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Sample records for chimpanzees reveals widespread

  1. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadsby Elizabeth L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more

  2. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby Elizabeth L; Fotso Roger; de Vries Simone; Akih Akih E; Kiyang John A; Lankester Felix; Ghobrial Lora; Jenkins Peter D; Gonder Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this countr...

  3. Widespread differences in cortex DNA methylation of the "language gene" CNTNAP2 between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eberhard; El Hajj, Nady; Richter, Steven; Roche-Santiago, Justin; Nanda, Indrajit; Schempp, Werner; Riederer, Peter; Navarro, Bianca; Bontrop, Ronald E; Kondova, Ivanela; Scholz, Claus Jürgen; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    CNTNAP2, one of the largest genes in the human genome, has been linked to human-specific language abilities and neurodevelopmental disorders. Our hypothesis is that epigenetic rather than genetic changes have accelerated the evolution of the human brain. To compare the cortex DNA methylation patterns of human and chimpanzee CNTNAP2 at ultra-high resolution, we combined methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) with NimbleGen tiling arrays for the orthologous gene and flanking sequences. Approximately 1.59 Mb of the 2.51 Mb target region could be aligned and analyzed with a customized algorithm in both species. More than one fifth (0.34 Mb) of the analyzed sequence throughout the entire gene displayed significant methylation differences between six human and five chimpanzee cortices. One of the most striking interspecies differences with 28% methylation in human and 59% in chimpanzee cortex (by bisulfite pyrosequencing) lies in a region 300 bp upstream of human SNP rs7794745 which has been associated with autism and parent-of-origin effects. Quantitative real-time RT PCR revealed that the protein-coding splice variant CNTNAP2-201 is 1.6-fold upregulated in human cortex, compared with the chimpanzee. Transcripts CNTNAP2-001, -002, and -003 did not show skewed allelic expression, which argues against CNTNAP2 imprinting, at least in adult human brain. Collectively, our results suggest widespread cortex DNA methylation changes in CNTNAP2 since the human-chimpanzee split, supporting a role for CNTNAP2 fine-regulation in human-specific language and communication traits. PMID:24434791

  4. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus-Inoculated Chimpanzees Reveals Unexpected Clinical Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Suzanne E.; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in a chimpanzee cohort was examined to better characterize the outcome of this valuable animal model. Results of a cross-sectional study revealed that a low percentage (39%) of HCV-inoculated chimpanzees were viremic based on reverse transcription (RT-PCR) analysis. A correlation was observed between viremia and the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. The pattern of antibodies was dissimilar among viremic chimpanzees and chimpanzees that ...

  5. Incomplete lineage sorting patterns among human, chimpanzee and orangutan suggest recent orangutan speciation and widespread selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Hawks, John; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Mailund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We search the complete orangutan genome for regions where humans are more closely related to orangutans than to chimpanzees due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in the ancestor of human and chimpanzees. The search uses our recently developed coalescent HMM framework. We find ILS present in ~1......% of the genome, and that the ancestral species of human and chimpanzees never experienced a severe population bottleneck. The existence of ILS is validated with simulations, site pattern analysis, and analysis of rare genomic events. The existence of ILS allows us to disentangle the time of isolation...... of humans and orangutans (the speciation time) from the genetic divergence time, and we find speciation to be as recent as 9-13 mya (contingent on the calibration point). The analyses provide further support for a recent speciation of human and chimpanzee at ~4 mya and a diverse ancestor of human and...

  6. Gorilla genome structural variation reveals evolutionary parallelisms with chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, M.; C. R. Catacchio; Alkan, C.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Sajjadian, S.; Graves, T A; Hormozdiari, F; Navarro, A; Malig, M.; Baker, C.; C. Lee; Turner, E H; Chen, L.; Kidd, J. M.; Archidiacono, N

    2011-01-01

    Structural variation has played an important role in the evolutionary restructuring of human and great ape genomes. Recent analyses have suggested that the genomes of chimpanzee and human have been particularly enriched for this form of genetic variation. Here, we set out to assess the extent of structural variation in the gorilla lineage by generating 10-fold genomic sequence coverage from a western lowland gorilla and integrating these data into a physical and cytogenetic framework of struc...

  7. Gorilla genome structural variation reveals evolutionary parallelisms with chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Mario; Catacchio, Claudia R; Alkan, Can; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Sajjadian, Saba; Graves, Tina A; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Navarro, Arcadi; Malig, Maika; Baker, Carl; Lee, Choli; Turner, Emily H; Chen, Lin; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Shendure, Jay; Wilson, Richard K; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-10-01

    Structural variation has played an important role in the evolutionary restructuring of human and great ape genomes. Recent analyses have suggested that the genomes of chimpanzee and human have been particularly enriched for this form of genetic variation. Here, we set out to assess the extent of structural variation in the gorilla lineage by generating 10-fold genomic sequence coverage from a western lowland gorilla and integrating these data into a physical and cytogenetic framework of structural variation. We discovered and validated over 7665 structural changes within the gorilla lineage, including sequence resolution of inversions, deletions, duplications, and mobile element insertions. A comparison with human and other ape genomes shows that the gorilla genome has been subjected to the highest rate of segmental duplication. We show that both the gorilla and chimpanzee genomes have experienced independent yet convergent patterns of structural mutation that have not occurred in humans, including the formation of subtelomeric heterochromatic caps, the hyperexpansion of segmental duplications, and bursts of retroviral integrations. Our analysis suggests that the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes are structurally more derived than either orangutan or human genomes. PMID:21685127

  8. Widespread differences in cortex DNA methylation of the “language gene” CNTNAP2 between humans and chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Eberhard; El Hajj, Nady; Richter, Steven; Roche-Santiago, Justin; Nanda, Indrajit; Schempp, Werner; Riederer, Peter; Navarro, Bianca; Bontrop, Ronald E; Kondova, Ivanela; Scholz, Claus Jürgen; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    CNTNAP2, one of the largest genes in the human genome, has been linked to human-specific language abilities and neurodevelopmental disorders. Our hypothesis is that epigenetic rather than genetic changes have accelerated the evolution of the human brain. To compare the cortex DNA methylation patterns of human and chimpanzee CNTNAP2 at ultra-high resolution, we combined methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) with NimbleGen tiling arrays for the orthologous gene and flanking sequences. Appr...

  9. Chimpanzee faces under the magnifying glass: emerging methods reveal cross-species similarities and individuality

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, Kim; Gaspar, A; Vick, S-J.

    2011-01-01

    Independently, we created descriptive systems to characterize chimpanzee facial behavior, responding to a common need to have an objective, standardized coding system to ask questions about primate facial behaviors. Even with slightly different systems, we arrive at similar outcomes, with convergent conclusions about chimpanzee facial mobility. This convergence is a validation of the importance of the approach, and provides support for the future use of a facial action coding system for chimp...

  10. Selection on Human Genes as Revealed by Comparisons to Chimpanzee cDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hellmann, Ines; Zöllner, Sebastian; Enard, Wolfgang; Ebersberger , Ingo; Nickel, Birgit; Pääbo, Svante

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary forces that affect human genes, we sequenced 5055 expressed sequence tags from the chimpanzee and compared them to their human counterparts. In conjunction with intergenic chimpanzee DNA sequences and data on human single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes studied, this allows us to gauge the extent to which selection affects human genes at a genome-wide scale. The comparison to intergenic DNA sequences indicates that about 39% of silent sites in prote...

  11. Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible pathways of adaptation to human hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D.

    2014-09-09

    Plasmodium falciparum causes most human malaria deaths, having prehistorically evolved from parasites of African Great Apes. Here we explore the genomic basis of P. falciparum adaptation to human hosts by fully sequencing the genome of the closely related chimpanzee parasite species P. reichenowi, and obtaining partial sequence data from a more distantly related chimpanzee parasite (P. gaboni). The close relationship between P. reichenowi and P. falciparum is emphasized by almost complete conservation of genomic synteny, but against this strikingly conserved background we observe major differences at loci involved in erythrocyte invasion. The organization of most virulence-associated multigene families, including the hypervariable var genes, is broadly conserved, but P. falciparum has a smaller subset of rif and stevor genes whose products are expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface. Genome-wide analysis identifies other loci under recent positive selection, but a limited number of changes at the host–parasite interface may have mediated host switching.

  12. Analysis of wheat SAGE tags reveals evidence for widespread antisense transcription

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    Gibbings J George

    2008-10-01

    role in the regulation of gene expression. Conclusion Our results indicate that the detailed analysis of transcriptome data, such as SAGE tags, is essential to understand fully the factors that regulate gene expression and that such analysis of the wheat grain transcriptome reveals that antisense transcripts maybe widespread and hence probably play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression during grain development.

  13. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  14. Laetoli footprints reveal bipedal gait biomechanics different from those of modern humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Demes, Brigitte; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-08-17

    Bipedalism is a key adaptation that shaped human evolution, yet the timing and nature of its evolution remain unclear. Here we use new experimentally based approaches to investigate the locomotor mechanics preserved by the famous Pliocene hominin footprints from Laetoli, Tanzania. We conducted footprint formation experiments with habitually barefoot humans and with chimpanzees to quantitatively compare their footprints to those preserved at Laetoli. Our results show that the Laetoli footprints are morphologically distinct from those of both chimpanzees and habitually barefoot modern humans. By analysing biomechanical data that were collected during the human experiments we, for the first time, directly link differences between the Laetoli and modern human footprints to specific biomechanical variables. We find that the Laetoli hominin probably used a more flexed limb posture at foot strike than modern humans when walking bipedally. The Laetoli footprints provide a clear snapshot of an early hominin bipedal gait that probably involved a limb posture that was slightly but significantly different from our own, and these data support the hypothesis that important evolutionary changes to hominin bipedalism occurred within the past 3.66 Myr. PMID:27488647

  15. Molecular systematic analysis reveals cryptic tertiary diversification of a widespread tropical rain forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Abdul-Salim, Kobinah; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-12-01

    The broad geographic range of many Neotropical rain forest tree species implies excellent dispersal abilities or range establishment that preceded the formation of current dispersal barriers. In order to initiate historical analyses of such widespread Neotropical trees, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) region of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) from populations spanning the Neotropics and western Africa. This rain forest tree has left unmistakable Miocene fossils in Mesoamerica (15.5-18.2 Ma) and in South America ( approximately 15 Ma). Although marine dispersal of S. globulifera is considered improbable, our study establishes three marine dispersal events leading to the colonization of Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin, and the West Indies, thus supporting the paleontological data. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed the spatial extent of the three Neotropical S. globulifera clades, which represent trans-Andes (Mesoamerica+west Ecuador), cis-Andes (Amazonia+Guiana), and the West Indies. Strong phylogeographic structure found among trans-Andean populations of S. globulifera stands in contrast to an absence of ITS nucleotide variation across the Amazon basin and indicates profound regional differences in the demographic history of this rain forest tree. Drawing from these results, we provide a historical biogeographic hypothesis to account for differences in the patterns of beta diversity within Mesoamerican and Amazonian forests. PMID:14737707

  16. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

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    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.

  17. Widespread Brain Areas Engaged during a Classical Auditory Streaming Task Revealed by Intracranial EEG

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    Andrew R Dykstra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system must constantly decompose the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ear into perceptually-independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sources in the acoustic environment. How the brain accomplishes this task is not well understood. The present study combined a classic behavioral paradigm with direct cortical recordings from neurosurgical patients with epilepsy in order to further describe the neural correlates of auditory streaming. Participants listened to sequences of pure tones alternating in frequency and indicated whether they heard one or two “streams.” The intracranial EEG was simultaneously recorded from sub-dural electrodes placed over temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex. Like healthy subjects, patients heard one stream when the frequency separation between tones was small and two when it was large. Robust evoked-potential correlates of frequency separation were observed over widespread brain areas. Waveform morphology was highly variable across individual electrode sites both within and across gross brain regions. Surprisingly, few evoked-potential correlates of perceptual organization were observed after controlling for physical stimulus differences. The results indicate that the cortical areas engaged during the streaming task is more complex and widespread than has been demonstrated by previous work, and that, by-and-large, correlates of bi-stability during streaming are probably located on a spatial scale not assessed – or in a brain area not examined – by the present study.

