

    2016-01-01

    The thesis aimed to find out a suitable marketing strategy and making a marketing plan for setting up an own coffee shop in Shanghai, China. Coffee was one of the most popular drinks in the world and coffee has been accepted by more and more Chinese people. Coffee industry was well-received choice for the entrepreneurs to start up their own business in China. Marketing strategy played an important role in the intense market competition. A successful marketing strategy could help the coffee co...

  17. An Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Customer Retention in Tourism Resort Industry: A Case Study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer retention is an important factor in today’s increasingly tourism competitive markets which should be concerned seriously. At present, many academic customer retention researches mostly focused on the business market research in the hotel industry. In view of the tourism resort, especially the urban cultural themes attraction, analyzing the influencing factors of customer retention in such resort has its special significance. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the relationship among the cultural attractive, attraction operation, promotion strategy and tourist costs on customer retention in the urban cultural themes attraction. A quantitative research method was adopted to collect empirical data from the case study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China and the analysis of the influencing factors base on the integrated research approach for the urban cultural themes resort. The results indicate what extent these individual factors can have an impact on customer retention is beneficial for the resort marketing practices and several strategies are suggested about improving the degree of the customer retention to the urban cultural themes resorts in China.

  18. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-10-01

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    the crustal metasomatism through melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channels. Continental basalts of Mesozoic to Cenozoic ages from eastern China are used as a case example to illustrate the above petrogenetic mechanism. Subduction of the paleo-Pacific oceanic slab beneath the eastern edge of Eurasian continent in the Early Mesozoic would have transferred the crustal signatures into the mantle sources of these basalts. This process would be associated with rollback of the subducting slab at that time, whereas the partial melting of metasomatites takes place mainly in the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic to produce the continental basalts. Therefore, OIB-like continental basalts are also the product of subduction-zone magmatism though they occur in intraplate settings.

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation index and its influencing factors—a case study of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Yu, Ge

    2017-11-01

    The coastal zone is an area characterized by intense interaction between land and sea, high sensitivity to regional environmental changes, and concentrated human activities. Little research has investigated vegetation cover changes in coastal zones resulting from climate change and land-use change, with a lack of knowledge about the driving mechanism. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can be used as an indicator for change of the coastal environment. In this study, we analyzed the interannual changes and spatial distribution of NDVI in the coastal zone around Jiaozhou Bay in Qingdao, a coastal city undergoing rapid urbanization in northeast China. The underlying causes of NDVI variations were discussed in the context of climate change and land-use change. Results showed that the spatio-temporal distribution of NDVI displayed high spatial variability in the study area and showed a typical trend of gradually increasing from coastal to inland regions. The significant increase area of NDVI was mainly found in newly added construction land, extending along the coastline towards the inland. Land vegetation cover demonstrated a certain response relationship to sea-land climate change and land-based activities. The impact of land-based human activities was slightly greater than that of sea-land climate change for land vegetation cover. The results indicate that promoting ecological policies can build an ecological security framework of vegetation suitable for the resource characteristics of coastal cities. The framework will buffer the negative effects of sea-land climate change and land-based human activities on vegetation cover and thereby achieve the balance of regional development and ecological benefits in the coastal zone.

  1. Estimation of actual irrigation amount and its impact on groundwater depletion: A case study in the Hebei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Shi, Liangsheng; Zeng, Jicai; Yang, Jinzhong; Zha, Yuanyuan; Yao, Yunjun; Cao, Guoliang

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation water is an important but missing hydrological cycle component in the region with intensive agricultural irrigation, due to the lack of monitoring facilities. The Hebei Plain, suffering the most severe groundwater depletion in China for agriculture production, provides an ideal background to study historical agricultural water consumption and its dependence on groundwater exploitation. This paper investigated the method of retrieving the spatial-temporal irrigation amount from multiple data sets of different sources and different scales. Comprehensive data including 21 years of satellite-based data, ground-based data, and four years of tracer experiment data are synthesized to implement the soil water balance. We proposed a modified soil water balance framework by relying on as much as possible of easily available data. Our results showed that the multi-mean annual irrigation amount in the Hebei Plain is 317 mm, and mean irrigation-to-evapotranspiration ratio reaches 50.8% in recent two decades. Moreover, the precipitation distribution, plant structure, and agricultural intensity result in significantly spatiotemporal variation in irrigation and irrigation-to-evapotranspiration ratio, while however has not been addressed by previous studies. Deep percolation, ignored by many soil water balance models, was shown to be unneglectable. The estimated actual irrigation amount, together with groundwater level data, are valuable to obtain a further understanding on groundwater depletion. The diverse groundwater depletion situation in the Hebei Plain indicated the importance of recognizing the groundwater utilization patterns at a smaller scale in the regional-scale groundwater resources management. This work showed the feasibility of estimating the irrigation amount using simultaneously different types of data and revealed the spatiotemporal characteristics of agriculture water consumption and associated groundwater depletion in the Hebei Plain.

  2. Influences of Climate Change on Water Resources Availability of Costal Basins in Southeast China: a Case Study in Jinjiang Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan; Li, Zhanjie; Sun, Wenchao

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources availability in a costal basin in southeast China, Jinjiang Basin, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. After calibration and validation for model parameters, the result of streamflow simulation proves that this BTOPMC hydrological model is applicable to this basin. Then the projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in 2050s. The evaluation of water resources available was carried out based on the simulation of streamflow in the downstream Shilong hydrologic station. Result shows that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend. While in the rest period runoff show a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the perspective of water resource availability, it is indicated that the water resources may not be sufficient to meet the irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer. The results of this study may benefit for making reasonable water resource management policy in the Jinjiang Basin. To make the policy in a more quantitive manner, an analysis about the amount of water needed for the whole basin is needed to decide how much extra water should be stored in the summer season.

  3. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

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    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  4. Eco-environmental vulnerability assessment for large drinking water resource: a case study of Qiandao Lake Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Li, Jun; Deng, Jinsong; Lin, Yi; Ma, Ligang; Wu, Chaofan; Wang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The Qiandao Lake Area (QLA) is of great significance in terms of drinking water supply in East Coast China as well as a nationally renowned tourist attraction. A series of laws and regulations regarding the QLA environment have been enacted and implemented throughout the past decade with the aim of negating the harmful effects associated with expanding urbanization and industrialization. In this research, an assessment framework was developed to analyze the eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA from 1990-2010 by integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and geographical information systems (GIS) in an attempt to gain insights into the status quo of the QLA so as to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the related policies. After processing and analyzing the temporal and spatial variation of eco-environmental vulnerability and major environmental issues in the QLA, we found that the state of eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA was acceptable, though a moderate deterioration was detected during the study period. Furthermore, analysis of the combination of vulnerability and water quality indicated that the water quality showed signs of declination, though the overall status remained satisfactory. It was hence concluded that the collective protection and treatment actions were effective over the study period, whereas immediately stricter measures would be required for protecting the drinking water quality from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Finally, the spatial variation of the eco-environmental vulnerability assessment also implied that specifically more targeted measures should be adopted in respective regions for long-term sustainable development of the QLA.

  5. Influence of seasonal variation and anthropogenic activity on phosphorus cycling and retention in mangrove sediments: A case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Yushan; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2018-03-01

    Mangroves are known for sequestering and storing large quantities of phosphorus (P) within their sediments. In the present study, the sediment P cycle (including phosphatase activity intensity, total sedimentary P, P fractions distinguished by a sequential extraction method, as well as diffusion-adsorption processes) in a mangrove swamp in a subtropical estuary in China was studied. In the spring, the acid phosphatase activity varied between 1.3 and 1.9 units in the four sites in the estuary. The activity of alkaline phosphatase varied from 0.8 to 1.4 units. The total sedimentary P ranged from 821 to 1689 mg kg-1 with a dominance of redox-sensitive (Fe/Al bound) P. In the autumn, activities of both phosphatases and the total sediment P amount increased, probably due to enhanced inputs of organic matter and Fe oxides. In addition to seasonal variation, P in the mangrove sediment was influenced by anthropogenic activities. In particular, redox-sensitive P decreased significantly while phosphatase activity increased in the site that was flushed with aquaculture pond effluents. In contrast, sediment P enrichment was observed in the site that received domestic sewage. Both sources of anthropogenic P increased the eutrophication risk of the mangrove sediment because of a decrease in the amount of P adsorption and an enhancement of P release via diffusion. Diesel contamination due to the presence of a dock depressed phosphatase activity in the surficial sediment. The overlap between seasonal rhythm and human influences may introduce significant variations in P cycling, which warrants further attention from coastal management.

  6. Does Periconceptional Fish Consumption by Parents Affect the Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intelligence Deficiency? A Case-control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Cui, Shan Shan; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between periconceptional fish consumption by parents and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intelligence deficiency (ID). A case-control study was conducted through a questionnaire with 108 ASD cases, 79 ID cases, and 108 controls. The ASD and ID cases were students from special educational schools in Tianjin from 2012 to 2014. The age- and sex-matched controls were from a high school, three primary schools, and a kindergarten in Tianjin. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Paternal habit of eating hairtail before fertilization, maternal preference for fruits during pregnancy, and maternal habit of eating grass carp during pregnancy were preventive factors for ASD. Paternal habit of drinking alcohol before fertilization was a risk factor for ID, whereas maternal preference for fruits during pregnancy and maternal habit of eating crucian carp during pregnancy were protective factors for ID. Parental fish consumption is beneficial for the prevention of ASD and ID. Meanwhile, the protective effects of fish consumption on ASD and ID differ. More attention should be paid to the combined effect of other food when eating fish. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of hidden Au and Cu-Ni ores from depleted mines in Northwestern China: four case studies of integrated geological and geophysical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Liu, Tiebing; Li, Guangming; Zeng, Qingdong

    2008-07-01

    Integrated geological and geophysical investigations were carried out in 26 active mines in Northwestern China during the period 2001-2006 to explore for hidden extensions of known ore bodies and to search for new mineralization. This paper presents four case studies from northwest China: the Kuoerzhenkuoa volcanogenic hydrothermal gold deposit, the Nanjinshan breccia-associated gold deposit, the Duolanasayi deposit, associated with a ductile-shear zone, and the Hulu magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. In these studies, detailed mine-scale geological studies were carried out to determine the location and controls on ore formation. Based on these investigations and a review of previous exploration data, genetic models for the deposits were evaluated, and specific new targets were generated. These target areas were tested with surface geophysical surveys using the Stratagem EH4 system, a hybrid-source magnetotellurics (MT) method. Analysis of the data obtained in the surveys identified geophysical target anomalies that were subsequently drilled. Many of these test holes demonstrate the presence of Au and Cu-Ni mineralization. Evaluation of the geological models was crucial in developing conceptual targets as a basis for surface geophysical surveys. These models established the most likely target areas where Au and Cu-Ni mineralization could occur, but they did not define the limits or the geometries of the mineralized zones. Hybrid MT surveys played an important role in defining the location of buried mineralized systems and in testing the validity of the conceptual targets. The resistivity cross-sections obtained by imaging the MT data established the boundaries and geometries of the host rocks, including the distribution of lithology, structures, alteration, and mineralization. The four case studies in this paper show how this integrated geological and geophysical approach was used successfully to discover hidden mineral deposits.

  8. Internationalization of Curricula in Higher Education Institutions in Comparative Perspectives: Case Studies of China, Japan and The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the major issues and character of internationalization of curricula in higher education institutions in recent years in three non-English-speaking countries--China, Japan and The Netherlands. By making a comparative analysis of curricula provided for international students and curricula with international subjects,…

  9. "Suzhi", Relevance, and the New Curriculum: A Case Study of One Rural Middle School in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    There have been ongoing discussions about the most recent curriculum reform in China. The new curriculum aims at a more quality-oriented ("suzhi") education and producing more well-rounded citizens to meet the challenges of global competition. However, it is questioned how "suzhi" education is possible with entrance examination…

  10. A method to identify the variable ecosystem services relationship across time: a case study on Yanhe Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Zheng; Bojie Fu; Haitang Hu; Ge Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as the foundations of a well-functioning society. Large-scale ecological restoration projects have been implemented around China with the goal of restoring and sustaining ecosystem services, especially in vulnerable semi-arid regions where soil and water resources are most stressed due to historic human activities. The...

