WorldWideScience

Sample records for china advanced research

  1. Advances in fog microphysics research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duanyang; Li, Zihua; Yan, Wenlian; Li, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Fog microphysical research in China based on field experiments obtained many important results in recent 50 years. With the fast development of China's economy, urbanization in the last 30 years, special features of fog microphysical structure also appeared, which did not appear in other countries. This article reviews the fog microphysical research around China, and introduces the effect of urbanization on fog microphysical structure and the microphysical processes as well as macroscopic conditions of radiation fog droplet spectral broadening. Urbanization led to an increase in fog droplet number concentration but decreases in fog liquid water content (LWC) and fog droplet size, as well as a decrease in visibility in large cities. Observations show that the radiation fog could be divided into wide-spectrum one, which is all extremely dense fog with the spectral width more than 40 μm, and narrow-spectrum one, most of which is dense fog with the spectral width less than 22 μm, according to droplet spectral distribution. During developing from dense fog to extremely dense fog, the widespectrum radiation fog is characterized by explosive deepening, that is, within a very short time (about 30 min), the droplet concentration increase by about one order of magnitude, droplet spectral broadening across 20 μm, generally up to 30-40 μm, or even 50 μm. As a result, water content increased obviously, visibility decreased to less than 50 m, when dense fog became extremely dense fog.

  2. Research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xiao-fang; Huang, Xun; Yang, Xiao

    2016-06-20

    -wide genetic basis of the species-specific physiological and pathological characteristics as well as their adaptation to environmental conditions. In this review, we make a first attempt to summarize the research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015, with an emphasis on the achievements led by Chinese scientists and carried out in Chinese institutions. We will briefly discuss the significance of their research and contributions of Chinese scientists in animal genetics.

  3. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-feng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Peng-bo; Meng, Jin-feng; Li, Hai-bei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guang-fu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Ling-qian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gang-qiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  4. [Top ten research advances of ophthalmology in China (2009-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli

    2014-08-01

    In order to showcase the major research advances in ophthalmology of the recent five years (2009-2013) in China, the 11th Committee of the Ophthalmic Division of Chinese Medical Association launched the selection of Top Ten Research Advances of Ophthalmology in China. Each ophthalmic subspecialty group voted its top ten research advances and chose two out of ten to join the selection. The Committee voted top ten out from all candidates and announced the final result with honor. The following research advances were selected as the Top Ten Research Advances of Ophthalmology in China: Innovative theory and its application of fungal keratitis; Increased gradient pressure between IOP and ICP is the main cause of glaucomatous optic neuropathy; Domestic developed anti-VEGF medicine Conbercept has been applied successfully in the treatment of choriodal neovascularization; IL-23/IL-17 pathway and their regulation in the pathogenesis of uveitis; The creation of myopic animal model and the biochemical mechanism of myopia; Specialists' consensus on diagnosing amblyopia in children; Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts of the Tenon's capsule; The development and application of endoscopic navigation system in orbital surgery; Studies of pathogenesis on congenital cataract candidate gene mutations; The regulation for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric retinal diseases in China and its extension.

  5. Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Zeying; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Heng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Cui, Yazhou; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helping to complete the pathological molecular map of achondroplasia. There are still, however, unknown aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia. This review will summarize advances in research on and the clinical diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China. PMID:25343101

  6. Research Advances on Hepatotoxicity of Herbal Medicines in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, herbal medicines have been considered as safe by the general public, since they are naturally occurring and have been applied in treatment for over thousands of years. As the use of herbal medicine is rapidly increasing globally, the potential toxicity of herbal drugs, in particular drug-induced liver injury (DILI, has now become a serious medical issue. According to the literature, the authors analyzed and discussed the hepatotoxicity problem of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM, including global overview on herbal-induced liver injury (HILI, current research progress on toxic CHM, diagnosis and treatment of HILI, and modern approaches and technologies of study of hepatotoxicity. As to promote the recognition of HILI and tackle the issue, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of HILI has recently been drafted by Chinese scientists. As suggested by the guideline, the hepatotoxicity issue of CHM, as a matter of fact, is overestimated. Up to date, the investigation of hepatotoxicity of CHM is now booming with worldwide application of CHM. This review therefore provides useful information for investigating hepatotoxicity of herbal medicine and characterizing DILI caused by CHM. In addition, authors describe in which way further efforts should be made to study the rationale of CHM and liver injury.

  7. Advanced neonatal medicine in China: a quantitative analysis of research productivity and impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang-Peng; Chipenda-Dansokho, Selma; Lewin, Antoine; Wei, Shu-Qin

    2018-04-01

    To summarize academic productivity of neonatal medicine in China and explore its relationship with health care workforce and activities. We retrospectively extracted data from national key clinical subspecialty proposals, and used accessible databases as Science Citation Index (SCI), PubMed, and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Between 2008 and 2010, 61 newborn units at the most advanced level in 31 cities from 28 of 31 provincial districts in mainland China were included. Fifty-two national or international projects and 111 provincial projects were conducted. A total of 171 articles were listed in the SCI database; 23 patents were registered. There were 83 oral presentations in international conferences abroad. One national and 40 provincial government awards were received. Health workforce indexes, such as physicians with MD&PhD degrees, were significantly related to academic productivity. National or international projects (β = .285, p <.001; 95% CI = 0.179, 0.391) and the number of newborn beds (β = .005, p = .016; 95% CI = 0.001, 0.008) were two underlying factors to determine government awards (adjusted R2 =  .426). The 10 main cities for neonatal medicine research were also listed. In this study, we established the baseline information on neonatal medicine research in China, which could provide information for further practice.

  8. Recent Advances and Research Status in Energy Conservation of Iron Ore Sintering in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Zu; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Liu, Zheng-Jian; Du, Cheng-Bo

    2017-11-01

    For the ferrous burden of blast furnaces in China, sinter generally accounts for more than 70% and the sintering process accounts for approximately 6-10% of the total energy consumption of the iron and steel enterprise. Therefore, saving energy during the sintering process is important to reduce the energy consumption in the iron and steel industry. This paper aims to illustrate recent advances and the research status of energy conservation of iron ore sintering in China. It focuses on the development and application of energy-saving technologies such as the composite agglomeration process, sintering with high-proportion flue gas recirculation sintering, recovery of sensible heat from the sinter cooling process, homogeneous deep-bed sintering technology, and comprehensive treatment technology of leakage of sintering. Moreover, some suggestions for the future development of energy-saving technologies are put forward.

  9. Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Zeying; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Heng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Cui, Yazhou; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helpi...

  10. Research advances at the Institute for Nutritional Sciences at Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yong; Xie, Dong; Fang, Jing; Le, Yingying; Ke, Zunji; Zhai, Qiwei; Wang, Hui; Guo, Feifan; Wang, Fudi; Liu, Yi

    2011-09-01

    Nutrition-related health issues have emerged as a major threat to public health since the rebirth of the economy in China starting in the 1980s. To meet this challenge, the Chinese Academy of Sciences established the Institute for Nutritional Sciences (INS) at Shanghai, China ≈ 8 y ago. The mission of the INS is to apply modern technologies and concepts in nutritional research to understand the molecular mechanism and provide means of intervention in the combat against nutrition-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and many types of cancers. Through diligent and orchestrated efforts by INS scientists, graduate students, and research staff in the past few years, the INS has become the leading institution in China in the areas of basic nutritional research and metabolic regulation. Scientists at the INS have made important progress in many areas, including the characterization of genetic and nutritional properties of the Chinese population, metabolic control associated with nutrient sensing, molecular mechanisms underlying glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of metabolism by adipokines and inflammatory pathways, disease intervention using functional foods or extracts of Chinese herbs, and many biological studies related to carcinogenesis. The INS will continue its efforts in understanding the optimal nutritional needs for Chinese people and the molecular causes associated with metabolic diseases, thus paving the way for effective and individualized intervention in the future. This review highlights the major research endeavors undertaken by INS scientists in recent years.

  11. Research Advances at the Institute for Nutritional Sciences at Shanghai, China12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yong; Xie, Dong; Fang, Jing; Le, Yingying; Ke, Zunji; Zhai, Qiwei; Wang, Hui; Guo, Feifan; Wang, Fudi; Liu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition-related health issues have emerged as a major threat to public health since the rebirth of the economy in China starting in the 1980s. To meet this challenge, the Chinese Academy of Sciences established the Institute for Nutritional Sciences (INS) at Shanghai, China ∼8 y ago. The mission of the INS is to apply modern technologies and concepts in nutritional research to understand the molecular mechanism and provide means of intervention in the combat against nutrition-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and many types of cancers. Through diligent and orchestrated efforts by INS scientists, graduate students, and research staff in the past few years, the INS has become the leading institution in China in the areas of basic nutritional research and metabolic regulation. Scientists at the INS have made important progress in many areas, including the characterization of genetic and nutritional properties of the Chinese population, metabolic control associated with nutrient sensing, molecular mechanisms underlying glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of metabolism by adipokines and inflammatory pathways, disease intervention using functional foods or extracts of Chinese herbs, and many biological studies related to carcinogenesis. The INS will continue its efforts in understanding the optimal nutritional needs for Chinese people and the molecular causes associated with metabolic diseases, thus paving the way for effective and individualized intervention in the future. This review highlights the major research endeavors undertaken by INS scientists in recent years. PMID:22332084

  12. [Advances in research on relationships among Lycium species and origin of cultivated Lycium in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dan; Ji, Rui-Feng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-09-01

    The Lycium genus consists of consist of 7 species and 3 variety which are main distributed in Northwest region in China, the cultivated Goji berry appeared about 1 000 years ago. The phylogeny of the wild Goji berry and the domestication of cultivated Goji berry are important scientific and practical value due to the medicinal and economic value. In this paper, a new advances achieved in studies on the phylogeny of wild Goji berry is summarized. The origin of cultivated Goji berry includes when, where, how and ancestral specie were reviewed. The current situation of cultivation and existing problems were summarized. We considered that through mutations and artificial selections, wild ancestors were domesticated to current cultivar groups. To find direct evidence for the origin of cultivated Goji berry, we must rely on genetic analysis in addition to morphological characters. To make full use of the Goji berry germplasm resources, the investigation and mining on wild Goji berry resource should be strengthened in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Stem Cell Therapy Advances in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Songlin

    2017-12-28

    Stem cell therapy is a promising method for the treatment of patients with a wide range of diseases and injuries. With increasing government funds for scientific research in China, stem cell research in China has developed rapidly. The number and quality of publications have increased substantially in the past 5 years. Extensive, high-quality studies have been performed in China in the areas of cell reprograming, stem cell homeostasis, gene modifications, and immunomodulation. Translation studies, including basic and preclinical investigations, have also increased. About 100 stem cell banks have been established in China and 10 stem cell drugs are currently in the approval process. More than 400 stem cell-based clinical trials have been registered in China. With continued state funding, advanced biotechnical support, and the development of regulatory standards for the clinical application of stem cells, further innovations are expected, leading to a boom in stem cell therapy. This review highlights recent achievements of stem cell research in China and discusses future prospects.

  14. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Cryospheric Research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    BIOME4) to simulate the responses of biome distribution to future climate change in China. The simulation results suggest that regional climate...change would result in dramatic changes in vegetation distribution in China. For example on the Tibetan Plateau the area of forests increased by

  16. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  17. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  18. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  19. Overview on seagrasses and related research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajun; Fan, Hangqing; Cui, Xiaojian; Pan, Lianghao; Li, Sen; Song, Xiukai

    2010-03-01

    Seagrass research in China is still in its infancy. Even though there has been progress recently, there is still a great deal of research needed to gain a better understanding of seagrass. In this article we review and discuss the advances in seagrass research in China from two aspects: (1) seagrass species and their distribution; (2) seagrass research in China, including studies on their taxonomy, ecology, photosynthesis, applications in aquaculture, salt-tolerance mechanisms and other research topics. A total of 18 seagrass species belonging to 8 genera are distributed in nine provinces and regions in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), as well as the Xisha and Nansha Archipelagos. They can be divided into two groups: a North China Group and a South China Group. Based on the seagrass distribution, the Chinese mainland coast can be divided into three sections: North China Seagrass Coast, Middle China Seagrass Coast, and South China Seagrass Coast. Ecological studies include research on seagrass communities, nutrient cycling in seagrass ecosystems, genetic diversity, pollution ecology and research in the key regions of Shandong, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan. Seagrass species and their locations, community structure, ecological evaluation, epiphytes, ecological functions and threats in the key regions are also summarized. Other studies have focused on remote sensing of seagrass, threatened seagrass species of China, and pollen morphology of Halophila ovalis.

  20. Astronomy research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu

    Decades of efforts made by Chinese astronomers have established some basic facilities for astronomy observations, such as the 2.16-m optical telescope, the solar magnetic-field telescope, the 13.7-m millimeter-wave radio telescope etc. One mega-science project, the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), intended for astronomical and astrophysical studies requiring wide fields and large samples, has been initiated and funded. To concentrate the efforts on mega-science projects, to operate and open the national astronomical facilities in a more effective way, and to foster the best astronomers and research groups, the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOs) has been coordinated and organizated. Four research centers, jointly sponsored by observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and universities, have been established. Nine principal research fields have received enhanced support at NAOs. They are: large-scale structure of universe, formation and evolution of galaxies, high-energy and cataclysmic processes in astrophysics, star formation and evolution, solar magnetic activity and heliogeospace environment, astrogeodynamics, dynamics of celestial bodies in the solar system and artificial bodies, space-astronomy technology, and new astronomical techniques and methods.

  1. Current Research of Trichinellosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Xiaolei; Tang, Bin; Liu, Mingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Trichinellosis, caused by Trichinella, is an emerging or re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease, which is distributed worldwide with major socio-economic importance in some developing countries. In particular, it has been calculated that more than 40 million people are at risk of Trichinella infection in China. This review summarizes the current information on the epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and vaccines of trichinellosis in China. Moreover, study of the treatment potential of using Trichinella for immune-related diseases and cancer, as well as the transcription and post-transcription modification of Trichinella were also collected, providing viewpoints for future investigations. Current advances in research will help us to develop new strategies for the prevention and control of trichinellosis and may potentially yield biological agents for treating other diseases. PMID:28824597

  2. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  3. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  4. Advances in energy research

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Morena J

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of energy research studies from authors around the globe, including recent research in new technologies associated with the construction of nuclear power plants; oil disperse systems study using nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry (NMRR); low energy consumption for cooling and heating systems; experimental investigation of the performance of a ground-source heat pump system for buildings heating and cooling; sustainable development of bioenergy from agricultural wastes and the environment; hazard identification and parametric analysis of toxic pollutants dispersion from large liquid hydrocarbon fuel-tank fires; maintenance benchmarking in petrochemicals plants by means of a multicriteria model; wind energy development innovation; power, people and pollution; nature and technology of geothermal energy and clean sustainable energy for the benefit of humanity and the environment; and soil thermal properties and the effects of groundwater on closed loops.

  5. Advances in Electrophysiological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders. These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26259089

  6. Advances in Aeronautical Systems Research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation includes some highlights of recent advancements in Aeronautics Systems Research which includes the use of Modern Design of Experiment for Aerodynamic Simulations to reduce the time and cost of large programmes, findings...

  7. Advanced propeller research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  9. Animal Production Research Advances: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled appropriately in MS Word version to: Editor–in–Chief, Animal Production Research Advances Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Lab

  10. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  11. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  12. Canada-China Conference on advanced reactor development (CCCARD-2014). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Canada-China Conference on Advanced Reactor Development (CCCARD-2014) was held on April 27-30, 2014 in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. About 80 engaged registrants attended the conference, which provided a direct link between Canada and China in Advanced Reactor Development helping to establish bridges between utilities, industries, research organizations and academic institutions from the two countries. The four-day conference was created to provide a forum to discuss advances and issues, share information and promote future collaborations on advanced nuclear reactor development. The technical sessions focussed on: Reactor Designs; Materials, Chemistry and Corrosion; Thermal hydraulics and Safety Design; Reactor Physics and Fuel. (author)

  13. Advances in the study of Lynch syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Jian-Qiu

    2015-06-14

    Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. During the last decades, there have been great advances in research on Chinese Lynch syndrome. This review mainly focuses on the genetic basis, clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, intervention, chemoprevention, and surveillance of Lynch syndrome in China. In addition to frequently altered MMR genes, such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and MLH3, other MMR-associated genes, such as those encoding human exonuclease 1, transforming growth factor β receptor 2, and alanine aminopeptidase, metastasis-associated protein 2, adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1, and hepatic and glial cell adhesion molecule have also been implicated in Chinese Lynch syndrome. Most Chinese researchers focused on the clinicopathologic features of Lynch syndrome, and it is noticeable that the most frequent extracolonic tumor in northeast China is lung cancer, which is different from other areas in China. The Chinese diagnostic criteria for Lynch syndrome have been established to identify gene mutation or methylation. With regard to chemoprevention, celecoxib may be effective to prevent polyps relapse in Lynch syndrome carriers. Additionally, a colonoscopy-based surveillance strategy for the prevention and early detection of neoplasms in Lynch-syndrome carriers has been proposed.

  14. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  15. Advanced Control and Autonomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Lombaerts, Thomas; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This presentation is given at a NASA DLR (German Aerospace Center) meeting at NASA ARC on March 14, 2017. The presentation provides an overview of the Advanced Control and Evolvable Systems (ACES) group at NASA ARC and the research areas in UAS autonomy, stall recovery guidance, and flexible aircraft flight control.

  16. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  17. Boosting China's research collaboration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The expansion of China's economy has prompted the country's emergence as a major player in the field of foreign aid, including in health. “China has dispatched Chinese medical teams since 1963,” says 2015 IDRC Research Award recipient Rong Li, “but there has been little public health assistance.”

  18. Advanced research in data privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the research work on data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies carried by the participants of the ARES project. ARES (Advanced Research in Privacy an Security, CSD2007-00004) has been one of the most important research projects funded by the Spanish Government in the fields of computer security and privacy. It is part of the now extinct CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010 program, a highly competitive program which aimed to advance knowledge and open new research lines among top Spanish research groups. The project started in 2007 and will finish this 2014. Composed by 6 research groups from 6 different institutions, it has gathered an important number of researchers during its lifetime. Among the work produced by the ARES project, one specific work package has been related to privacy. This books gathers works produced by members of the project related to data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies. The presented works not only summarize important research carried in the proje...

  19. Bioenergy research advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijai G; Kubicek, Christian P; Saddler, Jack; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post...

  20. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  1. [Research advance in characteristics of molybdenum, boron and selenium in red soils of South China and effects of their reasonable application on forage grass growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Boqi; Huang, Dongfeng

    2004-06-01

    Reasonable fertilization and fertility improvement of red soils are the important measures to develop the forage industry in hilly regions of South China. This paper summarized the existing form, chemical feature, availability and content of molybdenum, boron and selenium in red soils of South China. The lack of these three microelements in red soils was in common, and their reasonable application could significantly improve the growth of forage grass and its yield. The authors discussed the effects of molybdenum, boron and selenium application on the uptake and accumulation of available nutrients by forage grass and relevant physiological functions, described the molybdenum, boron and selenium deficiency symptoms of forage grass, their diagnostic methods and correcting measures, and put forward some suggestions for deepening the study.

  2. China holds '95 advanced seminars on reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y

    1995-12-01

    This news brief indicates that China conducted a number of seminars on reproductive health since the 1994 Beijing Conference on Women's Reproductive Health. Seminars, manpower, and funding were provided by the UNFPA and the All China Women's Federation, which included the Department of Maternal and Child Health of the Ministry of Public Health, the Science and Technology Department of the State Family Planning Commission, the Chinese Association of Preventive Medical Science, and the Research Institute for Women's Issues. Seminars were organized by the Chinese Association for Preventive Medical Science. Experts identified the following topics as priorities for the seminars: the definition and development of reproductive health, women's reproductive health and health care, women's premarital health care, women's prenatal health care, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, family planning, women's rights and benefits, male participation in family planning, and education on reproductive health. The 1995 Advanced Seminars on Reproductive Health occurred during May 28-31, 1995, in Beijing, and, during June 1995, in Jixian county. Participation included 140 maternal-child health workers, family planning providers, social workers for women's issues, and other related managers from Beijing and Tianjin and subordinate districts and countries. The seminar materials were collated and bound for use as teaching materials.

  3. Strategic directions and actions for advanced practice nursing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha N. Hill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need and opportunity for China to develop education and practice innovations given that advance practice nurses (APNs improve health care and outcomes. The China Medical Board (CMB China Nursing Network (CCNN began planning for an Advanced Nursing Practice Program for education and career development that will facilitate CCNN's contributions to meeting national nursing policy priorities. This paper presents the discussion, recommendations and action plans developed at the inaugural planning meeting on June 26, 2015 at Fudan University in Shanghai. The recommendations are: Develop standards for advanced nursing practice; Develop Master's level curricula based on the standards; Commence pilot projects across a number of University affiliated hospitals; and Prepare clinical tutors and faculty. The strategic directions and actions are: Develop a clinical career ladder system; Expand the nursing role from hospital to community; and Build a specialty nurse accreditation system.

  4. Rapeseed research and production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qiong; Hua, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xuekun; Liu, Lijiang; Shi, Jiaqin; Zhao, Yongguo; Qin, Lu; Chen, Chang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and...

  5. US-China Collaboration on Landslide Research and Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Funded by a NSF International Research Experience for Students (IRES) project (OIA: 1460034) at the University of Houston (http://ires.nsm.uh.edu), the author brought eight U.S. students to China in the summer of 2016. The host university at the China side is the China University of Geoscience at Wuhan. The international collaborative project is designed to expose U.S. students to the international landslide research community at an early stage of their careers. The NSF IRES program will support minimum 18 U.S. students (two graduates and four undergraduates per year) to conduct advanced landslide research in the Three Gorges area in China during the summers (eight weeks) of 2016, 2017, and 2018. The 2016 summer program includes a one-week-long pre-training at the University of Houston, a two-week-long intensive Chinese language and cultural course at the main campus of the China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), a four-week-long landslide field investigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and a one-week-long wrap-up at the University of Houston. This presentation will introduce the experiences and lessons that we learned from the first-year activities of the international collaborative project.

  6. HRM Research in the Mainland China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Dayou; Li, Peter Ping; Li, Yuanling

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this perspective article is to identify the developmental trajectory of human resource management (HRM) research in the Mainland China as well as the major research gaps to be filled in the future. In particular, the paper focuses on the current challenges as well......, falls seriously short of meeting the high-quality standards of the international academic community. Originality/value – Through analyzing the status quo of HRM research in the Mainland China, the paper identified an emerging trend toward an integration of both etic and emic approaches in which the two...

  7. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  8. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  9. Animal Production Research Advances: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. China | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innovations in farming. Our research support over two decades has introduced innovative farming practices in China. For example, Canadian and Chinese researchers developed a mobile phone technology that supports applications to make valuable information, such as wholesale food prices, accessible to poor farmers.

  11. Recent Advances in Mercury Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J; Aschner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic, non-essential, naturally occurring metal with a variety of uses. Mercury is not required for any known biological process and its presence in the human body may be detrimental, especially to the nervous system. Both genetic and behavioral studies suggest that mercury levels, age (both of exposure and at testing), and genetic background determine disease processes and outcome. The metal receptors and genes responsible for mercury metabolism also appear to play a pivotal role in the etiology of mercury-induced pathology. This review presents information about the latest advances in mercury research, with particular focus on low-level exposures and the contribution of genetics to toxic outcome. Future studies should address the contribution of genetics and low-level mercury exposure to disease, namely gene x environment interactions, taking into consideration age of exposure as developing animals are exquisitely more sensitive to this metal. In addition to recent advances in understanding the pathology associated with mercury exposure, the review highlights transport mechanisms, cellular distribution and detoxification of mercury species in the body.