  18. Divergent whole-genome methylation maps of human and chimpanzee brains reveal epigenetic basis of human regulatory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Konopka, Genevieve; Hunt, Brendan G; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Dan; Yi, Soojin V

    2012-09-01

    DNA methylation is a pervasive epigenetic DNA modification that strongly affects chromatin regulation and gene expression. To date, it remains largely unknown how patterns of DNA methylation differ between closely related species and whether such differences contribute to species-specific phenotypes. To investigate these questions, we generated nucleotide-resolution whole-genome methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimpanzees. Levels and patterns of DNA methylation vary across individuals within species according to the age and the sex of the individuals. We also found extensive species-level divergence in patterns of DNA methylation and that hundreds of genes exhibit significantly lower levels of promoter methylation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain. Furthermore, we investigated the functional consequences of methylation differences in humans and chimpanzees by integrating data on gene expression generated with next-generation sequencing methods, and we found a strong relationship between differential methylation and gene expression. Finally, we found that differentially methylated genes are strikingly enriched with loci associated with neurological disorders, psychological disorders, and cancers. Our results demonstrate that differential DNA methylation might be an important molecular mechanism driving gene-expression divergence between human and chimpanzee brains and might potentially contribute to the evolution of disease vulnerabilities. Thus, comparative studies of humans and chimpanzees stand to identify key epigenomic modifications underlying the evolution of human-specific traits. PMID:22922032

  19. Biosynthetic investigation of phomopsins reveals a widespread pathway for ribosomal natural products in Ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Wan-Qiu; Jia, Youli; Li, Yongzhen; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Zhang, Qi

    2016-03-29

    Production of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) has rarely been reported in fungi, even though organisms of this kingdom have a long history as a prolific source of natural products. Here we report an investigation of the phomopsins, antimitotic mycotoxins. We show that phomopsin is a fungal RiPP and demonstrate the widespread presence of a pathway for the biosynthesis of a family of fungal cyclic RiPPs, which we term dikaritins. We characterize PhomM as an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent α-N-methyltransferase that converts phomopsin A to anN,N-dimethylated congener (phomopsin E), and show that the methyltransferases involved in dikaritin biosynthesis have evolved differently and likely have broad substrate specificities. Genome mining studies identified eight previously unknown dikaritins in different strains, highlighting the untapped capacity of RiPP biosynthesis in fungi and setting the stage for investigating the biological activities and unknown biosynthetic transformations of this family of fungal natural products. PMID:26979951

  20. Spliced leader trapping reveals widespread alternative splicing patterns in the highly dynamic transcriptome of Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Daniel Nilsson

    Full Text Available Trans-splicing of leader sequences onto the 5'ends of mRNAs is a widespread phenomenon in protozoa, nematodes and some chordates. Using parallel sequencing we have developed a method to simultaneously map 5'splice sites and analyze the corresponding gene expression profile, that we term spliced leader trapping (SLT. The method can be applied to any organism with a sequenced genome and trans-splicing of a conserved leader sequence. We analyzed the expression profiles and splicing patterns of bloodstream and insect forms of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. We detected the 5' splice sites of 85% of the annotated protein-coding genes and, contrary to previous reports, found up to 40% of transcripts to be differentially expressed. Furthermore, we discovered more than 2500 alternative splicing events, many of which appear to be stage-regulated. Based on our findings we hypothesize that alternatively spliced transcripts present a new means of regulating gene expression and could potentially contribute to protein diversity in the parasite. The entire dataset can be accessed online at TriTrypDB or through: http://splicer.unibe.ch/.

  1. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

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    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  2. Chimpanzee autarky.

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    Sarah F Brosnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse. However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains.

  3. Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Head, Josephine S; Robbins, Martha M; Richards, Michael; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The feeding ecology of sympatric great ape species yields valuable information for palaeodietary reconstructions in sympatric early hominin species. However, no isotopic references on sympatrically living apes and their feeding ecology are currently available. Here we present the first isotopic study on sympatric great apes, namely western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) from Loango National Park, Gabon. We successfully analyzed the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a selection of food plants (n = 31) and hair samples (n = 30) retrieved from sleeping nests to test whether niche partitioning among sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas is detectable using isotope analysis of hair. Ape hair strands with roots were sectioned into sequential segments (n = 100) to investigate temporal isotopic variation related to seasonal variations in food resources. We found significant δ(13)C differences between herbaceous plants and fruits, most likely due to canopy effects. While the δ(13)C values of chimpanzees indicate the consumption of fruit, the low δ(13)C values in gorilla hair indicate folivory, most likely the consumption of (13)C-depleted herbaceous vegetation. Our isotopic data also confirmed dietary overlap between chimpanzees and gorillas, which varied by season. Gorillas showed significant variation in δ(13)C values in response to season due to shifting proportions of herbaceous plants versus fruits. In chimpanzees, significant seasonal variation in δ(15)N was likely related to the seasonal availability of fruit species with particularly high δ(15)N values. In summary, we found isotopic evidence for niche partitioning and seasonal dietary variation among sympatric great apes at Loango. These findings provide a valuable reference for palaeodietary research on fossil hominins using δ(13)C analyses, particularly for studies focusing on sympatric taxa and on temporal isotopic variation

  4. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas; Lyon, David; Mullari, Meeli; Madsen, Maria V; Daniel, Jeremy A; Jensen, Lars J; Nielsen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins by arginine methylation is functionally important, yet the breadth of this modification is not well characterized. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 8030 arginine methylation sites within 3300 human proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified by methylation. Through quantitative proteomics and RNA interference to examine arginine methylation stoichiometry, we unexpectedly found that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of arginine methyltransferases catalyzed methylation independently of arginine sequence context. In contrast to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially regulated the functions of the pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1). Knocking down PRMT5 impaired the RNA binding function of SRSF2, whereas knocking down PRMT4 [also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human arginine methylome provides a missing piece in the global and integrative view of cellular physiology and protein regulation. PMID:27577262

  5. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  6. Divergent Whole-Genome Methylation Maps of Human and Chimpanzee Brains Reveal Epigenetic Basis of Human Regulatory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jia; Konopka, Genevieve; Hunt, Brendan G.; Preuss, Todd M.; Geschwind, Dan; Yi, Soojin V.

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a pervasive epigenetic DNA modification that strongly affects chromatin regulation and gene expression. To date, it remains largely unknown how patterns of DNA methylation differ between closely related species and whether such differences contribute to species-specific phenotypes. To investigate these questions, we generated nucleotide-resolution whole-genome methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimpanzees. Levels and patterns of DNA methylatio...

  7. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee ‘material cultures’ was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4–6 The debate has less to do w...

  8. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James R.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thou...

  9. The meanings of chimpanzee gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-07-21

    Chimpanzees' use of gesture was described in the first detailed field study [1, 2], and natural use of specific gestures has been analyzed [3-5]. However, it was systematic work with captive groups that revealed compelling evidence that chimpanzees use gestures to communicate in a flexible, goal-oriented, and intentional fashion [6-8], replicated across all great ape species in captivity [9-17] and chimpanzees in the wild [18, 19]. All of these aspects overlap with human language but are apparently missing in most animal communication systems, including great ape vocalization, where extensive study has produced meager evidence for intentional use ([20], but see [21, 22]). Findings about great ape gestures spurred interest in a potential common ancestral origin with components of human language [23-25]. Of particular interest, given the relevance to language origins, is the question of what chimpanzees intend their gestures to mean; surprisingly, the matter of what the intentional signals are used to achieve has been largely neglected. Here we present the first systematic study of meaning in chimpanzee gestural communication. Individual gestures have specific meanings, independently of signaler identity, and we provide a partial "lexicon"; flexibility is predominantly in the use of multiple gestures for a specific meaning. We distinguish a range of meanings, from simple requests associated with just a few gestures to broader social negotiation associated with a wider range of gesture types. Access to a range of alternatives may increase communicative subtlety during important social negotiations. PMID:24998524

  10. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-12-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thought to be based on the capacity for empathy. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees provides further evidence that these apes may possess advanced self-awareness and empathic abilities. PMID:15801606

  11. Demographic influences on the behavior of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, John C

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has revealed substantial diversity in the behavior of wild chimpanzees. Understanding the sources of this variation has become a central focus of investigation. While genetic, ecological, and cultural factors are often invoked to explain behavioral variation in chimpanzees, the demographic context is sometimes overlooked as a contributing factor. Observations of chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, reveal that the size and structure of the unit group or community can both facilitate and constrain the manifestation of behavior. With approximately 150 individuals, the Ngogo community is much larger than others that have been studied in the wild. We have taken advantage of the unusual demographic structure of this community to document new and intriguing patterns of chimpanzee behavior with respect to hunting, territoriality, and male social relationships. Chimpanzees at Ngogo hunt often and with a considerable degree of success. In addition, male chimpanzees there frequently patrol the boundary of their territory and engage in repeated bouts of lethal intergroup aggression. By forming two distinct subgroups, male chimpanzees at Ngogo also develop social bonds above the level of dyadic pairs. While the sheer number of chimpanzees contributes to differences in hunting, patrolling, mating, and subgrouping at Ngogo, the demographic situation may also constrain behavioral interactions. At Ngogo, male chimpanzees who are closely related genetically through the maternal line do not appear to affiliate or cooperate with each other. Demographic constraints may be responsible for this finding. In this paper, I use these examples to illustrate how the demographic context affects the possible range of behavioral options open to individuals and ultimately contributes to the explanation of behavioral diversity in chimpanzees. PMID:16283424

  12. Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hockings, Kimberley; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Cláudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wil...

  13. Nodular worm infection in wild chimpanzees in Western Uganda: a risk for human health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krief

    Full Text Available This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding.

  14. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) intentional communication is not contingent upon food

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Jamie L.; Braccini, Stephanie; Buehler, Nicole; Kachin, Michael J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of great apes have revealed that they use manual gestures and other signals to communicate about distal objects. There is also evidence that chimpanzees modify the types of communicative signals they use depending on the attentional state of a human communicative partner. The majority of previous studies have involved chimpanzees requesting food items from a human experimenter. Here, these same communicative behaviors are reported in chimpanzees requesting a tool from a human observer...

  15. Comparative genomic de-convolution of the cotton genome revealed a decaploid ancestor and widespread chromosomal fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiyin; Guo, Hui; Wang, Jinpeng; Lei, Tianyu; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Yuxian; Lee, Tae-Ho; Li, Jingping; Tang, Haibao; Jin, Dianchuan; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    The 'apparently' simple genomes of many angiosperms mask complex evolutionary histories. The reference genome sequence for cotton (Gossypium spp.) revealed a ploidy change of a complexity unprecedented to date, indeed that could not be distinguished as to its exact dosage. Herein, by developing several comparative, computational and statistical approaches, we revealed a 5× multiplication in the cotton lineage of an ancestral genome common to cotton and cacao, and proposed evolutionary models to show how such a decaploid ancestor formed. The c. 70% gene loss necessary to bring the ancestral decaploid to its current gene count appears to fit an approximate geometrical model; that is, although many genes may be lost by single-gene deletion events, some may be lost in groups of consecutive genes. Gene loss following cotton decaploidy has largely just reduced gene copy numbers of some homologous groups. We designed a novel approach to deconvolute layers of chromosome homology, providing definitive information on gene orthology and paralogy across broad evolutionary distances, both of fundamental value and serving as an important platform to support further studies in and beyond cotton and genomics communities. PMID:26756535

  16. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  17. Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley J Hockings; Tatyana Humle; Anderson, James R.; Dora Biro; Claudia Sousa; Gaku Ohashi; Tetsuro Matsuzawa

    2007-01-01

    PLoS ONE - www.plosone.org, V.9, e886 The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic o...