  11. Quantitative assessment of resource-use efficient cropping systems: a case study for Ansai in the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rabbinge, R.

    2003-01-01

    Severe soil erosion and food security problems are the most important issues in the Loess Plateau of northern China, which are closely related to the over-cultivation and poor management of marginal land resources. Alleviation of these unsustainability problems requires, among many other things,

  12. Application of the WEAP model in strategic environmental assessment: Experiences from a case study in an arid/semi-arid area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This article investigated how the use of a water resources assessment model contributed to one of the first strategic environmental assessments (SEA) conducted for arid/semi-arid regions in China. The study was based on the SEA of a coal industry development plan in Ordos, an arid/semi-arid region of northwest China, where a temporally and spatially simplified version of the WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning System) model was applied for assessing the impact of the planned activities on local water resource system. Four scenarios were developed to simulate various alternatives using a diverse range of water utilisation measures such as irrigation efficiency, treatment and the reuse of water. The WEAP model itself was found to be a useful tool for efficient water resources assessment in SEA: 1) WEAP provides built-in simulation modules for water assessment, which improve the SEA's efficiency significantly; 2) WEAP temporally has the flexibility in both delivering information on a reasonably aggregated level by evaluating water resource on an annual time step, which fits most SEA cases, and being possible to take a finer time step analysis monthly, weekly even daily; 3) Spatially, WEAP has advantage in dealing with distributed demand sites in large spatial scale. However, although WEAP appears as a useful tool in providing support for decision-making, in this SEA case we experienced difficulty in building a feasible scenario to mitigate the impact of the proposed activities on the local water system, so that solution had to be found outside of the assessed scenarios - which led to the discussion on the fact that the proposed activities in SEA cases are rarely regarded as an uncertainty. Therefore future research on the scope of SEA scenarios could be valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  15. Quantification of Environmental Flow Requirements to Support Ecosystem Services of Oasis Areas: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China

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    Jie Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China on the basis of three ecosystem services: (1 maintenance of riverine ecosystem health, (2 assurance of the stability of oasis–desert ecotone and riparian (Tugai forests, and (3 restoration of oasis–desert ecotone groundwater. The identified consumptive and non-consumptive water requirements are used to quantify and determine the EFRs in Qira oasis by employing the summation and compatibility rules (maximum principle. Results indicate that the annual maximum, medium, and minimum EFRs are 0.752 × 108, 0.619 × 108, and 0.516 × 108 m3, respectively, which account for 58.75%, 48.36%, and 40.29% of the natural river runoff. The months between April and October are identified as the most important periods to maintain the EFRs. Moreover, the water requirement for groundwater restoration of the oasis–desert ecotone accounts for a large proportion, representing 48.27%, 42.32%, and 37.03% of the total EFRs at maximum, medium, and minimum levels, respectively. Therefore, to allocate the integrated EFRs, focus should be placed on the water demand of the desert vegetation’s groundwater restoration, which is crucial for maintaining desert vegetation to prevent sandstorms and soil erosion. This work provides a reference to quantify the EFRs of oasis areas in arid regions.

  16. Analysis of an optimal public transport structure under a carbon emission constraint: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linling; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Yang, Tong

    2017-11-18

    Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies. The objective functions of these factors were transformed into satisfaction functions, and a multi-objective programming model was used to solve for the optimal proportions of the ground bus and rail transit, and the carbon emission reduction potential was analyzed in different scenarios. The study showed that the actual proportion of rail transit in Shanghai was slightly lower than the optimal value, and accompanied by low satisfaction with each factor relative to the optimal value. It was difficult to achieve the traffic emission reduction targets by only reducing satisfaction with other factors except carbon emissions assuming a fixed proportion of public transport. As the proportion of total travel represented by public transport increased, rail transit became the main mode of public transport and the usage trend was more obvious, but the structure of public transport gradually reached a relatively stable state after a certain level of development. Compared to reducing carbon emissions by changing satisfaction with other factors, it was easier to achieve traffic emission reduction targets by increasing the proportion of public transport. To increase the proportion of public transport travel and achieve the goal of traffic reduction in the future, further improvements are needed in the quality of public transport system services, public transport

  17. An Economic and Policy Analysis of a District Heating System Using Corn Straw Densified Fuel: A Case Study in Nong’an County in Jilin Province, China

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    Shizhong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of district heating systems of corn straw densified fuel (CSDF-DHS is an important option to promote the use of bioenergy on a large scale for sustainable development, especially in China. At present, China’s biomass densified solid fuel (BSDF development lags behind previously planned target, main barriers of which are economic and policy support problems. Accurate case studies are key to analyze these problems. This manuscript takes Nong’an County in Jilin Province of China as an example to establish a techno-economic model to evaluate the economic performance of a CSDF-DHS under two policy scenarios. It calculates the economic performance under a benchmark market scenario (BMS and the current policy scenario (CPS and analyzes the influence of various policy instruments, including subsidies, carbon trading, and preferential taxation. The results indicate that: (1 The CSDF-DHS option is not competitive under the BMS or CPS compared to the traditional energy system based mainly on coal and liquefied petroleum gas; (2 Comparatively, the economic performance of corn straw briquette fuel (CSBF is better than that of corn straw pellet fuel (CSPF; and (3 further policy support can make CSDF-DHSs competitive in the market, especially with subsidies for concentrated heating services and CSDF, carbon trading, and economic compensation to reduce the profit margin of enterprises, which can make both CSPF-DHSs and CSBF-DHSs competitive. The research results could provide scientific basis for relevant policy making and project decision.

  18. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  19. Condensation Dripping Water Detection and Its Control Method from Exhaust Pipe of Gasohol Vehicle under Low Environmental Temperature Conditions: A Case Study in Harbin, China

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    Guangdong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is one of renewable clean alternative energies, which is widely used around the world. Gasohol had been raised to be used in 9 provinces of China since 2001. However, its closed use was merely promoted in Heilongjiang province since November 1, 2004. Moreover, this issue aroused extensive discussions and controversies. One of them is the condensation dripping water issue from exhaust pipe in cold winter. Does the ethanol cause the road freezing in cold winter? To deal with this issue, taking the Harbin city as a case study, this work designs detection experiments of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe. Moreover, the amount of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe for gasohol and gasoline vehicles with the same working condition is obtained and measured, and their results are compared and analyzed. Simultaneously, the method of reducing the condensation dripping water is proposed. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Susceptibility Evaluation of Debris Flow Based on Experience Weight Method Combined with “3S” Technology: A Case Study from Dongchuan in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui; Chen, Yu; Qi, Wufu; Yuan, Jia; Yang, Jiaqing

    2017-12-01

    Dongchuan, located in Yunnan Province, China, is well known as “debris flow museum” in the world because of its special geological background and intensive mining activities. There are more than 100 ravines of debris flow in the area of 1859 km2, which have caused disastrous damages. Regional gullies for debris flow susceptibility evaluation can play an important role in reducing damage of debris flows in Dongchuan. In this paper, we selected Dongchuan as a case study to research the susceptibility evaluation of debris flow based on experience weight method combined with “3s” technology. The result shows that most of debris flow gullies in Dongchuan face high risk, while few face moderate risk or very high risk.

  1. The effect of performance-related pay of hospital doctors on hospital behaviour: a case study from Shandong, China

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    Mills Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recognition that public hospitals are often productively inefficient, reforms have taken place worldwide to increase their administrative autonomy and financial responsibility. Reforms in China have been some of the most radical: the government budget for public hospitals was fixed, and hospitals had to rely on charges to fill their financing gap. Accompanying these changes was the widespread introduction of performance-related pay for hospital doctors – termed the "bonus" system. While the policy objective was to improve productivity and cost recovery, it is likely that the incentive to increase the quantity of care provided would operate regardless of whether the care was medically necessary. Methods The primary concerns of this study were to assess the effects of the bonus system on hospital revenue, cost recovery and productivity, and to explore whether various forms of bonus pay were associated with the provision of unnecessary care. The study drew on longitudinal data on revenue and productivity from six panel hospitals, and a detailed record review of 2303 tracer disease patients (1161 appendicitis patients and 1142 pneumonia patients was used to identify unnecessary care. Results The study found that bonus system change over time contributed significantly to the increase in hospital service revenue and hospital cost recovery. There was an increase in unnecessary care and in the probability of admission when the bonus system switched from one with a weaker incentive to increase services to one with a stronger incentive, suggesting that improvement in the financial health of public hospitals was achieved at least in part through the provision of more unnecessary care and drugs and through admitting more patients. Conclusion There was little evidence that the performance-related pay system as designed by the sample of Chinese public hospitals was socially desirable. Hospitals should be monitored more closely

  2. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  3. Changes in ecosystem services associated with planting structures of cropland: A case study in Minle County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqun; Song, Wei; Mu, Fengyun

    2017-12-01

    The cropland ecosystem provides essential direct and indirect products and services to mankind such as food, fiber, biodiversity and soil conservation. A change of crop planting structure can change the ecosystem services of cropland by affecting land use type. In recent years, under the influence of regional comparative advantage and consumer demand changes, the crop planting structure in China has changed rapidly. However, there is still a lack of deep understanding on the effect of such a change in planting structure on the ecosystem services of cropland. Therefore, this research selected Minle County in the Heihe River Basin, which has small scattered croplands and a complex planting structure, as a study area. Based on the key time phase and optimal threshold of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data of the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images, this study used the decision tree algorithm to classify and extract the crop planting structure in Minle County in 2007 and 2012 and to analyze the changes in its temporal and spatial patterns. Then, the market value method was adopted to estimate the effect of the change in crop planting structure on the ecosystem services of the cropland. From 2007 to 2012, the planting area of corn and rapeseed in Minle County increased by 5.86 × 103 ha and 5.10 × 103 ha, respectively. Conversely, the planting area of wheat and barley was reduced by 3.26 × 103 ha and 6.34 × 103 ha, respectively. These changes directly caused the increase of the ecosystem services value of corn and rapeseed by 1062.82 × 104 USD and 842.54 × 104 USD, respectively. The resulting reduction in the ecosystem services value of wheat and barley was 488.24 × 104 USD and 828.29 × 104 USD, respectively. Besides, the total ecosystem services value of cropland increased by 1564.98 × 104 USD. Further analysis found that the change in the crop planting structure caused an increase in the ecosystem services

  4. Dissolved organic carbon characteristics in surface ponds from contrasting wetland ecosystems: a case study in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC is a significant component of carbon and nutrient cycling in fluvial ecosystems. Natural wetlands, as important DOC sources for river and ocean ecosystems, have experienced extensive natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change, hydrological variations and land use change in recent years. The DOC characteristics in surface ponds from contrasting wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China were investigated. Surface ponds at seven sites (two natural phialiform wetlands, three natural riparian wetlands, one degraded wetland and one artificial wetland, i.e., rice paddy were monitored during the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010. The results show that the surface ponds at the five natural wetland sites exhibited a wide range of DOC concentrations (10.06–48.73 mg L−1 during the study period. The DOC concentrations showed no annual differences (P > 0.05 at all the wetland sites, except one of the phialiform wetland sites. The two phialiform wetlands exhibited higher DOC concentrations than the three riparian wetlands (P < 0.05. The DOC concentration in the surface pond at the artificial wetland site was relatively low (P < 0.05 compared to that at the degraded wetland site. The C/C ratios (the color per carbon unit ratio, Abs400/DOC concentration showed inconsistent variations among these seven wetland sites, while the E4/E6 ratio (Abs465/Abs665, fulvic acid/humic acid from the surface pond in the rice paddy land exerted 42.07–55.36% reductions (P < 0.05, compared to those at the five natural wetland sites. Furthermore, the E4/E6 ratio in the surface pond at the rice paddy site was significantly lower compared to that at the degraded wetland site (P < 0.05, which indicated that disturbance to wetland DOC in surface ponds might be stronger when natural wetlands were converted to rice paddies in comparison with

  5. Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage water resources in agricultural production, it is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint (WF and the influences of agricultural inputs. Employing spatial autocorrelation analysis and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model, we explored the spatial variations of the WF and their relationships with agricultural inputs from 1998 to 2012 in Northeast China. The results indicated that: (1 the spatial distribution of WFs for the 36 major maize production prefectures was heterogeneous in Northeast China; (2 a cluster of high WFs was found in southeast Liaoning Province, while a cluster of low WFs was found in central Jilin Province, and (3 spatial and temporal differentiation in the correlations between the WF of maize production and agricultural inputs existed according to the GWR model. These correlations increased over time. Our results suggested that localized strategies for reducing the WF should be formulated based on specific relationships between the WF and agricultural inputs.