  12. [Research Advances in Postmortem Chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun-qi; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Deng, Kai-fei; Zhang, Jian-hua; Liu, Ning-guo; Zou, Dong-hua; Li, Zheng-dong; Shao, Yu; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yi-jiu

    2015-08-01

    Postmortem chemistry is becoming more and more essential in routine forensic pathology and has made considerable progress over the past years. Biochemical analyses of vitreous humor, blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid may provide important information in determining the cause of death or in elucidating forensic issues. Postmortem chemistry may be essential for the determination of cause of death when morphological methods (diabetes mellitus, alcoholic ketoacidosis and electrolytic disorders) cannot detect the pathophysiological changes involved in the death process. It can also provide many information in other forensic situations, including myocardial ischemia, sepsis, inflammation, infection, anaphylaxis and hormonal disturbances. The most recent relevant research advances on glucose metabolism, liver function, cardiac function, renal function, sepsis, inflammation, infection, anaphylaxis and hormonal aspect are hereby reviewed.

  13. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  14. Rehabilitation research in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Masami; Liu, Meigen; Wu, Zong-Yao; Guo, Tiecheng

    2004-07-01

    Despite recent developments in global communication networks in medicine, researchers whose first language is not English are confronted by a dilemma; international demand to publish their works in English as the de facto common language and domestic needs to maintain a high level of research activity. To facilitate more contributions by non-English speaking researchers we reviewed rehabilitation research in China and Japan. The review was conducted by investigating 4 Chinese journals and the Japanese journal on rehabilitation medicine (1997/1999-2001), financial information from the proceedings of the Annual Congress of the Chinese Society (2000-02) and government grants given for research in Japan (1998-2000). In China, half of the articles focused on the effects of physical modality and therapeutic exercise on normal subjects. Most funds came from a Natural Science Foundation run by the central government. The Japanese journal contained a small number of clinical trials and many experimental studies. The number of applications for government grants increased. Though rehabilitation research is a relatively young branch of medical science, research in both China and Japan has been increasing. In the future we should organize clinical research to satisfy the needs of specific socioeconomic backgrounds and overcome the dilemma between global and domestic activities.

  15. Advances in the national inertial fusion program of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X.T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The planned inertial confinement fusion (ICF ignition in China in around 2020 is to be accomplished in three steps. The first is carrying out target physics experiments in the existing laser facilities SG-II, SG-IIIP and SG-IIU (operating in 2012 of output energy 3-24 kJ at 3ω. Results have been obtained for better understanding the implosion dynamics and radiation transport. Recent studies include efficiency of radiation generation, hydrodynamic instabilities, shock waves in cryogenic targets, opacity measurements using kJ lasers, etc. Hydrodynamic codes (the LARED series have been developed and experimentally verified with over 5000 shots, and are applied to investigating target physics and ignition target design. For fast ignition, a large number of experiments and numerical simulations have led to improved understanding relevant to target design, hot electron transport, collimation by the spontaneous magnetic fields in overdense plasmas, etc. In addition to the SG-II, SG-IIU and SG-IIIP, the SG-III laser facility with energy of 200–400 kJ at 3ω shall operate in 2014 and be used for advanced target physics research. In the last step, the 1.5 MJ SG-IV laser facility still under design will be used to investigate ignition and burning.

  16. The China puzzle: Opportunities for accounting research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How can China achieve phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered as “weak” institutions in market-based economies? Xu (2011 provides a framework to understand this puzzle. Specifically, he suggests that China’s institutional framework of Regionally Decentralized Authoritarian regime was likely responsible for the phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered “weak” institutions for market-based economies. While recent accounting research provides insights into the relationship between agency issues, and accounting and control systems in the China context, accounting researchers can use the institutional feature of RDAs to provide insights into the role of accounting and control systems in non-market-based settings.

  17. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  18. RESEARCH CENTRIFUGE- ADVANCED TOOL SEPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan Ashwini; Prof. B.V. Jain; Dr Surajj Sarode

    2015-01-01

    A centrifuge is a critical piece of equipment for the laboratory. Purpose of this study was to study research centrifuge in detail, its applications, uses in different branches and silent features. Their are two types of research centrifuge study here revolutionary research centrifuge and microprocessor research centrifuge. A centrifuge is a device that separates particles from a solution through use of a rotor. In biology, the particles are usually cells, sub cellular organelles, or large mo...

  19. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  20. [Research advance in ecosystem service of urban green space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Rusong

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, the concept and connotation of urban green space and ecosystem service were expatiated, and the research advance in ecosystem service of urban green space was reviewed. The studies of ecosystem service of urban green space in overseas were focused on improving the quality of urban environment, maintaining biodiversity, providing amenity values, and ecosystem management; while in China, they were focused on the structure and function of urban green space, green quantity and quality, green equivalent, indicator system evaluation, value assessment, and application of CITYgreen model. The shortages and prospects of the researches on ecosystem service of urban green space were put forward.

  1. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  2. Advanced Neonatal Medicine in China: A National Baseline Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Peng Liao

    where each unit had more than 20 admissions of ELBW infants in 2010; and the median hospital cost for a single hospital stay in ELBW infants was US$8,613 (IQR 8,153-9,216, which was 3.0 times (IQR 2.0-3.2 the average per-capita disposable income, or 63 times (IQR 40.3-72.1 the average per-capita health expenditure of local urban residents in 2011. Our national database provides baseline data on the status of advanced neonatal medicine in China, gathering valuable information for quality improvement, decision making, longitudinal studies and horizontal comparisons.

  3. Animal Research International: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Advanced Construction Technology Center Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-19

    M.S., Ceramic Engineering, May 1989 RESEARCH ASSISTANTS: 1 J.M. Bukowski Ph.D., Ceramic Engineering, August 1993* Hung-Yuan Hsieh M.S., Civil...Parallel Processing (St. Charles , IL, August 1988) 204-211 (1988). 97 U LO, T.M. Data modeling of three-dimensional objects. M.S. thesis, J. Liu, advisor U

  5. Bio-Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The activities of the AGTSR Program during this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report text is divided into discussions on Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are highlighted below with additional detail following in the text of the report.

  7. Research advances in industrial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides discussions and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of industrial engineering. It communicates the latest developments and research activity on industrial engineering and is useful for all those interested in the technological challenges in the field.

  8. Advancing water footprint assessment research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Oel, van Pieter R.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major

  9. African Research Review: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Advances in developmental prosopagnosia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-06-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) refers to face recognition deficits in the absence of brain damage. DP affects ∼2% of the population, and it often runs in families. DP studies have made considerable progress in identifying the cognitive and neural characteristics of the disorder. A key challenge is to develop a valid taxonomy of DP that will facilitate many aspects of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  12. Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susan Rundell

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

  13. Teaching Research Synthesis to Advanced Practice Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Sandra; Brosnan, Christine A.; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2002-01-01

    A process for teaching research synthesis to advanced practice nurses includes two courses: a first research applications course in which students build bibliographic databases, practice statistical analysis, and develop search skills; and a second course in which they complete literature reviews or meta analyses of research on clinical practice…

  14. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  15. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields.

  16. Recent advances in predictability studies in China (1999-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mu; Wansuo, Duan; Jifan, Chou

    2004-06-01

    Since the last International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) General Assembly (1999), the predictability studies in China have made further progress during the period of 1999-2002. Firstly, three predictability sub-problems in numerical weather and climate prediction are classified, which are concerned with the maximum predictability time, the maximum prediction error, and the maximum allowable initial error, and then they are reduced into three nonlinear optimization problems. Secondly, the concepts of the nonlinear singular vector (NSV) and conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) are proposed, which have been utilized to study the predictability of numerical weather and climate prediction. The results suggest that the nonlinear characteristics of the motions of atmosphere and oceans can be revealed by NSV and CNOP. Thirdly, attention has also been paid to the relations between the predictability and spatial-temporal scale, and between the model predictability and the machine precision, of which the investigations disclose the importance of the spatial-temporal scale and machine precision in the study of predictability. Also the cell-to-cell mapping is adopted to analyze globally the predictability of climate, which could provide a new subject to the research workers. Furthermore, the predictability of the summer rainfall in China is investigated by using the method of correlation coefficients. The results demonstrate that the predictability of summer rainfall is different in different areas of China. Analysis of variance, which is one of the statistical methods applicable to the study of predictability, is also used to study the potential predictability of monthly mean temperature in China, of which the conclusion is that the monthly mean temperature over China is potentially predictable at a statistical significance level of 0.10. In addition, in the analysis of the predictability of the T106 objective analysis/forecasting field, the variance

  17. Introduction: Recent advances in expertise research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    During the 55th meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA, 2004) in San Diego, a symposium was organized on Recent Advances in Expertise Research. Most papers in this special issue of Applied Cognitive Psychology were presented in this symposium. The aim of this special issue is

  18. Advances in structure research by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, R

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods reviews advances in the use of diffraction methods in structure research. Topics covered include the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, with emphasis on Ewald waves in theory and experiment; dynamical theory of electron diffraction; small angle scattering; and molecular packing. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with an overview of the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, especially in terms of how it explains all the absorption and propagation properties of X-rays at the Bragg setting in a perfect crystal. The next

  19. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Karin Rolanda; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients' gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are still competent to decide offers a valuable opportunity to authorize research, by using an advance research directive (ARD). Yet, the use of ARDs as an authorization for research participation remains controversial. In this paper we discuss the role of autonomous decision-making and the protection of incompetent research subjects. We will show why ARDs are a morally defensible basis for the inclusion of this population in biomedical research and that the use of ARDs is compatible with the protection of incompetent research subjects.

  20. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  1. [Advances in research on ecological land classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Baoying; Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Shao, Guofan

    2002-11-01

    Land classification is the base of land evaluation, land planning and land management, and plays an important role in the sustainable development of forestry resource. Ecological land classification (ELC) is the main approuch and direction of land classification. Along with the development of landscape ecology and 3S techniques, developing of ecological classification system (ECS) becomes the keystone of ELC. The definition, history, basic characteristics of ELC, the theory of ECS and its' prospects were systematically reviewed in this paper. The prospects were also described for the development of ECS methodology and the application of ELC. The general direction of ecological land research, which was a multi-factors and multi-levels syntheses based on the multi-objects administration of resource (forest, land and waters), was the combination of quantificational and qualitative research. It is necessary to carry out relevant researches in China.

  2. Combating echinococcosis in China: strengthening the research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Men-Bao; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Wu, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-11-21

    Echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, causing great morbidity and mortality due to the wide distribution of its endemic areas. China holds a high percentage in the global burden of both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. A national survey conducted between 2012 and 2016 showed that an estimated 50 million people are at risk of contracting the disease in western China, of whom about 0.17 million are cases with echinococcosis.Despite this, research and development on echinococcosis in China is greatly inadequate compared to that in other countries. In this paper, we argue that there is a need for more research and work to be conducted in China on echinococcosis, including researching techniques in regards to diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, and developing products through technical transformation and piloting strategies to control and even elimination.However, great opportunities exist for China to strengthen the research and development on this disease through initiatives such as Health China 2030, the Belt and Road Initiative, the China-Africa cooperation, as well as through further cooperation between China and the World Health Organization. All of these can bring us closer to controlling echinococcosis in China as well as in other countries. One element of crucial importance will be the training and development of professionals, which can be strengthened through international cooperation.

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  4. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  5. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  6. Research Advances in Molecular Modeling in Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qianqian; Zhang, Weixiang; Wang, Runmiao; Wang, Yitao; Ouyang, Defang

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs), as one type of the novel pharmaceutical excipients, have been widely used in drug delivery and pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decades, a large amount of molecular modeling studies in CDs were reported for profound understanding of structural, dynamic and energetic features of CDs systems. Thus, this review is focused on qualitative and quantitative analysis of research outputs on molecular modeling in CDs. The original data were collected from Web of Science and analyzed by scientific knowledge mapping tools, including Citespace, Science of Science, VOSviewer, GPSvisualizer and Gephi software. Scientific knowledge mapping, as an emerging approach for literature analysis, was employed to identify the knowledge structure and capture the development of the science in a visual way. The results of analysis included research outputs landscape, collaboration patterns, knowledge structure and research frontiers shift with time. China had the largest contributions to the publication number in this area, while USA dominated the high quality research outputs. International collaboration between USA and Europe was much stronger than that within Asia. J American Chemical Society, as one of the most important journals, played a pivotal role in linking different research fields. Furthermore, seven important thematic clusters were identified by the research cluster analysis with visualization tools and demonstrated from three different perspectives including: (1) the mostly-used CD molecules: β-Cyclodextrin, (2) preferred modeling tools: docking calculation and molecular dynamic, (3) hot research fields: structural properties, solubility, chiral recognition and solidstate inclusion complexes. Moreover, research frontier shift in the past three decades was traced by detecting keywords bursts with high citation. The current review provided us a macro-perspective and intellectual landscape to molecular modeling in CDs. Copyright© Bentham Science

  7. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  8. ATIP Report: Cyber Security Research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-05

    National Security Agency’s (NSA’s) PRISM program. China established the Central Leading Group for Internet Security and Informatization in February 2014 as...Edward Snowden leaked aspects of the US NSA’s PRISM program. In February 2014, China established the Central Leading Group for Internet Security and...Jianping Wu, Prof. Haixin DUAN, 2009-2011. • Key Projects in the National Science & Technology Pillar Program Sub-Program: Trusted Internet

  9. Advancing Family Business Research Through Narrative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Alexandra; Hjorth, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in family business research, the field would benefit from greater methodological rigor. However, rigor does not mean convergence of methodologies. In this article, the authors adopt a novel approach, based on narrative analysis, to address the succession process in a family...... business. This interpretive perspective is appropriate for family business studies, which address multifaceted and complex social constructs that are performed by different actors in multiple contexts. The analysis highlights five key themes centering on leadership style and succession, trust...

  10. Conflict and Society: Advances in Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassing, Erella; Horstmann, Alexander; Segal, Lotte Buch

    2015-01-01

    and committing violent acts, has been a steady companion of human life through the ages. The human quest to make sense of violence is probably as old as violence itself. Academic confl ict research both continues and advances this quest. As long as wars were waged between nations, the research on armed confl......Violence, defined as the intentional inflicting of injury and damage, seems to always have been a fact of human life. Whether in the shape of raids, ambushes, wars, massacres, genocides, insurgences, terrorism, or gang assaults, socially organized violence, that is, human groups orchestrating...

  11. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  12. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  13. Development of Action Research in China: Review and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Katrina Yan

    2011-01-01

    Action research in China during late 1970s and 1980s was influenced by positivist scientific research, believing the purpose of doing action research is to explore the general law of education. It was carried out through educational experimentations emphasizing the control of the experimental conditions. Starting from 1990s, action research in…

  14. In focus: molecular and cell biology research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuebiao; Li, Dangsheng; Pei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    An interactive, intellectual environment with good funding opportunities is essential for the development and success of basic research. The fast-growing economy and investment in science, together with a visionary plan, have attracted foreign scholars to work in China, motivated world-class Chinese scientists to return and strengthened the country's international collaborations. As a result, molecular and cell biology research in China has evolved rapidly over the past decade.

  15. The progress and challenges in metabolic research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Ren, Hao; Gao, Guangang; Zhou, Linkang; Malik, Muhammad Arshad; Li, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Metabolism refers to a chain of chemical reactions converting food/fuel into energy to conduct cellular processes, including the synthesis of the building blocks of the body, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic chain reactions are catalyzed by various enzymes that are orchestrated in specific pathways. Metabolic pathways are important for organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The coordinated regulation of metabolic pathways is important for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. The key steps and crucial enzymes in these pathways have been well investigated. However, the crucial regulatory factors and feedback (or feedforward) mechanisms of nutrients and intermediate metabolites of these biochemical processes remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, the roles of these enzymes and regulatory factors in controlling metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions are largely unknown. In particular, metabolic dysregulation is closely linked to the development of many diseases, including obesity, fatty liver, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, metabolism, an old area of biochemistry, has attracted much attention in the last decade. With substantially increased government funding, the involvement of talented researchers, an improved infrastructure and scientific environment over the last ten years, the basic research in the field of metabolism in China has dramatically advanced. Here, we have summarized the major discoveries of scientists in China in the last decade in the area of metabolism. Due to the vast amount of information, we focused this review on specific aspects of metabolism, particularly metabolic regulation and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(11):847-853, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Significance of developing advanced fuel CANDU reactor technology in China and the general requirements for AFCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenhua, Z.; Gang, Q.; Li, Z.; Zhiliang, M.; Xuebin, L.; Fanshen [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Zhejiang (China)

    2014-07-01

    Upon the demands of energy source structural adjustment and environmental optimization, China's nuclear power industry is anticipated to be continuously developing quickly in future. The sufficient supply of nuclear fuel will be the mostly concerned part at the progress of China's nuclear power development. Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor technology could play an active and important role in mitigating the condition of strained nuclear fuel supply, in promoting the reprocess industry of nuclear fuel, and in supplementing China's closed nuclear fuel cycle system. This paper presents the current status of Chinese nuclear closed fuel cycle and the incentive and significance for development Advanced Fuel PHWR Technology in China. This paper also describes the practice and roadmap of developing Advanced Fuel PHWR Technology. Finally this paper also raises the general requirements on the design of Advanced Fuel PHWR after Fukushima accident from point view of the owner. (author)

  17. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  18. The Comparative Research on the Penalty Allocation between Mexico and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-juan Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China and Mexico are both developing countries and are at the stage of economic transformation. As the advanced development of economy and industrialization, in both countries, environmental crime has become an unseen and gigantic social threat. The special characteristics of environmental crime have brought about new requirements to the traditional penalty. In order to attack the environmental crime in time and to ensure the seriousness and unity, it's necessary to make a comparison research on the penalty allocation between Mexico and China and analyze the respective advantages and disadvantages to perfect the relative legislation of the two countries.

  19. Advancing research transdisciplinarity within our discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Yoel; Esplin, M Sean; Garite, Thomas J; Nelson, D Michael; Parry, Samuel I; Saade, George R; Socol, Michael L; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Advancing biomedical knowledge is crucial to the understanding of disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and the maintenance of health. Whereas collaborative pursuits among basic and translational scientists, clinical researchers, and clinicians should advance biomedical progress and its translation to better medicine. The field of obstetrics and gynecology and its subspecialties has not escaped this problem. Obstetrics and gynecology specialists and subspecialists have limited opportunities to interact with translational or basic investigators, and cross-fertilization and collaborations are further challenged by the current healthcare and funding climate. This opinion manuscript focuses on the field of maternal-fetal medicine, serving as an example that illustrates the risks and opportunities that might exist within our obstetrics and gynecology academic community. A Pregnancy Task Force recently sought to identify ways to overcome hurdles related to research training, and ensure a sufficient pool of physician-scientists pursuing pertinent questions in the field. The group discussed strategies to promote a culture of intellectual curiosity and research excellence, securing additional resources for trainees, and attracting current and next generation basic, translational, and clinical scholars to our field. Recommendations encompassed activities within annual academic meetings, training initiatives, and additional funding opportunities. Inferences from these discussions can be made to all obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty areas. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on Distance Education Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ding; Jian, Niu; Yanhui, Han

    2010-01-01

    Distance education is among the significant fields for the application of educational technology. Distance education in China has gone through three phases, namely: correspondence-based education, radio and TV-based education and online education. This paper was based on educational technology application, and the historical, dialectic and…

  1. [Advances in research on childhood neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Hua; Qian, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Neutrophils, an important type of human immune cells, are involved in host defense against infections. Neutropenia refers to a group of diseases manifesting as a reduction in the absolute value of mature neutrophils and is often accompanied by an increased risk of bacterial infection. According to etiology and pathogenesis, neutropenia is classified into congenital and acquired neutropenia. This article reviews the current research status and advances in the etiology of neutropenia in children. A deep understanding of the etiology of neutropenia helps to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  2. The sweetest thing: advances in nectar research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Anna; Dell'Olivo, Alexandre; Bshary, Redouan; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2009-08-01

    We all appreciate the beauty of flowers, but we seldom consider their function in the life cycle of the plant. The function of beautiful flowers is to advertise the presence of nectar. Floral nectar is the key component in the mutualism between flowering plants and their pollinators. Plants offer nectar as a reward for the transport of pollen by animal vectors. Studying nectar is challenging because of its complex physiology, complex polygenetic structure, and strong environmental variability. Recent advances set the stage for exciting future research that combines genetics and physiology to study ecological and evolutionary questions.

  3. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  4. Forest Restoration in China: Advances, Obstacles, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Hongfang Lu; Jun Wang; Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Because of the prolonged history of disturbance caused by intense human activities, restoration in China has been a major task facing many ecologists and land managers. There are six major forest types in China: cold temperate coniferous forest, temperate coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, subtropical evergreen broad...

  5. Integrative review of international nursing research in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Wei, L; Liu, H; Tang, L

    2009-03-01

    Nursing research in Mainland China is divided into two parts: domestic nursing research, comprising all publications in Chinese; and international nursing research, comprising all publications in English. Domestic nursing research has been developing rapidly, demonstrated by the increase in new national or regional journals and publications. However, little is known about the extent of international research. To outline the development of international nursing research publications in Mainland China and to provide suggestions for future development. All of the papers were retrieved from PubMed. The key search phase was 'China or P.R.China NOT Hong Kong NOT Taiwan NOT Macao [AD]', with the limits of 'English', 'nursing journals' as well as the published date up to '2007/09/30'. PubMed recorded 57 English papers that were originally conducted in Mainland China during the search period from 1989 to 30 September 2007. Thirty-seven of the total 57 (65%) publications were contributed by Beijing, Shanghai and Hubei. Forty-four of the 57 publications were conducted with collaborators from Hong Kong, the USA, the UK and Canada. Thirteen publications were funded by international societies, while only three were funded by the Chinese government. The research topics mainly focused on clinical research, nursing education and nursing management. This study indicates that international nursing research has been growing slowly in Mainland China along with provincial variations. The suggestions to improve nursing research include the reform of nursing education, the enhancement of the collaboration with the international societies and the establishment of research priorities.

  6. [Advances in immunotherapeutic research of sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Lyu, Juan; Ding, Lili; Liu, Zhongmin

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection. Despite decades of research, it remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). None of the current treatment, including antibiotics, organ protection and liquid resuscitation, is specifically effective for sepsis. Immunosuppression is one of the currently accepted pathogenesis and immunotherapy is one of the hot spot of current sepsis research. Immune related treatments include restricting the release of pathogen toxin and its removal, controlling the excessive inflammatory reaction and apoptosis inhibition, etc. Numerous pre-clinical studies using immunomodulatory agents such as interleukin-7 (IL-7), anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody and others, have demonstrated reversal of T cell dysfunction and improved survival resulting from reviewing recent advances in immunotherapy of sepsis. Therefore, immunotherapy may be a new way of sepsis treatment.

  7. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  8. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  9. Advances of Community-Level Plant DNA Barcoding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W J

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a "purpose-driven barcode" fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources.

  10. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. [Advance in marine actinobacterial research--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wenjun

    2011-02-01

    The research on marine actinobacteria has worldwide interest because of their potential to produce special and new metabolites. Based on the research history of marine actinobacteria, we reviewed the research progress, conception, bio-resources and diversity,secondary metabolites, ecological function, genomics of marine actinobacteria and finally introduced the status of marine actinobacterial research in China.

  12. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world?s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the appl...