  18. Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Velmurugan, G.V.; Ragendran, C.; Yabsley, M.J.; Thomas, N.J.; Beckmen, K.B.; Sinnett, D.; Ruid, D.; Hart, J.; Fair, P.A.; McFee, W.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Ferreira, L.R.; Choudhary, S.; Faria, E.B.; Zhou, H.; Felix, T.A.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study wild animals, from the USA were examined for T. gondii infection. Tissues of naturally exposed animals were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable parasites. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 31 animals including, to our knowledge for the first time, from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), five gray wolves (Canis lupus), a woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and five Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). Additionally, 66 T. gondii isolates obtained previously, but not genetically characterised, were revived in mice. Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from these 97 samples (31+66) was characterised using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). A total of 95 isolates were successfully genotyped. In addition to clonal Types II, and III, 12 different genotypes were found. These genotype data were combined with 74 T. gondii isolates previously characterised from wildlife from North America and a composite data set of 169 isolates comprised 22 genotypes, including clonal Types II, III and 20 atypical genotypes. Phylogenetic network analysis showed limited diversity with dominance of a recently designated fourth clonal type (Type 12) in North America, followed by the Type II and III lineages. These three major lineages together accounted for 85% of strains in North America. The Type 12 lineage includes previously identified Type A and X strains from sea otters. This study revealed that the Type 12 lineage accounts for 46.7% (79/169) of isolates and is dominant in wildlife of North America. No clonal Type I strain was identified among these wildlife isolates. These results suggest that T. gondii strains in wildlife from North America have limited diversity, with the occurrence of only a few major clonal types.

  19. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  20. Chimpanzees prey on army ants with specialized tool set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Schöning, Caspar; Morgan, David B

    2010-01-01

    Several populations of chimpanzees have been reported to prey upon Dorylus army ants. The most common tool-using technique to gather these ants is with "dipping" probes, which vary in length with regard to aggressiveness and lifestyle of the prey species. We report the use of a tool set in army ant predation by chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. We recovered 1,060 tools used in this context and collected 25 video recordings of chimpanzee tool-using behavior at ant nests. Two different types of tools were distinguished based on their form and function. The chimpanzees use a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, and then a herb stem as a dipping tool to harvest the ants. All of the species of ants preyed upon in Goualougo are present and consumed by chimpanzees at other sites, but there are no other reports of such a regular or widespread use of more than one type of tool to prey upon Dorylus ants. Furthermore, this tool set differs from other types of tool combinations used by chimpanzees at this site for preying upon termites or gathering honey. Therefore, we conclude that these chimpanzees have developed a specialized method for preying upon army ants, which involves the use of an additional tool for opening nests. Further research is needed to determine which specific ecological and social factors may have shaped the emergence and maintenance of this technology. PMID:19731231

  1. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

  2. [Psoriasis in a female chimpanzee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, U; Haustein, U F; Seifert, S; Adler, J; Schüppel, K F; Eulenberger, K

    1991-05-01

    Psoriasis, a widespread genodermatosis in Homo sapiens, also appears in primates. We report on a female chimpanzee in Leipzig Zoo. After years of captivity the animal developed erythematosquamous, highly hyperkeratotic, lesions, some confluent, on the knees, elbows, back of the hands and feet and on the forearms and the seat, which showed histologically characteristic features of psoriasis. It may be that both previous infections and psychic stress resulting from social isolation had caused eruption of the disease. In the literature single cases of psoriasiform dermatoses have also been described in other species of monkeys and even in a springer spaniel. Nonetheless, the search for an animal model of psoriasis vulgaris is still going on. PMID:1874622

  3. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies. PMID:17849015

  4. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  5. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild

    OpenAIRE

    HOPKINS, W. D.; Russell, J. L.; SCHAEFFER, J. A.; Gardner, M.; Schapiro, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level ha...

  6. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  8. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Hirata; Goh Matsuda; Ari Ueno; Hirokata Fukushima; Koki Fuwa; Keiko Sugama; Kiyo Kusunoki; Masaki Tomonaga; Kazuo Hiraki; Toshikazu Hasegawa

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an aff...

  9. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-01

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour. PMID:20719777

  10. Triggering social interactions: chimpanzees respond to imitation by a humanoid robot and request responses from it

    OpenAIRE

    Davila Ross, Marina; Hutchinson, Johanna; Russell, Jamie L.; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Billard, Aude; Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Even the most rudimentary social cues may evoke affiliative responses in humans and promote social communication and cohesion. The present work tested whether such cues of an agent may also promote communicative interactions in a nonhuman primate species, by examining interaction-promoting behaviours in chimpanzees. Here, chimpanzees were tested during interactions with an interactive humanoid robot, which showed simple bodily movements and sent out calls. The results revealed that chimpanzee...

  11. Specific Image Characteristics Influence Attitudes about Chimpanzee Conservation and Use as Pets

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Stephen R.; Vreeman, Vivian M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determ...

  12. Enculturated Chimpanzees Imitate Rationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human infants imitate others' actions "rationally": they copy a demonstrator's action when that action is freely chosen, but less when it is forced by some constraint (Gergely, Bekkering & Kiraly, 2002). We investigated whether enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also imitate rationally. Using Gergely and colleagues' (2002) basic procedure,…

  13. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus; Jaffré, Nina; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2014-01-01

    analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly...... dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size of the...... neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna...

  14. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  15. Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew; Mareno, Mary C; Messer, Emily J. E.; Sarah F. Brosnan; Hopper, Lydia M.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Steven J. Schapiro; McGuigan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial acts benefitting others are widespread amongst humans. By contrast, chimpanzees have failed to demonstrate such a disposition in several studies, leading some authors to conclude that the forms of prosociality studied evolved in humans since our common ancestry. However, similar prosocial behavior has since been documented in other primates, such as capuchin monkeys. Here, applying the same methodology to humans, chimpanzees, and capuchins, we provide evidence that all three species...

  16. Sexual differences in chimpanzee sociality

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, J.; Boesch, C.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists usually attribute sexual differences in sociality to sex-specific dispersal patterns and the availability of kin within the social group. In most primates, the dispersing sex, which has fewer kin around, is the less social sex. Chimpanzees fit well into the pattern, with highly social philopatric males and generally solitary dispersing females. However, researchers in West Africa have long suggested that female chimpanzees can be highly social. We investigated whether chimpanzees i...

  17. Genetic Structure of Chimpanzee Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Celine Becquet; Nick Patterson; Anne C Stone; Molly Przeworski; David Reich

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary Common chimpanzees have been traditionally classified into three populations: western, central, and eastern. While the morphological or behavioral differences are very small, genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have supported the geography-based designations. To obtain a crisp picture of chimpanzee population structure, we gather far more data than previously available: 310 microsatellite markers genotyped in 78 common chimpanzees and six bonobos, allowing...

  18. Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bolé, Camille; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Hedwige

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that "chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members". In strong contrast with these captive studies, consistent observations of potentially altruistic behaviors in different populations of wild chimpanzees have been reported in such different domains as food sharing, regular use of coalitions, cooperative hunting and border patrolling. This begs the question of what socio-ecological factors favor the evolution of altruism. Here we report 18 cases of adoption, a highly costly behavior, of orphaned youngsters by group members in Taï forest chimpanzees. Half of the adoptions were done by males and remarkably only one of these proved to be the father. Such adoptions by adults can last for years and thus imply extensive care towards the orphans. These observations reveal that, under the appropriate socio-ecologic conditions, chimpanzees do care for the welfare of other unrelated group members and that altruism is more extensive in wild populations than was suggested by captive studies. PMID:20111704

  19. Chimpanzee hunting behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2007-01-01

    The pursuit, capture and consumption of small-and medium-sized vertebrates, appears to be typical of all chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations, although large variation exists. Red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus sp.) appear to be the preferred prey but intensity and frequency of hunting varies from month to month and between populations. Hunting is a predominately male activity and is typically opportunistic, although there is some evidence of searching for prey. The degree of cooperation d...

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Patrick W.; Barnhart, Kirstin F.; Christian R. Abee; Lambeth, Susan P.; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  1. Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Langergraber, Kevin E.; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C.; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W.; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether animals possess ‘cultures’ or ‘traditions’ continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the ‘method of exclusion,’ begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their ...

  2. Geophagy: soil consumption enhances the bioactivities of plants eaten by chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Noémie; Fröhlich, François; Krief, Sabrina

    2008-04-01

    Geophagy, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a widespread practice among animals, including humans. Although some cases are well documented, motivations and consequences of this practice on the health status of the consumer remain unclear. In this paper, we focused our study on chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kibale National Park, Uganda, after observing they sometimes ingest soil shortly before or after consuming some plant parts such as leaves of Trichilia rubescens, which have in vitro anti-malarial properties. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of soil eaten by chimpanzees and soil used by the local healer to treat diarrhoea revealed similar composition, the clay mineralogy being dominated by kaolinite. We modelled the interaction between samples of the two types of soil and the leaves of T. rubescens in gastric and intestinal compartments and assayed the anti-malarial properties of these solutions. Results obtained for both soil samples are similar and support the hypothesis that soil enhances the pharmacological properties of the bio-available gastric fraction. The adaptive function of geophagy is likely to be multi-factorial. Nevertheless, the medical literature and most of occidental people usually consider geophagy in humans as an aberrant behaviour, symptomatic of metabolic dysfunction. Our results provide a new evidence to view geophagy as a practice for maintaining health, explaining its persistence through evolution.

  3. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirků, Milan; Votýpka, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J; Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Kriegová, Eva; Vodička, Roman; Lankester, Felix; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe; Modrý, David; Ayala, Francisco J; Leendertz, Fabian H; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-12-01

    Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples. In present work, we established a diagnostic ITS1-based PCR assay that allows detection of the DNA of all four Trypanosoma brucei subspecies (Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and Trypanosoma brucei evansi) in feces of experimentally infected mice. Next, using this assay we revealed the presence of trypanosomes in the fecal samples of wild chimpanzees and this finding was further supported by results obtained using a set of primate tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region showed that the majority of obtained sequences fell into the robust T. brucei group, providing strong evidence that these infections were caused by T. b. rhodesiense and/or T. b. gambiense. The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies. PMID:26110113

  4. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  5. Different subfamilies of alphoid repetitive DNA are present on the human and chimpanzee homologous chromosomes 21 and 22.

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, A L; Jones, C; Bostock, C J; Bak, A L

    1987-01-01

    The alphoid repeat DNA on chimpanzee chromosome 22 was compared with alphoid repeat DNA on its human homologue, chromosome 21. Hybridization of different alphoid probes under various conditions of stringency show that the alphoid repeats of chimpanzee chromosome 22 are not closely related to those of human chromosome 21. Sequence analysis of cloned dimer and tetramer EcoRI fragments from chimpanzee chromosome 22 confirm the low overall level of homology, but reveal the presence of several nuc...

  6. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes) and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases) seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases. PMID:22110630

  7. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cordoni

    Full Text Available Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases.