  6. Sustainability of Land Use Promoted by Construction-to-Ecological Land Conversion: A Case Study of Shenzhen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Peng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and rapid urban growth present great challenges to the sustainable utilization of land resources. This paper discusses the on-going process of construction-to-ecological land conversion (CELC in terms of three aspects: land use, environmental effects, and system responses. CELC is compared to other current land conversion strategies in China. Taking Shenzhen City as an example, this paper introduces five areas in which CELC has been implemented since 2009, including basic farmland protection zones, mining areas, ecological corridors, inefficient industrial zones, and urban villages. This paper argues that Shenzhen’s CELC model can improve the ecological environment, control urban sprawl, and promote sustainable land use and, thus, serve as an example for other cities in China.

  7. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  8. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  9. The impact of polybrominated diphenyl ether prohibition: A case study on the atmospheric levels in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan; Kobara, Yuso; Nam, Jae-Jak; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere is an important medium which could directly reflect the changes of pollutant sources. Worldwide, the commercial products of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been officially restricted and subsequently prohibited. For the purpose of evaluating their concentration after prohibition, passive air samplers (PASs) were therefore deployed again across the East Asia during two periods in 2008 after the initial deployment 4 years ago. When compared with the data in 2004, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs have declined significantly. Spatially, the PBDE level in China was still the highest, with a mean value of 15.4 pg m- 3, and in Japan was the lowest (2.47 ± 1.12 pg m- 3) in the East Asia. Moreover, the relatively high concentrations were observed at sites where there are electronic or e-waste recycling industries, and this is particularly true in China, suggesting that illegally imported e-waste is still a typical source of PBDEs in this region.

  10. Problems in the online marketing of online shops in China : Case study: the Taobao online marketing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lu

    2013-01-01

    With the development and popularization of the Internet, more and more people are choosing to trade via the Internet. For the Chinese market, online marketing is still in its infancy, and inevitably several problems exist. Taobao is the fastest developing of all online marketing shopping platforms in China and accounts for the largest share of the online shopping market. In such a rapidly expanding market, Taobao's rise is a cause for concern. This thesis will examine the current online m...

  11. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...... scheduling models in China. The institutional and technical barriers impeding the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model are identified. The development of advanced energy-saving generation scheduling models towards competitive market models and phased planning programs are emphasized...

  12. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  13. Serum betaine but not choline is inversely associated with breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Lin, Fang-Yu; Long, Wei-Qing; Luo, Wei-Ping; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-04-01

    Choline and betaine are important for DNA methylation and synthesis, and may affect tumor carcinogenesis. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association between serum choline and betaine and breast cancer risk. This study aimed to examine whether serum choline and betaine were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 510 breast cancer cases and 518 frequency-matched (age and residence) controls, and blood samples were available for 500 cases and 500 controls. Serum choline and betaine were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). An inverse association with breast cancer risk was observed for serum betaine (fourth vs first quartile adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.47-0.97) and for the ratio of serum betaine to choline (fourth vs first quartile adjusted OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.48-1.00), but not for serum choline (fourth vs first quartile adjusted OR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.56-1.15). Serum betaine was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in subjects with below-median dietary folate intake (fourth vs first quartile adjusted OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.30-0.77). This study suggested that serum betaine but not choline was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. This result needed to be further confirmed by the prospective studies.

  14. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in estuarine waters: case study of the Pearl River estuary, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhi; Lin Hui [Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, Yuen Yuen Research Centre for Satellite Remote Sensing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Chen, Chuqun [South China Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Chen Liding [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang Bing [Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gitelson, Anatoly A, E-mail: yuanzhizhang@cuhk.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT), School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this work is to estimate chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the Pearl River estuary in China. To test the performance of algorithms for the estimation of the chl-a concentration in these productive turbid waters, the maximum band ratio (MBR) and near-infrared-red (NIR-red) models are used in this study. Specific focus is placed on (a) comparing the ability of the models to estimate chl-a in the range 1-12 mg m{sup -3}, which is typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) to estimate chl-a concentrations. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected at 13 stations with chl-a ranging from 0.83 to 11.8 mg m{sup -3} and total suspended matter from 9.9 to 21.5 g m{sup -3}. A close relationship was found between chl-a concentration and total suspended matter concentration with the determining coefficient (R{sup 2}) above 0.89. The MBR calculated in the spectral bands of MODIS proved to be a good proxy for chl-a concentration (R{sup 2} > 0.93). On the other hand, both the NIR-red three-band model, with wavebands around 665, 700, and 730 nm, and the NIR-red two-band model (with bands around 665 and 700 nm) explained more than 95% of the chl-a variation, and we were able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a root mean square error below 1 mg m{sup -3}. The two- and three-band NIR-red models with MERIS spectral bands accounted for 93% of the chl-a variation. These findings imply that the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl-a in the Pearl River estuary.

  15. Comparisons between mild and severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease in temporal trends: a comparative time series study from mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; Liao, Qiaohong; Kenward, Michael G; Zheng, Yaming; Huang, Jiao; Yin, Fei; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-10-21

    Over recent decades, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has emerged as a serious public health threat in the Asia-Pacific region because of its high rates of severe complications. Understanding the differences and similarities between mild and severe cases can be helpful in the control of HFMD. In this study, we compared the two types of HFMD cases in their temporal trends. We retrieved the daily series of disease counts of mild and severe HFMD cases reported in mainland China in the period of 2009-2014. We applied a quasi-Poisson regression model to decompose each series into the long-term linear trend, periodic variations, and short-term fluctuations, and then we compared each component between two series separately. A total of 11,101,860 clinical HFMD cases together with 115,596 severe cases were included into this analysis. We found a biennial increase of 24.46 % (95 % CI: 22.80-26.14 %) for the baseline of disease incidence of mild cases, whereas a biennial decrease of 8.80 % (95 % CI: 7.26-10.31 %) was seen for that of severe cases. The periodic variations of both two series could be characterized by a mixture of biennial, annual, semi-annual and eight-monthly cycles. However, compared to the mild cases, we found the severe cases vary more widely for the biennial and annual cycle, and started its annual epidemic earlier. We also found the short-term fluctuations between two series were still significantly correlated at the current day with a correlation coefficient of 0.46 (95 % CI: 0.43-0.49). We found some noticeable differences and also similarities between the daily series of mild and severe HFMD cases at different time scales. Our findings can help us to deepen the understanding of the transmission of different types of HFMD cases, and also provide evidences for the planning of the associated disease control strategies.

  16. Hazardous Heavy metal distribution in Dahuofang catchment, Fushun, Liaoning, an important industry city in China: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Wu, Ji-You [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Shao, Hong-Bo [The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China)

    2012-12-15

    Located in Liaoning Province, one of the traditional heavy industrial areas in China, Dahuofang Reservoir provides drinking water for nearly 30 000 000 citizens, as well as industrial and agricultural water for dozens of several cities and rural areas. The distribution of hazardous heavy metals is described in several types of soil, crops, and in different industrial or mining areas and main sewage irrigation areas. Five possible reasons that may cause the pollution are analyzed and listed. Also we provide some pragmatic suggestions for the remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Large-scale management of common reed, Phragmites australis, for paper production: A case study from the Liaohe Delta, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    The largest Phragmites reed field in the world, with a historical area of approximately 1000 km2, is located in the Liaohe Delta in northeastern China. The Phragmites wetlands are extensively managed to maximize the production of reed biomass for the paper industry. Based on satellite remote...... sensing we estimated that the total area of the Phragmites wetlands has decreased from 857 km2 in 2003 to 786 km2 in 2009 to accommodate oil field infrastructure and societal developments. However, at the same time the production of Phragmites biomass used for the production of reed pulp has increased...

  18. Oilfield geothermal exploitation in China-A case study from the Liaohe oilfield in Bohai Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Yao, Yanhua; Fan, Xianli; Yan, Jiahong

    2017-04-01

    The clean geothermal energy can play a huge role in solving the problem of severe smog in China as it can replace large coal-fired heating in winter. Chinese government has paid close attention on the development and utilization of geothermal energy. In the "13th Five-Year" plan, the geothermal development is included into the national plan for the first time. China is very rich in the medium and low-temperature geothermal resources, ranking first in the geothermal direct use in the world for a long time. The geothermal resources are mainly concentrated in sedimentary basins, especially in petroliferous basins distributed in North China (in North China, heating is needed in winter). These basins are usually close to the large- and medium-sized cities. Therefore, tapping oilfield geothermal energy have attracted a great attention in the last few years as the watercut achieved above 90% in most oilfields and significant progress has been made. In this paper, taking the Liaohe Oilfield in the Bohai Bay Basin as an example, we discussed the distribution and potential of the geothermal resources, discussed how to use the existed technology to harness geothermal energy more effectively, and forecasted the development prospect of the oilfield geothermal energy. By using the volumetric method, we calculated the geothermal resources of the Guantao Formation, Dongying Formation, Shahejie Formation and basement rock in the Liaohe depression. We tested the geothermal energy utilization efficiency in different conditions by applying different pump technologies and utilizing geothermal energy in different depth, such as shallow geothermal energy (0-200m), middle-deep depth geothermal energy (200-4000m), and oilfield sewage heat produced with oil production. For the heat pump systems, we tested the conventional heat pump system, high-temperature heat pump system, super high-temperature heat pump system, and gas heat pump system. Finally, based on the analysis of national policy

  19. Independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guoxi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; He, Baochang

    2017-07-25

    This study aims to evaluate the independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer risk among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NS/ND). A hospital-based case-control study was performed in Fujian, China. 421 cases and frequency-matched 1398 controls were included without tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of tea and milk consumption with oral cancer risk. Tea and milk consumption were significantly associated with decreased risk of oral cancer, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54-0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.88), respectively. According to subgroup analysis, the inverse associations between tea consumption and oral cancer risk were only observed among the elders (>60 years) and urban residents. While the protect effect of milk drinking was more obvious in males, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), urban residents and those age ≤ 60 years. Additionally, a significantly multiplicative interaction between tea and milk consumption was observed for oral cancer risk (P = 0.001). The present study is the first to simultaneously assess the association of tea consumption and milk drinking with oral cancer risk. The results suggest that tea and milk consumption are independent protective factors for oral cancer among NS/ND, with a joint effect between them.

  20. The Human Capital In The Context Of The Reconfiguration Of The Power Poles. Case Study: China And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Julieta Josan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, once with structural changes in production, organizations, technology and social environment a radical change in the economy has been underlined that substitutes the traditional economy based on industry-led services characterized by innovation and knowledge creation. At the same time, emerging economies have managed to win the battle with the world’s major competitors, even overtaking several of them. A representative example is the two countries: China and Japan, that in present are the top three economies in the world. The human capital and - particularly the investment in education - determine the ability of individuals to earn as well as his perspectives of employment. Since most of the knowledge and skills are acquired in school, through the educational process, education has been recognized as the decisive part in the accumulation and development of the human capital and therefore in the economic development of a country. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of human capital in China and Japan (in terms of investment and its benefits.