  13. Advances in Biomarker Research for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kruttika; Wang, Fengfei; Ma, Qingyong; Li, Qinyu; Mallik, Sanku; Hsieh, Tze-chen; Wu, Erxi

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a leading cause of cancer related deaths in United States. The lack of early symptoms results in late-stage detection and a high mortality rate. Currently, the only potentially curative approach for PC is surgical resection, which is often unsuccessful because the invasive and metastatic nature of the tumor masses makes their complete removal difficult. Consequently, patients suffer relapses from remaining cancer stem cells or drug resistance that eventually lead to death. To improve the survival rate, the early detection of PC is critical. Current biomarker research in PC indicates that a serum carbohydrate antigen, CA 19-9, is the only available biomarker with approximately 90% specificity to PC. However, the efficacy of CA 19-9 for assessing prognosis and monitoring patients with PC remains contentious. Thus, advances in technology and the detection of new biomarkers with high specificity to PC are needed to reduce the mortality rate of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22372502

  14. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  15. Research advances in hepatitis B virus reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Mengyuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In non-active or cured patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, when the body′s immune homeostasis is broken, HBV reactivation may occur, with the manifestations of liver inflammation and increased HBV DNA level, and lead to varying degrees of abnormal liver function, liver failure, and even death. Systematic management from the aspects of the screening of HBV reactivation, risk stratification of immunosuppression regimens, and patient's individual information needs to be solved urgently. It is very important to perform the screening of HBV serological markers before immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy, evaluate the risk of HBV reactivation, and develop individualized prophylactic antiviral therapy. Complete removal of covalently closed circular DNA in hepatocytes is essential for preventing HBV reactivation. This article summarizes related research advances in HBV reactivation from the aspects of its etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  16. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  17. Quality of pharmacoeconomic research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huifen; Jian, Weiyan; Xu, Tingting; He, Yasheng; Rizzo, John A.; Fang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The number of pharmacoeconomic publications in the literature from China has risen rapidly, but the quality of pharmacoeconomic publications from China has not been analyzed. Objectives: This study aims to identify all recent pharmacoeconomic publications from China, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. Methods: Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, and EmBase) were searched for original articles published up to December 31, 2014. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards statement including 24 items was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. Results: Of 1046 articles identified, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were published in 23 different journals. Quality of reporting varied between studies, with an average score of 18.7 (SD = 4.33) out of 24 (range 9–23.5). There was an increasing trend of pharmacoeconomic publications and reporting quality over years from 2003 to 2014. According to the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards, the reporting quality for the items including “title,” “comparators of method,” and “measurement of effectiveness” are quite low, with less than 50% of studies fully satisfying these reporting standards. In contrast, reporting was good for the items including “introduction,” “study perspective,” “choice of health outcomes,” “study parameters,” “characterizing heterogeneity,” and “discussion,” with more than 75% of the articles satisfying these reporting criteria. The remaining items fell in between these 2 extremes, with 50% to 75% of studies satisfying these criteria. Conclusion: Our study suggests the need for improvement in a number of reporting criteria. But the criteria for which reporting quality was low seem to be limitations that would be straightforward to correct in future studies. PMID:27741131

  18. The Advancement of Cool Roof Standards in China from 2010 to 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levinson, Ronnen M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Since the initiation of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center-Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE) cool roof research collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Heat Island Group and Chinese institutions in 2010, new cool surface credits (insulation trade- offs) have been adopted in Chinese building energy efficiency standards, industry standards, and green building standards. JGJ 75-2012: Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Warm Winter Zone became the first national level standard to provide cool surface credits. GB/T 50378-2014: Assessment Standard for Green Building is the first national level green building standard that offers points for heat island mitigation. JGJ/T 359-2015: Technical Specification for Application of Architectural Reflective Thermal Insulation Coating is the first industry standard that offers cool coating credits for both public and residential buildings in all hot-summer climates (Hot Summer/Cold Winter, Hot Summer/Warm Winter). As of December 2015, eight provinces or municipalities in hot-summer regions have credited cool surfaces credits in their residential and/or public building design standards; five other provinces or municipalities in hot-summer regions recommend, but do not credit, the use of cool surfaces in their building design standards. Cool surfaces could be further advanced in China by including cool roof credits for residential and public building energy efficiency standards in all hot-summer regions; developing a standardized process for natural exposure and aged-property rating of cool roofing products; and adapting the U.S.-developed laboratory aging process for roofing materials to replicate solar reflectance changes induced by natural exposure in China.

  19. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  20. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  1. Joint research to build a foundation for nuclear cooperation between Korea and China (KINS-NNSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Park, D. K.; Eun, Y. S.; Lee, J. I.; Park, Y. S.; Song, I. J.; Bang, Y. S.; Hyun, C. H.; Jung, D. W.; Jung, J. W.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Ryu, Y. H.; Bae, K H.; Ahn, S. H.; Jo, D. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In order to strengthen and effectively perform nuclear cooperation between Korea and China. This joint research is not only to develop cooperative programme but also to establish implementation direction for the cooperation between KINS and NNSA as nuclear regulatory bodies. Through this research; 1) Regulatory system, organization, function, and activities of Chinese regulatory bodies could be identified. 2) Both institutions agreed to follow cooperative programmes for nuclear safety, such as: - held annually regular meeting on technical informations and experts exchange - Immediate exchange the informations on NPP operational events each other and establishment of channel for this purpose - Immediate notification each other in the radiological nuclear accident and establishment of channel for this purpose - Cooperative safety research for mutual interests in the field of nuclear safety analysis technology 3) It is understood each other that both institutions will make into effort bilateral cooperation between Korea and China to advance triple cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. It is thought that this research makes nuclear safety cooperation between the two assist export of our predominant technology to China in the future. 7 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. [Research advances in bryophyte ecological function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ji; Hao, Zhanqing; Yu, Deyong; Yan, Haibing; Feng, Dequan

    2004-10-01

    Though the body of bryophyte is small, its species is abundant (about 23,000), being an important part of biodiversity. The previous studies were focused on its taxology, while its ecological functions in ecosystem were ignored. Bryophyte can adapt to various environments, distribute in many extreme surroundings, and has rebuilding ability to environments. It has a very strong ability of holding and absorbing water, especially the epiphytic bryophyte can intercept a great deal of rain, and its function in water circulation is very obvious. Bryophyte can absorb a lot of nutrient elements by body surface, but its function in nutrient cycling was usually ignored. In some extreme environments, bryophyte is the important primary producer. Sphagnum biomass is more enormous, and maybe, is the important C pool. Bryophyte can sensitively response to the air and heavy metal pollution, and is a kind of bio-indicators. In order to promote the further studies on bryophyte ecological function, the related research advances were reviewed in this paper.

  4. [Research advances in population dynamics of Orchidaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Yin, Shou-hua; Lan, Qin-ying

    2010-11-01

    In the study of population dynamics of Orchidaceae, demographic analysis can make us better understand the spatiotemporal variation of plant individuals, the core of the population dynamics study. Nevertheless, many orchid species have an epiphytic or lithophytic habit, which predisposes them to a discrete or patchy distribution. In this case, metapopulation study is a good method to judge the protective scale of the population by analyzing the extent of gene flow among patches. In addition, long-term observation is needed to obtain reliable information on the life history and population dynamics of Orchidaceae, and to understand the relationships between the spatiotemporal variation and functioning of orchid population in certain environmental conditions. As for the short-term study, it's essential for a better understanding of the relationships between the structurally dependent plants and the communities in which they are fund. This paper reviewed the research advances in the population dynamics of Orchidaceae from the viewpoints of the population ecology and ecological characteristics of Orchidaceae.

  5. Market Research of the Luxury Car Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is a pre-market study of the luxury car market in China. The necessity for the study came, when the author was recruited to a Chinese company to start a new business sector that would import luxury cars to China. The author nor the company has experience on the market, which created the need to investigate the field. The goal of the research is to describe the main characteristics of the market. This would give the author and the company basic knowledge on the market in...

  6. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  7. Advances in Synthetic Drugs for Schistomiasis Communist China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-05-19

    antimony potassium tartrate. Disulfide succinic acid socium is an antimony anti-toxic found in China, and its anti- toxic effects are much better...than those of disulfide propyl alcohol.(2) The cyclo antimony sulphur thio-alcohol salt of this anti-toxic is bisulfide succinic acid antimony sodium...also been effective, but they are net as good as antimony agents. Bismuth compounds have some curative value. Without curative value are organic

  8. Advancing land change modeling: opportunities and research requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geographical Sciences Committee; Board on Earth Sciences and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Research Council

    2014-01-01

    "Advancing Land Change Modeling: Opportunities and Research Requirements describes various LCM approaches, suggests guidance for their appropriate application, and makes recommendations to improve the integration of observation...

  9. The past and present of blast injury research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury, the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention. Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma. For example, soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage, combined injuries and arterial air embolism. Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden, but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained, including the development of biological shock tube, the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs, as well as protective measures under special environments. This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China.

  10. Current Status and Recent Advance of Aquaculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hongxin

    2009-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that worldwide harvest output of aquatic products will be stagnant or decreased whereas the consumption of aquatic products will be increased at the speed of 1.0% to 2.9%. The increase of aquatic product output will mainly be attributed to the development of aquaculture. For a developing country, especially for a country with a large population and fast developing pace as China, aquaculture in the 21st century will not only face...

  11. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  12. Integrated Advanced Energy Systems Research at IIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Arastoopour

    2010-09-30

    This report consists of Two research projects; Sustainable Buildings and Hydrogen Storage. Sustainable Building Part includes: Wind and the self powered built environment by professor P. Land and his research group and experimental and computational works by professor D. Rempfer and his research group. Hydrogen Storage part includes: Hydrogen Storage Using Mg-Mixed Metal Hydrides by professor H. Arastoopour and his research team and Carbon Nanostructure as Hydrogen Storage Material by professor J. Prakash and his research team.

  13. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A multidisciplinary Earth science research program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Li, Tingdong; Gao, Rui; Hou, Hesheng; Li, Yingkang; Zhang, Shihong; Keller, G. Randy; Liu, Mian

    2011-09-01

    Because China occupies a large and geologically complex region of central and eastern Asia, the country may hold the keys to resolving many basic problems in the Earth sciences, such as how continental collision with India produced China's interconnected array of large intraplate structures, and what links exist between these structures and natural resources. To learn more, the Chinese government has launched SinoProbe, a major research initiative focusing on multidisciplinary imaging of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure and composition of the Chinese continental lithosphere and its evolution through geologic history. This effort is also motivated by China's need for a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and a better understanding of potential geohazards. SinoProbe is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Finance, managed by the Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources, and organized by the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. More than 960 investigators and engineers are currently involved with the program, not counting international collaborators. Most of them are affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Education (i.e., universities), and the China Earthquake Administration. The initial phase of the program (2008-2012), with funding equivalent to about US$164 million, is testing the feasibility of new technologies in geophysical and geochemical exploration and deep continental drilling by focusing on a series of profiles (Figure 1).

  15. Proceedings of the first symposium on advanced photon research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report consists of 76 contributed papers of the First Symposium on Advanced Photon Research, which was held at Keihanna Plaza and JAERI Advanced Photon Research Center in Kyoto on November 8-9, 1999. The numbers of oral presentations including a special invited talk and poster presentations were 14 and 68, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  16. Integrating advance research directives into the European Legal Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andorno, R. (Roberto); Gennet, E. (Eloïse); K.R. Jongsma (Karin); Elger, B. (Bernice)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical

  17. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Research | Integral geometry and advanced stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sabrina Tang; Plessis, Andrew du

    2015-01-01

    This contribution to the journal CSGB annual report summarises my research on topology and digital image analysis until 2014.......This contribution to the journal CSGB annual report summarises my research on topology and digital image analysis until 2014....

  19. Research | Integral geometry and advanced stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sabrina Tang; Plessis, Andrew du

    2014-01-01

    This contribution to the journal CSGB annual report summarises my research on topology and digital image analysis until 2013.......This contribution to the journal CSGB annual report summarises my research on topology and digital image analysis until 2013....

  20. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%, followed by the lack of time (13.4% and language barrier (15.0%. Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%, advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%, and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%, while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research

  1. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  2. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  3. The structure and comparative advantages of China's scientific research: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a sharp increase in China's scientific output. Behind its fast growth, little is known about China's comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. Meanwhile, despite China's rising position (now in second place worldwide for research output), its research

  4. The Emergence of Social Work Practice Research in the Peoples' Republic of China: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Timothy; Lau, Victor C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In China where social work is a fledgling profession, practice research is still a novelty. This article aims to provide an overview of the development of social work practice research in mainland China. Methods: This review analyzes the content of 206 Chinese journal articles published in the Peoples' Republic of China since 1915 using…

  5. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  6. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  7. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Jongsma (Karin); S. van de Vathorst (Suzanne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to

  8. Participatory action research advances climate change adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... CCAA researchers also collaborated to produce a series of fact sheets on topics related to agricultural adaptation: Using seasonal climate forecasting · Soil fertility management · A series of country case studies. The Climate Change Adaptation in Africa research and capacity development program ran from ...

  9. The summary of researches on ADS in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihong, Xia; Zhixiang, Zhao; Jigen, Li; Yongqian, Shi; Yinlu, Han; Shengyun, Zhu; Yongli, Xu; Xialing, Guan; Shinian, Fu; Baoqun, Cui [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2005-11-15

    The conceptual study of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) had lasted for about five years and ended in 1999 in China. As one project of 'the major state basic research program (973)' in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five years program of basic research for ADS physics and related technology has been launched since 2000 and passed national review last month. CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy), IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics), PKU-IHIP (Institute of Heavy Ion Physics in Peking University) and other institutions are jointly carrying on the research. The research activities are focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven sub-critical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and a RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5MeV has been built. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carried out and is being carrying on. The VENUS facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for the neutronics study in Ads blanket. It's a zero power sub-critical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator. The theoretical, experimental and simulation study on nuclear date, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to Ads is carrying on to provide the database for Ads system analysis. The main results on Ads related researches will be reported.

  10. Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in China: integrating Chinese research and development capabilities for global drug innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-Zhen; Hu, Hao; Wang, Chunming

    2014-11-19

    The significance of R&D capabilities of China has become increasingly important as an emerging force in the context of globalization of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). While China has prospered in its R&D capability in the past decade, how to integrate the rising pharmaceutical R&D capability of China into the global development chain for innovative drugs remains challenging. For many multinational corporations and research organizations overseas, their attempt to integrate China's pharmaceutical R&D capabilities into their own is always hindered by policy constraints and reluctance of local universities and pharmaceutical firms. In light of the situation, contract research organizations (CROs) in China have made great innovation in value proposition, value chain and value networking to be at a unique position to facilitate global and local R&D integration. Chinese CROs are now being considered as the essentially important and highly versatile integrator of local R&D capability for global drug discovery and innovation.

  11. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Titus; Butler, Brian S; Song, Mei; Spallek, Heiko

    2012-03-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers' need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators' desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user's primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems.

  12. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  13. Research in advance for FMD novel vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hao-tai; Zhou, Jian-hua; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2011-06-03

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), as a major global animal disease, affects millions of animals worldwide and remains the main sanitary barrier to the international and national trade of animals and animal products. Inactivated vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention of FMD at present, but fail to induce long-term protection and content new requires for production of FMD vaccines. As a number of Researchers hope to obtain satisfactory novel vaccines by new bio-technology, novel vaccines have been studied for more than thirty years. Here reviews the latest research progress of new vaccines, summarizes some importance and raises several suggestions for the future of FMD vaccine.

  14. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  15. Pursuing Qualitative Research From the Global South: "Investigative Research" During China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, qualitative researchers have begun to challenge the domination and universalistic claims of the Global North. Nevertheless, it is still unclear what pursuing qualitative research (QR from the Global South might entail. I advance this effort by situating it in the larger context of the decentering endeavor in social science and decolonizing methodologies in aboriginal scholarship. Informed by their locally-grounded approach in the quest for constructing alternative social science accounts and articulating decolonized knowledge, I argue that writing locally-grounded histories is an essential first step to explore methodologies and epistemologies of QR from the Global South. Noting that no national history of QR has been derived from the Global South, I present an example of writing the history of QR by examining MAO Zedong's legacy of "investigative research" (IR. Specifically, I analyze the practices of IR during China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62. In conclusion, I discuss the implications of IR to the development of social science research in contemporary China. I lay out key issues in pursuing QR from the Global South and present how such a pursuit is relevant to social science inquiry in the Global North. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150325

  16. Advances in Music-Reading Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct a comprehensive review of the research literature in the reading of western staff notation. Studies in music perception, music cognition, music education and music neurology are cited. The aim is to establish current knowledge in music-reading acquisition and what is needed for further progress in this…

  17. Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  18. Plant Products Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  19. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. University of Mauritius Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  1. International Journal of Educational Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  2. Journal of Business Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  3. Highland Medical Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  5. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Advancing Family Planning Research in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    three main themes across the studies: 1) individual factors behind contraceptive demand, 2) programmatic factors ... highlight three themes: 1) family planning and the. Millennium Development Goals, 2) evidence-based .... margin for improvement in service delivery, individual learning, and the research enterprise. In terms ...

  7. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  8. African Journal of AIDS Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  9. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Advances in Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  11. Research in Hospitality Management: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  13. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  14. African Journal of Management Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  15. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  16. International Journal of Health Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  17. International Journal of Community Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  18. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  19. Mtafiti Mwafrika (African Researcher): Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  1. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  2. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-09

    A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base

  3. An overview of mainland China temperature change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyu; Ding, Yihui; Tang, Guoli

    2017-02-01

    There has been significant effort devoted to investigating long-term trends in land surface air temperature over mainland China by Chinese scientists over the past 50 years, and much progress has been made in understanding dynamics of the changes. This review highlights research conducted by early Chinese climatologists, and particularly Professor Shaowu Wang from Peking University, with special focus on systematic work that has been conducted since the mid to late 1970s. We also discuss major issues that remain unresolved in past and current studies. The most recent analyses indicate that the country-average annual mean surface air temperature rose by 1.12°C over the past 115 years (1901-2015), with a rate of increase of about 0.10°C decade-1. Temperatures have risen more rapidly since the 1950s, with the rate of increase of more than 0.25°C decade-1. However, the recent increase in temperatures is in large part due to contamination by systematically biased data. These data are influenced by unprecedented urbanization in China, with a contribution of urbanization to the overall increase of annual mean temperatures in mainland China of about one third over the past half a century. If the bias is corrected, the rate of increase for the country-average annual mean surface air temperature is 0.17°C decade-1 over the last 50-60 years, which is approximately the same as global and Northern Hemispheric averages in recent decades. Future efforts should be focused towards the recovery and digitization of early-year observational records, the homogenization of observational data, the evaluation and adjustment of urbanization bias in temperature data series from urban stations, the analysis of extreme temperatures over longer periods including the first half of the 20th century, and the investigation of the observed surface air temperature change mechanisms in mainland China.

  4. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  5. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  6. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  7. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  8. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology.

  9. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  10. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall M Scott

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need

  11. Understanding social work and research in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsbro, Kjeld; Shaw, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of social work in advanced welfare states, the direction of research on social work and the influence from different global trends in research and welfare technologies. It further draws some conclusions on the different aspects of social work and research addressed...

  12. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  13. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0198 TITLE: Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Catherine...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0198 5c. PROGRAM ...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The focus of our BRAIN training program over the past year of the project is to successfully convert the

  14. Advancing a Program of Research within a Nursing Faculty Role

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Marie T.; Wenzel, Jennifer; Han, Hae-Ra.; Allen, Jerilyn K.; Paez, Kathryn A.; Mock, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral students and new faculty members often seek advice from more senior faculty on how to advance their program of research. Students may ask whether they should choose the manuscript option for their dissertation or whether they should seek a postdoctoral fellowship. New faculty members wonder whether they should pursue a career development (K) award and whether they need a mentor as they strive to advance their research while carrying out teaching, service, and practice responsibilitie...

  15. Overview of contemporary issues of forest research and management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R., III Thompson

    2011-01-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5...

  16. What Is Available for Case Identification in Autism Research in Mainland China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about research on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in mainland China. The few available studies in mainland China have shown the screening and diagnostic instruments for ASC used in mainland China were different from the West. Literature on screening and diagnostic instruments and criteria were reviewed and current available…

  17. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    1987-01-01

    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  18. Advances in nanostructured permanent magnets research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudyal, N; Liu, JP

    2012-12-14

    This paper reviews recent developments in research in nanostructured permanent magnets ( hard magnetic materials) with emphasis on bottom-up approaches to fabrication of hard/soft nanocomposite bulk magnets. Theoretical and experimental findings on the effects of soft phase and interface conditions on interphase exchange interactions are given. Synthesis techniques for hard magnetic nanoparticles, including chemical solution methods, surfactant-assisted ball milling and other physical deposition methods are reviewed. Processing and magnetic properties of warm compacted and plastically deformed bulk magnets with nanocrystalline morphology are discussed. Prospects of producing bulk anisotropic hard/soft nanocomposite magnets are presented.

  19. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving.

  20. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  1. Research Advances of Atherosclerosis in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-xin YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS, including coronary heart disease (CHD, myocardial infarction (MI, stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.

  2. Ready for Takeoff: China’s Advancing Aerospace Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    development support, research and technology development, technical consulting and digitization services to Honey - well businesses worldwide” (“Honeywell...Castings Co., Ltd., a Guiyang-based joint venture with the Guizhou Xinyi Machinery Factory , established in July 2006. The plant produces low-pressure...and the Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Factory for Boeing 737 horizon- tal-stabilizer assemblies. However, none of these contracts was sourced from

  3. A survey on financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi-Hao; Ren, Wei-Min; Qu, Li; Wang, Yue; Carline, Jan D; Fang, Guo-En

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the current situation of financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China. A total of 46 individuals in 46 medical schools completed a questionnaire including information about affiliation of the unit, financial support, published articles and achievement awards of the units. Of the 46 schools, 24 had independent medical education research units, 36 had financial support, and 30 had research funding. The mean number of published articles was 2.53 per staff. The mean number of achievement awards was 3.80 per unit. There was a significant difference in funding and published articles between independent medical education research units and other types of units; and in published articles and achievement awards between the units with funding and without funding. The financial support from the school was the main source of medical education research units in China. More attention should be paid to the development of medical education research units, to their ability to produce high quality research and support the improvement of medical care in China.

  4. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future.

  5. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  6. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  7. Conducting Nursing Research to Advance and Inform Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Edward, Jean

    2016-11-01

    The primary roles of nurse scientists in conducting health policy research are to increase knowledge in the discipline and provide evidence for informing and advancing health policies with the goal of improving the health outcomes of society. Health policy research informs, characterizes, explains, or tests hypotheses by employing a variety of research designs. Health policy research focuses on improving the access to care, the quality and cost of care, and the efficiency with which care is delivered. In this article, we explain how nurses might envision their research in a policy process framework, describe research designs that nurse researchers might use to inform and advance health policies, and provide examples of research conducted by nurse researchers to explicate key concepts in the policy process framework. Health policies are well informed and advanced when nurse researchers have a good understanding of the political process. The policy process framework provides a context for improving the focus and design of research and better explicating the connection between research evidence and policy. Nurses should focus their research on addressing problems of importance that are on the healthcare agenda, work with interdisciplinary teams of researchers, synthesize, and widely disseminate results.

  8. Advancing the quality of environmental microplastic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Dyer, Scott D; Belanger, Scott E

    2017-07-01

    Investigations into the environmental fate and effects of microplastics have been gaining momentum. Small, insoluble polymeric particles are implicated by scientists in a wide variety of studies that are used to suggest a potential for widespread impacts in freshwater and marine pelagic and sediment environments. An exponential growth in scientific publications and an increase in regulatory attention have occurred. However, despite these efforts, the environmental hazard of these particles is still unknown. To evaluate the hazard of microplastics within a risk assessment context, we need a way to evaluate the quality of experimental studies. We performed a thorough review of the quality and focus of environmental microplastic research, to understand the methodologies employed and how this may assist or distract from the ability of environmental risk assessors to evaluate microplastics. We provide guidance to improve the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory and broader environmental assessments. Nine areas of needed improvement are identified and discussed. Important data gaps and experimental limitations are highlighted. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1697-1703. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  10. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  11. Further advances in orchid mycorrhizal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearnaley, John D W

    2007-09-01

    Orchid mycorrhizas are mutualistic interactions between fungi and members of the Orchidaceae, the world's largest plant family. The majority of the world's orchids are photosynthetic, a small number of species are myco-heterotrophic throughout their lifetime, and recent research indicates a third mode (mixotrophy) whereby green orchids supplement their photosynthetically fixed carbon with carbon derived from their mycorrhizal fungus. Molecular identification studies of orchid-associated fungi indicate a wide range of fungi might be orchid mycobionts, show common fungal taxa across the globe and support the view that some orchids have specific fungal interactions. Confirmation of mycorrhizal status requires isolation of the fungi and restoration of functional mycorrhizas. New methods may now be used to store orchid-associated fungi and store and germinate seed, leading to more efficient culture of orchid species. However, many orchid mycorrhizas must be synthesised before conservation of these associations can be attempted in the field. Further gene expression studies of orchid mycorrhizas are needed to better understand the establishment and maintenance of the interaction. These data will add to efforts to conserve this diverse and valuable association.