  8. Triggering social interactions: chimpanzees respond to imitation by a humanoid robot and request responses from it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Hutchinson, Johanna; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Billard, Aude; Hopkins, William D; Bard, Kim A

    2014-05-01

    Even the most rudimentary social cues may evoke affiliative responses in humans and promote social communication and cohesion. The present work tested whether such cues of an agent may also promote communicative interactions in a nonhuman primate species, by examining interaction-promoting behaviours in chimpanzees. Here, chimpanzees were tested during interactions with an interactive humanoid robot, which showed simple bodily movements and sent out calls. The results revealed that chimpanzees exhibited two types of interaction-promoting behaviours during relaxed or playful contexts. First, the chimpanzees showed prolonged active interest when they were imitated by the robot. Second, the subjects requested 'social' responses from the robot, i.e. by showing play invitations and offering toys or other objects. This study thus provides evidence that even rudimentary cues of a robotic agent may promote social interactions in chimpanzees, like in humans. Such simple and frequent social interactions most likely provided a foundation for sophisticated forms of affiliative communication to emerge. PMID:24096704

  9. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species. PMID:21779372

  10. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  11. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Yeakel, Justin D; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W; Lucas, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  12. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Muller, Martin N; Reynolds, Vernon; Wrangham, Richard; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The notion of animal culture, defined as socially transmitted community-specific behaviour patterns, remains controversial, notably because the definition relies on surface behaviours without addressing underlying cognitive processes. In contrast, human cultures are the product of socially acquired ideas that shape how individuals interact with their environment. We conducted field experiments with two culturally distinct chimpanzee communities in Uganda, which revealed significant differences in how individuals considered the affording parts of an experimentally provided tool to extract honey from a standardised cavity. Firstly, individuals of the two communities found different functional parts of the tool salient, suggesting that they experienced a cultural bias in their cognition. Secondly, when the alternative function was made more salient, chimpanzees were unable to learn it, suggesting that prior cultural background can interfere with new learning. Culture appears to shape how chimpanzees see the world, suggesting that a cognitive component underlies the observed behavioural patterns. PMID:22355645

  13. Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:23439389

  14. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaud Gruber; Muller, Martin N; Vernon Reynolds; Richard Wrangham; Klaus Zuberbühler

    2011-01-01

    The notion of animal culture, defined as socially transmitted community-specific behaviour patterns, remains controversial, notably because the definition relies on surface behaviours without addressing underlying cognitive processes. In contrast, human cultures are the product of socially acquired ideas that shape how individuals interact with their environment. We conducted field experiments with two culturally distinct chimpanzee communities in Uganda, which revealed significant difference...

  15. Imitation in Neonatal Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for imitative abilities in neonatal chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"), our closest relatives. Two chimpanzees were reared from birth by their biological mothers. At less than 7 days of age the chimpanzees could discriminate between, and imitate, human facial gestures (tongue protrusion and mouth opening). By the time…

  16. Analysis of 5′-End Sequences of Chimpanzee cDNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Sakate, Ryuichi; Osada, Naoki; Hida, Munetomo; Sugano, Sumio; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Shimohira, Naoko; Yanagi, Shinsuke; Suto, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hirai, Momoki

    2003-01-01

    We constructed full-length enriched cDNA libraries from chimpanzee brain, skin, and liver tissues by the oligo-capping method to establish a database of sequences of chimpanzee genes. Randomly selected clones from the libraries were subjected to one-pass sequencing from their 5′-ends. As a result, we collected 6813 chimpanzee cDNA sequences longer than 400 bp. Homology search against human mRNA sequences (RefSeq mRNAs) revealed that our collection included sequences of 1652 putative chimpanze...

  17. Neurochemical organization of the vestibular brainstem in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Paolone, Nicholas A; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-11-01

    Chimpanzees are one of the closest living relatives of humans. However, the cognitive and motor abilities of chimpanzees and humans are quite different. The fact that humans are habitually bipedal and chimpanzees are not implies different uses of vestibular information in the control of posture and balance. Furthermore, bipedal locomotion permits the development of fine motor skills of the hand and tool use in humans, suggesting differences between species in the structures and circuitry for manual control. Much motor behavior is mediated via cerebro-cerebellar circuits that depend on brainstem relays. In this study, we investigated the organization of the vestibular brainstem in chimpanzees to gain insight into whether these structures differ in their anatomy from humans. We identified the four nuclei of vestibular nuclear complex in the chimpanzee and also looked at several other precerebellar structures. The size and arrangement of some of these nuclei differed between chimpanzees and humans, and also displayed considerable inter-individual variation. We identified regions within the cytoarchitectonically defined medial vestibular nucleus visualized by immunoreactivity to the calcium-binding proteins calretinin and calbindin as previously shown in other species including human. We have found that the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis, which is identified in the human but not in macaque monkeys, is present in the chimpanzee brainstem. However, the arcuate nucleus, which is present in humans, was not found in chimpanzees. The present study reveals major differences in the organization of the vestibular brainstem among Old World anthropoid primate species. Furthermore, in chimpanzees, as well as humans, there is individual variability in the organization of brainstem nuclei. PMID:23179862

  18. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day's breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution. PMID:25349399

  19. Do chimpanzees build comfortable nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, Jill D; Hansell, Mike H

    2007-08-01

    Nests built by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were studied at the Fongoli research site in southeastern Senegal from January 2004-May 2004 to investigate the role of comfort in nest building behavior by relating measures of nest comfort and building effort. Nest comfort across zones of the nest surface were compared with construction effort for 25 nests. Several variables of nest comfort were assessed: (1) physical discomfort, (2) visible discomfort, and (3) softness. Physical discomfort was used as a representative measure of nest discomfort. Building effort was measured by (1) construction force, (2) complexity, and (3) added material. Spearman rank correlations compared Effort and Comfort measures for both whole nests and central versus edge zones. The results show that construction force and complexity do not influence comfort of the nest as a whole. Greater Construction force correlates with more nest edge discomfort, yet the central area shows no difference. More complex nests do result in a more comfortable central area in the nest. Nests built with greater force may result in more discomfort, whereas complexity may allow chimpanzees to maintain comfort in a central area for sleep. Chimpanzees may place additional leaves or twigs over hard branches, protruding from the nest surface after construction, to increase comfort of the central nest area. Functions of chimpanzee nest building are likely to be several, but these results suggest comfort is a factor in nest building behavior. PMID:17358021

  20. Symbolic Communication Between Two Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Through the use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one and requested specific food of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. (Author/MA)

  1. Chimpanzees help each other upon request.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner's request on chimpanzees' targeted helping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool transfer events occurred predominantly following recipients' request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required help. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in chimpanzees whether between kin or non-kin individuals and the possible confounding effect of dominance on the symmetry of such interactions. Finally, in contrast to humans, our study suggests that chimpanzees rarely perform acts of voluntary altruism. Voluntary altruism in chimpanzees is not

  2. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  3. Imitative Learning of Actions on Objects by Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared the abilities of 3 mother-reared and 3 human-raised (enculturated) chimpanzees and 16 human toddlers to imitatively learn novel actions on objects. Found that mother-reared chimpanzees were poorer imitators than both enculturated chimpanzees and human children, who did not differ from one another in imitative learning. On time delay…

  4. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Humle, Tatyana; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  5. Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Heissig, Florian; Krause, Johannes; Bryk, Jarek; Khaitovich, Philipp; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has long been argued that changes in gene expression may provide an additional and crucial perspective on the evolutionary differences between humans and chimpanzees. To investigate how often expression differences seen in tissues are caused by sequence differences in the proximal promoters, we tested the expression activity in cultured cells of human and chimpanzee promoters from genes that differ in mRNA expression between human and chimpanzee tissues. Resul...

  6. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Yamamoto; Tatyana Humle; Masayuki Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  7. Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Bridget M Waller; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categor...

  8. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  9. Animal behaviour: chimpanzee choice and prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninger, Richard J; Quinsey, Vernon L

    2006-04-01

    Silk et al. report that adult chimpanzees show no difference in their choices in a situation where one choice benefits a familiar conspecific and the other does not. From this, they conclude that chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members. But without additional data confirming that chimpanzees do choose differently in circumstances in which a difference would be expected, the authors cannot conclude that there is no difference in their scenario. How chimpanzees react to the welfare of unrelated group members remains an open question. PMID:16598208

  10. Chimpanzees' constructional praxis (Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potì, Patrizia

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated chimpanzees' spontaneous spatial constructions with objects and especially their ability to repeat inter-object spatial relations, which is basic to understanding spatial relations at a higher level than perception or recognition. Subjects were six chimpanzees-four chimpanzees and two bonobos-aged 6-21 years, all raised in a human environment from an early age. Only minor species differences, but considerable individual differences were found. The effect of different object samples was assessed through a comparison with a previous study. A common overall chimpanzee pattern was also found. Chimpanzees repeated different types of inter-object spatial relations such as insertion (I), or vertical (V), or next-to (H) relations. However chimpanzees repeated I or V relations with more advanced procedures than when repeating H relations. Moreover, chimpanzees never repeated combined HV relations. Compared with children, chimpanzees showed a specific difficulty in repeating H relations. Repeating H relations is crucial for representing and understanding multiple reciprocal spatial relations between detached elements and for coordinating independent positions in space. Therefore, the chimpanzees' difficulty indicates a fundamental difference in constructive space in comparison to humans. The findings are discussed in relation to issues of spatial cognition and tool use. PMID:15378424

  11. Visual search for human gaze direction by a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Tomonaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans detect faces with direct gazes among those with averted gazes more efficiently than they detect faces with averted gazes among those with direct gazes. We examined whether this "stare-in-the-crowd" effect occurs in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, whose eye morphology differs from that of humans (i.e., low-contrast eyes, dark sclera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An adult female chimpanzee was trained to search for an odd-item target (front view of a human face among distractors that differed from the target only with respect to the direction of the eye gaze. During visual-search testing, she performed more efficiently when the target was a direct-gaze face than when it was an averted-gaze face. This direct-gaze superiority was maintained when the faces were inverted and when parts of the face were scrambled. Subsequent tests revealed that gaze perception in the chimpanzee was controlled by the contrast between iris and sclera, as in humans, but that the chimpanzee attended only to the position of the iris in the eye, irrespective of head direction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the chimpanzee can discriminate among human gaze directions and are more sensitive to direct gazes. However, limitations in the perception of human gaze by the chimpanzee are suggested by her inability to completely transfer her performance to faces showing a three-quarter view.

  12. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  13. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates. PMID:10736029

  14. Symbolic communication between two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Rumbaugh, D M; Boysen, S

    1978-08-18

    Through use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one. They could not do this when denied use of the symbols. The chimpanzees then spontaneously requested specific foods of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. PMID:675251

  15. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  16. Researchers find human virus in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    After studying chimpanzees in the wilds of Tanzania's Mahale Mountains National Park for the past year as part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant, Virginia Tech researcher Dr. Taranjit Kaur and her team have produced powerful scientific evidence that chimpanzees are becoming sick from viral infectious diseases they have likely contracted from humans.

  17. 42 CFR 9.5 - Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. 9.5... PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.5 Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. (a) Who owns the chimpanzees in the federally supported...

  18. Good pitch memory is widespread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2003-05-01

    Here we show that good pitch memory is widespread among adults with no musical training. We tested unselected college students on their memory for the pitch level of instrumental soundtracks from familiar television programs. Participants heard 5-s excerpts either at the original pitch level or shifted upward or downward by 1 or 2 semitones. They successfully identified the original pitch levels. Other participants who heard comparable excerpts from unfamiliar recordings could not do so. These findings reveal that ordinary listeners retain fine-grained information about pitch level over extended periods. Adults' reportedly poor memory for pitch is likely to be a by-product of their inability to name isolated pitches. PMID:12741751

  19. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2006-07-01

    Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant

  20. How does stone-tool use emerge? Introduction of stones and nuts to naive chimpanzees in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Misato; Mizuno, Yuu; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-04-01

    Nut-cracking behavior has been reported in several communities in West Africa but not in East and Central Africa. Furthermore, even within nut-cracking communities, there are individuals who do not acquire the skill. The present study aimed to clarify the cognitive capability required for nut-cracking behavior and the process through which the the nut-cracking behavior emerges. To examine emergence, we provided three naive adult chimpanzees with a single opportunity to observe human models. A human tester demonstrated nut-cracking behavior using a pair of stones and then supplied stones and nuts to the chimpanzee subjects. Two out of three chimpanzees proceeded to hit a nut on an anvil stone using a hammer stone, one of whom succeeded in cracking open the nuts during the first test session. The third chimpanzee failed to crack open nuts. We used four variables (object, location, body part used, and action) to describe stone/nut manipulation in order to analyze further the patterns of object manipulation exhibited by the subjects. The analysis revealed that there were three main difficulties associated with nut-cracking behavior. (1) The chimpanzee who failed at the task never showed hitting action. (2) The chimpanzee who failed at the task manipulated nuts but rarely stones. (3) The combination of three objects was not commonly observed in the three chimpanzees. We also discuss our results with reference to the effect of enculturation in captivity and the social context of learning in the wild. PMID:15378423

  1. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) in Captive, Group-Housed, Female Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C.; Provenzale, James M.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R.; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-01-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival P...