  1. Super Rice Cropping Will Enhance Rice Yield and Reduce CH4 Emission: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to learn the differences in plant productivity and CH4 emission between two rice cultivars, super rice variety Ningjing 1 and traditional variety Zhendao 11, which were currently commercially applied in Nanjing, China. Similar seasonal changes of CH4 emission fluxes and soil solution CH4 contents were found between the tested cultivars. Although there was no significant difference in plant biomass production between the cultivars, the grain yield of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher by 35.0% (P < 0.05 than that of Zhendao 11, whereas the total CH4 emission from Ningjing 1 was 35.2% lower (P < 0.05. The main difference in the amounts of CH4 emission between the cultivars occurred in the period from the tillering stage to the heading stage. The biomass-scaled and yield-scaled CH4 emissions were respectively 3.8 and 5.2 mg/g for Ningjing 1, significantly lower than those for Zhendao 11 (7.4 and 12.8 mg/g, respectively. According to the relationships between the plant growth characteristics and the CH4 emission, a stronger root system contributed mainly to the lower CH4 emission of Ningjing 1, as compared with Zhendao 11. Our results demonstrated that super rice has advantages not only in grain productivity but also in CH4 emission mitigation. Further expansion of super rice cropping will enhance rice yield and reduce greenhouse gas emission in China.

  2. Quality of terrestrial data derived from UAV photogrammetry: a case study of the Hetao irrigation district in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongming; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Yang, Xiaomei; Gai, Lingtong; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Most crops in northern China are irrigated, but the topography affects water use, soil erosion, runoff and yields,. Technologies for collecting high-resolution topographic data are essential for adequately assessing these effects. Ground surveys and techniques of light detection and ranging have good accuracy, but data acquisition can be time-consuming and expensive for large catchments. Recent rapid technological development has provided new, flexible, high-resolution methods for collecting topographic data, such as photogrammetry using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The accuracy of UAV photogrammetry for generating high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and for determining the width of irrigation channels, however, has not been assessed. We used a fixed-wing UAV for collecting high-resolution (0.15 m) topographic data for the Hetao irrigation district, the third largest irrigation district in China. We surveyed 112 ground checkpoints (GCPs) using a real-time kinematic global positioning system to evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs and channel widths. A comparison of manually measured channel widths with the widths derived from the DEMs indicated that the DEM-derived widths had vertical and horizontal root mean square errors of 13.0 and 7.9 cm, respectively. UAV photogrammetric data can thus be used for land surveying, digital mapping, calculating channel capacity, monitoring crops, and predicting yields, with the advantages of economy, speed, and ease.

  3. Red pigments and Boraginaceae leaves in mortuary ritual of late Neolithic China: A case study of Shengedaliang site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Guo, XiaoNing; Wang, WeiLin; Chen, XiangLong; Zhao, Zhijun; Xia, Xiumin; Yang, YiMin

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of mortuary ritual is an important method to reconstruct many aspects of past societies. Due to the lack of relevant analytical work, little evidence related to organic materials in a burial can be found in China. Here we report materials collected from a burial during the excavation of the Shengedaliang site. The recovered materials were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and plant analysis: flotation, pollen and phytolith analysis. The red pigments found scattered over the human remains were identified as cinnabar. Extracted phytoliths associated with the burial are mainly leaves from the Boraginaceae family. This is the first time that a covering of leaves have been identified with a burial in Neolithic China. The presence of "special" leaves fossil may indicate a type of "plant worship" and the identification of an important plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. The finding of the two materials allows us to better identify indicators of funerary ritual and its relationship to social inequality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  5. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BY TOXOPLASMOSIS. CASE STUDY. Christine Katusiime1, MB ChB, PGDPPM. Ponsiano Ocama2, MB ChB, MMed. Andrew Kambugu1, MB ChB, MMed. 1Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 2Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Department of ...

  6. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    AIDS Control Programme, Sri Lanka. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old male security supervisor was admitted to hospital with recurrent chest infections. He was found to be HIV positive with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl, and was.

  7. Research and application of a hybrid model based on dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation for establishing air quality forecasting and early warning system: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Du, Pei; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-04-01

    As the atmospheric environment pollution has been becoming more and more serious in China, it is highly desirable to develop a scientific and effective early warning system that plays a great significant role in analyzing and monitoring air quality. However, establishing a robust early warning system for warning the public in advance and ameliorating air quality is not only an extremely challenging task but also a public concerned problem for human health. Most previous studies are focused on improving the prediction accuracy, which usually ignore the significance of uncertainty information and comprehensive evaluation concerning air pollutants. Therefore, in this paper a novel robust early warning system was successfully developed, which consists of three modules: evaluation module, forecasting module and characteristics estimating module. In this system, a new dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation is proposed and applied to determine air quality levels and primary pollutants, which can be regarded as the research objectives; Moreover, to further mine and analyze the characteristics of air pollutants, four different distribution functions and interval forecasting method are also employed that can not only provide predictive range, confidence level and the other uncertain information of the pollutants future values, but also assist decision-makers in reducing and controlling the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Case studies utilizing hourly PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 data collected from Tianjin and Shanghai in China are applied as illustrative examples to estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system. Experimental results obviously indicated that the developed novel early warning system is much suitable for analyzing and monitoring air pollution, which can also add a novel viable option for decision-makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Smart MCDM Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Air Pollution on City Sustainability: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become one of the key environmental concerns in the urban sustainable development. It is important to evaluate the impact of air pollution on socioeconomic development since it is the prerequisite to enforce an effective prevention policy of air pollution. In this paper, we model the impact of air pollution on the urban economic development as a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM problem. In particular, we propose a novel Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS analysis framework to evaluate multiple factors of air pollutants and economic development. Our method can overcome the drawbacks of conventional TOPSIS methods by using Bayesian regularization and the Back-Propagation (BP neural network to optimize the weight training process. We have conducted a case study to evaluate our proposed framework.

  9. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Lian; Lu, Min-Shan; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Lin, Fang-Yu; Ho, Suzanne C; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.35 (1.11-1.65). Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.30 (1.05-1.61). Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively). An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (PtrendPassive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  10. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  11. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  12. Sustainable Urban Development and Land Use Change—A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China

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    Haiyan Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a sustainability assessment method for the rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta in China addressing the role of land use pattern. We first calculated the sustainability component scores of 16 cities in the area in 2000 and 2005. The results showed that socioeconomic and environmental conditions improved while the performance of resource-use degraded from 2000 to 2005. We then made a spatial analysis of land use change (LUC using geographic information systems during 1990–2000. We found that diverse spatiotemporal transformation occurred among the cities and identified urban development cluster patterns and profiles based on development density. Finally, we examined the impact of LUC on sustainable urban development (SUD. Using regression techniques, we demonstrated that urbanization, infrastructure development, industrial structure and income significantly affected environmental performance and resource-use. These results suggest a moderate pace of LUC with steady economic growth being key to SUD.

  13. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2017-06-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  14. Application of the stormwater management model to a piedmont city: a case study of Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijun; Huang, Guoru; Wu, Chuanhao

    2014-01-01

    The stormwater management model (SWMM) was adapted and calibrated to Jinan, a typical piedmont city in China, to verify the large-scale applicability of the model to piedmont cities. Fourteen storms were used for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model predicted the measured data with satisfactory accuracy and reliability. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to evaluate the impact of the model parameters; it showed that: (1) the model outputs were most sensitive to imperviousness and conduit roughness; and (2) infiltration parameters and depression storage play an important role in total runoff and peak flow. The urban drainage system of Jinan was assessed using urban design storms with the calibrated model, and the effects of engineered flood control measures were evaluated. The overall results demonstrate that SWMM is applicable on a large scale to piedmont cities.

  15. Gaseous Air Pollution and the Risk for Stroke Admissions: A Case-Crossover Study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangfang; Luo, Yanxia; Tan, Peng; Xu, Qin; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Xueqin; Guo, Xiuhua

    2017-02-14

    Background: Though increasing evidence supports association between gaseous air pollution and stroke, it remains unclear whether the effects differ in season, sex and age. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of gaseous air pollution with stroke admissions in Beijing, 2013-2014 in different subgroups. Methods: Case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression were used to perform the analyses. We examined the exposure-response relationship between air pollution and stroke. Stratified analyses were performed in different seasons, sex, and age groups. Results: There were 147,624 stroke admissions during the study period. In the whole study period, percent changes of stroke admissions were 0.82% (95% CI: 0.52% to 1.13%) and 0.73% (95% CI: 0.44% to 1.03%) per 10 μg/m³ increase in the same day conentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulfur dioxide (SO₂). The positive associations were higher in warm seasons and with patients >65 years (p 65 years. The associations of CO and ozone with stroke admissions differed across seasons.

  16. Distributed and hierarchical object-based image analysis for damage assessment: a case study of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

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    Jing Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA is an emerging technique for analyzing remote sensing image based on object properties including spectral, geometry, contextual and texture information. To reduce the computational cost of this comprehensive OBIA and make it more feasible in disaster responses, we developed a unique approach – distributed and hierarchical OBIA approach for damage assessment. This study demonstrated a completed classification of YingXiu town, heavily devastated by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using Quickbrid imagery. Two distinctive areas, mountainous areas and urban, were analyzed separately. This approach does not require substantial processing power and large amounts of available memory because image of a large disaster-affected area was split in smaller pieces. Two or more computers could be used in parallel to process and analyze these sub-images based on different requirements. The approach can be applicable in other cases whereas the established set of rules can be adopted in similar study areas. More experiments will be carried out in future studies to prove its feasibility.

  17. Quota Restrictions on Land Use for Decelerating Urban Sprawl of Mega City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

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    Yunqian Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mega cities of China are faced with great pressure from conflict between huge land demand for construction use and limited resources. To improve this situation, it is necessary to slow the increasing rate of built-up land and even reduce the existing built-up land by improving land use efficiency. Herein, land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration is proposed. Land quotas are important tools for the control of land use planning in China, but the current quotas are mainly in the form of increment, thus cannot support land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration. To address these issues, we developed a model named “current-plan-requirement response (CPRR”, to optimize the land quotas. With this model, we investigated the current status of land use, the process of land use planning, and the requirements of land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration in Shanghai. It was found that the current land quotas have provided somewhat inhabited conversion of arable land to built-up land, but scarcely any regulation of land use efficiency or protection of natural environment. Then, the land quotas were optimized and quota management recommendations were made. The optimized land quotas included four aspects of quotas: arable land protection, ecological conservation, scale constraint on built-up land and economical and intensive land use. These new land quotas could be used to guide reduction of built-up land and increase ecological land in China’s mega cities. It might also be beneficial for easing conflict between supply and demand of built-up land, for building an eco-friendly city land-use structure.

  18. Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Chen, Xingdong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Yuan, Ziyu; Nie, Shuping; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2017-12-08

    Previous results regarding the associations between esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk and smoking/alcohol drinking in high-risk areas are inconsistent. We performed a large population-based case-control study from 2010 to 2013 in a high-incidence area of China, and enrolled 1353 ESCC cases and 1961 controls. Data regarding smoking and alcohol drinking were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. After adjusting for alcohol drinking and other potential confounders, male heavy smokers (i.e., those who started smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day or 40 pack-years, or started smoking early), showed a moderately increased risk for ESCC; however, current smoking was not associated with an increased risk. Alcohol drinking among males significantly increased the risk for ESCC (OR = 2.20, 95%CI:1.79~2.70). We observed increasing excess ESCC risks with decreasing age at behavior initiation as well as with increasing duration and intensity of alcohol intake, which were particularly evident among current smokers. In contrast, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking was not associated with ESCC risk among females. In conclusion, alcohol drinking shows a monotonic dose-response relationship with ESCC risk among men, and this relationship is particularly evident among smokers.