  12. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  13. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these featu...

  14. Advancing Nursing Research in Hospitals Through Collaboration, Empowerment, and Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jill; Polivka, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Meeting the Magnet Recognition Program® requirements for integrating research into practice can be daunting, particularly for nonacademic hospitals. The authors describe 1 healthcare system's approach to advancing nursing research in 5 hospitals through collaboration with a local university school of nursing and development of an infrastructure to support, empower, and mentor clinical nurses in the conduct of research. Outcomes include completed research, presentations, publications, practice change, and professional development.

  15. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Proceedings of the 1st symposium on advanced science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1st symposium on advanced science research was held in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, on 23-24 March, 1995, under the auspices of JAERI. Two hundred and sixty scientists attended the symposium; over 40% of the attendants were from universities and laboratories outside JAERI. This proceedings consists of 6 oral presentations of the research activities in the Advanced Science Research Center, 70 poster presentations on the field of basic science from both the inside and outside of JAERI and 2 panel discussions on the actinide physics and biocrystallography. (author).

  17. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M

    2015-08-13

    To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/ recruitment and clinical trial execution. CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI.

  18. Recent advances in aerosol research a bibliographical review

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, C N

    1964-01-01

    Recent Advances in Aerosol Research: A Bibliographical Review presents a bibliographic review of advances in aerosol research covering the period from the beginning of 1957 to the end of 1962. Topics covered include chemical reactions, combustion, coagulation and diffusion, and adhesion of particles. References on filtration, evaporation and condensation, nucleation and growth, and laminar flow and impingement are also included. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins by citing research on acoustic, ultrasonic, and shock wave effects, along with adhesion of particles, chemical react

  19. Establishment of Research Infrastructure for National Advanced Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, Il Hiun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun; and others

    2007-07-15

    Construction of fundamental analysis system for RT/RFT advancement and pilot scale laboratory/facility for industry support and Assembly/installation of 30 MeV cyclotron for RI production and research utilizing positron beam, and construction of /distribution system for industrial and medical purpose were carried out for fast settlement for research environment of ARTI (a Jeongeup branch of KAERI)

  20. Sexual Objectification of Women: Advances to Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Moffitt, Lauren B.; Carr, Erika R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification theory provides an important framework for understanding, researching, and intervening to improve women's lives in a sociocultural context that sexually objectifies the female body and equates a woman's worth with her body's appearance and sexual functions. The purpose of this Major Contribution is to advance theory, research,…

  1. Fertility in Advanced Societies : A Review of Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Billari, Francesco C.; Mills, Melinda; Bilari, F.C.

    This paper provides a review of fertility research in advanced societies, societies in which birth control is the default option. The central aim is to provide a comprehensive review that summarizes how contemporary research has explained ongoing and expected fertility changes across time and space

  2. Advances on research epigenetic change of hybrid and polyploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this view, advances on researching epigenetic change of hybrid and polyploidy in plants will be initially set out by summarizing the latest researches and the basic studies on epigenetic variations generated by hybridization. Moreover, polyploidy may shed light on the mechanisms generating these variations.

  3. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Efficiency of Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, C; French, D

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (A.R. 1.) on "the efficiency of Manufacturing Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programm~ Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international co-operation. Advanced Research Institutes are organised for the purpose of bringing together experts in a particular field of interest to identify and make known the present state of knowledge in that area and, through informed debate, to make recommendations for directions for future research that would benefit the community at large. To this end two kinds of contribution were obtained by invitation. There were those papers which were about the current state of work in the area of manufacturing systems and its organisation; in addition three theme papers were presented to provide a stimulus to the discussion in terms of ways of thinking, both about the area and about the kind of research needed.

  4. New advances in oil and gas survey of the Qianjin depression in Sanjiang basin, north china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Shizhen; Zhou, Xingui; Wang, Dandan; Lin, Yanhua; Liu, Weibin; Meng, Yuanlin; Zhou, Ximing

    2017-05-01

    With more difficult of the development of oil and gas exploration in the large oil and gas bearing basins in Northeast China, the development level of old oil field has entered the late stage, and new oil and gas area is an urgent need to find. As one of the seven primary prospective basins in the periphery of the Songliao Basin, Sanjiang Basin has a great potential for oil and gas exploration. Through a series of oil and gas geological survey work carried out in Sanjiang Basin recently, we made some new progress in biogas resources, Late Paleozoic strata dark mudstone and the hydrocarbon potential of silica rock. These advances are significant to evaluate oil and gas potential resource in Northeast China.

  5. Research on Visual Display Integration for Advanced Fighter Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    fighter systems will necessitate the employment of maximum skill by the combat aircrews using the most advanced equipment to both accomplish their...I- A0 A069 605 MCDONNELL AIRCRAFT Co ST LOUIS MO F/S 1/3 RESEARCH ON VISUAL DISPLAY INTEGRATION FOR ADVANCED FISHIER A XR —ETCIU) NOV 78 S S MILLS...V— V . — I 22 February 1979 ERRATA: AMBL-TR-78-97, RESEARC H ON

  6. Advanced Dementia Research in the Nursing Home: The CASCADE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Susan L.; Kiely, Dan K.; Jones, Richard N.; Prigerson, Holly; Volicer, Ladislav; Teno, Joan M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the growing number of persons with advanced dementia, and the need to improve their end-of-life care, few studies have addressed this important topic. The objectives of this report are to present the methodology established in the CASCADE (Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life) study, and to describe how challenges specific to this research were met. The CASCADE study is an ongoing, federally funded, 5-year prospective cohort study of nurs...

  7. Research advances in regorafenib in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Weibo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common malignant liver tumor, and there are limited systemic treatments for patients with advanced HCC. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, and phase III clinical trial has shown that regorafenib can significantly extend the median survival of patients with advanced HCC by 2.8 months, which makes it a second-line drug approved by FDA for the treatment of advanced HCC, just after sorafenib. This article reviews the basic and clinical research on regorafenib in the field of HCC.

  8. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  9. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEINA LI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc.

  10. Diabetic nephropathy research in China: Data analysis and review from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiang; Xu, Yanying; Dong, Erdan

    2015-05-01

    As the largest funding agency of natural science of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has made great efforts in promoting the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) research in recent years. The aim of the current study is to summarize the diabetic nephropathy research in China by analyzing NSFC-funded projects. Data on all projects in the DN field funded by NSFC from 1986 to 2013 were collected. The funding tendency, funding areas, and hotspots in the DN field, and major research institutions, were analyzed. As one output of this support, outstanding research groups in China, and their representative studies, are also highlighted. From 1986 to 2013, the NSFC has funded a total of 248 projects in the DN field, with a total funding amount of 91.5 million RMB (US$14.9 million). A rapid increase could be seen in the past 5 years, with an average annual 30% increase in projects numbers and a 52% increase in funding amount. All fields in DN research have been covered by the NSFC, including etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Along with increased funding of the DN research, there has been a growth in the papers published in Science Citation Index journals by Chinese scholars. In the past decade, the funding scale and funding budget have increased dramatically. Benefiting from this, DN research in China has also made considerable progression. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Advanced Marginality as a comparative research strategy in praxis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz

    2018-01-01

    and homology. These concepts are applied as the foundation of a comparative research design comprising three necessary and interconnected analytical moments linking reflexivity, theory and empirical analysis. Empirically this strategy and design is confronted in the case of four Danish “Grey belt” housing......Urban Outcast and advanced marginality belongs to a theory culture rarely engaged in comparative urban studies. Here the potential of advanced marginality as a comparative research strategy is explored paying special attention to the concepts of epistemic reflexivity, analogical reasoning...

  12. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  13. Storytelling to access social context and advance health equity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, JoAnne

    2012-11-01

    Increased understanding of individual and social determinants of health is crucial to moving toward health equity. This essay examines storytelling as a vehicle for advancing health equity research. Contemplative examination of storytelling as a research strategy. An overview of story theory is provided. This is followed by an examination of storytelling as a tool for increasing understanding about the contexts in which people negotiate health, strengthening participation of communities in addressing health issues, and building bridges between researchers and target populations. Storytelling can be a powerful tool for advancing health equity research. However, its effective use requires a renegotiation of relationships between researchers and target communities, as well as setting aside routine time to attend storytelling events and read a variety of stories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances with microRNAs in Parkinson’s disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Liuqing Ma,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Fei Wu,2,* Zhenhua Hu,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated with Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second-most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and is caused by severe degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Unfortunately, current treatment only targets symptoms and involves dopamine replacement therapy, which does not counteract progressive degeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules implicated in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during development. Recent studies show that miRNAs are playing an important role in the pathophysiology of PD. miRNA-based therapy is a powerful tool with which to study gene function, investigate the mechanism of the disease, and validate drug targets. In this review, we focus on the recent advances of the use of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of PD. Keywords: miRNA, α-synuclein, LRRK2, miRNA-based therapy, pathophysiology

  15. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, Nicholas V

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology policy researchers

  16. Advancing social research relationships in postnatal support settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Maria; Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-05-01

    Global trends in public health nursing (PHN) suggest the value of community-based social research. However, it is not always clear how social research relationships may be of benefit to PHN or how such skills can best be learned and applied. To advance this understanding, we present a qualitative analysis of the development of social research relationships in PHN. Using a background literature review as a foundation, our qualitative mixed method strategy involved a comparative case-study analysis based on the authors' participant observation in two distinct postnatal group settings. Our findings suggest that participant observation facilitates the advancement of social research relationships through practitioner-research management of role conflict. Reflexivity and reciprocity is an emergent relational process, which relies upon a de-professionalization of the traditional PHN role. Conversely, social research relationships help build PHN capacity for family health needs assessment. Thus, we contend that the application of participant observation enables the development of social research relationships, which advance the practice of PHN in postnatal support settings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overview of Chinese research on senile dementia in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuetao; Wang, Jintang

    2010-11-01

    Studies of senile dementia (SD) on the Chinese mainland, done over the decades, have furthered the understanding of its epidemiology, basic and clinical medical aspects, and effects on health economics, to name a few areas. There are 6-7 million Chinese people with SD, with an incidence of 5-7% of people over 65 years of age. In this group, Alzheimer's accounts for 50-60% of SD. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease has been investigated, and known risk factors include β-amyloid, formaldehyde, acetyl cholinesterase, inflammation, neuronal dysfunction and death. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an independent risk factor of SD. Comprehensive treatment can improve clinical efficacy, and quality of life can be improved by appropriate and reasonable care and rehabilitation therapy. However, swallowing disorders, infection and systemic failure remain the main causes of death among SD patients. In the Chinese mainland, SD extracts a total annual economic loss of 83.5-97.4 billion yuan and is responsible for 51.3-59.8 billion yuan in annual healthcare costs. Despite the progress to date, basic research and drug development for SD are needed. Also, a more evidence-based approach to Chinese medicine research would be prudent. Such research results can hopefully provide valuable cues for governmental decision-making and assist in addressing and halting the incidence of SD in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 2017 Publications Demonstrate Advancements in Wind Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-17

    In 2017, wind energy experts at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) made significant strides to advance wind energy. Many of these achievements were presented in articles published in scientific and engineering journals and technical reports that detailed research accomplishments in new and progressing wind energy technologies. During fiscal year 2017, NREL wind energy thought leaders shared knowledge and insights through 45 journal articles and 25 technical reports, benefiting academic and national-lab research communities; industry stakeholders; and local, state, and federal decision makers. Such publications serve as important outreach, informing the public of how NREL wind research, analysis, and deployment activities complement advanced energy growth in the United States and around the world. The publications also illustrate some of the noteworthy outcomes of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, as well as funding and facilities leveraged through strategic partnerships and other collaborations.

  19. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research.

  20. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  1. How International Research on Parenting Advances Understanding of Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Bornstein, Marc H; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Chen, Bin-Bin; Di Giunta, Laura; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2016-09-01

    International research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts.

  2. [Research advances in ecological significance and quantification of plant polyphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunlong; Li, Junqing

    2006-12-01

    Polyphenols are the important secondary metabolites of plants. Because of their special chemical properties and biological activities, plant polyphenols are come under broad attention for their potential ecological significance. This paper reviewed the related research advances, prospected the future directions, and evaluated the quantification methods to recommend some simple and commonly used ones for non-specialists in chemical analysis.

  3. INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Venhuizen

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  4. Advancing multilevel thinking and methods in HRM research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the growing belief that multilevel research is necessary to advance HRM understanding, there remains a lack of multilevel thinking – the application of principles for multilevel theory building. The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic approach for multilevel HRM

  5. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  6. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  7. Advancing industrial marketing theory: The need for improved research

    OpenAIRE

    LaPlaca, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial Marketing Management was the first journal devoted exclusively to advancing the science of industrial or business-to-business marketing. Prior to its launch in 1972, fewer than five percent of all articles published in marketing journals focused on industrial marketing1 while over half of the GDP in industrialized economies was due to B2B activities. Consumer marketing dominated academic research. With a new outlet for B2B research, the percentage of articles focusing on industrial...

  8. Relevance of advanced nuclear fusion research: Breakthroughs and obstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, Bruno, E-mail: coppi@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An in depth understanding of the collective modes that can be excited in a wide range of high-energy plasmas is necessary to advance nuclear fusion research in parallel with other fields that include space and astrophysics in particular. Important achievements are shown to have resulted from implementing programs based on this reality, maintaining a tight connection with different areas of investigations. This involves the undertaking of a plurality of experimental approaches aimed at understanding the physics of fusion burning plasmas. At present, the most advanced among these is the Ignitor experiment involving international cooperation, that is designed to investigate burning plasma regimes near ignition for the first time.

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Physical Properties of Nano systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonca, Janez

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena are found when systems are reduced to sizes comparable to the fundamental microscopic length scales of the material investigated. There has been great interest in this research due, in particular, to its role in the development of spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing. The contributions to this volume describe new advances in many of these fundamental and fascinating areas of nanophysics, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, magnetic nanostructures, transport through coupled quantum dots, spintronics, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing.

  10. [Research advances in autoimmune liver diseases in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Wang, Q X; Ma, X

    2017-02-20

    Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of abnormal autoimmune-mediated inflammatory hepatobiliary injuries, mainly including autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), primary biliary cholangitis(PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases, an important type of non-viral liver disease, have become a prominent issue in hepatology. In 2016, many new advances have been achieved in the clinical and basic research on autoimmune liver diseases, including the phase 3 clinical trial of obeticholic acid, the proposal of UK-PBC risk score, and the research on gut microbiota associated with PSC. This article reviews the research advances in the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases in 2016.

  11. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  12. Young researchers battle poverty and bureaucracy in rural China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    When villagers in one of the poorest regions of China wanted to improve their lot by building a biogas plant, ... That village is just one of many small communities in. Guizhou province in southwestern China. ... led to the introduction of new products, such as mush- rooms and specialty fruits, that could be cultivated and.

  13. Transnationalism: A Framework for Advancing Nursing Research With Contemporary Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Boutain, Doris M; Mohammed, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    This article advances nursing research by presenting transnationalism as a framework for inquiry with contemporary immigrants. Transnationalism occurs when immigrants maintain relationships that transcend the geographical borders of their origin and host countries. Immigrants use those relationships to experience health differently within concurrent socioeconomic, political, and cultural contexts than national situated populations. Nurse researchers are called upon to consider these trans-border relationships when exploring the health of contemporary immigrants. Such consideration is needed to develop relevant research designs, methods, analysis, and dissemination strategies.

  14. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  15. Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project: Solar Radiation Research annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, C.; Hulstrom, R.; Cannon, T.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    1990-11-01

    This report gives an overview of the fiscal year 1990 research activities and results under the Solar Radiation Research Task of the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The activities under this task include developing and applying measurement techniques, instrumentation, and data and models to understand and quantify the response of photovoltaic devices to variations in broadband and spectra solar radiation. The information presented in this report was presented at the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project 10th Review Meeting, October 1990, and will be published in a special issue of Solar Cells dedicated to the meeting.

  16. Advanced Physics Labs and Undergraduate Research: Helping Them Work Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard W.

    2009-10-01

    The 2009 Advanced Lab Topical Conference in Ann Arbor affirmed the importance of advanced labs that teach crucial skills and methodologies by carefully conducting a time-honored experiment. Others however argued that such a constrained experiment can play a complementary role to more open-ended, project experiences. A genuine ``experiment'' where neither student or faculty member is exactly sure of the best approach or anticipated result can often trigger real excitement, creativity, and career direction for students while reinforcing the advanced lab and undergraduate research interface. Several examples are cited in areas of AMO physics, optics, fluids, and acoustics. Colleges and universities that have dual-degree engineering, engineering physics, or applied physics programs may especially profit from interdisciplinary projects that utilize optical, electromagnetic, and acoustical measurements in conjunction with computational physics and simulation.

  17. Advances in statistical methods for substance abuse prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M

    2003-09-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods.

  18. Advancing Alzheimer's research: A review of big data promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Simon, Gyorgy; Yu, Fang

    2017-10-01

    To review the current state of science using big data to advance Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and practice. In particular, we analyzed the types of research foci addressed, corresponding methods employed and study findings reported using big data in AD. Systematic review was conducted for articles published in PubMed from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2015. Keywords with AD and big data analytics were used for literature retrieval. Articles were reviewed and included if they met the eligibility criteria. Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. They can be categorized into seven research foci: diagnosing AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=10), predicting MCI to AD conversion (n=13), stratifying risks for AD (n=5), mining the literature for knowledge discovery (n=4), predicting AD progression (n=2), describing clinical care for persons with AD (n=3), and understanding the relationship between cognition and AD (n=3). The most commonly used datasets are AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (n=16), electronic health records (EHR) (n=11), MEDLINE (n=3), and other research datasets (n=8). Logistic regression (n=9) and support vector machine (n=8) are the most used methods for data analysis. Big data are increasingly used to address AD-related research questions. While existing research datasets are frequently used, other datasets such as EHR data provide a unique, yet under-utilized opportunity for advancing AD research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  20. Review of research in internal-wave and internal-tide deposits of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits is a very young research field in deep-water sedimentology. It has been just twenty years since the first example of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits was identified in the stratigraphic record. Since that time, Chinese scholars have made unremitting efforts and gained some significant research achievements in this field. This paper briefly outlines the history and main achievements of research of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits in China, describes depositional characteristics, sedimentary successions, types of lithofacies, and depositional models of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits identified mainly from ancient strata, and summarizes the existing problems in this research field. New advances in marine physics should be applied to research of the subject of internal-wave and internal-tide deposition, whereas the sedimentary characteristics of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits may be used to deduce the physical processes of their creation. Flume experiments on internal-wave and internal-tide deposition should also be put in practice as often as possible, so that the mechanisms of internal-wave and internal-tide deposition can be explored.

  1. Advanced Dementia Research in the Nursing Home: The CASCADE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Susan L.; Kiely, Dan K.; Jones, Richard N.; Prigerson, Holly; Volicer, Ladislav; Teno, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing number of persons with advanced dementia, and the need to improve their end-of-life care, few studies have addressed this important topic. The objectives of this report are to present the methodology established in the CASCADE (Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life) study, and to describe how challenges specific to this research were met. The CASCADE study is an ongoing, federally funded, 5-year prospective cohort study of nursing [nursing home (NH)] residents with advanced dementia and their health care proxies (HCPs) initiated in February 2003. Subjects were recruited from 15 facilities around Boston. The recruitment and data collection protocols are described. The demographic features, ownership, staffing, and quality of care of participant facilities are presented and compared to NHs nationwide. To date, 189 resident/HCP dyads have been enrolled. Baseline data are presented, demonstrating the success of the protocol in recruiting and repeatedly assessing NH residents with advanced dementia and their HCPs. Factors challenging and enabling implementation of the protocol are described. The CASCADE experience establishes the feasibility of conducting rigorous, multisite dementia NH research, and the described methodology serves as a detailed reference for subsequent CASCADE publications as results from the study emerge. PMID:16917187

  2. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  3. Educational Equity Research in the Mainland of China: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have been various discussions concerning educational equity in the different stages of education development. This paper focuses on the history and current situation of educational equity research in China. It examines the changes in the discourse on Chinese educational…

  4. Recent advances on reconstruction of climate and extreme events in China for the past 2000 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingyun; Hao, Zhixin; Ge, Quansheng; Liu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The study of regional climate changes for past 2000 year could present spatial pattern of climate variation and various historical analogues for the sensitivity and operation of the climate system (e.g., the modulations of internal variability, feedbacks and teleconnections, abrupt changes and regional extreme events, etc.) from inter-annual to centennial scales and provide the knowledge to predict and project climate in the near future. China is distinguished by a prominent monsoon climate in east, continental arid climate in northwest and high land cold climate in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau located at southwest. The long history of civilization and the variety of climate in China provides an abundant and well-dated documentary records and a wide range of natural archives (e.g., tree-ring, ice core, stalagmite, varved lake sediment, etc.) for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction. This paper presented a review of recent advances on reconstruction of climate and extreme events in China for the past 2000 years. In recent 10 years, there were many new high-resolution paleoclimatic reconstructions reported in China, e.g., the annual and decadal resolution series of temperature and precipitation in eastern China derived from historical documents, in western China derived from tree-ring and other natural archives. These new reconstructions provided more proxies and better spatial coverage to understand the characteristics of climate change over China and the uncertainty of regional reconstructions, as well as to reconstruct the high-resolution temperature series and the spatial pattern of precipitation change for whole China in the past millenniums by synthesizing the multi-proxy together. The updated results show that, in China, the warm intervals for the past 2000 years were in AD 1-200, AD 551-760, AD 951-1320, and after AD 1921; as well as the cold intervals were in AD 201-350, AD 441-530, AD 781-950, and AD 1321-1920. The extreme cold winters occurred in periods

  5. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson

    2003-10-13

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  6. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of...

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  8. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  9. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  10. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  11. Advances with RNA interference in Alzheimer’s disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shun Chen,1,2,* Xuemei Ge,2,* Yinghui Chen,3,* Nan Lv,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 3Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by memory and cognitive dysfunction. Unfortunately, there is no effective therapeutic method for AD treatment or ways to halt disease progression. Many mechanisms are involved in the disease, including genes mutation and protein dysfunction. RNA interference (RNAi technology may potentially be able to control AD. It can inhibit the protein expression of specific genes by activating a sequence-specific RNA degradation process. This is a powerful tool with which to study gene function, investigate the mechanism of the disease, and validate drug targets. In this review, we highlight the advances in RNAi technology in the investigation and treatment of AD.Keywords: RNAi, β-amyloid, tau, amyloid precursor protein

  12. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  13. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Health Services Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Werff, Albert; Hirsch, Gary; Barnard, Keith

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute on "Health Services Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. A special word is said in this respect supra by Pro­ fessor Checkland, Chairman of the Systems Science Panel. The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) was organized for the purpose of bringing together senior scientists to seek a consensus on the assessment of the present state of knowledge on the specific topic of "health services systems" and to present views and recom­ mendations for future health services research directions, which should be of value to both the scientific community and the people in charge of reorienting health services. The conference was structured so as to permit the assembly of a variety of complementary viewpoints through intensive group discussions to be the basis of this final report. Invitees were selected fr...

  14. Nobel's day on recent advances in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, A

    1993-01-01

    The June 7-10th Symposium on 'Recent Advances in Cancer Research', organized by Lorenzo Moretta in San Remo, Italy, on the occasion of Nobel's day, designated cancer genetics and tumor immunology as forefront areas in fundamental cancer research. While the central importance of oncogenes is obvious, this is less the case for the immunology of tumors, which has long been an area of descriptive phenomenology, wild speculation and unfulfilled expectation. The recent molecular identification of genes encoding a human melanoma antigen recognized by T cells, and of cytokines involved in the tumor-host interaction justifies renewed oncological interest in this area.

  15. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor.