  2. The importance of witnessed agency in chimpanzee social learning of tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Social learning refers to individuals learning from others, including information gained through indirect social influences, such as the results of others' actions and changes in the physical environment. One method to determine the relative influence of these varieties of information is the 'ghost display', in which no model is involved, but subjects can watch the results that a model would produce. Previous research has shown mixed success by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learning from ghost displays, with some studies suggesting learning only in relatively simple tasks. To explore whether the failure of chimpanzees to learn from a ghost display may be due to neophobia when tested singly or a requirement for more detailed information for complex tasks, we presented ghost displays of a tool-use task to chimpanzees in their home social groups. Previous tests have revealed that chimpanzees are unable to easily solve this tool-use task asocially, or learn from ghost displays when tested singly, but can learn after observing conspecifics in a group setting. In the present study, despite being tested in a group situation, chimpanzees still showed no success in solving the task via trial-and-error learning, in a baseline condition, nor in learning the task from the ghost display. Simply being in the presence of their group mates and being shown the affordances of the task was not sufficient to encourage learning. Following this, in an escalating series of tests, we examined the chimpanzees' ability to learn from a demonstration by models with agency: (1) a human; (2) video footage of a chimpanzee; (3) a live chimpanzee model. In the first two of these 'social' conditions, subjects showed limited success. By the end of the final open diffusion phase, which was run to determine whether this new behavior would be transmitted among the group after seeing a successful chimpanzee use the task, 83% of chimpanzees were now successful. This confirmed a marked overall effect of

  3. Interlimb coordination, gait, and neural control of quadrupedalism in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L J; Anapol, F C; Jungers, W L

    1997-02-01

    Interlimb coordination is directly relevant to the understanding of the neural control of locomotion, but few studies addressing this topic for nonhuman primates are available, and no data exist for any hominoid other than humans. As a follow-up to Jungers and Anapol's ([1985] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 67:89-97) analysis on a lemur and talapoin monkey, we describe here the patterns of interlimb coordination in two chimpanzees as revealed by electromyography. Like the lemur and talapoin monkey, ipsilateral limb coupling in chimpanzees is characterized by variability about preferred modes within individual gaits. During symmetrical gaits, limb coupling patterns in the chimpanzee are also influenced by kinematic differences in hindlimb placement ("overstriding"). These observations reflect the neurological constraints placed on locomotion but also emphasize the overall flexibility of locomotor neural mechanisms. Interlimb coordination patterns are also species-specific, exhibiting significant differences among primate taxa and between primates and cats. Interspecific differences may be suggestive of phylogenetic divergence in the basic mechanisms for neural control of locomotion, but do not preclude morphological explanations for observed differences in interlimb coordination across species. PMID:9066899

  4. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group ...

  5. Mortality and the magnitude of the "wild effect" in chimpanzee tooth emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Holly; Boesch, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Age of tooth emergence is a useful measure of the pace of life for primate species, both living and extinct. A recent study combining wild chimpanzees of the Taï Forest, Gombe, and Bossou by Zihlman et al. (2004) suggested that wild chimpanzees erupt teeth much later than captives, bringing into question both comparisons within the hominin fossil record and assessment of chimpanzees. Here, we assess the magnitude of the "wild effect" (the mean difference between captive and wild samples expressed in standard deviation units) in these chimpanzees. Tooth emergence in these wild individuals is late, although at a more moderate level than previously recorded, with a mean delay conservatively estimated at about 1 SD compared to the captive distributions. The effect rises to 1.3 SD if we relax criteria for age estimates. We estimate that the mandibular M1 of these wild chimpanzees emerges at about 3 (2)/(3)-3 ¾ years of age. An important point, often ignored, is that these chimpanzees are largely dead of natural causes, merging the effect of living wild with the effect of early death. Evidence of mortality selection includes, specifically: younger deaths appear to have been more delayed than the older in tooth emergence, more often showed evidence of disease or debilitation, and revealed a higher occurrence of dental anomalies. Notably, delay in tooth emergence for live-captured wild baboons appears lower in magnitude (ca. 0.5 SD) and differs in pattern. Definitive ages of tooth emergence times in living wild chimpanzees must be established from the study of living animals. The fossil record, of course, consists of many dead juveniles; the present study has implications for how we evaluate them. PMID:21071064

  6. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.; Herndon, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10–54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery (Herrmann et al., 2007, Science 317,1360–1366), which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complex...

  7. Chimpanzees know that others make inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    If chimpanzees are faced with two opaque boards on a table, in the context of searching for a single piece of food, they do not choose the board lying flat (because if food was under there it would not be lying flat) but, rather, they choose the slanted one— presumably inferring that some unperceived food underneath is causing the slant. Here we demonstrate that chimpanzees know that other chimpanzees in the same situation will make a similar inference. In a back-and-forth foraging game, when...

  8. Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-05-01

    Human empathy can extend to strangers and even other species, but it is unknown whether non-humans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. We explored the breadth and flexibility of empathy in chimpanzees, a close relative of humans. We used contagious yawning to measure involuntary empathy and showed chimpanzees videos of familiar humans, unfamiliar humans and gelada baboons (an unfamiliar species). We tested whether each class of stimuli elicited contagion by comparing the effect of yawn and control videos. After including previous data on the response to ingroup and outgroup chimpanzees, we found that familiar and unfamiliar humans elicited contagion equal to that of ingroup chimpanzees. Gelada baboons did not elicit contagion, and the response to them was equal to that of outgroup chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees watched the outgroup chimpanzee videos more than any other. The combination of high interest and low contagion may stem from hostility towards unfamiliar chimpanzees, which may interfere with an empathic response. Overall, chimpanzees showed flexibility in that they formed an empathic connection with a different species, including unknown members of that species. These results imply that human empathic flexibility is shared with related species. PMID:24619445

  9. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby; Williamson, Rebecca A; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-02-01

    Is the sense of fairness uniquely human? Human reactions to reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in which both partners need to agree on a distribution for both to receive rewards. Humans typically offer generous portions of the reward to their partner, a tendency our close primate relatives have thus far failed to show in experiments. Here we tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children on a modified ultimatum game. One individual chose between two tokens that, with their partner's cooperation, could be exchanged for rewards. One token offered equal rewards to both players, whereas the other token favored the chooser. Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partner's cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partners--a situation akin to the so-called dictator game--they preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of fairness. PMID:23319633

  10. An exon-based comparative variant analysis pipeline to study the scale and role of frameshift and nonsense mutation in the human-chimpanzee divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, GongXin

    2009-01-01

    Chimpanzees and humans are closely related but differ in many deadly human diseases and other characteristics in physiology, anatomy, and pathology. In spite of decades of extensive research, crucial questions about the molecular mechanisms behind the differences are yet to be understood. Here I report ExonVar, a novel computational pipeline for Exon-based human-chimpanzee comparative Variant analysis. The objective is to comparatively analyze mutations specifically those that caused the frameshift and nonsense mutations and to assess their scale and potential impacts on human-chimpanzee divergence. Genomewide analysis of human and chimpanzee exons with ExonVar identified a number of species-specific, exon-disrupting mutations in chimpanzees but much fewer in humans. Many were found on genes involved in important biological processes such as T cell lineage development, the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and antigen induced cell death. A "less-is-more" model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. Here this analysis suggested a different model where the chimpanzee-specific exon-disrupting mutations may act as additional evolutionary force that drove the human-chimpanzee divergence. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of sequencing errors in the chimpanzee and human genome sequences and further illustrated that they could be corrected without resequencing. PMID:19859573

  11. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  12. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-03-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4-8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  13. Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Head, Josephine; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-06-01

    Homo faber was once proposed as a label for humans specifically to highlight their unique propensity for tool use. However, new observations on complex tool use by the chimpanzees of Loango National Park, Gabon, expand our knowledge about tool-using abilities in Pan troglodytes. Chimpanzees in Loango, when using tools to extract honey from three types of bee nests, were observed to regularly use three- to five-element tool sets. In other words, different types of tools were used sequentially to access a single food source. Such tool sets included multi-function tools that present typical wear for two distinct uses. In addition, chimpanzees exploited underground bee nests and used ground-perforating tools to locate nest chambers that were not visible from the ground surface. These new observations concur with others from Central African chimpanzees to highlight the importance of honey extraction in arguments favoring the emergence of complex tool use in hominoids, including different tool types, expanded tool sets, multifunction tools, and the exploitation of underground resources. This last technique requires sophisticated cognitive abilities concerning unseen objects. A sequential analysis reveals a higher level of complexity in honey extraction than previously proposed for nut cracking or hunting tools, and compares with some technologies attributed to early hominins from the Early and Middle Stone Age. A better understanding of similarities in human and chimpanzee tool use will allow for a greater understanding of tool-using skills that are uniquely human. PMID:19457542

  14. Tool-use for drinking water by immature chimpanzees of Mahale: prevalence of an unessential behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Takahisa; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Zamma, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-04-01

    Use of leaves or sticks for drinking water has only rarely been observed during long-term study of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale. Recently, however, we observed 42 episodes of tool-use for drinking water (73 tools and two cases of using "tool-sets") between 1999 and 2004. Interestingly, all of the performers were immature chimpanzees aged from 2 to 10 years. Immature chimpanzees sometimes observed the tool-using performance of others and subsequently reproduced the behavior, while adults usually paid no attention to the performance. This tool-use did not seem to occur out of necessity: (1) chimpanzees often used tools along streams where they could drink water without tools, (2) they used tools for drinking water from tree holes during the wet season when they could easily obtain water from many streams, and (3) the tool-using performance sometimes contained playful aspects. Between-site comparisons revealed that chimpanzees at drier habitats used tools for drinking water more frequently and in a more "conventional" manner. However, some variations could not be explained by ecological conditions. Such variations and the increase in this tool-use in recent years at Mahale strongly suggest that social learning plays an important role in the process of acquiring the behavior. We should note here that such behaviors that lack obvious benefits or necessity can be prevalent in a group. PMID:16228665

  15. Generation of transmissible hepatitis C virions from a molecular clone in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z; Beaudet-Miller, M; Lanford, R E; Guerra, B; Wright-Minogue, J; Skelton, A; Baroudy, B M; Reyes, G R; Lau, J Y

    1999-03-30

    Multiple alignments of hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyproteins from six different genotypes identified a total of 22 nonconsensus mutations in a clone derived from the Hutchinson (H77) isolate. These mutations, collectively, may have contributed to the failure in generating a "functionally correct" or "infectious" clone in earlier attempts. A consensus clone was constructed after systematic repair of these mutations, which yielded infectious virions in a chimpanzee after direct intrahepatic inoculation of in vitro transcribed RNAs. This RNA-infected chimpanzee has developed hepatitis and remained HCV positive for more than 11 months. To further verify this RNA-derived infectivity, a second naive chimpanzee was injected intravenously with serum collected from the first chimpanzee. Infectivity analysis of the second chimpanzee demonstrated that the HCV infection was successfully transmitted, which validated unequivocally the infectivity of our repaired molecular clone. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that our repaired infectious clone had 4 mismatches with the isogenic clone reported by Kolykhalov et al. (1997, Science 277, 570-574) and 8 mismatches with that reported by Yanagi et al. (1997, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8738-8743). At the RNA level, more mismatches (43 and 67, respectively) were identified; most of them were synonymous substitutions. Further comparisons with 16 isolates from different genotypes demonstrated that our repaired clone shares greater consensus than the reported isogenic clones. This approach of generating infectious HCV RNA validates the importance of amino acid sequence consensus in relation to the biology of HCV. PMID:10087224