  19. Failure Mechanism Analysis and Support Design for Deep Composite Soft Rock Roadway: A Case Study of the Yangcheng Coal Mine in China

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    Bangyou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a case study of the failure mechanisms and support design for deep composite soft rock roadway in the Yangcheng Coal Mine of China. Many experiments and field tests were performed to reveal the failure mechanisms of the roadway. It was found that the surrounding rock of the roadway was HJS complex soft rock that was characterized by poor rock quality, widespread development of joint fissures, and an unstable creep property. The major horizontal stress, which was almost perpendicular to the roadway, was 1.59 times larger than the vertical stress. The weak surrounding rock and high tectonic stress were the main internal causes of roadway instabilities, and the inadequate support was the external cause. Based on the failure mechanism, a new support design was proposed that consisted of bolting, cable, metal mesh, shotcrete, and grouting. A field experiment using the new design was performed in a roadway section approximately 100 m long. Detailed deformation monitoring was conducted in the experimental roadway sections and sections of the previous roadway. The monitoring results showed that deformations of the roadway with the new support design were reduced by 85–90% compared with those of the old design. This successful case provides an important reference for similar soft rock roadway projects.

  20. Study on the adverse effects following chemotherapy for breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy: The first case report in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; He, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP) remains a challenge to physicians. Surgery and chemotherapy during pregnancy are widely used for the treatment of BCP. Herein, we reported 3 Chinese patients with BCP who underwent chemotherapy during pregnancy and were followed up for adverse effects. Three female patients (case 1, case 2, and case 3) of 37-, 32-, and 28-year-old with breast masses were enrolled. Case 1 had been pregnant for over 4 months, case 2 over 7 months, and case 3 for 7 months. Ultrasound findings revealed a mass in the left breast in cases 1 and 2 (30 mm × 26 mm × 23 mm and 34 mm × 16 mm × 40 mm), and case 3 had 2 masses in the outer upper quadrant of right breast (27 mm × 27 mm × 26 mm, 18 mm × 17 mm × 17 mm) and 2 fixed enlarged lymph nodes in the right axillary fossa, respectively. All breast masses were diagnosed by core needle biopsy, and the result was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Chemotherapy regimen administered during pregnancy was EwP (epirubicin 80 mg/m, d1 + paclitaxel 80 mg/m, d1, 8, 15, and cycled every 21 days). During pregnancy, case 1 received 5 cycles, case 2 received 1 cycle, and case 3 received 2 cycles. Case 2 patient experienced grade III bone marrow suppression once. Electrocardiogram (ECG) result of case 3 showed occasional occurrence of ventricular premature beats, with no complaint of discomfort. All 3 patients experienced uterine contractions, which caused preterm labor in case 2. Adverse events were nausea, hair loss, acid reflux, and constipation. Neonatal jaundice occurred in the premature infant (case 2), which was resolved by phototherapy. No relapse or metastasis was observed in the 3 cases and the infants are growing normally. Both patients and infants well tolerated the combination chemotherapy of epirubicin and paclitaxel during pregnancy. There were few drug toxicities and adverse effects.

  1. Aphrodisiac use associated with HIV infection in elderly male clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China: a matched case-control study.

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    Zhenzhu Tang

    Full Text Available Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi.A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years, number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years, and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection.This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08-3.04, never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08-3.07, and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.98 were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02.Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission.

  2. Case Study: The Myanmar and Bangladesh Maritime Boundary Dispute in the Bay of Bengal and Its Implications for South China Sea Claims

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    Ravi A. Balaram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to review the pertinent Myanmar and Bangladesh history in overlapping maritime territorial claims leading up to the September 2011 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS case: Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary Between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal. It will dissect the legal proceedings as primary source documents and apply the relevant judgement findings to analyse the implications for the respective countries and for South China Sea maritime boundary disputes. While the judgements of this case set certain legal precedents that may be more easily applied to bilateral disputes, the implications, nevertheless, impinge on multilateral claims as well. To the extent that the Bangladesh-Myanmar ITLOS judgement provides a pathway to third-party, independent, and peaceful resolution to the potentially explosive and escalating tensions in the South China Sea, this paper argues that findings are relevant, but limited.

  3. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    OpenAIRE

    Yanxia Li; Lihu Xiong; Wenjia Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle...

  4. Assessing the `wicked problems' associated with the quality of groundwater used in irrigation: a case study from the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brian; Wei, Yong Ping

    2012-08-01

    Studies on the quality of groundwater have moved beyond the physical realm of contamination and purification, towards the economic concerns of choice and the management of the problem. With these approaches the complex biophysical processes are assessed from the users' perspective and the policy outcomes that could be used to resolve the problems of groundwater contamination are evaluated. However, in a set of unrelated studies, it has been found that attempts by governments to resolve the problems of groundwater contamination in agriculture have a poor record of success. This could be because the problem is too extensive and diverse to handle or it could be a case of poor policy selection. Taking an example from the North China Plain to illustrate some of the major issues raised in this study, it is concluded that the problem itself is unresolvable on a large scale. In other words, groundwater contamination can be defined as a `wicked problem', i.e. unresolvable by applying pure science, closely linked with social issues, and for which there are no optimal solutions. In this situation, the best solution is possibly to encourage farmers to live with and handle the problem as they best see fit.

  5. Creating a low carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention and behaviour change analysisa case study of a heritage site (Tianshan Tianchi, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhaoping; Wall, Geoffrey; Wang, Fang

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the establishment of a low-carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention, and behaviour change analysis in a case study of a heritage site, China. Low carbon tourism advocates a way of travel with low energy consumption, low pollution and low CO2 emissions during personal activities. Behaviour change is not only influenced by internal individual aspects including a person's awareness, attitudes, and capacity to change, but is also driven by external social aspects including the culture and environments in which a person lives. In this paper, questionnaire surveys and field interviews were used to obtain basic information, and with reference to TPB, studied and analyzed the characteristics of cognition, intention and behaviour change practice by low carbon tourism community economy participants. With the help of SPSS analysis software, we found that a person's educational level or occupation might affect cognition of low carbon tourism, and motives for participating in low carbon tourism could reflect the public's perception of its emotional value, cognitive value and functional value. Most respondents knew about low carbon tourism; however, when putting it into practice, habitual behaviour was the main barrier for tourists while the residents were passive and followed the needs and choices of the tourists. Therefore, a comprehensive low carbon tourism community system was proposed not only for addressing the aspects of awareness, intention, and practice from individual behavior, but also for covering policy, infrastructure, institution systems and mechanisms at the community level.

  6. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linyu; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yan; Yin, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99×10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34×10–6 in 2004), which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1×10–6–1×10–4) but cannot be neglected in the long term.The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control. PMID:26035663

  7. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  8. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrenebased on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linyu; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yan; Yin, Hao

    2015-05-29

    Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002-2008 (lowest at 1.99x10(-6) in 2008 and highest at 3.34x10(-6) in 2004), which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1x10(-6)-1x10(-4)) but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Desertification Using Landsat Data on a Regional Scale – A Case Study in the Ordos Plateau, China

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    Jianjun Pan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Desertification is a serious threat to the ecological environment and social economy in our world and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Ordos Plateau in China was selected as the research region and a quantitative method for desertification assessment was developed by using Landsat MSS and TM/ETM+ data on a regional scale. In this method, NDVI, MSDI and land surface albedo were selected as assessment indicators of desertification to represent land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern and micrometeorology. Based on considering the effects of vegetation type and time of images acquired on assessment indictors, assessing rule sets were built and a decision tree approach was used to assess desertification of Ordos Plateau in 1980, 1990 and 2000. The average overall accuracy of three periods was higher than 90%. The results showed that although some local places of Ordos Plateau experienced an expanding trend of desertification, the trend of desertification of Ordos Plateau was an overall decrease in from 1980 to 2000. By analyzing the causes of desertification processes, it was found that climate change could benefit for the reversion of desertification from 1980 to 1990 at a regional scale and human activities might explain the expansion of desertification in this period; however human conservation activities were the main driving factor that induced the reversion of desertification from 1990 to 2000.

  10. Strategy formulation for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings supported by spatial analysis: a case study from China

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    Zhao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of exploring the usefulness of spatial analysis in the formulation of a strategy for schistosomiasis japonica control in different environmental settings, a population-based database was established in Dangtu county, China. This database, containing the human prevalence of schistosomiasis at the village level from 2001 to 2004, was analyzed by directional trend analysis supported with ArcGIS 9.0 to select the optimum predictive approach. Based on the approach selected, different strata of prevalence were classified and the spatial distribution of human infection with Schistosoma japonicum was estimated. The second-order ordinary kriging approach of spatial analysis was found to be optimal for prediction of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection. The mean prediction error was close to 0 and the root-mean-square standardised error was close to 1. Starting with the different environmental settings for each stratum of transmission, four areas were classified according to human prevalence, and different strategies to control transmission of schistosomiasis were put forward. We conclude that the approach to use spatial analysis as a tool to predict the spatial distribution of human prevalence of S. japonicum infection improves the formulation of strategies for schistosomiasis control in different environmental settings at the county level.

  11. Rainstorm-induced shallow landslides process and evaluation – a case study from three hot spots, China

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    Weiyue Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical stage in the evaluation of rainfall-induced landslide failure is in formulating reasonable models to better simulate spatiotemporal changes of slopes in the hilly terrains. A physically based model can take into account the contribution of rainfall infiltration and shear strength of saturated soil layer, and therefore help revealing the landslide formation mechanisms. This paper presents a physically based approach to simulate the landslide process triggered by rainstorm. On the basis of previous solutions, we select the simplified infiltration model Slope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium (SLIDE to illustrate the dynamical relations between factor of safety (FS and accumulation of rainfall over time. This model is tested with three representative landslide events in the southwest, southeast, and south central of China during rainstorm. Results show that the time of landslide failure predicted from the SLIDE model is consistent with the reality. Meanwhile, this paper illustrates the differences of FS among the different slope gradients in the vicinity of same soil texture and relationship between FS and rainfall accumulation. This work formulates a methodology of rainstorm-induced landslide evaluation and improves upon the existing landslide prediction methods.

  12. Using Religious Capital to Alleviate Poverty? - A Case Study of Cross-Border Migration in South-China (abstract

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    Sam Wong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Iannaccone’s notion of religious capital highlights the capability of individuals to draw on resources from religious- or faith-based practices, and then convert religious capital into human, social and financial capital. The processes of capital accumulation and conversion have significant implications for poverty reduction. However, in its examination of the cross-border experiences of poor female Chinese migrants in South China, this chapter finds that religious capital is severely inequitably distributed within migrant communities. Religious involvement is both time- and resource- demanding, and the very poor face considerable constraints in negotiating access to religious capital. Empirical evidence indicates that while some migrants are successful in improving their material conditions and experience upward social mobility, the failure to address broader, deep-rooted causes of poverty, such as social discrimination, has stymied more systemic change. Worse still, members of the ruling class use religious symbols and rituals to reinforce their domination. This chapter calls for placing greater emphasis on the distributional effect of religious capital, with the aim of offering poor people better support for their religious participation.

  13. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  14. Extracting magnetic anomalies based on an improved BEMD method: A case study in the Pangxidong Area, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Zhijun; Zhou, Yongzhang; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Wenlong

    2012-11-01

    In bidimensional empirical mode decomposition, an appropriate stoppage criterion for the sifting process is important. To solve the problem of unstable convergence, a stepwise stop criterion was presented based on the Cauchy-type criterion. In one sifting process, a squared deviation of two successive residual components is first calculated. Then, an absolute value of the difference between two continuous deviations is calculated. The sifting process will stop when the difference value is less than the a priori value. A comparison of correlation coefficients of the final results decomposed from experimental models demonstrated that those intrinsic mode functions obtained by the stepwise stop criterion meet the requirements of orthogonality, and the mode mixing effect among them is depressed effectively. With the help of the proposed criterion, an example is given for extracting magnetic anomalies in the Pangxidong area, Guangdong Province, South China. The residual components of the first and second order of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions revealed a spatial relationship between ore deposits and anomalies.

  15. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since "Reform and Openness": a case study of South Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-07-02

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first "Modernization Demonstration Zone" in China) during 1985-2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985-2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity.