  16. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  17. Lost in translation? Accountability and governance of clinical stem cell research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Y

    2017-09-01

    Despite China's regulatory initiatives to promote its research accountability, it still needs to prove itself as a trusted player in life science research. In addition, in contrast to its huge investment, China is losing the race in delivering quality application of stem cells. The trial implementation of the 2015 ministerial regulations seemed to offer hope in ending this dual 'lost-in-translation'. Yet skepticism remains. By examining China's regulatory trajectory in the last 15 years, this paper illustrates that it is a post hoc pragmatic policy rationale and a soft centralization regulatory approach that have hampered China's governance. To improve China's governance of accountability, policy-makers need to get beyond an 'act-in-response' regulatory ethos and to engage with diverse stakeholders.

  18. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  19. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  20. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  1. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  2. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China an...

  3. Attitudes Toward Advance Directives Among Patients and Their Family Members in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing; Shan, Pei-Yan; Wang, Jie-Ping; Zhong, Ping; Du, Xiao-Hong; Du, Yu-Feng; Yu, Bao-Cheng; Wei, Nan; Lou, Hui-Ling; Bian, Ou; Chen, Huai-Hong; Lin, Fan; Zhou, Hong-Lian; He, Wen; Long, Huai-Cong; Hong, Lu-Rong; Su, Hui; Yang, Jun-Nan; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Shi, Ye; Ning, Jing; Liang, Fang; Wang, Zhong; Gong, Ting; Zhu, Ming-Lei; Ning, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2017-09-01

    Chinese people are generally unfamiliar with the concept of advance care planning or advance directives (ACP/ADs), which raises dilemmas in life-support choice and can even affect clinical decision making. To understand and address the issues involved better, we investigated the awareness of ACP/ADs in China, as well as people's attitudes toward medical autonomy and end-of-life care. A multicenter cross-sectional survey, conducted from August 1 to December 31, 2016. Twenty-five hospitals located in 15 different provinces throughout mainland China. Pairs of adult patients without dementia or malignancies, and a family member. Participants self-filled anonymous questionnaires, and the data collected were analyzed to relate patients' sociodemographic characteristics to their awareness of ACP/ADs and attitudes to health care autonomy and end-of-life care. Among 1084 patients who completed the questionnaire, 415 (38.3%) had heard about ACP/ADs. Having been informed about ACP/ADs, 995 (91.8%) were willing to find out their true health status and decide for themselves; 549 (50.6%) wanted to institute ACP/ADs. Regarding end-of-life care, 473 (43.6%) chose Do Not Resuscitate, and 435 (40.1%) wished to forgo life-support treatment if irreversibly moribund. Patients predominantly (481, 44.4%) chose general hospital as their preferred place to spend their last days of life; only 114 (10.5%) favored a special hospice facility. Patients' main concerns during end-of-life care were symptom control (35.1%), followed by functional maintenance and quality of life (29.8%), and prolonging life (18.9%). More highly educated patients had significantly greater awareness of ACP/ADs than less well educated ones (χ2 = 59.22, P China is still low. Providing culturally sensitive knowledge, education, and communication regarding ACP/ADs is a feasible first step to promoting this sociomedical practice. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine

  4. [Research advances in animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Hao; Li, Tanzhu

    2007-11-01

    To review the research advances in animal models of human disc degeneration. The relative articles in recent years were extensively reviewed. Studies both at home and abroad were analyzed and classified. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. Studies were classified as either experimentally induced models or spontaneous models. The induced models were subdivided as mechanical (alteration of forces on the normal disc), structural (injury or chemical alteration) and genetically induced models. Spontaneous models included those animals that naturally developed degenerative disc disease. Animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration is an important path for revealing the pathogenesis of human disc degeneration, and play an important role in testing novel interventions. With recent advances in the relevance of animal models and humans, it has a great prospect in study of human disc degeneration.

  5. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  6. NIH Research: Advances In Parkinson's Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... and Stroke. Photo courtesy of NIH Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Story Landis, Ph.D., has been ...

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  8. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  9. Advances in mechanisms, robotics and design education and research

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiedeler, James; Sreenivasan, S; Su, Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This book contains papers on a wide range of topics in the area of kinematics, mechanisms, robotics, and design, addressing new research advances and innovations in design education. The content is divided into  five main categories headed ‘Historical Perspectives’, ‘Kinematics and Mechanisms’, ‘Robotic Systems’, ‘Legged Locomotion’, and ‘Design Engineering Education’. Contributions take the form of survey articles, historical perspectives, commentaries on trends on education or research, original research contributions, and papers on design education.   This volume celebrates the achievements of Professor Kenneth Waldron who has made innumerable and invaluable contributions to these fields in the last fifty years. His leadership and his pioneering work have influenced thousands of people in this discipline.

  10. Integrating research and advanced microscopy into the high school curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, Craig; Calabro, Alyssa; Becker, David

    2012-06-01

    The Bergen County Academies (BCA) is a public magnet high school in New Jersey focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. The research program offered at the school offers students the opportunity to conduct, present and defend their own scientific research using advanced tools and techniques, including scientific equipment unavailable in most high schools, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Through their journey into research, students are given a skill set that can be transferred to future education and their careers, and will help shape the next generation of leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math. By serving as an educational model for reformed STEM education, BCA is at the forefront of what STEM education in the United States will look like in the years ahead.

  11. Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Mike; Lázaro, J; Olm, Josep

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts outlining selected talks and other selected presentations given by participants throughout the "Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics 2016", held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona from February 1st to April 29th, 2016. They include brief research articles reporting new results, descriptions of preliminary work or open problems, and outlines of prominent discussion sessions. The articles are all the result of direct collaborations initiated during the research program. The topic is the theory and applications of Nonsmooth Dynamics. This includes systems involving elements of: impacting, switching, on/off control, hybrid discrete-continuous dynamics, jumps in physical properties, and many others. Applications include: electronics, climate modeling, life sciences, mechanics, ecology, and more. Numerous new results are reported concerning the dimensionality and robustness of nonsmooth models, shadowing variables, numbers of limit...

  12. Research on Ore-controlling factors and Metallogenic Prognosis of Dongchuan Copper Mining Area, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianguo; Liu, Jishun; Huang, Chaowen

    2017-03-01

    Dongchuan is a famous copper producing area in China, where has good geological condition to form many copper deposits with local characteristics. This article summarizes the metallogenic regularities of Dongchuan copper deposits based on the previous works, research findings and the latest research advances. The study suggests that the Dongchuan copper-ore area has a good metallogenic background and immense prospecting potential. Copper ore is mainly found in Yinmin Formation, Luoxue Formation, Heishan Formation, Daqiaodi Formation, and in the Sinian-aged basement, and its occurrence is closely related to volcanic magmatism. The discussions regarding prospecting directions of Dongchuan copper ore were conducted based on the metallogenic regularity research, the results shows that further expanding of the exploration activities from the existing ore-bodies would be carried out; the breakthrough points focus on the Pingdingshan Formation, Qinglongshan Formation, and Daqiaodi Formation strata; at the same tine, more attention should be paid to the new types of deposits, such as Yanziya-type or hydrothermal deposits.

  13. [Research advances in ecological stoichiometry of marine plankton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Chao-Lun

    2014-10-01

    Ecological stoichiometry can be simply defined as: The biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere, which spans all levels of the environment and of the life. It's a new idea to build a unified theory and becomes an inevitable trend to develop the ecological science. Marine ecosystems, which contribute to 50% of the biosphere biomass, are the important component of the global biogeochemical cycles. Marine zooplankton plays an important role in the material circulation and energy flow of marine ecosystems and serves as a connecting link between the preceding and the following in a more precise understanding of the key elemental cycles. However, research on ecological stoichiometry of marine plankton is fragmentary and rare. This article summarized the ecological phenomena and mechanisms of limiting elements affecting marine plankton, the response of biochemical substances to nutrition limitation, and the food chain transmission and feedback of nutrition limitation. Meanwhile, we also put forward some perspectives for future research of ecological stoichiometry of plankton in China' s seas.

  14. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  15. Research on the Academic Benefits of the Advanced Placement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Warne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With more than 3 million participants per year, the Advanced Placement (AP program is one of the most popular programs in the United States for exposing high-achieving high school students to advanced academic content. Sponsored by the College Board, the AP program provides a framework in which high school teachers can teach introductory college-level courses to high school students. These students then take one of 34 standardized tests at the end of the year, and students who score well on their course’s AP test can receive college credit from their university in which they later enroll. Despite the popularity of the AP program, remarkably little independent research has been conducted on the academic benefits of AP. In this article, I summarize the state of knowledge about the academic benefits of AP. Previous research and descriptive data indicate that AP students outperform non-AP students on a variety of academic measures, but many other aspects of the program are poorly understood, partially due to variability across AP subjects. These aspects include the causal impact of AP, which components of the program are most effective in boosting academic achievement, and how students engage with the AP program. I also conclude by making suggestions for researchers to use new methodologies to investigate new scientific and policy questions and new student populations to improve the educational scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of the AP program.

  16. Advances in research and development of mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. E. Bally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World mango production is spread over 100 countries that produce over 34.3 million tons of fruit annually. Eighty percent of this production is based in the top nine producing nations that also consume upward of 90% of their production domestically. One to 2 percent of fruit is traded internationally in to markets in the European Community, USA, Arabian Peninsula and Asia. This paper outlines some of the recent research and development advances in mango breeding and genomics, rootstock development, disease management and harvest technologies that are influencing the production and quality of mango fruit traded domestically and internationally.

  17. Research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Fei Mo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy. It can lead to serious damage of visual impairment, and it is an important eye disease of blindness. Multifocal electroretinogram is a new way to measure visual electrophysiology. It can measure electroretinogram of the whole visual field of many small parts in a relatively short period of time, and it can reflect the function of regional retina. It has an extremely important value for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. The research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in diagnosing primary open angle glaucoma were summarized in this paper.

  18. Research on economy and social exclusion: China dolls and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    The second workshop on "Research on Economy And Social Exclusion (REASE)" was held in the University of Tokyo on January 26, 2013. Focusing on rare diseases and disorders in China, three speakers from China introduced the current status of rare diseases and the challenge of support organizations for patients with rare disease and disorders in China, and especially pointed out some important issues associated with rare diseases and disorders in China. From the viewpoint of economics, this paper discusses some of the important issues of rare diseases and disorders in China raised in this workshop, especially from the aspects of economy of scale and orphan drugs, and the emergence of stigma from discrimination. It was shown that international coordination and cooperation are called for in order to give a proper incentive to the drug industries to create new drugs for rare diseases, and suggested that an important step toward inclusion is to reduce stigma by making rare diseases visible as much as possible.

  19. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  20. Natural products chemistry research: progress in China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yao, Sheng

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the progress made by Chinese scientists in the field of natural products chemistry in 2011. Selected compounds with unique structural features and/or promising bioactivities are described herein on the basis of structural types. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural products chemistry research 2010's progress in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the progresses made by Chinese scientists in the field of natural products chemistry in 2010. Selected compounds with unique structural features and/or promising bioactivities were described herein on the basis of structural types. Copyright © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on the Undergraduate Financial Engineering Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyong; Zhang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of modern economy has put forward higher requirements for financial engineering education. This paper analyzes the status and problems in undergraduate financial engineering education in china, such as indistinct training objective, rigid curriculum structure, and superficial teaching methods, etc. and puts forward…

  3. Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network: A bridge linking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... ... more about this successful Canada-China collaboration: "A strong competition" · Two-way learning · Declining poverty, rising inequality · Fresh insights · Mapping the network · One scholar's story · On the world stage · The CHIP surveys · "We chose the mentors carefully" · "The good work is collaborative" ...

  4. European conference on advances in flood research. Vol. 1. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronstert, A.; Bismuth, C.; Menzel, L. [eds.

    2000-11-01

    Following concern expressed by several Member States in the 1990's, the EC directorate General of Research and Development (DG XII) has initiated and/or funded a variety of activities in order to improve the scientific basis and to intensify knowledge transfer into practice concerning flood forecasting, risk mitigation, and the impact analysis of environmental change effects. After more then half a decade of research in this field, this conference is aimed to present the results achieved and to highlight the scientific advances. Besides the presentations of the EUROTAS-project results, the contributions are grouped into the following sub-sessions: impact of land use and climate on flooding, flood management and assessment of flood risk, catchment modelling and management systems, and impact of river engineering on flooding conditions. (orig.)

  5. European conference on advances in flood research. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronstert, A.; Bismuth, C.; Menzel, L. [eds.

    2000-11-01

    Following concern expressed by several Member States in the 1990's, the EC directorate General of Research and Development (DG XII) has initiated and/or funded a variety of activities in order to improve the scientific basis and to intensify knowledge transfer into practice concerning flood forecasting, risk mitigation, and the impact analysis of environmental change effects. After more then half a decade of research in this field, this conference is aimed to present the results achieved and to highlight the scientific advances. Besides the presentations of the EUROTAS-project results, the contributions are grouped into the following sub-sessions: impact of land use and climate on flooding, flood management and assessment of flood risk, catchment modelling and management systems, and impact of river engineering on flooding conditions. (orig.)

  6. [Research advances on anaerobic ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Ji, Jun-yuan

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms (AFOM) are one of the important discoveries in microbiology, geology and environmental science. The study of AFOM is of significance to make clear the banded iron formations (BIFs), promote the biogeochemical cycles of iron, nitrogen and carbon, enrich the microbiological content, develop new biotechnologies for anaerobic iron oxidation, and explore the ancient earth environment and extraterrestrial life. This paper summarized the research advances on AFOM, introduced the habitats of AFOM, discussed the biodiversity and the nutritive and metabolic characteristics of AFOM, and assessed the potential functions of AFOM. An outlook was made on the future researches of new species AFOM, their microbial metabolism mechanisms, and their development and applications.

  7. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Photocatalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Serpone, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Ever since the oil crisis of 1973, researchers in various fields of chemistry have proposed various schemes to conserve energy, as well to convert the sun's abundant and limitless supply of energy to produce chemical fuels (e. g. , hydrogen from water, . •. ). The enthusiasm had no previous parallel in the mid-1970's. Unfortunately, despite the several good proposals, the results have proven - in retrospect - somewhat disappointing from an economic viable point of view. The reasons for the meagre results are manyfold not the least of which are the experimental difficulties encountered in storage systems. Moreover, the lack of a concerted, well orchestrated interdisciplinary approach has been significant. By contrast, the chemical advances made in the understanding of the processes involved in such schemes have been phenomenal. A recent book on this issue ( M. Gratzel, Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis, 1983) is witness to the various efforts and approaches taken by researchers. In the re...

  8. Social work and research in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsbro, Kjeld; Shaw, Ian

    The aim of this book is to exemplify the ways in which social work and research develop in ‘advanced’ welfare states - countries where public spending is relatively high as a proportion of GNP. While such countries have traditionally been associated with Scandinavian countries in particular...... and North-Western Europe more generally, there are other countries where the public spend on welfare is relatively high. The contributors to this book explore and exemplify ways in which social work and research are distinctive for advanced welfare states. This involves exploring their connection...... discourses and conception of social problems. While the content of this book originate predominantly in work undertaken in Denmark, there are contributors from Belgium Italy and the United Kingdom, thus suggesting that within European social work community there are important elements of common ground....

  9. Irradiation Facilities of the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kurashima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion beam facility at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, consists of a cyclotron and three electrostatic accelerators, and they are dedicated to studies of materials science and bio-technology. The paper reviews this unique accelerator complex in detail from the viewpoint of its configuration, accelerator specification, typical accelerator, or irradiation technologies and ion beam applications. The institute has also irradiation facilities for electron beams and 60Co gamma-rays and has been leading research and development of radiation chemistry for industrial applications in Japan with the facilities since its establishment. The configuration and utilization of those facilities are outlined as well.

  10. Assessing the Research Impacts of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure at NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The National Science Foundation is supporting a portfolio of investments focused upon challenges in data capture and use, including interoperability, reproducibility, and sustainability. These topics are fundamental to science questions of increasing complexity that require multidisciplinary approaches and expertise. Progress has become tractable because of (and sometimes complicated by) unprecedented growth in data (both simulations and observations) and rapid advances in technology (such as instrumentation in all aspects of the discovery process, together with ubiquitous cyberinfrastructure to connect, compute, visualize, store, and discover). Topics addressed in this panel discussion include: measurement of success / progress in research cyberinfrastructure, characteristics of successful projects, problems these frameworks are trying to solve, key research cyberinfrastructure challenges, the development of assessment tools, and the creation of community supportive / representative assessment practices.

  11. Women's career advancement in organisations: Integrative framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić-Andrić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary organisations, caught in the middle of global economic and social crisis, are facing different business challenges, having to respond to quick changes in business environment and demographic changes in workforce composed by increasing number of women. Although the number of women in workforce is on the rise, they are still underrepresented in manager positions, especially higher management. This implies that certain barriers are in place which makes difficult for women to develop their careers, especially in reaching manager positions. The aim of this paper is to analyse and present a theoretical framework for further study of professional carrier advancement for women. The paper especially analyse integrative theoretical framework which stresses the equal importance of researching individual factors (personal influence and organisational factors (social inclusion, having in mind how the organisational context can improve or deter women's carrier. The paper presents possible directions for future research based on the analysis of the theoretical framework and especially individual and organisational factors.

  12. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    In 2013, 10 topics were selected for major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology; these included three topics regarding cervical cancer, three regarding ovarian cancer, two regarding endometrial cancer, and one each regarding breast cancer and radiation oncology. For cervical cancer, bevacizumab was first demonstrated to exhibit outstanding clinical efficacy in a recurrent, metastatic setting. Regarding cervical cancer screening, visual inspections with acetic acid in low-resource settings, p16/Ki-67 double staining, and the follow-up results of four randomized controlled trials of human papillomavirus-based screening methods were reviewed. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer was the final topic for cervical cancer. Regarding front-line ovarian cancer therapies, dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and other targeted agents administered according to combination or maintenance schedules were discussed. Regarding recurrent ovarian cancer treatment, cediranib, olaparib, and farletuzumab were discussed for platinum-sensitive disease. The final overall survival data associated with a combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for platinum-resistant disease were briefly summarized. For endometrial cancer, the potential clinical efficacy of metformin, an antidiabetic drug, in obese patients was followed by integrated genomic analyses from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. For breast cancer, three remarkable advances were reviewed: the long-term effects of continued adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years, the effects of 2-year versus 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease, and the approval of pertuzumab in a neoadjuvant setting with a pathologic complete response as the surrogate endpoint. Finally, the recent large studies of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer were briefly summarized.

  13. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  14. Lipidomics as a principal tool for advancing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou

    2013-08-20

    Lipidomics, which targets at the construction of a comprehensive map of lipidome comprising the entire lipid pool within a cell or tissue, is currently emerging as an independent discipline at the interface of lipid biology, technology and medicine. The diversity and complexity of the biological lipidomes call for technical innovation and improvement to meet the needs of various biomedical studies. The recent wave of expansion in the field of lipidomic research is mainly attributed to advances in analytical technologies, in particular, the development of new mass spectrometric and chromatographic tools for the characterization and quantification of the wide array of diverse lipid species in the cellular lipidome. Here, we review some of the key technical advances in lipidome analysis and put forth the applications of lipidomics in addressing the biological roles of lipids in numerous disease models including the metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious diseases, as well as the increasing urgency to construct the lipidome inventory for various mammalian/organism models useful for biomedical research. Copyright © [2103], The Society of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research advance on diagnosis and treatment for atypical optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yan Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optic neuritis(ONis one of the most common causes of vision loss by neural eye diseases in youth and middle-aged. In the past, the diagnosis simply according to the risk position, which did not distinguish from the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics, can not meet the current clinical diagnosis and treatment needs. Combining with the etiology, clinical characteristics and prognosis, the latest classification of the current international diagnosis of ON are typical and atypical ON. Typical ON relates to multiple sclerosis(MSor demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, it has a relatively good therapeutic effect and prognosis. Rather than, atypical ON has complex etiology, clinical manifestation, and the treatment and prognosis are also different. At present there are many international ON treatment guidelines with level I evidence-based medical evidence, but with different genetic background, geographical environment and ethnic groups, they are not been determined. China lacks of such a multicenter large sample, a wide range of research evidence. In this paper, we will summarize the progress of the diagnosis and treatment about ON, especially about the atypical ON, in order to provide some suggestions to further improve the standardization and individualization for clinical diagnosis and treatment on ON.

  16. Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should

  17. Higher Education Research as a Field in China: Its Formation and Current Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Ye; Hu, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the field of higher education research in China from its historical roots through to its current development. It is a case study of how the field of higher education research emerged and was co-constructed by the state and the academic community of higher education researchers to become an established and recognised discipline…

  18. [The rise of enzyme engineering in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaoxiang

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme engineering is an important part of the modern biotechnology. Industrial biocatalysis is considered the third wave of biotechnology following pharmaceutical and agricultural waves. In 25 years, China has made a mighty advances in enzyme engineering research. This review focuses on enzyme genomics, enzyme proteomics, biosynthesis, microbial conversion and biosensors in the Chinese enzyme engineering symposiums and advances in enzyme preparation industry in China.

  19. Higher Education Research in Hong Kong, Japan, China, and Malaysia: Exploring Research Community Cohesion and the Integration of Thematic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Horta, H.; Jung, J.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes higher education research published in international higher education journals by researchers from China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Malaysia from 1980 to 2013. It does so based on publication counts, and co-authorship and cross-citation mapping, examining these countries' publication patterns in terms of thematic approach and…

  20. Research on inverse, hybrid and optimization problems in engineering sciences with emphasis on turbomachine aerodynamics: Review of Chinese advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

  1. Advanced parallel programming models research and development opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhaofang.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a large research and development effort within the high-performance computing community on advanced parallel programming models. This research can potentially have an impact on parallel applications, system software, and computing architectures in the next several years. Given Sandia's expertise and unique perspective in these areas, particularly on very large-scale systems, there are many areas in which Sandia can contribute to this effort. This technical report provides a survey of past and present parallel programming model research projects and provides a detailed description of the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. The PGAS model may offer several improvements over the traditional distributed memory message passing model, which is the dominant model currently being used at Sandia. This technical report discusses these potential benefits and outlines specific areas where Sandia's expertise could contribute to current research activities. In particular, we describe several projects in the areas of high-performance networking, operating systems and parallel runtime systems, compilers, application development, and performance evaluation.

  2. Advances in nonhuman primate alcohol abuse and alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Bennett, Allyson J

    2003-12-01

    Advances in our understanding of the biological basis of alcohol abuse and alcoholism and the development of prevention and therapeutic intervention require appropriate animal models. Nonhuman primates are important to the study of complex biomedical disease processes. Genetic, anatomical, physiological, and behavioral similarities to humans offer unique opportunities for translational research along with the advantage of a degree of experimental control that is not possible in human studies. The purpose of this review is to outline the approaches taken with nonhuman primates as subjects in alcohol research and to highlight our current understanding of data on organismal variables that can be uniquely studied in these complex organisms. We review literature on alcohol self-administration to provide an integrative framework for discussion of progress in 2 important areas of research. Designs that incorporate self-administration provide a context for studying excessive alcohol consumption, including the organismal and environmental factors that influence risk for heavy drinking. We then review the use of monkeys to identify aspects of adverse biomedical consequences that follow excessive alcohol consumption. One of the primary conclusions to be drawn from this review is that nonhuman primates are a central part of the translational bridge in alcohol research, providing powerful and unique opportunities for experimental work that can address the biomedical complexities of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  3. Topical advances and recent studies in paleolimnological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Whitmore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Paleolimnology combines the disciplines of limnology, geology and ecology, but because of challenges that separate investigators from direct knowledge about past lake conditions, the field is multidisciplinary by necessity. As a result, paleolimnology is influenced continuously by advances in many disciplines. As with limnological studies in recent decades, paleolimnology has diverged largely from the ecological and theoretical focuses of early investigators, but recent studies demonstrate the need for more integration of ecological and paleolimnological research. This paper provides a brief overview of recent paleolimnological investigations that have addressed questions related to theoretical ecology, as well as applied lake-management and climate research issues. We examine the use of transfer function models for estimating past water-quality conditions, and important caveats expressed by investigators about limitations in the development and use of such models. Paleolimnological research has contributed new insights about biological, physical and chemical processes in lakes that have been subject to change because of climate drivers and anthropogenic influences. These findings are relevant to predicting how lakes will respond to climate change, and will require new management approaches in the future. As the range of paleolimnological studies expands, there will be greater need for basic limnological research in order for paleolimnological investigators to better understand how sediments reflect lake processes of those regions.