  16. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Eberly, Lynn E; Pusey, Anne E

    2004-04-15

    The wild chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, fish for termites with flexible tools that they make out of vegetation, inserting them into the termite mound and then extracting and eating the termites that cling to the tool. Tools may be used in different ways by different chimpanzee communities according to the local chimpanzee culture. Here we describe the results of a four-year longitudinal field study in which we investigated how this cultural behaviour is learned by the community's offspring. We find that there are distinct sex-based differences, akin to those found in human children, in the way in which young chimpanzees develop their termite-fishing skills. PMID:15085121

  17. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Votýpka, J.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, E.; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, Ch.; Modrý, D.; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282. ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014

  18. Scavenging by chimpanzees at Ngogo and the relevance of chimpanzee scavenging to early hominin behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt a variety of prey species. However, they rarely scavenge, which distinguishes chimpanzee carnivory from that of some modern hunter-gatherers and, presumably, at least some Plio-Pleistocene hominins. I use observations made over an 11-year period to document all known opportunities for scavenging encountered by chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and describe all cases of scavenging. I also review data on scavenging from other chimpanzee research sites. Chimpanzees at Ngogo encountered scavenging opportunities only about once per 100 days and ate meat from scavenged carcasses only four times. Scavenging opportunities are also rare at other sites, even where leopards are present (Mahale, Taï, Gombe), and scavenging of leopard kills is known only from Mahale. Feeding on prey that chimpanzees had hunted but then abandoned is the most common form of scavenging reported across study sites. For example, several individuals at Ngogo ate meat from a partially consumed red colobus carcass abandoned after a hunt the previous day. Such behavior probably was not common among Oldowan hominins. Ngogo data and those from other sites also show that chimpanzees sometimes eat meat from carcasses of prey that they did not see killed and that were not killed by chimpanzees, and that scavenging allows access to carcasses larger than those of any prey items. However, chimpanzees ignore relatively many opportunities to obtain meat from such carcasses. Scavenging may be rare because fresh carcasses are rare, because the risk of bacterial infections and zoonoses is high, and because chimpanzees may not recognize certain species as potential prey or certain size classes of prey species as food sources. Its minimal nutritional importance, along with the absence of technology to facilitate confrontational scavenging and rapid carcass processing, apparently distinguishes chimpanzee foraging strategies from those of at least some Oldowan hominins. PMID

  19. Structural and evolutionary analysis of the two chimpanzee alpha-globin mRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Begley, K A

    1983-01-01

    Two distinct alpha-globin mRNAs were detected in chimpanzee reticulocyte mRNA using a primer extension assay. DNA copies of these two mRNAs were cloned in the bacterial plasmid pBR322, and their sequence was determined. The two alpha-globin mRNAs have obvious structural homology to the two human alpha-globin mRNAs, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Comparison of the two chimpanzee alpha-globin mRNAs to each other and to their corresponding human counterparts revealed evidence of a recent gene conversion i...

  20. Spontaneous Altruism by Chimpanzees and Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, F.; Hare, B. (Prof. Dr. ); Melis, A; Hanus, D.; Tomasello, M

    2007-01-01

    People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of this view, the few experimental studies on altruism in chimpanzees have produced mostly negative results. In contrast, we report experimental evidence that chimpanze...

  1. Chimpanzees as vulnerable subjects in research

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jane; Barnard, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors—confinement and dependency—that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources develope...

  2. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  3. Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Pruett, John R., Jr.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness…

  4. Translating chimpanzee personality to humans: Investigating the transportability of chimpanzee-derived personality scales to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Sauvigné, Katheryn C; Hopkins, William D

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of personality in chimpanzees with repeated findings of a similar structure of personality in apes to that found in humans. To date, however, the direct translational value of instruments used to assess chimpanzee personality to humans has yet to be explicitly tested. As such, in the current study we sought to determine the transportability of factor analytically-derived chimpanzee personality scales to humans in a large human sample (N = 301). Human informants reporting on target individuals they knew well completed chimpanzee-derived and human-derived measures of personality from the two most widely studied models of human personality: Big Five and Big Three. The correspondence between informant-reported chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales was then investigated. Results indicated high convergence for corresponding scales across most chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales. Findings from the current study provide evidence that chimpanzee-derived scales translate well to humans and operate quite similarly to the established human-derived personality scales in a human sample. This evidence of transportability lends support to the translational nature of chimpanzee personality research suggesting clear relevance of this growing literature to humans. Am. J. Primatol. 78:601-609, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26716761

  5. Bonobos fall within the genomic variation of chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fischer

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary relationships within and between bonobos and chimpanzees, we sequenced 150,000 base pairs of nuclear DNA divided among 15 autosomal regions as well as the complete mitochondrial genomes from 20 bonobos and 58 chimpanzees. Except for western chimpanzees, we found poor genetic separation of chimpanzees based on sample locality. In contrast, bonobos consistently cluster together but fall as a group within the variation of chimpanzees for many of the regions. Thus, while chimpanzees retain genomic variation that predates bonobo-chimpanzee speciation, extensive lineage sorting has occurred within bonobos such that much of their genome traces its ancestry back to a single common ancestor that postdates their origin as a group separate from chimpanzees.

  6. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Produce the Same Types of 'Laugh Faces' when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Davila-Ross

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates' open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the

  7. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W D; Russell, J L; Schaeffer, J A; Gardner, M; Schapiro, S J

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level handedness was found for this task; however, significant sex differences in preference and performance were found, with males showing greater left handedness and poorer performance compared to females. We also found that the hand preferences of offspring were significantly positively correlated with the hand preferences of their mothers. Lastly, older females performed more slowly on the task compared to younger individuals. The overall results neither confirm nor reject previous hypotheses claiming that raising chimpanzees in captivity induces right-handedness, but rather suggest that other factors may account for differences in hand preferences for tool use seen in wild and captive chimpanzees. PMID:20221316

  8. Chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes are shown by chromosome banding techniques and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Cell hybrids were obtained from the chimpanzee lymphocyte LE-7, and the Chinese hamster mutant cell, Gal-2. Experiments showed that the ACPL, MDHs, and Gal-Act genes could be assigned to chimpanzee chromosome 13, and since these genes have been assigned to human chromosme 2p, it is suggested that chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p. (HLW)

  9. Understanding the Point of Chimpanzee Pointing: Epigenesis and Ecological Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Pointing has long been considered to be a uniquely human, universal, and biologically based gesture. However, pointing emerges spontaneously, without explicit training, in captive chimpanzees. Because pointing is commonplace in captive chimpanzees and virtually absent in wild chimpanzees, and because both captive and wild chimpanzees are sampled from the same gene pool, pointing by captive apes is attributable to environmental influences on communicative development. If pointing by captive ch...

  10. Bonobos Fall within the Genomic Variation of Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A; Prüfer, K.; Good, J.; Halbwax, M.; Wiebe, V; André, C; Atencia, R.; Mugisha, L; Ptak, S.; Pääbo, S

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into the patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary relationships within and between bonobos and chimpanzees, we sequenced 150,000 base pairs of nuclear DNA divided among 15 autosomal regions as well as the complete mitochondrial genomes from 20 bonobos and 58 chimpanzees. Except for western chimpanzees, we found poor genetic separation of chimpanzees based on sample locality. In contrast, bonobos consistently cluster together but fall as a group within the variation of ch...

  11. A potent effect of observational learning on chimpanzee tool construction

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Elizabeth E.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steve J.; Whiten, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although tool use occurs in diverse species, its complexity may mark an important distinction between humans and other animals. Chimpanzee tool use has many similarities to that seen in humans, yet evidence of the cumulatively complex and constructive technologies common in human populations remains absent in free-ranging chimpanzees. Here we provide the first evidence that chimpanzees have a latent capacity to socially learn to construct a composite tool. Fifty chimpanzees were assigned to o...

  12. Sleeping tree choice by Bwindi chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Craig B; O'Malley, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    Unlike nearly all other nonhuman primates, great apes build sleeping nests. In Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, chimpanzees build nests nightly and also build day nests. We investigated patterns of nest tree use by Bwindi chimpanzees to understand ecological influences on nest tree selection. We analyzed data on 3,414 chimpanzee nests located from 2000 to 2004. Chimpanzees at Bwindi were selective in their use of nest trees. Of at least 163 tree species known to occur in Bwindi [Butynski, Ecological survey of the Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest, Uganda, and recommendations for its conservation and management. Report to the Government of Uganda, 1984], chimpanzees utilized only 38 species for nesting. Of these, four tree species (Cassipourea sp., Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Drypetes gerrardii, and Teclea nobilis) accounted for 72.1% of all nest trees. There was considerable variation in nesting frequencies among the top four species between and within years. However, these species were used significantly more often for nesting than other species in 70.9% (39 of 55) of the months of this study. A Spearman rank correlation found no significant relationship between tree abundance and tree species preference. Ninety-three percent of all nests were constructed in food tree species, although not necessarily at the same time the trees bore food items used by chimpanzees. The results indicate that nesting tree species preferences exist. Bwindi chimpanzees' choice of nesting tree species does not appear to be dependent on tree species density or use of the tree for food. We discuss possible reasons for the selectivity in nest trees by the Bwindi population. PMID:18381629

  13. Initial characterization of four cytomegalovirus strains isolated from chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytomegalovirus was isolated from chimpanzees. The chimpanzee CMV showed a strong antigenic relationship with human CMV. The genome of the chimpanzee CMV was found to have a molecular weight of 147 +- 11.3 x 106 and showed partial homology to human CMV DNA. (Author)

  14. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution. PMID:26659967

  15. Gene flow in wild chimpanzee populations: what genetic data tell us about chimpanzee movement over space and time.

    OpenAIRE

    Gagneux, P; Gonder, M. K.; Goldberg, T.L.; Morin, P A

    2001-01-01

    The isolation of phylogenetically distinct primate immunodeficiency viruses from at least seven wild-born, captive chimpanzees indicates that viruses closely related to HIV-1 may be endemic in some wild chimpanzee populations. The search for the chimpanzee population or populations harbouring these viruses is therefore on. This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not such populations of chimpanzees are likely to exist at all, and, if so, where they are likely to be found. We s...