  16. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  17. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Desertification Using Landsat Data on a Regional Scale – A Case Study in the Ordos Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duanyang; Kang, Xiangwu; Qiu, Dongsheng; Zhuang, Dafang; Pan, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Desertification is a serious threat to the ecological environment and social economy in our world and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Ordos Plateau in China was selected as the research region and a quantitative method for desertification assessment was developed by using Landsat MSS and TM/ETM+ data on a regional scale. In this method, NDVI, MSDI and land surface albedo were selected as assessment indicators of desertification to represent land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern and micrometeorology. Based on considering the effects of vegetation type and time of images acquired on assessment indictors, assessing rule sets were built and a decision tree approach was used to assess desertification of Ordos Plateau in 1980, 1990 and 2000. The average overall accuracy of three periods was higher than 90%. The results showed that although some local places of Ordos Plateau experienced an expanding trend of desertification, the trend of desertification of Ordos Plateau was an overall decrease in from 1980 to 2000. By analyzing the causes of desertification processes, it was found that climate change could benefit for the reversion of desertification from 1980 to 1990 at a regional scale and human activities might explain the expansion of desertification in this period; however human conservation activities were the main driving factor that induced the reversion of desertification from 1990 to 2000. PMID:22573984

  19. Body-to-Body-Communication and Somatoform Disorder in China: A Case Study Regarding Culture and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sollmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatoform disorder and somatic symptom disorder (SSD are resistant to traditional medical support. Patients experience a vicious cycle of focused awareness/attention towards distressing bodily sensations. A negative interpretation of these phenomena leads to “worrying, cognitive styles” concerning the body (body-image, which enhances further self-awareness/self-observation towards unpleasant bodily sensations and hyper-arousal. Body-psychotherapy may be one approach appropriate in dealing with these disorders and syndromes. This article addresses the concept of creative body-work, defines its basic guidelines and aims, and demonstrates a practical approach to support patient familiarization with body-self-experience and how to establish a basic contact (relationship and control the vicious negative cycle. A positive working definition of somatoform disorder would include the following: illness perception and illness attribution; illness behaviour; health-related anxiety; emotional distress; disability; quality of life; doctor-patient-interaction and health care utilisation. This article relates to specific cultural aspects working with patients in China within a one-day professional workshop including clinical observations and analysis. It also refers to the gender perspective. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics more and more also have to consider these perspectives.

  20. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  1. Deep Tunnel for Regulating Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution and Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DongHaoChong (DHC basin is located in the central city zone of Guangzhou City, China. Owing to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, diversion of rain and sewage is difficult. Waterlogging occurs frequently and combined sewer overflow (CSO pollution is a serious problem during the rainy season. Therefore, a deep tunnel for the DongHaoChong basin has been planned and its construction is currently underway. An urban rainstorm model for the DongHaoChong basin was developed on the basis of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM, and both the interception effect of CSO pollution and the degree of mitigation of flood were analyzed. Reasonable scenarios for the deep tunnel in terms of rainstorms with different design recurrence periods were evaluated. From the viewpoints of preventing rainstorm waterlogging disasters and protecting water quality in the region downstream of DongHaoChong River, the river flood control and drainage capacities of the region were improved to a 2-year rainstorm design recurrence period by the construction of the deep tunnel. Furthermore, the main pollutant load of the CSO is expected to be reduced by about 30%–40%.

  2. A Solar Heating and Cooling System in a Nearly Zero-Energy Building: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The building sector accounts for more than 40% of the global energy consumption. This consumption may be lowered by reducing building energy requirements and using renewable energy in building energy supply systems. Therefore, a nearly zero-energy building, incorporating a solar heating and cooling system, was designed and built in Beijing, China. The system included a 35.17 kW cooling (10-RT absorption chiller, an evacuated tube solar collector with an aperture area of 320.6 m2, two hot-water storage tanks (with capacities of 10 m3 and 30 m3, respectively, two cold-water storage tanks (both with a capacity of 10 m3, and a 281 kW cooling tower. Heat pump systems were used as a backup. At a value of 25.2%, the obtained solar fraction associated with the cooling load was close to the design target of 30%. In addition, the daily solar collector efficiency and the chiller coefficient of performance (COP varied from 0.327 to 0.507 and 0.49 to 0.70, respectively.

  3. An Integrative Approach to Understand the Climatic-Hydrological Process: A Case Study of Yarkand River, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Yarkand River as an example, this paper conducted an integrative approach combining the Durbin-Watson statistic test (DWST, multiple linear regression (MLR, wavelet analysis (WA, coefficient of determination (CD, and Akaike information criterion (AIC to analyze the climatic-hydrological process of inland river, Northwest China from a multitime scale perspective. The main findings are as follows. (1 The hydrologic and climatic variables, that is, annual runoff (AR, annual average temperature, (AAT and annual precipitation (AP, are stochastic and, no significant autocorrelation. (2 The variation patterns of runoff, temperature, and precipitation were scale dependent in time. AR, AAT, and AP basically present linear trends at 16-year and 32-year scales, but they show nonlinear fluctuations at 2-year and 4-year scales. (3 The relationship between AR with AAT and AP was simulated by the multiple linear regression equation (MLRE based on wavelet analysis at each time scale. But the simulated effect at a larger time scale is better than that at a smaller time scale.

  4. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  5. Environmental risk factors for women with polycystic ovary syndrome in china: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X F; Liu, Y; Xu, L Z; Zhou, L L; Tang, L L; Zhuang, J; Li, T T; Guo, W Q; Hu, R; Qiu, D S; Han, D W

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of PCOS. The present study aimed to explore the potential environmental risk factors of PCOS. A cross-sectional study and stratified population-based case-control study were carried out. Pre-designed questionnaires were prepared, including questions about medication history, contact history of endocrine disruptors (EDs), environment and habituation. Fasting blood was collected for measurement of sex hormone, glucose and insulin. Matched logistic regression analysis was used to find the potential independent risk factor of PCOS. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four participants (aged 12-44 years) were analyzed in the cross-sectional investigation. One hundred sixty-nine PCOS patients and 338 matched controls were compared. PCOS patients were more frequent than controls in eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001), contacting pesticide (p=0.021), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.001), living beside a garbage heap (p=0.001), working at an acid plant (p=0.028), taking Chinese patent drugs (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.028) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001). However, PCOS patients were less likely to use kitchen ventilators (p=0.002), eat canned food (p=0.049), contact decorated materials, use skin care products (p=0.01) and cosmetics (p=0.027). No difference was found in taking antiepileptic drugs (p=0.93). Eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001, OR=44.449), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.03, OR=5.7) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001, OR=29.632) were found to be the independent risk factors for PCOS. The existence of an association between EDs and PCOS was proved. Plastic-packaged food, fruit with pericarp and drinking alcohol should be avoided as possible as we can. However, the causal relationships among these factors and PCOS should be proved by further research.

  6. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  7. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach-A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-06-15

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study-simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan.

  8. Effect of ecological restoration and climate change on ecosystems: a case study in the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-06-01

    The Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) is the headwater of the Yangtze River Basin (YARB), Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Lancang River Basin (LRB); it is known as China's 'Water Tower' owing to its important supply of freshwater. In order to assess ecosystem changes in the TRHR during 2000-2012, we systematically and comprehensively evaluated a combination of model simulation results and actual observational data. The results showed the following: (1) Ecosystem pattern was relatively stable during 2000-2010, with a slight decrease in farmland and desert areas, and a slight increase in grassland and wetland/water-body areas. (2) A warmer and wetter climate, and ecological engineering, caused the vegetation cover and productivity to significantly improve. (3) Precipitation was the main controlling factor for streamflow. A significant increase in precipitation during 2000-2012 resulted in an obvious increase in annual and seasonal streamflow. Glacier melting also contributed to the streamflow increase. (4) The total amount of soil conservation increased slightly from 2000 to 2012. The increase in precipitation caused rainfall erosivity to increase, which enhanced the intensity of soil erosion. The decrease in wind speed decreased wind erosion and the frequency of sandstorms. (5) The overall habitat quality in the TRHR was stable between 2000 and 2010, and the spatial pattern exhibited obvious heterogeneity. In some counties that included nature reserves, habitat quality was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2000, which reflected the effectiveness of the ecological restoration. Overall, the aforementioned ecosystem changes are the combined results of ecological restoration and climate change, and they are likely a local and temporary improvement, rather than a comprehensive and fundamental change. Therefore, more investments and efforts are needed to preserve natural ecosystems.

  9. Maximum Entropy-Copula Method for Hydrological Risk Analysis under Uncertainty: A Case Study on the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Copula functions have been extensively used to describe the joint behaviors of extreme hydrological events and to analyze hydrological risk. Advanced marginal distribution inference, for example, the maximum entropy theory, is particularly beneficial for improving the performance of the copulas. The goal of this paper, therefore, is twofold; first, to develop a coupled maximum entropy-copula method for hydrological risk analysis through deriving the bivariate return periods, risk, reliability and bivariate design events; and second, to reveal the impact of marginal distribution selection uncertainty and sampling uncertainty on bivariate design event identification. Particularly, the uncertainties involved in the second goal have not yet received significant consideration. The designed framework for hydrological risk analysis related to flood and extreme precipitation events is exemplarily applied in two catchments of the Loess plateau, China. Results show that (1 distribution derived by the maximum entropy principle outperforms the conventional distributions for the probabilistic modeling of flood and extreme precipitation events; (2 the bivariate return periods, risk, reliability and bivariate design events are able to be derived using the coupled entropy-copula method; (3 uncertainty analysis highlights the fact that appropriate performance of marginal distribution is closely related to bivariate design event identification. Most importantly, sampling uncertainty causes the confidence regions of bivariate design events with return periods of 30 years to be very large, overlapping with the values of flood and extreme precipitation, which have return periods of 10 and 50 years, respectively. The large confidence regions of bivariate design events greatly challenge its application in practical engineering design.

  10. Understanding and analysis of CAOS development in context: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhelong; Jiang, Ming; Gu, Hong

    2008-09-01

    Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) has great advantages in precise determination of focus, planning an optimal surgical project and assuring the success of operation. In adopting CAOS, China is facing many problems, gaining experience and learning lessons. A literature review of the current development of CAOS in China and case studies, including adopted CAOS systems, CAOS clinical applications in the orthopaedic field and emerging CAOS research in China was carried out. Experience and lessons gained through adopting CAOS in China are also illustrated and analysed. In the course of investigating the current development of CAOS in China, existing problems were analysed, experience gained and lessons illustrated. By summarizing the Chinese experience and lessons of adopting CAOS, we not only deliver an in-depth understanding of present CAOS development and give advice for future CAOS development in China; this also has implications for other developing countries where CAOS development is burgeoning.