  4. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  5. An Applied Research on the Relations between Regional Economic Growth and Regional Logistics in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Shao; Jian-guo Zheng

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of regional logistics and regional economy in China, the relationship between regional logistics and regional economy has become a research focus in the logistics-related field. We use the regional logistics and economical data in 30 provinces of China, exercise C-D production function, construct the spatial panel autocorrelation model and the spatial econometric model, finally confirm the spatial correlativity between regional economic growth and regional logistics...

  6. 76 FR 52954 - Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting... ``Advancing Research on Mixtures: New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects... assessment, and statistics Obtain advice on integrating multidisciplinary capabilities to address critical...

  7. Research of Cruise Industry Development Bottlenecks In China

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Cruise industry is a comprehensive new industry, which has a strong impetus to the development of other industries. In recent years, as the explosive growth in cruise market, China has become a global rapidly-growing emerging cruise market. The cruise industry has begun transiting from infancy to the development phase, in all likelihood facing a number of bottlenecks problem. In this paper, the development trend of the cruise industry is first analyzed, then the bottlenecks of cruise industry...

  8. Research on current e-commerce of tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce in China has been accompanied by a similar development in tourism-based e-commerce. Taking the network as the medium, e-commerce has already become the new model for tourism transactions in the information age: By building one convenient bridge between tourism-based enterprises and tourists, can directly influence the profitability of enterprises. The paper will introduce the current development of tourism-based e-commerce websites, by firstly examining...

  9. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  10. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  11. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  12. A bibliometric analysis of research on nursing models in countries other than China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Fan Han

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Research on nursing models in countries other than China is relatively mature and stable with a broader view, but it has shown a declining trend in recent years. It emphasizes both theory and practice, with research content tending to be structured into four modules, i.e., nursing education, administration, clinical practice, and theoretical research. Community nursing models may become a key research direction in the international research on nursing models in the future.

  13. Research advances in zebrafish as a model of liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xinjuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of liver cancer tends to increase in recent years, and the molecular and pathogenic mechanisms of liver cancer should be further investigated to guarantee health. As an important model organism, zebrafish have highly conserved genes and grow fast. The early embryo of zebrafish is transparent, which helps with the real-time observation of the development process. Zebrafish are similar to humans in the composition, function, and signaling pathways of hepatocytes, as well as response to injury. In modern biological studies, zebrafish have been wildly used as the model of liver diseases. This article summarizes the research advances in the application of zebrafish as the model of liver cancer, and points out that the techniques for establishing the zebrafish model of liver cancer have become mature. With the constant development of experimental techniques, great achievements will be achieved in the field of liver cancer.

  14. Research advances in relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Xiangyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is one of common malignant digestive diseases. It is mostly diagnosed at advanced stage, with an extremely poor progression. The relationship between diabetes and PC was shown by numerous epidemiological studies for decades. Retrospective clinical studies and research on molecular mechanisms in recent years have led to a new understanding of the relationship between diabetes, especially new-onset diabetes, and PC, the effect of antidiabetic medication on PC, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the connection between diabetes and PC. It is suggested by recent data that long-standing diabetes is one of the risk factors for PC development, new-onset diabetes may facilitate early diagnosis of PC, diabetes may have an impact on the prognosis of PC, the option of antidiabetic medication may influence the incidence of PC, and exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and PC may help to identify the new therapeutic target for PC.

  15. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  16. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  17. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoqing Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO. In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  18. Research Advancements in Humanoid Compression Garments in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of sport-related compression garments has attracted a great deal of attention from among Sports Science scholars. The function of the garments, such as to maintain muscle functions, reduce sports injuries and improve athletic performance, has been an issue of debate since the beginning of the new century. In this study, a number of methods including a literature review, logical analysis and mathematical statistics, are used to analyse earlier compression garments research, which can be found by searching hardcopy journals and online databases. Among the existing studies, most have tested and confirmed the functions of the garments; however, only a few have mentioned the underlying mechanism. Thus, by using more advanced and appropriate compression materials, future studies into compression garments will be focused on the vibration characteristics of muscles (soft tissues, and especially on their proprioceptive sensation, neuromuscular control, injury prevention and performance enhancement.

  19. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Appli­ cations was held at the Hotel Algarve in Praia Da Rocha, Portugal, from March 26 through March 30, 1979, and was sponsored by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science. There were forty-one participants representing a wide range of backgrounds and interests. The purpose of the institute was to bring together people working in search theory and applications with potential users of search techniques to stimulate the increased application of recent­ ly developed search technology to civilian problems such as search and rescue, mineral exploration, surveillance, and fishing. Con­ versely, it was felt that by exposing search analysts to potential applications and new problems, they would be stimulated to develop new techniques for these applications and problems. The exchange of ideas and problems necessary to accomplish these goals was provided in the meeting workshops. There were three workshops, Search and Rescue, Exploration, and Sur...

  20. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to

  1. Advances in meta-analysis as a research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, M T; Curry, E L; Edwards, K; Adams, B N

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a method of data analysis applied to summarizing research findings, both quantitative and qualitative summaries of individual studies. Rooted in the fundamental values of the scientific enterprise of replicability, causal and correlational analysis, it is useful for answering three general questions: What is the central tendency or typical study outcome? How much variability exists among study outcomes? What is the explanation of the variability? Advanced statistical and mathematical techniques are being used in counting studies with significant and non-significant findings; in combining effect size estimates based on fixed- or random-effects models; in the use of general linear models; and, Bayesian procedures. The methodology of meta-analysis and suggestions for publications are presented as well as appropriate software programs available for use in the meta-analytic process are explored. The benefits of meta-analysis as a research method in effecting health policy development is offered as a pragmatic perspective for future consideration. Conclusions have implications for the use of meta-analysis as a teaching strategy and as a methodology in nursing research and other applied sciences. In view of the rapid pace of knowledge development and increased public demand for accountability, meta-analysis offers an opportunity for organizing phenomena which gives direction for provision of quality health care.

  2. Recent advances in animal model experimentation in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tania, Mousumi; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Xia, Kun

    2014-10-01

    Autism, a lifelong neuro-developmental disorder is a uniquely human condition. Animal models are not the perfect tools for the full understanding of human development and behavior, but they can be an important place to start. This review focused on the recent updates of animal model research in autism. We have reviewed the publications over the last three decades, which are related to animal model study in autism. Animal models are important because they allow researchers to study the underlying neurobiology in a way that is not possible in humans. Improving the availability of better animal models will help the field to increase the development of medicines that can relieve disabling symptoms. Results from the therapeutic approaches are encouraging remarkably, since some behavioral alterations could be reversed even when treatment was performed on adult mice. Finding an animal model system with similar behavioral tendencies as humans is thus vital for understanding the brain mechanisms, supporting social motivation and attention, and the manner in which these mechanisms break down in autism. The ongoing studies should therefore increase the understanding of the biological alterations associated with autism as well as the development of knowledge-based treatments therapy for those struggling with autism. In this review, we have presented recent advances in research based on animal models of autism, raising hope for understanding the disease biology for potential therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of life of autism individuals.

  3. The advancements of genomics and data integration in sarcoma research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Flores

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the age of big data, genomics and clinical research have reached a crossroads. A wealth of data is being generated, but it is becoming increasingly complicated to analyze these data to extract meaningful results. The ability to understand biological systems holistically has unprecedented potential to transform how cancers are treated. Recent major advances leading biomedical research towards “systems medicine” have been fueled by high-throughput platforms, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing, which can capture vast amounts of data in different genomic spaces. Unfortunately, because of high dimensionality and complex relationships among these data, inferring comprehensive and useful biological models has proven computationally and statistically challenging. However, novel bioinformatic methods for data integration of cancer genomic datasets have been developed. In this review, we will describe the applications of various genomic approaches in sarcoma research and introduce bioinformatic methods for data integration. With the continuing evolution of technological and bioinformatic methodologies, the application of big data within clinics and hospitals will ultimately result in significant improvements on how cancers are detected and treated.

  4. The Norwegian research programme on advanced robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Egeland

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian research programme on advanced robot systems has been focused on sensory control of robots for industrial applications and telerobotics for underwater operations. This paper gives an overview of experimental work and ongoing research. An exciting area in sensory control is visual servoing where camera images at video rate are used to grasp moving objects. Also compliant motion in partially unknown environments is a research topic. New robot control systems have been developed to apply sensory control to robotic manipulators at an acceptable sampling rate. In telerobotics the main work has been on the combination of remote control and local sensory loops in the manipulator. Also in this case visual servoing anti force control are important. The generation and updating of a world model used in a graphic display of the worksite using sensory information has been tested in combination with large delay times in the communication channel. The use of visual and acoustic data for the control of remotely operated vehicles and autonomous underwater vehicles is studied for use in robotic systems. Light-weight robot manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom and high performance joints are being designed for mobile robot applications.

  5. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  6. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  7. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. Notes on shark and ray types at the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SCSFRI) in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Last, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Most of the shark and ray type material at the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SCSFRI) in Guangzhou, China was examined during a museum visit by the senior author in 2009. The status of the shark and ray species described from the South China Sea in the 1980s and deposited in this collection is discussed. Squalus acutirostris is considered a junior synonym of Squalus mitsukurii from the western North Pacific. Centrophorus ferrugineus is considered a junior synonym of Centrophorus squamosus. Centroscymnus macrops is confirmed as a junior synonym of Centroscymnus coelolepis. Scymnodon niger is confirmed as a junior synonym of Zameus squamulosus. Isistius labialis is considered a synonym of Isistius brasiliensis. Halaelurus immaculatus is confirmed as a valid species of the genus Bythaelurus. Urolophus marmoratus is considered a junior synonym of the widespread Plesiobatis daviesi. Springeria nanhaiensis is a questionable synonym of Sinobatis borneensis, following previous researchers. Springeria stenosoma is considered as questionably valid but with further investigation into generic placement required. The validity of species with SCSFRI type specimens not examined in this study are also briefly discussed.

  9. Practice, training, and research in neuropsychology in mainland China: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue. The objective was to review history, educational and training pathways, licensure and board certification, practice and compensation, and unique aspects of, or challenges faced by, neuropsychology in mainland China. Historical, scientific, and clinical literatures were reviewed and integrated. The history of neuropsychology in mainland China is traced back to the late 1930s. Educational pathways have not yet been fully formalized. Clinical practice generally occurs within rehabilitation settings, and medical license is required. The main challenge lies in the establishment of training guidelines and the expansion of neuropsychology to meet the tremendous needs of a large nation. Although the development and status of psychology has gradually gained momentum in mainland China, the development of neuropsychology has not shown significant advancement since the late 1930s.

  10. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cohen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for communicating results effectively to different members of the wine trade.

  11. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  12. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  13. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  14. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-10-04

    Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  15. Research Status and Development Trend of Remote Sensing in China Using Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Niu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing was introduced into China in 1970s and then began to flourish. At present, China has developed into a big remote sensing country, and remote sensing is increasingly playing an important role in various fields of national economic construction and social development. Based on China Academic Journals Full-text Database and China Citation Database published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, this paper analyzed academic characteristics of 963 highly cited papers published by 16 professional and academic journals in the field of surveying and mapping from January 2010 to December 2014 in China, which include hot topics, literature authors, research institutions, and fundations. At the same time, it studied a total of 51,149 keywords published by these 16 journals during the same period. Firstly by keyword selection, keyword normalization, keyword consistency and keyword incorporation, and then by analysis of high frequency keywords, the progress and prospect of China's remote sensing technology in data acquisition, data processing and applications during the past five years were further explored and revealed. It can be seen that: highly cited paper analysis and word frequency analysis is complementary on subject progress analysis; in data acquisition phase, research focus is new civilian remote sensing satellite systems and UAV remote sensing system; research focus of data processing and analysis is multi-source information extraction and classification, laser point cloud data processing, objectoriented high resolution image analysis, SAR data and hyper-spectral image processing, etc.; development trend of remote sensing data processing is quantitative, intelligent, automated, and real-time, and the breadth and depth of remote sensing application is gradually increased; parallel computing, cloud computing and geographic conditions monitoring and census are the new research focuses to be paid attention to.

  16. Rat tail revascularization model for advanced microsurgery training and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakrak, Tamer; Köse, A Aydan; Karabağli, Yakup; Koçman, A Emre; Ozbayoğlu, A Ceyla; Cetįn, Cengiz

    2011-09-01

    We describe a time-saving microsurgical exercise for continuing microsurgical training and research. The rat tail replantation model was simplified by excluding bone detachment. Rats were divided into two groups: devascularization only ( N = 3) and revascularization after devascularization ( N = 7). The tail was devascularized by ligation and division of artery and veins in the first group to reveal if a collateral circulation from bone existed. The divided vessels were reanastomosed in the second group. The circulation of the rat tails was followed for 1 week. The tails showed total necrosis in the devascularization group, whereas only two of seven tails showed partial necrosis in the revascularization group. Reexploration showed thrombosis narrowing the lumen at the anastomotic site of the partially necrosed tails, most likely due to an anastomotic insufficiency. The present study revealed that total amputation is not necessary for tail devascularization. The rat tail revascularization model provides a practical tool for advanced and continuing microsurgical training and research. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. Astrid-2, an advanced microsatellite for auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Swedish microsatellite Astrid-2 in December 1998 began a new era of auroral research, with advanced microprobes of 30 kg or less used as research tools. Innovative technologies and low-mass solutions were used for the sensors and deployment systems to allow a fairly complete set of scientific instruments within the 10 kg allocated for the scientific payload. A newly developed wire boom deployment system proved to function excellently. During its seven month lifetime Astrid-2 collected more than 26 Gbytes of high-quality data of auroral electric and magnetic fields, and auroral particle and plasma characteristics from approximately 3000 orbits at an inclination of 83° and an altitude of about 1000 km. Scientific results cover a broad range of topics, from the physics of energization of auroral particles to how the magnetosphere responds to the energy input from the solar wind and global magnetic field modelling. The fulfilment of both the technological and the scientific mission objectives has opened entirely new possibilities to carry out low-budget multipoint measurements in near-Earth space.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; instruments and techniques – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  18. Astrid-2, an advanced microsatellite for auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Swedish microsatellite Astrid-2 in December 1998 began a new era of auroral research, with advanced microprobes of 30 kg or less used as research tools. Innovative technologies and low-mass solutions were used for the sensors and deployment systems to allow a fairly complete set of scientific instruments within the 10 kg allocated for the scientific payload. A newly developed wire boom deployment system proved to function excellently. During its seven month lifetime Astrid-2 collected more than 26 Gbytes of high-quality data of auroral electric and magnetic fields, and auroral particle and plasma characteristics from approximately 3000 orbits at an inclination of 83° and an altitude of about 1000 km. Scientific results cover a broad range of topics, from the physics of energization of auroral particles to how the magnetosphere responds to the energy input from the solar wind and global magnetic field modelling. The fulfilment of both the technological and the scientific mission objectives has opened entirely new possibilities to carry out low-budget multipoint measurements in near-Earth space.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; instruments and techniques – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  19. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  20. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:25872896

  1. Increasing contribution of China in modern biomedical research. Statistical data from ISI Web of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Gregory C; Spanos, Alex; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-12-01

    China is one of the most rapidly developing countries with a huge population spreading on a chaotic area. For centuries Chinese medicine was based on tradition, religion and experience. However, the last two decades under the pressure of globalization Chinese medicine is turning gradually to evidence-based medicine, contributing in international biomedical research. A bibliometric analysis through the ISI Web of Knowledge was performed. We collected data regarding the amount of Chinese publications in different biomedical fields, the presence of Chinese authors in high impact international journals, the contribution of China's universities in research and finally the number and the quality of local Chinese journals, which have entered the ISI database. According to ISI database a significant increase occurred in both the quantity and quality of the Chinese biomedical publishing activity. This was indicated by the major rise in the amount of published papers, the average augmentation of citations per paper and the constantly increasing presence of Chinese researchers in top medical journals. Chinese institutions appeared also more productive and local journals gained more representation in the ISI database. China's contribution in biomedical research really blossomed after 1990 and especially after 2000. The extent of this contribution may not be proportional to the total research activity performed in China, but it is this part of knowledge that becomes exported and interacts with the rest of the international research activity, promoting research potential in biomedicine.

  2. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types. Today, approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12–21 t/hm2 in field experiments. The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties, compared with those of conventional varieties, can be summarized as follows: more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter; larger leaf area index, longer duration of green leaf, greater photosynthetic rate, higher lodging resistance, greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage, greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity. However, there are two main problems in super rice production: poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets, and low and unstable seed-setting rate. Here, we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice, focusing on biological features, formation of yield components, and population quality. Finally, we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  3. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  4. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  5. [Investigation, collation and research of traditional Dai medicine of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Lian; Li, Hai-Tao; Niu, Ying-Fen; Guan, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In order to find out the composition, characteristics and traditional utilization characteristics of Dai medicine and promote the rational protection, inheritance and utilization of the resources and traditional knowledge of Dai medicine in China, the resources of traditional Dai medicine have been investigated systematically and the traditional knowledge of Dai medicine have been analyzed in the article. We found out that there were altogether 1 077 kinds of traditional Dai medicine in China and among which 272 were the first time recorded in the condition of Dai folk medical uses. There were 1 053 plant medicines which belong to 169 family and 694 genus. These plant medicines mainly distributed in the southern, west southern and east southern area of Yunnan province, the southern area of Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian province and tropical, subtropical district as Taiwan, and more than 94.49% plant medicines could be found in Yunnan province. From the point of plant life form, they were major herbaceous or shrubby plants; When it is used as medicinal part, root and rhizome of plants account for the highest proportion, the next were whole plant and leaves. From nature, flavor and channel tropism points of view, the largest proportion of Dai medicines were cool, bitter-tasted and possesses water element. In terms of treatment of disease types, most of the drugs can treat gastrointestinal diseases, next were drugs that could be used to treat upper respiratory infection, traumatological and rheumatic diseases, urinary infection, gynecological diseases, hepatopathy, puerperium fever and diseases caused by poisonous insects and beast of prey bite. The study revealed that the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were abundant in China, but the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were faced with the risk of gradually reduce and loss. The article suggested that we should

  6. China's growing contribution to sepsis research from 1984 to 2014: A bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Jialian; Chu, Lihua; Jin, Yue; Cheng, Baoli; Xie, Guohao; Wang, Yan; Fang, Xiangming

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the global trends of sepsis research and investigate China's contribution by comparing the quantity and quality of sepsis-related publications. Sepsis-related publications were main retrieved from the Web of Science online database by using the keywords "sepsis" or "septic shock." Bibliometric indicators, including the number of publications, total citation frequency, citation frequency per paper, h-index, research type, orientation, organization, author, journal, and funding support were analyzed. From 1984 to 2014, a total of 70,564 papers regarding sepsis research were published worldwide. 3.60% of which were contributed by authors from Chinese institutions. Although this contribution was less than the Unites States, Germany, England, France or Japan, a notable trend of increase in a number of scientific publications (r  =  0.57, P Science Foundation of China supported the most Chinese sepsis researches. Global sepsis research developed swiftly during the 1984 to 2014 period. The USA was in the forefront of sepsis research. Although the data indicated that China had a large increasing rate of publications, there was a considerable gap in the quality of articles between China and other developed countries.

  7. Advanced Accelerator Development Strategy Report: DOE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Research Roadmap Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-03

    Over a full two day period, February 2–3, 2016, the Office of High Energy Physics convened a workshop in Gaithersburg, MD to seek community input on development of an Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) research roadmap. The workshop was in response to a recommendation by the HEPAP Accelerator R&D Subpanel [1] [2] to “convene the university and laboratory proponents of advanced acceleration concepts to develop R&D roadmaps with a series of milestones and common down selection criteria towards the goal for constructing a multi-TeV e+e– collider” (the charge to the workshop can be found in Appendix A). During the workshop, proponents of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA), particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), and dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA), along with a limited number of invited university and laboratory experts, presented and critically discussed individual concept roadmaps. The roadmap workshop was preceded by several preparatory workshops. The first day of the workshop featured presentation of three initial individual roadmaps with ample time for discussion. The individual roadmaps covered a time period extending until roughly 2040, with the end date assumed to be roughly appropriate for initial operation of a multi-TeV e+e– collider. The second day of the workshop comprised talks on synergies between the roadmaps and with global efforts, potential early applications, diagnostics needs, simulation needs, and beam issues and challenges related to a collider. During the last half of the day the roadmaps were revisited but with emphasis on the next five to ten years (as specifically requested in the charge) and on common challenges. The workshop concluded with critical and unanimous endorsement of the individual roadmaps and an extended discussion on the characteristics of the common challenges. (For the agenda and list of participants see Appendix B.)

  8. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  9. Research advances in interactions related to Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins (TgMICs), secreted by micronemes upon contact with host cells, are reported to play important roles in multiple stages of the T. gondii life cycle, including parasite motility, invasion, intracellular survival, and egress from host cells. Meanwhile, during these processes, TgMICs participate in many protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions, such as undergoing proteolytic maturation, binding to aldolase, engaging the host cell receptors and forming the moving junction (MJ), relying on different types of ectodomains, transmembrane (TM) domains and cytoplasmic domains (CDs). In this review, we summarize the research advances in protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions related to TgMICs, and their intimate associations with corresponding biological processes during T. gondii infection, which will contribute to an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of T. gondii infection, and provide a basis for developing effective control strategies against T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, J G; Lee, S G; Kim, H S

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as ∼0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  13. [Advances of genetic research on the SPG4 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-rong; Qi, Yong; Song, Zhi; Deng, Hao

    2010-06-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as Strumpell-Lorrain familial spasmodic paraplegia, is a highlighted clinical and genetic heterogeneity disorder with the prevalence of (2-9.6)/100,000. This disorder is characterized by progressive, usually severe spasticity and pyramidal weakness, predominantly in the lower limbs. Inheritance of this disease has been reported to be autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), or X-linked recessive (XR), with the AD forms of HSP (ADHSP) being the most common type. At least 40 HSP gene loci have been localized and 19 genes have been identified. Forty percent of HSP cases are caused by mutations in the spastin (spastic paraplegia-4, SPG4) gene. Genetic diagnosis, the gold standard for diagnosis of the disease, may contribute to early diagnosis, presymptomatic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The study of animal models plays an important role in revealing the molecular pathological mechanism of HSP. The known genetic research advances of the SPG4 gene are reviewed in this article.

  14. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Bernardino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs. Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field.

  15. The Hope Research Community of Practice: Building Advanced Practice Nurses' Research Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeen, Janet; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Doyle, Winnifred

    2017-09-01

    Background Clinical nurses have multiple challenges in conducting high-quality nursing research to inform practice. Theoretically, the development of a community of practice on nursing research centered on the concept of hope is an approach that may address some of the challenges. Purpose This article describes the delivery and evaluation of a hope research community of practice (HRCoP) approach to facilitate research expertise in a group of advanced practice nurses in one hospital. It addressed the question: Does the establishment of a HRCoP for master's prepared nurses increase their confidence and competence in leading nursing research? Method Using interpretive descriptive qualitative research methodology, five participants were interviewed about their experiences within the HRCoP and facilitators engaged in participant observation. Results At 13 months, only four of the original seven participants remained in the HRCoP. While all participants discussed positive impacts of participation, they identified challenges of having protected time to complete their individual research projects, despite having administrative support to do so. Progress on individual research projects varied. Conclusion Nurse-led research remains a challenge for practicing nurses despite participating in an evidence-based HRCoP. Lessons learned from this project can be useful to other academic clinical partnerships.

  16. Insect-resistant genetically modified rice in China: from research to commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony; Ye, Gong-yin

    2011-01-01

    From the first insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) rice transformation in 1989 in China to October 2009 when the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued biosafety certificates for commercial production of two cry1Ab/Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) lines, China made a great leap forward from IRGM rice basic research to potential commercialization of the world's first IRGM rice. Research has been conducted on developing IRGM rice, assessing its environmental and food safety impacts, and evaluating its socioeconomic consequences. Laboratory and field tests have confirmed that these two Bt rice lines can provide effective and economic control of the lepidopteran complex on rice with less risk to the environment than present practices. Commercializing these Bt plants, while developing other GM plants that address the broader complex of insects and other pests, will need to be done within a comprehensive integrated pest management program to ensure the food security of China and the world.