  16. Widespread pain in chronic epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienimäki, Tuomo; Siira, Pertti; Vanharanta, Heikki

    2011-10-01

    We studied the associations of widespread pain with other pain and functional measures among patients with chronic epicondylitis. A total of 190 patients (66% females) participated in the study; with a mean age 43.7, mean duration of symptoms 48weeks, chronic lateral (n=160) and medial (n=30) epicondylitis. We analysed clinical status, grip strength and cubital pain thresholds and interviewed pain and disability, leisure time physical activity, strenuous hobby activities for arms, duration of symptoms, other systemic and upper extremity disorders, arm operations, and work ability. The location of pain was analysed using a whole-body pain drawing, categorized into three groups; the highest of which was classified as widespread pain. A total of 85 patients (45%) reported widespread pain. It was highly associated with female gender, high pain scores, decreased grip strength and pain thresholds (p<0.001 for all), with increased number of positive manual tests, low level of hobby strain for arms and physical activity, long duration of symptoms, and sick leave (p for all <0.05). It was also related to upper extremity disorders and arm surgery, but not with operated epicondylitis, other systemic diseases, workload or work ability. In addition, 39% of patients without other disease reported widespread pain. Widespread pain is common in chronic epicondylitis with and without other diseases, and is related to high pain scores, decreased function of the arm, long duration of symptoms, sick leave, and with a low level of physical activity. PMID:21565536

  17. Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, John

    2008-03-13

    Genetic data from two or more species provide information about the process of speciation. In their analysis of DNA from humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and macaques (HCGOM), Patterson et al. suggest that the apparently short divergence time between humans and chimpanzees on the X chromosome is explained by a massive interspecific hybridization event in the ancestry of these two species. However, Patterson et al. do not statistically test their own null model of simple speciation before concluding that speciation was complex, and--even if the null model could be rejected--they do not consider other explanations of a short divergence time on the X chromosome. These include natural selection on the X chromosome in the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, changes in the ratio of male-to-female mutation rates over time, and less extreme versions of divergence with gene flow (see ref. 2, for example). I therefore believe that their claim of hybridization is unwarranted. PMID:18337768

  18. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. PMID:27431611

  19. Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Stahl, Daniel; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-06-24

    Consolation, i.e., postconflict affiliative interaction directed from a third party to the recipient of aggression, is assumed to have a stress-alleviating function. This function, however, has never been demonstrated. This study shows that consolation in chimpanzees reduces behavioral measures of stress in recipients of aggression. Furthermore, consolation was more likely to occur in the absence of reconciliation, i.e., postconflict affiliative interaction between former opponents. Consolation therefore may act as an alternative to reconciliation when the latter does not occur. In the debate about empathy in great apes, evidence for the stress-alleviating function of consolation in chimpanzees provides support for the argument that consolation could be critical behavior. Consistent with the argument that relationship quality affects their empathic responses, we found that consolation was more likely between individuals with more valuable relationships. Chimpanzees may thus respond to distressed valuable partners by consoling them, thereby reducing their stress levels, especially in the absence of reconciliation. PMID:18559863

  20. Evaluation of lung immunity in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung

  1. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in

  2. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    Full Text Available Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species. Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86% high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Feeding Behaviour and Activity Patterns of Released Chimpanzees in Conkouati-Douli National Park, Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ross

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild chimpanzee populations are still declining due to logging, disease transmission and hunting. The bushmeat trade frequently leads to an increase in the number of orphaned primates. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees into an existing chimpanzee habitat. A collection of post monitoring data over 16 years now offers the unique opportunity to investigate possible behavioural adaptations in these chimpanzees. We investigated the feeding and activity patterns in eight individuals via focal observation techniques from 1997–1999 and 2001–2005. Our results revealed a decline in the number of fruit and insect species in the diet of released chimpanzees over the years, whereas within the same period of time, the number of consumed seed species increased. Furthermore, we found a decline in time spent travelling, but an increase in time spent on social activities, such as grooming, as individuals matured. In conclusion, the observed changes in feeding and activity patterns seem to reflect important long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations in wild-born orphan released chimpanzees, demonstrating that the release of chimpanzees can be successful, even if it takes time for full adaptation.

  4. Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Matthew W.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human empathy can extend to strangers and even other species, but it is unknown whether non-humans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. We explored the breadth and flexibility of empathy in chimpanzees, a close relative of humans. We used contagious yawning to measure involuntary empathy and showed chimpanzees videos of familiar humans, unfamiliar humans and gelada baboons (an unfamiliar species). We tested whether each class of stimuli elicited contagion by comparing the effect o...

  5. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. PMID:25220050

  6. Newtonian chimpanzees? A molecular dynamics approach to understanding decision-making by wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Matthew; Sen, Surajit; Sinha, Anindya

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we computationally investigate decision-making by individuals and the ensuing social structure of a primate species, chimpanzees, using Newton's equations of classical mechanics, as opposed to agentbased analyses in which individual chimpanzees make independent decisions. Our model uses molecular dynamics simulation techniques to solve Newton's equations and is able to approximate the movements of female and male chimpanzees, especially in relation to the available food resources, in a manner that is consistent with their observed behavior in natural habitats. It is noteworthy that our Newtonian dynamics-based model may allow us to make certain specific observations of their behaviour, some of which may be difficult to achieve through agent-based modelling exercises or even field studies. Chimpanzees tend to live in fission-fusion social groups, with varying number of individuals, in which both females and males tend to display intrasexual competition for valuable food resources while the males also compete for oestrus females. Most populations of the species are also restricted to a small range of habitats, a clear indication that they are especially vulnerable to the availability and distribution of food sources. With reasonable assumptions of chimpanzee behaviour, we have been able to analyse the clustering behaviour of individuals in relation to local food sources as also patterns of their migration across groups. Our simulated results are qualitatively consistent with field observations conducted on a particular semi-isolated population of chimpanzees in Bossou, Guinea, in western Africa.

  7. Nonneutral mitochondrial DNA variation in humans and chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachman, M.W.; Aquadro, C.F. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Brown, W.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    We sequenced the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) gene from a sample of 61 humans, five common chimpanzees, and one gorilla to test whether patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are consistent with a neutral model of molecular evolution. Within humans and within chimpanzees, the ratio of replacement to silent nucleotide substitutions was higher than observed in comparisons between species, contrary to neutral expectations. To test the generality of this result, we reanalyzed published human RFLP data from the entire mitochondrial genome. Gains of restriction sites relative to a known human mtDNA sequence were used to infer unambiguous nucleotide substitutions. We also compared the complete mtDNA sequences of three humans. Both the RFLP data and the sequence data reveal a higher ratio of replacement to silent nucleotide substitutions within humans than is seen between species. This pattern is observed at most or all human mitochondrial genes and is inconsistent with a strictly neutral model. These data suggest that many mitochondrial protein polymorphisms are slightly deleterious, consistent with studies of human mitochondrial diseases. 59 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan. PMID:18359504

  9. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:25405348

  10. Widespread occurrence of the tfd-II genes in soil bacteria revealed by nucleotide sequence analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradative plasmids pDB1 and p712.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Min-Sun; Lim, Jong-Sung; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Variovorax sp. strain DB1 and Pseudomonas pickettii strain 712 are 2,4-dicholorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria, which were isolated from agricultural soils in Republic of Korea and USA, respectively. Each strain harbors a 2,4-D degradative plasmid and is able to utilize 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon for its growth. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid pDB1 of strain DB1 consisted of a 65,269-bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 66.23% and had 68 ORFs. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid p712 of strain 712 was composed of a 62,798-bp circular molecule with a 62.11% G+C content and had 62 ORFs. The plasmids pDB1 and p712 share significantly homologous 2,4-D degradative genes with high similarity to the tfdR, tfdB-II, tfdC-II, tfdD-II, tfdE-II, tfdF-II, tfdK and tfdA genes of plasmid pJP4 of Alcaligenes eutrophus isolated from Australia. In a phylogenetic analysis with trfA, traL, and trbA genes, pDB1 belonged to IncP-1β with pJP4, while p712 belonged to IncP-1ε with pKJK5 and pEMT3. The results indicated that, in spite of the differences in their backbone regions, the 2,4-D catabolic genes of the two plasmids were closely related and also related to the well-known 2,4-D degradative plasmid pJP4 even though all were isolated from different geographic regions. Other similarities in the genetic organization and the presence of IS1071 suggested that these catabolic genes may be on a transposable element, leading to widespread occurrence in soil bacteria. PMID:23376020

  11. Evidence for widespread degradation of gene control regions in hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Keightley

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sequences containing regulatory elements located close to protein-coding genes are often only weakly conserved during evolution, comparisons of rodent genomes have implied that these sequences are subject to some selective constraints. Evolutionary conservation is particularly apparent upstream of coding sequences and in first introns, regions that are enriched for regulatory elements. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes, we show here that there is almost no evidence for conservation in these regions in hominids. Furthermore, we show that gene expression is diverging more rapidly in hominids than in murids per unit of neutral sequence divergence. By combining data on polymorphism levels in human noncoding DNA and the corresponding human-chimpanzee divergence, we show that the proportion of adaptive substitutions in these regions in hominids is very low. It therefore seems likely that the lack of conservation and increased rate of gene expression divergence are caused by a reduction in the effectiveness of natural selection against deleterious mutations because of the low effective population sizes of hominids. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large number of deleterious mutations in sequences containing gene control elements and hence a widespread degradation of the genome during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees.

  12. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W; Carter, J Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-12-01

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not be captured on video. Establishing computer animations as a viable tool requires that non-human subjects identify with and respond to animations in a way similar to the way they do to images of actual conspecifics. Contagious yawning has been linked to empathy and poses a good test of involuntary identification and motor mimicry. We presented 24 chimpanzees with three-dimensional computer-animated chimpanzees yawning or displaying control mouth movements. The apes yawned significantly more in response to the yawn animations than to the controls, implying identification with the animations. These results support the phenomenon of contagious yawning in chimpanzees and suggest an empathic response to animations. Understanding how chimpanzees connect with animations, to both empathize and imitate, may help us to understand how humans do the same. PMID:19740888

  13. Paedomorphosis and neoteny in the pygmy chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B T

    1983-11-01

    The strongly paedomorphic skull form in the pygmy chimpanzee results from the heterochronic process of neoteny. This cranial paedomorphosis and neoteny in Pan paniscus may be related to reduced sexual dimorphism in morphology and behavior. The interspecific differences in form result from shifts in the rate and timing of similar patterns of development. PMID:6623093

  14. Mechanical implications of chimpanzee positional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K D

    1991-12-01

    Mechanical hypotheses concerning the function of chimpanzee anatomical specializations are examined in light of recent positional behavior data. Arm-hanging was the only common chimpanzee positional behavior that required full abduction of the humerus, and vertical climbing was the only distinctive chimpanzee positional behavior that required forceful retraction of the humerus and flexion of the elbow. Some elements of the chimpanzee anatomy, including an abductible humerus, a broad thorax, a cone-shaped torso, and a long, narrow scapula, are hypothesized to be a coadapted functional complex that reduces muscle action and structural fatigue during arm-hanging. Large muscles that retract the humerus (latissimus dorsi and probably sternocostal pectoralis major and posterior deltoid) and flex the elbow (biceps brachii, probably brachialis and brachioradialis) are argued to be adaptations to vertical climbing alone. A large ulnar excursion of the manus and long, curved metacarpals and phalanges are interpreted as adaptations to gripping vertical weight-bearing structures during vertical climbing and arm-hanging. A short torso, an iliac origin of the latissimus dorsi, and large muscles for arm-raising (caudal serratus, teres minor, cranial trapezius, and probably anterior deltoid and clavicular pectoralis major) are interpreted as adaptations to both climbing and unimanual suspension. PMID:1776659

  15. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records. PMID:27068300

  16. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jirků

    2015-12-01

    Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

  17. Sign Language Studies with Chimpanzees and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cantfort, Thomas E.; Rimpau, James B.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews methodologies of sign language studies with chimpanzees and compares major findings of those studies with studies of human children. Considers relevance of input conditions for language acquisition, evidence used to demonstrate linguistic achievements, and application of rigorous testing procedures in developmental psycholinguistics.…

  18. Chimpanzees Deceive a Human Competitor by Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is little experimental evidence that any non-human species is capable of purposefully attempting to manipulate the psychological states of others deceptively (e.g., manipulating what another sees). We show here that chimpanzees, one of humans' two closest primate relatives, sometimes attempt to actively conceal things from others.…

  19. Sign Language Conversational Interaction between Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Roger S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Systematic sampling was done of signing between five home-reared chimpanzees who had had 4-7 years of complete immersion in integrating their signing interaction into their nonverbal communication. Eight-eight percent of all signs reported fell into the social categories of reassurance, social interaction, and play. (SL)

  20. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Milan; Votýpka, Jan; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, Eva; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, Ch.; Modrý, David; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282. ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  1. Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

    2004-12-01

    Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison

  2. Novel polyomavirus detected in the feces of a chimpanzee by nested broad-spectrum PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, Reimar; Enderlein, Dirk; Nieper, Hermann; Müller, Hermann