  11. Characteristics of early- and late-onset rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junying; Zhang, Jihui; Du, Lina; Li, Zhe; Li, Yun; Lei, Fei; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Kushida, Clete A; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    To investigate demography and clinic and polysomnographic characteristics in Chinese rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients across onset ages. Ninety consecutive patients fulfilling the criteria for RBD were recruited for study in our sleep center. Patients were separated into early- and late-onset groups according to age when symptoms began (50 years, respectively). Ninety age- and gender-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All subjects were interviewed for their clinical history, completed an RBD questionnaire, and underwent an overnight video polysomnography assessment. Demographics, comorbidities, scores on the RBD questionnaire, sleep architecture, and EMG activity were compared between the patients and controls and between the early- and late-onset groups. Of all RBD patients, 63 were male, and mean age of RBD onset was 54.3±15.7 years. In 25 patients (28%), RBD was secondary and associated with neurodegenerative disease, narcolepsy or antidepressant use. Twenty-three patients (26%) had early-onset RBD and 67 (74%) were in the late-onset group. RBD patients had significantly more comorbidities, dreams and dream-enacting behaviors, and poorer sleep quality than did controls. The early-onset group had a high proportion of females (48%) and an increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy. The early-onset group also had fewer movements, lower EMG activity during REM sleep, and better sleep quality when compared to the late-onset group. EMG activity was positively correlated with age of onset. The mean follow-up time was 1.57±0.82 years, and four patients in the late-onset group were subsequently diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases. Stratifying patients into early and late-onset RBD revealed different characteristics from those previously described as typical for RBD. EMG activity during REM sleep was positively correlated with age of onset. We suggest that it will be valuable to explore the relationship

  12. Microblogging violent attacks on medical staff in China: a case study of the Longmen County People's Hospital incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Du, Li

    2017-05-19

    A violent attack on medical staff in Guangdong Province, in which a female doctor at Longmen County People's Hospital (LCPH) was severely injured by a knife-wielding patient, has drawn significant public attention to the phenomenon of hospital violence and initiated discussions on how to resolve violence in hospitals. Social networking sites, such as Sina Weibo, a Chinese version of Twitter, have played a role in this public debate. The incident at LCPH provides an opportunity to examine how Weibo has been used in the debate about violence against medical staff in China. Using the Sina Weibo's built-in search tool, we established a dataset of 661 Chinese-language micro-blogs containing the search terms: Longmen ("), doctor ("), and slash (") that were posted between July 15, 2015, the date of the violent incident at LCPH, and August 15, 2015. We performed a content analysis of the micro-blogs to examine: users' demographics, attitudes toward the injured doctor and the attacker, possible reasons for the hospital violence, and proposed measures for preventing doctors from violent incidents. 73.2% of the micro-blogs were sent by individual Weibo users, and 26.8% were posted by organizations. For individual users, around 10.0% described themselves as either doctors or healthcare providers, but users from the legal profession were rarely identified. Moreover, only 3 micro-blogs proposed concrete strategies for preventing hospital violence, and nearly 10.0% of micro-blogs expressed regrets about entering a medical career and attempts to quit medical positions. In general 56.3% of micro-blogs showed sympathy for the injured doctor, while less than 25.0% of micro-blogs explicitly condemned the attacker's behavior. Weibo users played a role in distributing news information about the violent incident at LCPH; however, the legal perspective is inadequately discussed in the debate, and discussion of constructive measures for protecting doctors and preventing hospital violence

  13. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qigen; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tianxue; Zhu, Yingqi; Sui, Qi

    2017-02-21

    The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  14. VOCs emission rate estimate for complicated industrial area source using an inverse-dispersion calculation method: A case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Yang, Gan; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Yue; Wang, Litao

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to apply an inverse-dispersion calculation method (IDM) to estimate the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the complicated industrial area sources, through a case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. The IDM was composed of on-site monitoring of ambient VOCs concentrations and meteorological parameters around the source, calculation of the relationship coefficient γ between the source's emission rate and the ambient VOCs concentration by the ISC3 model, and estimation of the actual VOCs emission rate from the source. Targeting the studied refinery, 10 tests and 8 tests were respectively conducted in March and in June of 2014. The monitoring showed large differences in VOCs concentrations between background and downwind receptors, reaching 59.7 ppbv in March and 248.6 ppbv in June, on average. The VOCs increases at receptors mainly consisted of ethane (3.1%-22.6%), propane (3.8%-11.3%), isobutane (8.5%-10.2%), n-butane (9.9%-13.2%), isopentane (6.1%-12.9%), n-pentane (5.1%-9.7%), propylene (6.1-11.1%) and 1-butylene (1.6%-5.4%). The chemical composition of the VOCs increases in this field monitoring was similar to that of VOCs emissions from China's refineries reported, which revealed that the ambient VOCs increases were predominantly contributed by this refinery. So, we used the ISC3 model to create the relationship coefficient γ for each receptor of each test. In result, the monthly VOCs emissions from this refinery were calculated to be 183.5 ± 89.0 ton in March and 538.3 ± 281.0 ton in June. The estimate in June was greatly higher than in March, chiefly because the higher environmental temperature in summer produced more VOCs emissions from evaporation and fugitive process of the refinery. Finally, the VOCs emission factors (g VOCs/kg crude oil refined) of 0.73 ± 0.34 (in March) and 2.15 ± 1.12 (in June) were deduced for this refinery, being in the same order with previous direct

  15. Evaluation and mechanism for outcomes exploration of providing public health care in contract service in rural China: a multiple-case study with complex adaptive systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huixuan; Zhang, Shengfa; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Fugang; Zhong, You; Gu, Linni; Qu, Zhiyong; Tian, Donghua

    2015-02-27

    The Chinese government has increased the funding for public health in 2009 and experimentally applied a contract service policy (could be seen as a counterpart to family medicine) in 15 counties to promote public health services in the rural areas in 2013. The contract service aimed to convert village doctors, who had privately practiced for decades, into general practitioners under the government management, and better control the rampant chronic diseases. This study made a rare attempt to assess the effectiveness of public health services delivered under the contract service policy, explore the influencing mechanism and draw the implications for the policy extension in the future. Three pilot counties and a non-pilot one with heterogeneity in economic and health development from east to west of China were selected by a purposive sampling method. The case study methods by document collection, non-participant observation and interviews (including key informant interview and focus group interview) with 84 health providers and 20 demanders in multiple level were applied in this study. A thematic approach was used to compare diverse outcomes and analyze mechanism in the complex adaptive systems framework. Without sufficient incentives, the public health services were not conducted effectively, regardless of the implementation of the contract policy. To appropriately increase the funding for public health by local finance and properly allocate subsidy to village doctors was one of the most effective approaches to stimulate health providers and demanders' positivity and promote the policy implementation. County health bureaus acted as the most crucial agents among the complex public health systems. Their mental models influenced by the compound and various environments around them led to the diverse outcomes. If they could provide extra incentives and make the contexts of the systems ripe enough for change, the health providers and demanders would be receptive to the

  16. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  17. GPR impedance inversion for imaging and characterization of buried archaeological remains: A case study at Mudu city cite in Suzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Shi, Zhanjie; Wang, Bangbing; Yu, Tianxiang

    2018-01-01

    As a method with high resolution, GPR has been extensively used in archaeological surveys. However, conventional GPR profile can only provide limited geometry information, such as the shape or location of the interface, but can't give the distribution of physical properties which could help identify the historical remains more directly. A common way for GPR to map parameter distribution is the common-midpoint velocity analysis, but it provides limited resolution. Another research hotspot, the full-waveform inversion, is unstable and relatively dependent on the initial model. Coring method could give direct information in drilling site, while the accurate result is only limited in several boreholes. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to enhance imaging and characterization of archaeological targets by fusion of GPR and coring data. The scheme mainly involves the impedance inversion of conventional common-offset GPR data, which uses well log to compensate GPR data and finally obtains a high-resolution estimation of permittivity. The core analysis result also contributes to interpretation of the inversion result. To test this method, we did a case study at Mudu city site in Suzhou, China. The results provide clear images of the ancient city's moat and wall subsurface and improve the characterization of archaeological targets. It is shown that this method is effective and feasible for archaeological exploration.

  18. Automatic Recognition of Seismic Intensity Based on RS and GIS: A Case Study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, earthquakes have frequently occurred all over the world, which caused huge casualties and economic losses. It is very necessary and urgent to obtain the seismic intensity map timely so as to master the distribution of the disaster and provide supports for quick earthquake relief. Compared with traditional methods of drawing seismic intensity map, which require many investigations in the field of earthquake area or are too dependent on the empirical formulas, spatial information technologies such as Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS can provide fast and economical way to automatically recognize the seismic intensity. With the integrated application of RS and GIS, this paper proposes a RS/GIS-based approach for automatic recognition of seismic intensity, in which RS is used to retrieve and extract the information on damages caused by earthquake, and GIS is applied to manage and display the data of seismic intensity. The case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in China shows that the information on seismic intensity can be automatically extracted from remotely sensed images as quickly as possible after earthquake occurrence, and the Digital Intensity Model (DIM can be used to visually query and display the distribution of seismic intensity.

  19. The correlation of osteoporosis to clinical features: a study of 4382 female cases of a hospital cohort with musculoskeletal symptoms in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; He, Hongchen; Ding, Mingfu; He, Chengqi

    2010-08-16

    By analyzing the clinical features and risk factors in female patients with musculoskeletal symptoms of Southwest China, this report presents the initial analysis of characteristics in this region and compared with international evaluative criteria. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was made in female hospital patients age > or = 18 years admitted from January 1998 to December 2008 according to WHO definition. Case data were analyzed by symptoms, age, disease course and risk factors to reveal correlation with diagnosis of OP. Logistic regression was used to identify the risks of osteoporosis. A total of 4382 patients were included in the analysis of the baseline characteristics, among which 1455 in the OP group and 2927 in the non-OP group. The morbidity of OP is significantly increased in females' > or = 50 years. Both groups had symptoms related to pain and numbness; no significant difference was found in reported upper and lower back pain, or leg pain between two groups (p > 0.05). Neck, shoulder and arm pain, leg and arm numbness were more common in the non-osteoporosis group (p osteoporosis were smoking, body mass index, lack of physical activity and menopause. The present study offers the first reference data of the relationship between epidemiologic distribution of osteoporosis and associated factors in adults Chinese women. These findings provide a theoretical basis for its prevention and treatment in developing country.

  20. Case study of simultaneous observations of sporadic sodium layer, E-region field-aligned irregularities and sporadic E layer at low latitude of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H. Y.; Ning, B. Q.; Zhao, X. K.; Hu, L. H.

    2017-03-01

    Using the Na lidar at Haikou (20.0°N, 110.3°E), the VHF coherent radar and the digital ionosonde both at Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E), cases of simultaneous observations of sporadic sodium layer (SSL), E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAI) and sporadic E layer (Es) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region at low latitude of China are studied. It is found that SSL occurs simultaneously or follows the enhancement of Es and FAI. The Es, FAI and SSL descend slowly with time which is mostly controlled by the diurnal tide (DT). Besides, the interaction of gravity wave (GW) with tides can cause oscillations in FAI and SSL. Our observations support the neutralization of ions for SSL formation: when the metallic ions layer descents to the altitudes where models predict, the sodium ions convert rapidly to atomic Na that may form an SSL event. Moreover, the SSL peak density will increase (decrease) in the convergence (divergence) vertical shear region of zonal wind.

  1. Design of Solar Optical Fiber Lighting System for Enhanced Lighting in Highway Tunnel Threshold Zone: A Case Study of Huashuyan Tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the principle, structural composition, materials, and characteristics of solar optical fiber lighting system were discussed. The different luminance requirements of different zones of highway tunnel were identified on the basis of the analysis of tunnel lighting considering drivers’ visually self-accommodating physiological function for luminance change. Taken Huashuyan Tunnel of G109 Highway located in Hohhot of Inner Mongolia in China as the case study, the system design of solar optical fiber lighting for enhanced lighting in threshold zone of highway tunnel was made. It was indicated through calculation that the design length of solar optical fiber enhanced lighting was related to the design speed, longitudinal slope, and overhead clearance of the tunnel, and the design luminance of solar optical fiber enhanced lighting was related to the luminance outside the tunnel, the design speed, and the design traffic flow of the tunnel. Luminance analysis of the solar optical fiber lighting system of Huashuyan Tunnel was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the 3D illuminance simulation results by DIALux software were made to indicate that the solar optical fiber lighting system in Huashuyan Tunnel still well met the enhanced lighting demand even not considering the contribution of LED lighting.

  2. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach—A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-01-01

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study—simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan. PMID:28617348

  3. Transcending an Urban-Rural Divide: Rural Youth's Resistance to Townization and Schooling, a Case Study of a Middle School in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study in a rural middle school in Northwest China, the author explores how the transition of the rural countryside, specifically townization, has challenged the urban-rural dichotomy being reproduced in and by formal schooling. Rural students express criticism of the chaos, pollution, and corruption they have experienced…

  4. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China : A Case Study of Hangzhou

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Peng, Y.; Qian, K.; Chan, A.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPP) can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private

  5. Conservation and possible reintroduction of an endangered plant based on an analysis of community ecology: a case study of Primulina tabacum Hance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Zhengfeng Wang; Qinfeng Guo; June Wang; Nan Liu; Kaiming. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the rare and endangered perennial herb Primulina tabacum Hance is restricted to eight karst caves in southern China. To conserve P. tabacum and to evaluate possible reintroduction, we studied its historical distribution and conducted field surveys of both its biotic and physical environment. We used detrended...