  17. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  19. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  20. Research advances in acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Chengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF is a severe liver disease with high mortality in China. Early diagnosis could reduce complications and improve the survival rate. In the present review, the definition, etiology, and pathogenesis related to inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and metabolism are reviewed. Also, the new approaches to the treatment of ACLF and prognostic factors are summarized. Generally, the development of ACLF is considered to be life-threatening for patients. Therefore, a universal definition of ACLF should be proposed, which would provide good guidance and standard for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of ACLF in China. In addition, the risk factors for ACLF in patients with chronic liver diseases need to be determined by prospective studies.

  1. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Dust Source Variability in Northern China Identified Using Advanced Remote Sensing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Pasqui, M.; Barbour, J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Bottai, L.; Busillo, C.; Calastrini, F.; Guarnieri, F.; Small, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a detailed characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the regional and local dust source areas within the desert of the Alashan Prefecture (Inner Mongolia, China). This problem was approached through multi-scale remote sensing analysis of vegetation changes. The primary requirements for this regional analysis are high spatial and spectral resolution data, accurate spectral calibration and good temporal resolution with a suitable temporal baseline. Landsat analysis and field validation along with the low spatial resolution classifications from MODIS and AVHRR are combined to provide a reliable characterization of the different potential dust-producing sources. The representation of intra-annual and inter-annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend to assess land cover discrimination for mapping potential dust source using MODIS and AVHRR at larger scale is enhanced by Landsat Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA). The combined methodology is to determine the extent to which Landsat can distinguish important soils types in order to better understand how soil reflectance behaves at seasonal and inter-annual timescales. As a final result mapping soil surface properties using SMA is representative of responses of different land and soil cover previously identified by NDVI trend. The results could be used in dust emission models even if they are not reflecting aggregate formation, soil stability or particle coatings showing to be critical for accurately represent dust source over different regional and local emitting areas.

  3. A review of advanced practice nursing in the United States, Canada, Australia and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN in the USA, Canada, Australia and Hong Kong. It is based upon documents presented to the China Medical Board (CMB China Nursing Network (CNN as background for discussions held by the CNN in Shanghai. It discusses the APN role in these countries and regions according to topics identified by the CNN. These are APN educational preparation; role legitimacy; capacity requirements; scope of practice, domains of activities and limited rights for prescription and referral; professional promotion ladder; accreditation system; and, performance evaluation system. Both Canada and Australia have adapted many aspects of the USA model of APN to fit their specific legislative requirements and local conditions. Hong Kong has taken a different path which may be of interest in the Chinese context.

  4. Buy, Build, or Steal: China’s Quest for Advanced Military Aviation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    from Britain (1975) SA–321 Super Frelon helicopter from France (1977) Coproduce Chengdu J–5A: Chinese MiG–17PF (1964) Spey fan-jet engine...the French delivered the SA–321 Super Frelon helicopter to China, and allowed China to coproduce it as the Z–8 beginning in 1981.86 France also agreed...demanded that Israel not return the drones that China had already purchased and thus legally owned. What finally happened to China’s Harpy aircraft

  5. Research into Sexism in Language Testing & Its Implications to Language Testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Baiqiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews foreign and domestic sexism research and practice in language testing and reveals that China lags behind in this sociolinguistics perspective in both theoretical study and practice. The paper indicates that sexism is represented in the listening comprehension section in National Matriculation English Test (NMET) after a case…

  6. Research progress on Drosophila visual cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, AiKe; Zhang, Ke; Peng, YueQin; Xi, Wang

    2010-03-01

    Visual cognition, as one of the fundamental aspects of cognitive neuroscience, is generally associated with high-order brain functions in animals and human. Drosophila, as a model organism, shares certain features of visual cognition in common with mammals at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and even higher behavioral levels. From learning and memory to decision making, Drosophila covers a broad spectrum of higher cognitive behaviors beyond what we had expected. Armed with powerful tools of genetic manipulation in Drosophila, an increasing number of studies have been conducted in order to elucidate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying these cognitive behaviors from a genes-brain-behavior perspective. The goal of this review is to integrate the most important studies on visual cognition in Drosophila carried out in mainland China during the last decade into a body of knowledge encompassing both the basic neural operations and circuitry of higher brain function in Drosophila. Here, we consider a series of the higher cognitive behaviors beyond learning and memory, such as visual pattern recognition, feature and context generalization, different feature memory traces, salience-based decision, attention-like behavior, and cross-modal leaning and memory. We discuss the possible general gain-gating mechanism implementing by dopamine - mushroom body circuit in fly's visual cognition. We hope that our brief review on this aspect will inspire further study on visual cognition in flies, or even beyond.

  7. Advancing Transdisciplinary Research: The Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah; Hall, Kara; Vogel, Amanda; Hohl, Sarah; Hartman, Sheri; Nebeling, Linda; Redline, Susan; Schmitz, Kathryn; Thornquist, Mark; Patterson, Ruth; Thompson, Beti

    2014-09-01

    Strategies for constructing and maintaining cross-disciplinary teams are in their infancy. We outline strategies to support one form, transdisciplinary research, in a major initiative of the National Cancer Institute, the Transdisciplinary Research in Energetics and Cancer 2 (TREC2) initiative. Discussion of the TREC2 sites' experiences with transdisciplinarity is structured around a conceptual model that identifies four iterative phases of transdisciplinary research. An active coordination center, regular face-to-face meetings, and input from external advisors were instrumental in moving TREC2 to the translation phase. The possibilities for advancements in the science of energetics and cancer increased as investigator ties became denser. TREC2 can be seen as a flagship effort in transdisciplinary science that provides lessons on moving ideas from development to translation.

  8. CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of aerosol and clouds are of crucial importance to understand the weather climate system. At the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-IMAA an advanced atmospheric observatory, named CIAO, is operative. CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory main scientific objective is the long term measurement for the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties. Its equipment addresses the state-of-the-art for the ground-based remote sensing of aerosol, water vapour and clouds including active and passive sensors, like lidars, ceilometers, radiometers, and a radar. This paper describes the CIAO infrastructure, its scientific activities as well as the observation strategy. The observation strategy is mainly organized in order to provide quality assured measurements for satellite validation and model evaluation and to fully exploit the synergy and integration of the active and passive sensors for the improvement of atmospheric profiling. Data quality is ensured both by the application of protocols and dedicated quality assurance programs mainly related to the projects and networks in which the infrastructure is involved. The paper also introduces examples of observations performed at CIAO and of the synergies and integration algorithms (using Raman lidar and microwave profiler data developed and implemented at the observatory for the optimization and improvement of water vapour profiling. CIAO database represents an optimal basis to study the synergy between different sensors and to investigate aerosol-clouds interactions, and can give a significant contribution to the validation programs of the incoming new generation satellite missions.

  9. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  10. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research.Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed.A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML.There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article.

  11. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  12. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yang; Liu, Hongbo; Chai, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT) technology with the dev...

  13. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research | Hafez | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 6 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. High temperature engineering research facilities and experiments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuanhui; Liu, Meisheng; Yao, Huizhong; Ju, Huaiming [Institute of Nuclear Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    June 14, 1995, the construction of a pebble bed type high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) started in China. It is a test reactor with 10 MW thermal power output (termed HTR- 10). The test reactor is located on the site of Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University in the northwest suburb of Beijing, about 40 km away from the city. Design of the HTR-10 test reactor represents the features of HTR-Modular design: `side-by-side` arrangement, spherical fuel elements with `multi-pass` loading scheme, completely passive decay heat removal, reactor shutdown systems in the side reflector, etc. However, in the HTR-10 design some modifications from the HTR-Module were made to satisfy Chinese conditions. For example, the steam generator is composed of a number of modular helical tubes with small diameter, pulse pneumatic discharging apparatus are used in the fuel handling system and step motor driving control rods are designed. These modifications would cause some uncertainty in our design. It is necessary to do engineering experiments to prove these new or modified ideas. Therefore, a program of engineering experiments for HTR-10 key technologies is being conducted at INET. The main aims of these engineering experiments are to verify the designed characteristics and performance of the components and systems, to feedback on design and to obtain operational experiences. Those engineering experiments are depressurization test of the hot gas duct at room temperature and operating pressure, performance test of the hot gas duct at operating helium temperature and pressure, performance test of the pulse pneumatic fuel handling system, test of the control rods driving apparatus, two phase flow stability test for the once through steam generator and cross mixture test at the bottom of the reactor core

  15. International publication trends and collaboration performance of China in healthcare science and services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Qiang; Sun, Ju; He, Zhi-Fei; Yao, Lan; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China's healthcare reforms and related studies have drawn particular global attention. The main objective of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the publication trends and collaboration performance of China in healthcare science and services (HSS) research. Scientometric methods and visualization technology were used to survey the growth and development trends of HSS research based on the Web of Science publications during the past 15 years. China's international publications on HSS research increased rapidly compared to those of the global HSS and Chinese scientific studies. Growth trends indicate that collaboration among countries, institutions and authors has also increased. China's leading partners were all developed countries, such as the US, the UK, Australia and Canada, which have contributed to the majority of the joint publications. The academic impact of publications involving partners from European and American countries was relatively higher than those involving partners from Asian countries. Prominent institutions were universities that could be primarily classified into two groups, namely, Mainland China on the one hand and Hong Kong universities and foreign universities on the other. The most prominent actors were elite institutions, such as Peking University, Fudan University, Chinese University of Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong. The papers published by the Chinese Ministry of Health had relatively high academic impact, whereas those published by Mainland China universities alone had a lower academic impact compared to foreign cooperation papers. Issues related to the Chinese healthcare reform, priority diseases (e.g., breast cancer, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, etc.), health systems performance, quality of life and measurement tools, aging problems and research methods have been the most popular HSS topics in China in recent years. Despite the extensive achievement of the Chinese HSS reforms and research, gaps and challenges

  16. Perspective for Future Research Direction About Health Impact of Ambient Air Pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the major risks to human health because of the progressive increase in the use of vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Although lots of works on the health impact of ambient air pollution have been done in China, the following recommendations for future research were identified in this chapter: (1) the synergistic effect of indoor air pollution with climate change; (2) develop new technologies to improve accurate assessment of air pollution exposure; (3) well-designed cohort study of sensitive populations including children, older people, and people with chronic health problems; (4) multi-omics technologies in the underlying mechanisms study; and (5) benefits evaluation of improvement of air quality. In conclusion, China is becoming a suitable study site, providing an ideal opportunity to evaluate the effects of environmental pollution, including air pollution, on human health, which might serve as an example for developing countries where health impacts of air pollution are as serious as in China.

  17. Research to Advance the Development of River Information Services (RIS) Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Research to advance the Development of River Information Services (RIS) Technologies Final report Contracting period 09/2014 – 12/2016 Contract... Research to advance the Development of River Information Services (RIS) Technologies Page 2 © viadonau Final Report Table of content 1 Abstract...13 Research to advance the Development of River Information Services (RIS) Technologies Page 3 © viadonau Final Report 1 Abstract During

  18. Research on economy and social exclusion: China dolls and rare diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Summary The second workshop on “Research on Economy And Social Exclusion (REASE)” was held in the University of Tokyo on January 26, 2013. Focusing on rare diseases and disorders in China, three speakers from China introduced the current status of rare diseases and the challenge of support organizations for patients with rare disease and disorders in China, and especially pointed out some important issues associated with rare diseases and disorders in China. From the viewpoint of economics, this paper discusses some of the important issues of rare diseases and disorders in China raised in this workshop, especially from the aspects of economy of scale and orphan drugs, and the emergence of stigma from discrimination. It was shown that international coordination and cooperation are called for in order to give a proper incentive to the drug industries to create new drugs for rare diseases, and suggested that an important step toward inclusion is to reduce stigma by making rare diseases visible as much as possible. PMID:25343098

  19. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  20. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  1. Cancer nanotechnology research in the United States and China: cooperation to promote innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julie A; Grodzinski, Piotr; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to cancer research is a promising area for US-China cooperation. Cancer is a major public health burden in both countries, and progress in cancer nanotechnology research is increasing in several fields, including imaging, biomarker detection, and targeted drug delivery. The United States and China are international leaders in nanotechnology research, and have both launched national programs to support nanotechnology efforts in the recent past. The accelerating trend of co-authorship among US and Chinese nanotechnology researchers demonstrates that individual scientists already recognize the potential for cooperation, providing a strong platform for creating additional partnerships in pre-competitive research areas. Mechanisms that could help to enhance US-China cancer nanotechnology partnerships include: developing new programs for bi-directional training and exchange; convening workshops focused on specific scientific topics of high priority to both countries; and joint support of collaborative research projects by US and Chinese funders. In addition to the accelerating scientific progress, expanded cooperation will stimulate important dialog on regulatory, policy, and technical issues needed to lay the groundwork for US and Chinese scientists to move greater numbers of cancer nanotechnology applications into the clinic. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Advanced Research Training in Human Geography: The Scottish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanzura-Ottemoeller, Fungisai; Hopkins, Peter; Lorimer, Hayden; Philip, Lorna J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal research training is integral to research degrees in human geography completed in UK higher education institutions today. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) has been the driving force behind the formalization of research training. Arguably less well known among the ESRC research training recommendations is the stipulation that…

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Brilliant Light Facilities and Research in Life and Material Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakanov, Vasili; Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

    2007-01-01

    The present book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research. The book includes advanced topics in the fields of high brightness photon beams, instrumentation, the spectroscopy, microscopy, scattering and imaging experimental techniques and their applications. The book is strongly recommended for students, engineers and scientists in the field of accelerator physics, X-ray optics and instrumentation, life, materials and environmental sciences, bio and nanotechnology.

  4. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; Schiff, G.D.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research.

  5. Platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of blood stasis syndrome and activated blood circulation herbs of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Huijun; Chen, Keji

    2013-11-01

    The development of novel and efficient antiplatelet agents that have few adverse effects and methods that improve antiplatelet resistance has long been the focus of international research on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent advances in platelet proteomics have provided a technology platform for high-quality research of platelet pathophysiology and the development of new antiplatelet drugs. The study of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and activated blood circulation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most active fields where the integration of TCM and western medicine in China has been successful. Activated blood circulation herbs (ABC herbs) of Chinese medicine are often used in the treatment of BSS. Most ABC herbs have antiplatelet and anti-atherosclerosis activity, but knowledge about their targets is lacking. Coronary heart disease (CHD), BSS, and platelet activation are closely related. By screening and identifying activated platelet proteins that are differentially expressed in BSS of CHD, platelet proteomics has helped researchers interpret the antiplatelet mechanism of action of ABC herbs and provided many potential biomarkers for BSS that could be used to evaluate the clinical curative effect of new antiplatelet drugs. In this article the progress of platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of BSS and ABC herbs of Chinese medicine are reviewed.

  6. NASA advanced turboprop research and concept validation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, John B., Jr.; Sievers, G. Keith

    1988-01-01

    NASA has determined by experimental and analytical effort that use of advanced turboprop propulsion instead of the conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. In cooperation with industry, NASA has defined and implemented an Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program to develop and validate the technology required for these new high-speed, multibladed, thin, swept propeller concepts. This paper presents an overview of the analysis, model-scale test, and large-scale flight test elements of the program together with preliminary test results, as available.

  7. CASE STUDY: China — Young researchers battle poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... Participatory projects empower poor villagers to seek their own solutions A team of enthusiastic young researchers set out to help villagers in remote Guizhou province to improve their lives through participatory management of their resources. Success at the local level, however, did not necessarily bring ...

  8. Generative Research Techniques Crossing Cultures : A Field Study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, C.; van Boeijen, A.G.C.; Sonneveld, M.H.; Stappers, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The value of understanding user needs has been recognized by industry, and user research methods have become an accepted part of industrial design practice. These techniques were originally developed and tested for Western markets, with participants from Western cultures. More recently, companies

  9. Research advances in control methods of wearable walking assist robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the proportion of the elderly in China increases, the need for robotic assist walking is growing. The assisted-as-needed (AAN property of a wearable walking assist robot matches a user’s biological need and improves the flexibility, appetency and friendliness of a mechanical system. To realize AAN walking and aiming at realizing master/slave flexible assist, a new hybrid control method consisting of hip joint control based on central pattern generators and knee joint impedance structured control is proposed. The adaptation of a robot's master/slave motion mode to a user's physical function, the continuous switching method for knee joint impedance structured control and its stability, and the AAN effect of the Hybrid control theory are studied, which provides a new thought for the development of wearable walking assist robots.

  10. Review of the use of defined daily dose concept in drug utilisation research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Xin, Hua-wen; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to understand the characteristics of drug utilisation researches (DURs) using concepts of defined daily dose in China and to provide further suggestion for future DURs in China. DURs using concepts of defined daily dose published in China were identified from China Journal Full-text Database, and in-depth data analysis was conducted for DURs published in every even-numbered year. In total, 2,911 DURs published between 1989 and 2009 were identified, of which 1,268 were included for further data analysis. All studies were hospital-based. Types of drugs commonly assessed in DURs were Anti-infectives for systemic use (34.1%), drugs for Nervous system (25.5%) and drugs for Alimentary tract and metabolism (14.3%). In addition, 63 DURs published in even-numbered year focusing on Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) were identified. Commonly used sources of defined dose were Xin Bian Yao Wu Xue/New Materia Medica (83.9%), drug information leaflets (66.8%) and Chinese Pharmacopoeia (52.0%). Common indicators used in DURs include defined daily doses (DDDs), drug utilisation index (DUI) and daily dose cost (DDC). DUR is a popular method to explore the use of both pharmaceutical drugs and CHM in China. The definition of defined daily dose and its related indicators presented in the DURs were highly varied. From this, it follows that DURs with more consistent methodology are highly needed for a thorough understanding of drug utilisation in China. Apart from DURs focusing on the hospital setting, more DURs from other health settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 2013 Summary of Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) releases its annual list of scientific advances that represent significant progress in the field. The 20 studies selected have given new insight into the complex causes of autism and potential risk factors, studied clues that could lead to earlier diagnosis, and evaluated promising…

  12. School Integration Matters: Research-Based Strategies to Advance Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica, Ed.; Garces, Liliana M., Ed.; Hopkins, Megan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    More than 60 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision declared segregated schooling inherently unequal, this timely book sheds light on how and why U.S. schools are experiencing increasing segregation along racial, socioeconomic, and linguistic lines. It offers policy and programmatic alternatives for advancing equity and…

  13. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  14. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances Past ... History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine Gout—Before Modern Medicine Before medical research discovered the ...

  16. Criminological research in contemporary China: challenges and lessons learned from a large-scale criminal victimization survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Messner, Steven F; Lu, Jianhong

    2007-02-01

    This article discusses research experience gained from a large-scale survey of criminal victimization recently conducted in Tianjin, China. The authors review some of the more important challenges that arose in the research, their responses to these challenges, and lessons learned that might be beneficial to other scholars who are interested in conducting criminological research in China. Their experience underscores the importance of understanding the Chinese political, cultural, and academic context, and the utility of collaborating with experienced and knowledgeable colleagues "on site." Although there are some special difficulties and barriers, their project demonstrates the feasibility of original criminological data collection in China.

  17. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR resear...

  18. Advances in business ICT new ideas from ongoing research

    CERN Document Server

    Mach-Król, Maria; Olszak, Celina

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the effective use of modern ICT solutions for business needs, including the efficient use of IT resources, decision support systems, business intelligence, data mining and advanced data processing algorithms, as well as the processing of large datasets (inter alia social networking such as Twitter and Facebook, etc.). The ability to generate, record and process qualitative and quantitative data, including in the area of big data, the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing offers a real prospect of significant improvements for business, as well as the operation of a company within Industry 4.0. The book presents new ideas, approaches, solutions and algorithms in the area of knowledge representation, management and processing, quantitative and qualitative data processing (including sentiment analysis), problems of simulation performance, and the use of advanced signal processing to increase the speed of computation. The solutions presented are also aimed at the effective use of busines...

  19. Federal Plan for Advanced Networking Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In the four decades since Federal research first enabled computers to send and receive data over networks, U.S. government research and development R and D in...

  20. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    as an official Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Imaging biomarkers of outcome in the developing preterm brain. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Nov;8(11):1042-55. Epub 2009 Sep 30. 4. Mathur AM, Neil JJ, Inder...TE.Understanding brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities in the preterm infant: the evolving role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging.Semin

  1. Research on the professional ethics issues of CPA in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, auditing collusion cases have occured frequently, reducing the integrity degree of CPA. Of all reasons, we should pay attention to professional ethics issues most. Because of professional ethics issues, the public have lost confidence in the industry of CPA. The industry of CPA is faced with serious crisis. In the circumstance, this paper researched professional ethics issues of CPA. Firstly, it explained the connotation of professional ethics, emphasized the importance. Secondly, through real cases, this paper analyzed the present situation of professional ethics of CPA, explained the lack of professional ethics. Finally, for solving the problem, this paper proposed the countermeasures to enhance the standards of professional ethics of CPA from the external and internal practice environment.

  2. Big data in psychology: A framework for research advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjerid, Idris; Kelley, Ken

    2018-02-22

    The potential for big data to provide value for psychology is significant. However, the pursuit of big data remains an uncertain and risky undertaking for the average psychological researcher. In this article, we address some of this uncertainty by discussing the potential impact of big data on the type of data available for psychological research, addressing the benefits and most significant challenges that emerge from these data, and organizing a variety of research opportunities for psychology. Our article yields two central insights. First, we highlight that big data research efforts are more readily accessible than many researchers realize, particularly with the emergence of open-source research tools, digital platforms, and instrumentation. Second, we argue that opportunities for big data research are diverse and differ both in their fit for varying research goals, as well as in the challenges they bring about. Ultimately, our outlook for researchers in psychology using and benefiting from big data is cautiously optimistic. Although not all big data efforts are suited for all researchers or all areas within psychology, big data research prospects are diverse, expanding, and promising for psychology and related disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. [Research progress on remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ming-jun; Zeng, Li-xiong; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Huang, Zhi-lin; Wang, Peng-cheng; Dian, Yuan-yong

    2014-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGR area) , one of the most sensitive ecological zones in China, has dramatically changes in ecosystem configurations and services driven by the Three Gorges Engineering Project and its related human activities. Thus, understanding the dynamics of ecosystem configurations, ecological processes and ecosystem services is an attractive and critical issue to promote regional ecological security of the TGR area. The remote sensing of environment is a promising approach to the target and is thus increasingly applied to and ecosystem dynamics of the TGR area on mid- and macro-scales. However, current researches often showed controversial results in ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area due to the differences in remote sensing data, scale, and land-use/cover classification. Due to the complexity of ecological configurations and human activities, challenges still exist in the remote-sensing based research of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The status, challenges and trends of ecological and environmental remote-sensing in the TGR area were further discussed and concluded in the aspect of land-use/land-cover, vegetation dynamics, soil and water security, ecosystem services, ecosystem health and its management. The further researches on the remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes were proposed to improve the ecosystem management of the TGR area.

  4. A bibliometric analysis of research on nursing models in countries other than China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Fan Han; Rui-Fang Zhu; Lin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To deepen our understanding of the status quo and to identify the hot topics and developmental trends of research on nursing models in countries other than China in the most recent decade. Methods: The study subjects were the publications retrieved from the PubMed database using the MeSH terms of “Models, Nursing”. Bibliographic item co-occurrence mining system (BICOMS) software was used for conventional bibliometric analysis of publications during two time periods, 2005–2009 a...

  5. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Qian; Shang Yongmei; Dong Shangjuan; Li Xun; Han Mei; Cao Huijuan; Xu Shu; Liu Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping...

  6. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and prepa...

  7. [Research advances on volatile organic compounds emission inventory of plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun-Fei; Li, Yan-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Reference to relative literatures in recent years, model building and calculation on volatile organic compound (VOC) emission inventory of plants were summarized in different spatial scales, the total annual VOC emission amounts from Vegetation in China are in the range from 12.4 Tg x a(-1) to 28.4 Tg x a(-1). For garden plants in Beijing, the annual VOC emissions are approximately 38 500 tons C in 2000. Furthermore, in order to determine reduction strategies for Beijing urban atmospheric major pollutants, the contribution of garden plant VOC emissions to the ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was presented, compared to garden plant in the same period, the largest contribution to ozone formation comes from aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin which are exhausted from anthropogenic activity, besides, the aromatic hydrocarbons exhausted from anthropogenic activity is also a main contribution source for the potential formation of SOA. In the meantime, it is suggested to focus on emission control of VOCs which are emitted from urban anthropogenic sources.

  8. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Vectorization of Advanced Methods for Molecular Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga­ tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider­ able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi­ lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob­ lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com­ plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...

  10. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward.

  11. Research advances in immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Lilin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, nucleos(tide analogues and interferon-α still have limited effects in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and therefore, it is of vital importance to develop more effective therapeutic strategies to improve the treatment outcome of CHB patients. This article introduces the immunotherapy for CHB, including therapeutic vaccines (protein vaccines, DNA vaccines, and dendritic cell vaccines and cell regulation therapy, and points out that immunotherapy is considered a promising treatment regimen for HBV infection. With further studies on the clinical outcome after HBV infection, significant advances have been achieved in immunotherapy for CHB.

  12. Ugandan-Canadian partnership advances research on disability ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... In Uganda, statistics show that 20% of the country's population has some form of physical disability. Despite these numbers, little research has been conducted to provide a window into the lives of people with disabilities. Without formal research and concrete data, a knowledge gap exists that hinders ...

  13. National Shipbuilding Research Program and Navy - Further Advancement Through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-26

    resounding validation from the broad ASE was growing beyond just a research industry , and development program. The development time coupled with two years...than product focused. Therefore, a research industry is, and feels, accountable for the institution with R&D efforts aimed at the way the money is spent

  14. Advance directives in dementia research : a medical ethical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Jongsma (Karin)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity

  15. Learning Design Research: Advancing Pedagogies in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Learning design research (LDR) is establishing itself as a separate and specialised field of educational research. Worldwide, technology-mediated learning experiences in higher and further education are on the increase. LDR investigates their success in providing effective outcomes-based and personalised learning experiences. This paper reports on…

  16. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  17. Research on corrosion aspects of the advanced cold process canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, D.J.; Hoch, A.R.; Naish, C.C.; Rance, A. [AEA Technology, Harwell Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) is a waste canister being developed jointly by SKB and TVO for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It comprises an outer copper canister, with a carbon steel canister inside. A concern regarding the use of the ACPC is that, in the unlikely event that the outer copper canister is penetrated, the anaerobic corrosion of the carbon steel container may result in the formation of hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles could disrupt the backfill, and thus increase water flow through the near field and the flux of radionuclides to the host geology. A number of factors that influence the rate at which hydrogen evolves as a result of the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in artificial granitic groundwaters have been investigated. A previously observed, time-dependent decline in the hydrogen evolution rate has been confirmed as being due to the production of magnetite film. Once the magnetite film is about 0.7-1.0 {mu}m thick, the rate of hydrogen evolution reaches a steady state value. The pH and the ionic strength of the groundwater were both found to influence the long-term hydrogen evolution rate. The results of the experimental programme were used to update a model of the corrosion behaviour and hydrogen production from the Advanced Cold Process Canister. 36 figs, 5 tabs, 13 refs.

  18. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Graef, Ashley J.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed. PMID:29061949

  19. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiosarcoma (HSA is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed.

  20. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Graef, Ashley J; Dickerson, Erin B; Modiano, Jaime F

    2015-11-06

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed.

  1. Strategic research of advanced fuel cycle technologies in JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Nomura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Key technologies for the future nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed and are being reviewed in JNC as a part of the Feasibility Study for an Advanced Fuel Cycle, which is to achieve a more flexible energy choice to satisfy a sustainable energy security and global environmental protection. The candidate reprocessing technologies are: 1) aqueous simplified PUREX process, 2) oxide or metallic electrowinning, and 3) fluoride volatilization for oxide, metal, or nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication methods being investigated are: 1) simplified pellet process, 2) sphere/vibro-packed process for MOX/MN fuel, and 3) casting for metal fuel. These candidate technologies are currently being compared based on past experiences, technical issues to be solved, industrial applicability for future plants, feasible options for MA/LLFP separation, and nonproliferation aspects. Alter two years of the present reviewing process, selected key technologies will be developed over the next five years to evaluate industrial applicability of reprocessing and fuel manufacturing processes for the advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  2. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Transfer at the University of Guelph

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon M; Stasiak M.; Rondeau T.; Graham T

    2017-01-01

    Research and technology developments surrounding Advanced Life-Support (ALS) began at the University of Guelph in 1992 as the Space and Advanced Life Support Agriculture (SALSA) program, which now represents Canada’s primary contribution to ALS research. The early focus was on recycling hydroponic nutrient solutions, atmospheric gas analysis and carbon balance, sensor research and development, inner/intra-canopy lighting and biological filtration of air in closed systems. With funding from fe...

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Zinc Oxide as a Material for Micro- and Optoelectronic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H

    2005-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest experimental and theoretical studies in the field of ZnO. The chapters reflect the topics that were discussed during the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, which brought together researchers from Nato countries, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan to encourage cross fertilization and wider dissemination of the advances in this important research field. Fundamental issues such as growth of ZnO, structural, optical and electric properties, the role of the hydrogen and more were discussed.

  4. First 3 years of operation of RIACS (Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science) (1983-1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The focus of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) is to explore matches between advanced computing architectures and the processes of scientific research. An architecture evaluation of the MIT static dataflow machine, specification of a graphical language for expressing distributed computations, and specification of an expert system for aiding in grid generation for two-dimensional flow problems was initiated. Research projects for 1984 and 1985 are summarized.

  5. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  6. Advances in Vocational Theory and Research: A 20-Year Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Gail; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This literature review examines trends in research and theory on vocational behavior from two perspectives: counseling psychology and organizational behavior. Important distinctions and areas of convergence between the two are discussed. A 213-item bibliography is provided. (SK)

  7. Advances in epigenetic biomarker research in colorectal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi Wang Ye-Ye Kuang Xiao-Tong Hu

    2014-01-01

    ... making.Since there exists a need to find new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of CRC,the research on epigenetic biomarkers for molecular diagnostics encourages the translation of this field from the bench to clinical...

  8. Advanced research in the field of transformational leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Jörg; Tartler, Kathrin; Liepmann, Detlev

    2004-01-01

    The model of transformational leadership, proposed by Bass (1985), has been widely used in the United States in applied research as well as in practice for more than twenty years. In Germany, as well, this approach has received increasing attention since the late nineties. This article aims to offer a rough introduction to the model proposed by Bass and to provide a general survey on recent German research dealing with this paradigm. First of all, the transferability of the concept to Germany...

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Chemistry of Weathering

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Several important developments in our understanding of the chemistry of weathering have occurred in the last few years: 1. There has been a major breakthrough in our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the kinetics of sil icate dissolution, and there have been major advances in computer modeling of weathering processes. 2. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of organic solutes in the weathering process, and hence of the inter-relationships between mineral weathering and the terrestrial ecosystem. 3. The impact of acid deposition ("acid rain") has been widely recognized. The processes by which acid deposition is neutral ized are closely related to the processes of normal chemical weathering; an understanding of the chemistry of weathering is thus essential for predicting the effects of acid deposition. 4. More high-qual ity data have become available on the chemical dynamics of smal I watersheds and large river systems, which represent the integrated effects of chemical weathering.

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  11. Research advances in molecular targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer remains one of the malignant tumors with the worst prognosis, and its incidence is associated with Western diet, smoking, drinking, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and a family history of pancreatic cancer. Currently, the treatment of pancreatic cancer focuses on surgery and chemotherapy, but no ideal therapeutic effect has been achieved. An understanding of the specific molecular mechanism of the development of pancreatic cancer helps to better prevent and treat pancreatic cancer. This article introduces the latest advances in the specific molecular mechanism of the development of pancreatic cancer and its targeted therapy and points out that molecular-targeted therapy in addition to traditional treatment helps to improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  12. Recent advances in research on unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le; Yin, George

    2013-01-01

    A team of launched and coordinated Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), requires advanced technologies in sensing, communication, computing, and control to improve their intelligence and robustness towards autonomous operations. To enhance reliability, robustness, and mission capability of a team of UAVs, a system-oriented and holistic approach is desirable in which all components and subsystems are considered in terms of their roles and impact on the entire system.  This volume aims to summarize the recent progress, identify challenges and opportunities, and develop new methodologies and systems on coordinated UAV control. A group of experts working in this area have contributed to this volume in several related aspects of autonomous control of networked UAVs. Their papers introduce new control methodologies, algorithms, and systems that address several important issues in developing intelligent, autonomous or semi-autonomous, networked systems for the next generation of UAVs. The papers share a common focus on...

  13. Recent advances in the use of gelatin in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Wang, Chunming

    2015-11-01

    The biomacromolecule, gelatin, has increasingly been used in biomedicine-beyond its traditional use in food and cosmetics. The appealing advantages of gelatin, such as its cell-adhesive structure, low cost, off-the-shelf availability, high biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity, among others, have made it a desirable candidate for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Gelatin can be formulated in the form of nanoparticles, employed as size-controllable porogen, adopted as surface coating agent and mixed with synthetic or natural biopolymers forming composite scaffolds. In this article, we review recent advances in the versatile applications of gelatin within biomedical context and attempt to draw upon its advantages and potential challenges.

  14. A new small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at China Mianyang research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Xie, Chaomei; Xia, Qingzhong; Yan, Guanyun; Tian, Qiang; Huang, Chaoqiang; Pang, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun; Liu, Yaoguang; Kang, Wu; Gong, Jian

    2016-02-01

    A new pinhole small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer, installed at the cold neutron source of the 20 MW China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) in the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, has been put into use since 2014. The spectrometer is equipped with a multi-blade mechanical velocity selector, a multi-beam collimation system, and a two-dimensional He-3 position sensitive neutron detector. The q-range of the spectrometer covers from 0.01 nm-1 to 5.0 nm-1. In this paper, the design and characteristics of the SANS spectrometer are described. The q-resolution calculations, together with calibration measurements of silver behenate and a dispersion of nearly monodisperse poly-methyl-methacrylate nanoparticles indicate that our SANS spectrometer has a good performance and is now in routine service.

  15. Advancing Neuroscience Research in Africa: Invertebrate Species to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Amin, Abdulbasit; Seeni, Azman

    2018-03-15

    Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  17. Advancing the management of Obstructive Airways Diseases through Translational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Baines, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    that translational aspects are added to randomised clinical trials, as well as Real World studies, but also to use other trial designs such as platform studies, which allow for simultaneous assessment of different interventions. Furthermore, demonstrating clinical impact, i.e. research translation......Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel...... treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. The next challenge of translational research will be to position...

  18. Advances, gaps, and future prospects in biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-04-01

    Research progress has led to the understanding that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are often complete miniature ecosystems comprising a variety of photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes), decomposers like bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and heterotrophic organisms, like protozoa, nematodes, and microarthropods feeding on them. Biocrusts are one of the oldest terrestrial ecosystems, playing central roles in the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems and presumably also influencing global biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, biocrusts have been shown to be highly sensitive to global change, being easily destroyed by mechanical disturbance and severely threatened by minor changes in climate patterns. Despite the large increase in biocrust research, we still see major knowledge gaps which need to be tackled. Considering biodiversity studies, there are major regions of potential biocrust occurrence, where hardly any studies have been conducted. Molecular identification techniques are increasingly employed, but genetically characterized entities need to be linked with morphologically identified organisms to identify their ecological roles. Although there is a large body of research on the role of biocrusts in water and nutrient budgets, we are still far from closing the overall cycles. Results suggest that not all mechanisms have been identified, yet, leading to sometimes contradictory results between different studies. Knowledge on how to minimize impact to biocrusts during surface-disturbing activities has hardly been gained, and despite research efforts, instructions on effective biocrust restoration are still exemplary. In order to fill these research gaps, novel scientific approaches are needed. We expect that global research networks could be extremely helpful to answer scientific questions by tackling them within different regions, utilizing the same methodological techniques. Global networks could also be used for long

  19. The Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1958-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    help catch up with the Soviets. The Services were only too ready to go along. The Dr. Hugh Dryden, Director of MACA , appealed directly to ’aries in a...Research and Engineering from D. M. MacA ~thur (Deputy Director, Research and Technology, ODDP&E) and C. M. Herzfeld, "Memorandum of Agreement on ARPA’s...control in this-office, largely be- cause of its intelligence characterization and consequent immunity from adequate peer group review. In any case

  20. Recent Advances in Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Christopher L; Muruato, Laura A; Torres, Alfredo G

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are Gram-negative organisms, which are etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Although only B. pseudomallei is responsible for a significant number of human cases, both organisms are classified as Tier 1 Select Agents and their diseases lack effective diagnosis and treatment. Despite a recent resurgence in research pertaining to these organisms, there are still a number of knowledge gaps. This article summarizes the latest research progress in the fields of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei pathogenesis, vaccines, and diagnostics.

  1. Development of an open metadata schema for prospective clinical research (openPCR) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Guan, Z; Sun, J; Wang, Z; Geng, Y

    2014-01-01

    In China, deployment of electronic data capture (EDC) and clinical data management system (CDMS) for clinical research (CR) is in its very early stage, and about 90% of clinical studies collected and submitted clinical data manually. This work aims to build an open metadata schema for Prospective Clinical Research (openPCR) in China based on openEHR archetypes, in order to help Chinese researchers easily create specific data entry templates for registration, study design and clinical data collection. Singapore Framework for Dublin Core Application Profiles (DCAP) is used to develop openPCR and four steps such as defining the core functional requirements and deducing the core metadata items, developing archetype models, defining metadata terms and creating archetype records, and finally developing implementation syntax are followed. The core functional requirements are divided into three categories: requirements for research registration, requirements for trial design, and requirements for case report form (CRF). 74 metadata items are identified and their Chinese authority names are created. The minimum metadata set of openPCR includes 3 documents, 6 sections, 26 top level data groups, 32 lower data groups and 74 data elements. The top level container in openPCR is composed of public document, internal document and clinical document archetypes. A hierarchical structure of openPCR is established according to Data Structure of Electronic Health Record Architecture and Data Standard of China (Chinese EHR Standard). Metadata attributes are grouped into six parts: identification, definition, representation, relation, usage guides, and administration. OpenPCR is an open metadata schema based on research registration standards, standards of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) and Chinese healthcare related standards, and is to be publicly available throughout China. It considers future integration of EHR and CR by adopting data structure and data

  2. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica, sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans, and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.

  3. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  4. Advancing Methods for U.S. Transgender Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Deutsch, Madeline B.; Bhasin, Shalender; Bockting, Walter; Brown, George R.; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Rob; Kreukels, Baudewijntje; Radix, Asa; Safer, Joshua D.; Tangpricha, Vin; T’Sjoen, Guy; Goodman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review To describe methodological challenges, gaps, and opportunities in U.S. transgender health research. Recent Findings Lack of large prospective observational studies and intervention trials, limited data on risks and benefits of gender affirmation (e.g., hormones and surgical interventions), and inconsistent use of definitions across studies hinder evidence-based care for transgender people. Systematic high-quality observational and intervention-testing studies may be carried out using several approaches, including general population-based, health systems-based, clinic-based, venue-based, and hybrid designs. Each of these approaches has its strength and limitations; however, harmonization of research efforts is needed. Ongoing development of evidence-based clinical recommendations will benefit from a series of observational and intervention studies aimed at identification, recruitment, and follow-up of transgender people of different ages, from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds and with diverse gender identities. Summary Transgender health research faces challenges that include standardization of lexicon, agreed-upon population definitions, study design, sampling, measurement, outcome ascertainment, and sample size. Application of existing and new methods is needed to fill existing gaps, increase the scientific rigor and reach of transgender health research, and inform evidence-based prevention and care for this underserved population. PMID:26845331

  5. Open access publishing in Africa: advancing research outputs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine the status of Africa in the open access environment as well as the challenges of providing global visibility to African research outputs. A descriptive bibliometric approach was adopted for the study. Data was extracted from two world repository directories (Registry of Open Access ...

  6. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Biotechnology laboratory; Southwest Forestry College, White Dragon Temple, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650224,. People's Republic of ... The application and development of molecular marker in tobacco genetic research was presented ... restriction enzymes (RE) are used to cut DNA at specific. 4-6 bp ...

  8. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  9. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (25) ... The application and development of molecular marker in tobacco genetic research was presented ..... N. debneyi origin. The finding of linked marker of disease resistant gene on the DNA level can be applied to assist selection, increase breeding efficiency and ...

  10. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Advancing Massage Therapy Research Competencies: Dimensions for Thought and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Glenn M.

    Two major developments in the therapeutic massage and bodywork profession have recently brought to the forefront the issue of research competencies. The profession has been called to a potentially heightened level of credibility. One challenge to the profession's development is that of coordinating the various curricular, instructional,…

  13. Advances in cancer research using gold nanoparticles mediated photothermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian T; Bartos, Dana; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that nanotechnologies may lead to the development of novel cancer treatment. Gold nanoparticles with their unique physical and chemical properties hold great hopes for the development of thermal-based therapies against human malignancies. This review will focus on various strategies that have been developed to use gold nanoparticles as photothermal agents against human cancers.

  14. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  15. Advancement in Perfluoroalkyl Research Hampered by Analytical Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, J.W.; Kannan, K.; Berger, U.; de Voogt, P.; Field, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Harner, T.; Muir, D.C.G.; Scott, B.; Kaiser, M.; Jarnberg, U.; Jones, K.C.; Mabury, S.A.; Schroeder, H.; Simcik, M.; Sottani, C.; Van Bavel, B.; Karrman, A.; Lindstrom, G.; Van Leeuwen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The growing concern over these organohalogens, some of which have been found in human blood and appear to be widespread in the environment, led researchers to gather in Hamburg, Germany, in 2003 to evaluate the current state of methods to analyze for the organic contaminants. Jonathan Martin of the

  16. Potential applications of recent advances in vaccine research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the possibilities of producing plant/edible vaccines, combination vaccines, and the recognition of the great value of the use of mucosal route for vaccination stand out as great promises for more viable animal health and husbandry worldwide. KEY WORDS: Vaccine research & development, Animal diseases ...

  17. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research | Hafez | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  18. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. During the last two decades, molecular markers have entered the scene of genetic improvement in different fields of agricultural research. The principles and characteristics of several molecular markers such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, ...

  19. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  1. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  2. Ugandan-Canadian partnership advances research on disability ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 août 2012 ... In Uganda, statistics show that 20% of the country's population has some form of physical disability. Despite these numbers, little research has been conducted to provide a window into the lives of people with disabilities.

  3. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Journal of Research in National Development: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  5. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR): Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  8. Advances in Ginkgo biloba research: Genomics and metabolomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maiden hair tree, Ginkgo biloba is very much resistant to a wide spectrum of biotic and abiotic stress conditions. It hardly seems to be attacked by any herbivore or microbe. In spite of its strong resistant nature to wide stress conditions, only little research has been carried out at genomics and metabolomics level to ...

  9. Battling Fatigue in Aviation: Recent Advancements in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    low- frequency delta activity during non-REM sleep and slow-wave sleep than did subjects with the G/ G genotype. Similar research has been reported by...Effectiveness ( SAFTE ) model was developed based on results from the study by Belenky et al.,19 and later validated on a 14-day sleep re- striction

  10. Research Review of the Institute of African Studies: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., archive ...

  12. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  13. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

  14. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16'' catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  15. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  16. Timing of referral to inpatient palliative care services for advanced cancer patients and earlier referral predictors in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoli; Cheng, Wenwu; Chen, Menglei; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Routine early integration of palliative care with advanced cancer management is not yet a part of standard practice in many countries, including mainland China. Whether patients in China suffering from advanced cancer are referred to palliative care services in a timely manner remains unclear. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese cancer patients at our center and its predictors. Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. A total of 759 patients referred to our palliative care unit (PCU) from January of 2007 to December of 2013 were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the 759 patients included in the study was 62.89 years (range 61.95-63.82). Some 369 patients (48.6%) were male and 559 (73.6%) Shanghainese (indigenous). Lung cancer (17.9%) was the most common diagnosis. The time interval since enrollment into the PCU until a patient's death (length of stay, LOS) was calculated. A longer LOS indicated earlier referral to inpatient PC services. The median LOS was 21 days (CI 95% = 19.79-22.21). Multivariate analysis showed that whether or not the patient was indigenous (p = 0.002) and younger than 65 (p = 0.031) were independent factors for a longer LOS. Such other characteristics as gender and primary cancer type bore no relationship to LOS. Our findings demonstrate that Chinese cancer patients are referred relatively late in the course of their disease to inpatient palliative care services. To overcome the barriers to early integration of palliative care into a patient's treatment plan, accurate information about palliative care must be provided to both oncologists and patients via comprehensive and systematic educational programs.

  17. Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Bowman

    2007-05-30

    The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.

  18. Chinese advances in the research of photobiomodulation and its therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi T.; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Jiang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xian-ju; Liu, Song-hao

    2005-07-01

    Photobiomodulation, once called biostimulation, has been studied as the mechanism of low intensity laser therapy since 1982, and it has been studied in China since 1987. Chinese therapeutic applications began in low intensity laser acupuncture in 1970s, in intravascular low intensity laser therapy in 1990s, in endonasal low intensity laser therapy in 1998, in high intensity laser acupuncture in 2000, and in laser surgery in 2001. As Chinese therapeutic applications of photobiomodulation were the most widely in the world, the research of photobiomodulation and its therapeutic applications was very progressive in China. Although the specific pathways mediating photobiomodulation were put forward and studied by foreign experts such as Karu et al, the non-specific pathways were put forward for the first time and were also studied very deeply by Chinese experts such as Liu TCY et al. Moreover, basic research of intravascular low intensity laser therapy, such as in vitro blood research and animal model research, was also very progressive in China.

  19. Advances in Disaster Modeling, Simulation and Visualization for Sandstorm Risk Management in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms in North China result in high concentrations of airborne dust particles, which cause detrimental effects on human health as well as social and economic losses and environmental degradation. To investigate the impact of land surface processes on dust storms, we simulate two dust storm events in North China during spring 2002 using two versions of a dust storm prediction system developed by the Institute for Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Beijing, China. The primary difference between the IAP Sandstorm Prediction System (IAPS 1.0 and more recent version (IAPS 2.0 is the land surface modeling. IAPS 1.0 is based on the Oregon State University (OSU land surface model, whereas the latest version of the dust storm prediction (IAPS 2.0 uses NOAH land surface schemes for land surface modeling within a meteorological model, MM5. This work investigates whether the improved land surface modeling affects modeling of sandstorms. It is shown that an integrated sandstorm management system can be used to aid the following tasks: ensure sandstorm monitoring and warning; incorporate weather forecasts; ascertain the risk of a sandstorm disaster; integrate multiple technologies (for example, GIS, remote sensing, and information processing technology; track the progress of the storm in real-time; exhibit flexibility, accuracy and reliability (by using multiple sources of data, including in-situ meteorological observations; and monitor PM10 and PM2.5 dust concentrations in airborne dustfalls. The results indicate that with the new land surface scheme, the simulation of soil moisture is greatly improved, leading to a better estimate of the threshold frictional velocity, a key parameter for the estimating surface dust emissions. In this study, we also discuss specific mechanisms by which land surface processes affect dust storm modeling and make recommendations for further improvements to numerical dust storm simulations.

  20. The Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory: A Student Team Approach to the Fourth-Year Research Thesis Project Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Boyd, Cleo; Barzda, Virginijus; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Stefanovic, Sasa; Stewart, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The advanced interdisciplinary research laboratory (AIRLab) represents a novel, effective, and motivational course designed from the interdisciplinary research interests of chemistry, physics, biology, and education development faculty members as an alternative to the independent thesis project experience. Student teams are assembled to work…