  6. Micro-Study of the Evolution of Rural Settlement Patterns and Their Spatial Association with Water and Land Resources: A Case Study of Shandan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libang Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between population and water and land resources is an important part of regional sustainable development. It is also significant for the ecological civilization in China and can help solve the Three Rural Issues (agriculture, countryside and farmers in China. The Silk Road Economic Belt and Maritime Silk Road in twenty-first Century Strategy have brought new opportunities for the Hexi Corridor, which is facing challenges in the sustainable development of rural settlements. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal-spatial differentiation of rural settlement patterns in Shandan County of Hexi Corridor and studied the spatial association between rural settlements and water-land resources. Results show that the total area of rural settlement patches (CA, the number of rural settlement patches (NP, the mean patch area (MPS, the maximum patch areas (MAXP, the minimum patch areas (MINP and the density of rural settlement patches (PD changed more rapidly from 1998 to 2008 than from 2008 to 2015. In the second period, the indices mentioned before did not change significantly. The kernel density of rural settlements is basically consistent in three periods. Rural settlements mainly distribute along major roads and the hydrographic network and the kernel density of rural settlements decreases in the direction away from these roads and the hydrographic network. In addition, rural settlements in Shandan County are densely distributed in some regions and sparsely distributed in other regions. The dispersion degree of rural settlements increased from 1998 to 2008 and tended to be stable after 2008. These lead to the dispersion, hollowing and chaos of rural settlements in Shandan County. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Shandan County is closely related to that of cultivated land and the hydrographic network. Our results might provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable utilization of water and land resources in Shandan County

  7. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite

  8. Removal of the eye in a tertiary care center of China:a retrospective study on 573 cases in 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the original protopathy, direct indications, clinical characteristics, complications of orbit plants and visual conditions of eye enucleation/evisceration.METHODS: A retrospective study of 573 eyes removed (573 inpatients at Ophthalmology Department in a tertiary care center of China from January 1993 to December 2012 was completed.RESULTS:Cases underwent removal of the eye accounted for 2.15% of total ophthalmology inpatients, whose annual frequency declined from 3.80% to 0.52%. There were 167 eyes (29.14% being enucleated and 406 (70.86% eviscerated. Annual proportion of evisceration rose from 16.67% in 1993 to 90.48% in later years. Trauma was the top one (65.62% in original protopathies followed by neoplasm (13.44% and ocular infections (5.76%. Phthisis bulbi (45.20% was the most common direct indication, succeeded by malignant tumor (12.57%, loss/unreconstructed of intraocular tissues due to trauma (11.00%, untreatable inflammation (9.60%, intractable glaucoma (8.55% and sclerocorneal staphyloma (5.24%. Exenteration was underwent in 20 (25.97% cases (40% for recurrent carcinoma. Following evisceration, secondary prosthesis implantation was more and earlier, implant exposure occurred in less but earlier and infection and extraction/exchange of implants were more than those following enucleation. Male, phthisis bulbi, evisceration and secondary implantation meant lower risk of implant exposure; eyes removed within 24h following trauma was an independent risk factor. There were 14.37% of eyes with vision of light perception at least as been removed. In the residual contralateral eyes, low vision accounted 5.58% and blindness 3.14%.CONCLUSION:Ocular trauma, tumor and infections were great threats to eyeball preservation. Early and effective controlling of any original protopathies was vital. Generally evisceration presented more superior and safe outcomes than enucleation did. Visual conditions of the sufferers should be

  9. Epidemiological Trends in Colorectal Cancer in China: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Tan, Zhengqi; Hollis-Hansen, Kelseanna; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary behaviors, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rapidly increasing in China. This study is to present the trends of CRC in China over the past decade. It used a series of nationally representative data, including the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the GLOBOCAN project and the Global Burden of Disease. The age-standardized rate of CRC incidence increased from 12.8 in 2003 to 16.8 per 100,000 in 2011, while the mortality rose from 5.9 to 7.8 per 100,000. The age group most affected by incident CRC cases were those aged 60-74 years old, whereas CRC death was most associated with those >74 years. Furthermore, the east coast of China presented a higher mortality rate (>15 and 10-14.9 per 100,000 in men and women) than central and west China (5-14.9 and 5-9.9 per 100,000). Compared with other countries worldwide, China indicated lower rates of incidence (14.2 per 100,000), mortality (7.4 per 100,000), and 5-year prevalence (52.7 per 100,000) than most developed countries. However, China had a higher case-fatality ratio (14.0 %) and mortality/incidence ratio (52.1 %). Lastly, disability-adjusted life years attributed to CRC in China was 224.2 per 100,000. It presents a steady increase in CRC in China over the past decade. It also reveals the domestic diversity of age, gender, and geography and finds the differences between China and developed countries, which may yield insights for national programs and policies.

  10. Development of Dense Time Series 30-m Image Products from the Chinese HJ-1A/B Constellation: A Case Study in Zoige Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Bian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series remote sensing products with both fine spatial and dense temporal resolutions are urgently needed for many earth system studies. The development of small satellite constellations with identical sensors affords novel opportunities to provide such kind of earth observations. In this paper, a new dense time series 30-m image product was proposed respectively based on an 8-day, 16-day and monthly composition. The products were composited by the Charge Coupled Device (CCD images from the 2-day revisit small satellite constellation for environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation of China (HJ-1A/B. Taking the Zoige plateau in China as a case area where it is covered by highly heterogeneous vegetation landscapes, a detailed methodology was introduced on how to use 183 scenes of CCD images in 2010 to create composite products. The quality of the HJ CCD composites was evaluated by inter-comparison with the monthly 30-m global Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD, 16-day 500-m MODIS NDVI, and 8-day 500-m MODIS surface reflectance products. Results showed that the radiometric consistency between HJ and WELD composited Top Of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance was in good agreement except for May, June, July and August when more clouds and invalid data gaps appeared in WELD. Visual assessment and temporal profile analysis also revealed that HJ possessed better visual effects and temporal coherence than that of WELD. The comparison between HJ and MODIS products indicated that HJ composites were radiometrically consistent with MODIS products over areas consisting of large patches of homogeneous surface types, but can better reflect the detailed spatial differences in regions with heterogeneous landscapes. This paper highlights the potential of compositing HJ-1A/B CCD images, allowing for providing a cloud free, time-space consistent, 30-m spatial resolution, and dense in time series image product. Meanwhile, the proposed products could also be treated as a

  11. Assessing environmental risks for high intensity agriculture using the material flow analysis method--a case study of the Dongting Lake basin in South Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Yuan, Chengcheng

    2015-07-01

    This study primarily examined the assessment of environmental risk in high intensity agricultural areas. Dongting Lake basin was taken as a case study, which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. Using data obtained from 1989 to 2012, we applied Material Flow Analysis (MFA) to show the material consumption, pollutant output and production storage in the agricultural-environmental system and assessed the environmental risk index on the basis of the MFA results. The results predicted that the status of the environmental quality of the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The direct material input (DMI) declined by 13.9%, the domestic processed output (DPO) increased by 28.21%, the intensity of material consumption (IMC) decreased by 36.7%, the intensity of material discharge (IMD) increased by 10%, the material productivity (MP) increased by 27 times, the environmental efficiency (EE) increased by 15.31 times, and the material storage (PAS) increased by 0.23%. The DMI and DPO was higher at rural places on the edge of cities, whereas the risk of urban agriculture has arisen due to the higher increasing rate of DMI and DPO in cities compared with the counties. The composite environmental risk index increased from 0.33 to 0.96, indicating that the total environmental risk changed gradually but seriously during the 24 years assessed. The driving factors that affect environmental risk in high intensity agriculture can be divided into five classes: social, economic, human, natural and disruptive incidents. This study discussed a number of effective measures for protecting the environment while ensuring food production yields. Additional research in other areas and certain improvements of this method in future studies may be necessary to develop a more effective method of managing and controlling agricultural-environmental interactions.

  12. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  13. A study on beverage MNCs’ entry mode decisions and determinant factors in internationalization in China: Case studies of Coca-Cola and Red bull

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsuwan, Pantitra

    2015-01-01

    The economic reform and liberalized government regulations toward business operations in 1980s make China a new target of international investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). How to enter this growth market and what entry mode should be implemented remain inconclusive. This paper analyses how two beverage companies- Coca-Cola and Red Bull that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and implications of the factors on their entry mode decisions since they initially came to C...

  14. A quantitative study of gully erosion based on object-oriented analysis techniques: a case study in Beiyanzikou catchment of Qixia, Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; He, Fuhong; Zhang, Anding; Gu, Lijuan; Wen, Yangmao; Jiang, Weiguo; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    This paper took a subregion in a small watershed gully system at Beiyanzikou catchment of Qixia, China, as a study and, using object-orientated image analysis (OBIA), extracted shoulder line of gullies from high spatial resolution digital orthophoto map (DOM) aerial photographs. Next, it proposed an accuracy assessment method based on the adjacent distance between the boundary classified by remote sensing and points measured by RTK-GPS along the shoulder line of gullies. Finally, the original surface was fitted using linear regression in accordance with the elevation of two extracted edges of experimental gullies, named Gully 1 and Gully 2, and the erosion volume was calculated. The results indicate that OBIA can effectively extract information of gullies; average range difference between points field measured along the edge of gullies and classified boundary is 0.3166 m, with variance of 0.2116 m. The erosion area and volume of two gullies are 2141.6250 m(2), 5074.1790 m(3) and 1316.1250 m(2), 1591.5784 m(3), respectively. The results of the study provide a new method for the quantitative study of small gully erosion.

  15. A Quantitative Study of Gully Erosion Based on Object-Oriented Analysis Techniques: A Case Study in Beiyanzikou Catchment of Qixia, Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took a subregion in a small watershed gully system at Beiyanzikou catchment of Qixia, China, as a study and, using object-orientated image analysis (OBIA, extracted shoulder line of gullies from high spatial resolution digital orthophoto map (DOM aerial photographs. Next, it proposed an accuracy assessment method based on the adjacent distance between the boundary classified by remote sensing and points measured by RTK-GPS along the shoulder line of gullies. Finally, the original surface was fitted using linear regression in accordance with the elevation of two extracted edges of experimental gullies, named Gully 1 and Gully 2, and the erosion volume was calculated. The results indicate that OBIA can effectively extract information of gullies; average range difference between points field measured along the edge of gullies and classified boundary is 0.3166 m, with variance of 0.2116 m. The erosion area and volume of two gullies are 2141.6250 m2, 5074.1790 m3 and 1316.1250 m2, 1591.5784 m3, respectively. The results of the study provide a new method for the quantitative study of small gully erosion.

  16. Organoporosity Evaluation of Shale: A Case Study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in Southeast Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organopores play an important role in determining total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in southeast Chongqing was selected as a case to confirm the contribution of organopores (microscale and nanoscale pores within organic matters in shale formed by hydrocarbon generation to total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. Using the material balance principle combined with chemical kinetics methods, an evaluation model of organoporosity for shale gas reservoirs was established. The results indicate that there are four important model parameters to consider when evaluating organoporosity in shale: the original organic carbon (w(TOC0, the original hydrogen index (IH0, the transformation ratio of generated hydrocarbon (F(Ro, and the organopore correction coefficient (C. The organoporosity of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in the Py1 well is from 0.20 to 2.76%, and the average value is 1.25%. The organoporosity variation trends and the residual organic carbon of Longmaxi Shale are consistent in section. The residual organic carbon is indicative of the relative levels of organoporosity, while the samples are in the same shale reservoirs with similar buried depths.

  17. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geoth