    2005-03-01

    In order to screen for new polyomaviruses in samples derived from various animal species, degenerated PCR primer pairs were constructed. By using a nested PCR protocol, the sensitive detection of nine different polyomavirus genomes was demonstrated. The screening of field samples revealed the presence of a new polyomavirus, tentatively designated chimpanzee polyomavirus (ChPyV), in the feces of a juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Analysis of the region encoding the major capsid protein VP1 revealed a unique insertion in the EF loop of the protein and showed that ChPyV is a distinct virus related to the monkey polyomavirus B-lymphotropic polyomavirus and the human polyomavirus JC polyomavirus. PMID:15731285

  3. Gene flow in wild chimpanzee populations: what genetic data tell us about chimpanzee movement over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneux, P; Gonder, M K; Goldberg, T L; Morin, P A

    2001-06-29

    The isolation of phylogenetically distinct primate immunodeficiency viruses from at least seven wild-born, captive chimpanzees indicates that viruses closely related to HIV-1 may be endemic in some wild chimpanzee populations. The search for the chimpanzee population or populations harbouring these viruses is therefore on. This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not such populations of chimpanzees are likely to exist at all, and, if so, where they are likely to be found. We summarize what is known about gene flow in wild populations of chimpanzees, both between major phylogeographical subdivisions of the species, and within these subdivisions. Our analysis indicates that hitherto undocumented reproductively isolated chimpanzee populations may in fact exist. This conclusion is based on the observation that, despite limited geographical sampling and limited numbers of genetic loci, conventional notions of the nature and extent of chimpanzee gene flow have recently been substantially revised. Molecular genetic studies using mitochondrial DNA sequences and hypervariable nuclear microsatellite markers have indicated the existence of heretofore undocumented barriers to chimpanzee gene flow. These studies have identified at least one population of chimpanzees genetically distinct enough to be classified into a new subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus). At the same time, they have called into question the long-accepted genetic distinction between eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and western equatorial chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). The same studies have further indicated that gene flow between local populations is more extensive than was previously thought, and follows patterns sometimes inconsistent with those documented through direct behavioural observation. Given the apparently incomplete nature of the current understanding of chimpanzee gene flow in equatorial Africa, it seems reasonable to speculate that a chimpanzee

  4. The chimpanzees of Oluwa Forest Reserve, southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjemite, B. G.; O.E. Olaniyi

    2012-01-01

    The lack of accurate information on the population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is a cause for concern on their conservation and management in Southwest Nigeria. We conducted surveys on the chimpanzees of Oluwa Forest Reserve, Ondo State between the month of September 2011 and February 2012. We used the combination of recce survey and GIS mapping to determine Chimpanzees’ locations in the reserve. Chimpanzee distribution was confined to the central portion of the OA2 axis of the reser...

  5. Do chimpanzee nests serve an anti-predatory function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, J D

    2013-06-01

    Sleep is a vulnerable state for animals as it compromises the ability to detect predators. The evolution of shelter construction in the great apes may have been a solution to the trade-off between restorative sleep and predation-risk, which allowed a large bodied ape to sleep recumbent in a safe, comfortable spot. In this article we review the evidence of predator pressure on great apes and specifically investigate the potential influence of predation-risk on chimpanzee nesting behavior by comparing nests between chimpanzees living in a habitat of several potential predators (Issa, Ugalla, Tanzania) and a habitat relatively devoid of predators (Fongoli, Senegal). Chimpanzees in Issa did not nest more frequently in forest vegetation than chimpanzees in Fongoli although forest vegetation is expected to provide greater opportunity for escape from terrestrial predators. Nor do chimpanzees in Issa nest in larger groups or aggregate together more than Fongoli chimpanzees, as would be expected if larger groups provide protection from or greater detection of predators. Nests in Issa also did not appear to provide greater opportunities for escape than nests in Fongoli. Chimpanzees in Issa nested more frequently within the same tree as other community members, which may indicate that these chimpanzees nest in greater proximity than chimpanzees in Fongoli. Finally, Issa chimpanzees built their nests proportionately higher and more peripherally within trees. The selection of high and peripheral nesting locations within trees may make Issa chimpanzees inaccessible to potential predators. Many factors influence nest site selection in chimpanzees, of which danger from terrestrial predators is likely to be one. PMID:23471670

  6. Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2007-04-01

    With the exception of humans, chimpanzees show the most diverse and complex tool-using repertoires of all extant species. Specific tool repertoires differ between wild chimpanzee populations, but no apparent genetic or environmental factors have emerged as definitive forces shaping variation between populations. However, identification of such patterns has likely been hindered by a lack of information from chimpanzee taxa residing in central Africa. We report our observations of the technological system of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, located in the Republic of Congo, which is the first study to compile a complete tool repertoire from the Lower Guinean subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Between 1999 and 2006, we documented the tool use of chimpanzees by direct observations, remote video monitoring, and collections of tool assemblages. We observed 22 different types of tool behavior, almost half of which were habitual (shown repeatedly by several individuals) or customary (shown by most members of at least one age-sex class). Several behaviors considered universals among chimpanzees were confirmed in this population, but we also report the first observations of known individuals using tools to perforate termite nests, puncture termite nests, pound for honey, and use leafy twigs for rain cover. Tool behavior in this chimpanzee population ranged from simple tasks to hierarchical sequences. We report three different tool sets and a high degree of tool-material selectivity for particular tasks, which are otherwise rare in wild chimpanzees. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle are shown to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported in wild chimpanzee populations. We highlight new insights from this chimpanzee population to our understanding of ape technological systems and evolutionary models of tool-using behavior. PMID:17194468

  7. Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Caswell, Jennifer L.; Richter, Daniel J.; Neubauer, Julie; Schirmer, Christine; Gnerre, Sante; Mallick, Swapan; Reich, David Emil

    2008-01-01

    Population geneticists often study small numbers of carefully chosen loci, but it has become possible to obtain orders of magnitude for more data from overlaps of genome sequences. Here, we generate tens of millions of base pairs of multiple sequence alignments from combinations of three western chimpanzees, three central chimpanzees, an eastern chimpanzee, a bonobo, a human, an orangutan, and a macaque. Analysis provides a more precise understanding of demographic history than was previously...

  8. Doubts about complex speciation between humans and chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Presgraves, Daven C; Yi, Soojin V

    2009-01-01

    Two patterns from large-scale DNA sequence data have been put forward as evidence that speciation between humans and chimpanzees was complex, involving hybridization and strong selection: divergence between humans and chimpanzees varies considerably across the autosomes; and divergence between humans and chimpanzees, but not gorilla, is markedly lower on the X chromosome. Here, we describe how simple speciation and neutral molecular evolution explain both patterns. In particular, the wide ran...

  9. Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpan...

  10. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use

    OpenAIRE

    Kathelijne Koops; Takeshi Furuichi; Chie Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed...

  11. Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.; Bolé, C.; Eckhardt, N.; Boesch, H

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that “chimpanzees are indifferent t...

  12. Development of emotional expressions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Chimpanzee infants, like human infants, exhibit some emotional expressions in the first days of life, and additional expressions develop over the first months of life. We know relatively little about the influence of the rearing environment on the development of emotional expression in chimpanzees (or in human infants). The specific aim of this study was to assess whether early rearing had an effect on development of emotional expressions in chimpanzees.

  13. How fairly do chimpanzees play the ultimatum game?

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Darby; Sarah F. Brosnan; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can behave fairly, but can other species? Recently we tested chimpanzees on a classic human test for fairness, the Ultimatum Game, and found that they behaved similarly to humans. In humans, Ultimatum Game behavior is cited as evidence for a human sense of fairness. By that same logic, we concluded that chimpanzees behaved fairly in our recent study. However, we make a distinction between behavior and motivation. Both humans and chimpanzees behaved fairly, but determining why they did ...

  14. Comprehension of functional support by enculturated chimpanzees Pan troglodytes

    OpenAIRE

    Anna M. YOCOM, Sarah T. BOYSEN

    2011-01-01

    Studies of causal understanding of tool relationships in captive chimpanzees have yielded disparate findings, particularly those reported by Povinelli & colleagues (2000) for tool tasks by laboratory chimpanzees. The present set of experiments tested nine enculturated chimpanzees on three versions of a support task, as described by Povinelli (2000), during which food rewards were presented in different experimental configurations. In Experiment 1, stimulus pairs included a choice between a cl...

  15. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, L.M.; Price, S. A.; Freeman, H.D.; Lambeth, S.P.; SCHAPIRO, S. J.; Kendal, R L

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different ...

  16. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare. PMID:22388773

  17. Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, J C; Watts, D P

    1999-08-01

    We investigated hunting in an unusually large community of wild chimpanzees at Ngogo in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Aspects of predation were recorded with respect to the prey, the predators, and hunting episodes. During 23 months of observation, the Ngogo chimpanzees caught 128 prey items from four primate and three ungulate species. Chimpanzees preyed selectively on immature red colobus primarily during group hunts, with adult males making the majority of kills. Party size and composition were significant predictors of the probability that chimpanzees would hunt and of their success during attempts. Chimpanzees were more likely to hunt red colobus if party size and the number of male hunters were large; party size and the number of male hunters were also significantly larger in successful compared with unsuccessful hunts. The Ngogo chimpanzees did not appear to hunt cooperatively, but reciprocal meat-sharing typically took place after kills. Hunts occurred throughout the year, though there was some seasonality as displayed by periodic hunting binges. The extremely high success rate and large number of kills made per successful hunt are the two most striking aspects of predation by the Ngogo chimpanzees. We compare currently available observations of chimpanzee hunting behavior across study sites and conclude that the large size of the Ngogo community contributes to their extraordinary hunting success. Demographic differences between groups are likely to contribute to other patterns of interpopulation variation in chimpanzee predation. PMID:10423261

  18. Capsid-like Arrays in Crystals of Chimpanzee Adenovirus Hexon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major coat protein, hexon, from a chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC68) is of interest as a target for vaccine vector modification. AdC68 hexon has been crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222 with unit cell dimensions of a = 90.8 Angstroms, b = 433.0 Angstroms, c = 159.3 Angstroms, and one trimer (3 x 104,942 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Initial studies reveal that the molecular arrangement is quite unlike that in hexon crystals for human adenovirus. In the AdC68 crystals, hexon trimers are parallel and pack closely in two-dimensional continuous arrays similar to those formed on electron microscope grids. The AdC68 crystals are the first in which adenovirus hexon has molecular interactions that mimic those used in constructing the viral capsid

  19. Tool-use in excavation of underground food by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implication for wild chimpanzee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Majlesi, Parandis

    2014-01-01

    Extractive foraging of underground storage organs (USOs) is believed to have played an important role in human evolution. This behavior is also present in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), who sometimes use tools in the task. Despite the importance of studying this behavior in chimpanzees to model how early hominins may have used tools in the context of USO excavation, it remains to be directly observed due to the chimpanzees lack of habituation in the two study sites that yielded evidence...

  20. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups...... of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High...... the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a ‘copying dominants’ bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed...

  1. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of ‘Laugh Faces’ when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates’ open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  2. Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced tool use in a supported bipedal posture, an unsupported bipedal posture, and a seated posture. Neither bipedal tool use nor these supported conditions have been previously evaluated in apes. The hypo...

  3. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16371.001 PMID:27431611

  4. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment. PMID:21905060

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV;

    2010-01-01

    ) or CDK2 were almost fully phosphorylated in mitotic cells. In particular, nuclear proteins and proteins involved in regulating metabolic processes have high phosphorylation site occupancy in mitosis. This suggests that these proteins may be inactivated by phosphorylation in mitotic cells....

  6. Chimpanzees in AIDS research: A biomedical and bioethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Akker (Ruud); M. Balls; J.W. Eichberg; J. Goodall; J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.M. Prince; I. Spruit

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present article represents a consensus view of the appropriate utilization of chimpanzees in AIDS research arrived at as a result of a meeting of a group of scientists involved in AIDS research with chimpanzees and bioethicists. The paper considers which types of studies are scientif

  7. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

  8. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  9. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  10. Chimpanzees Know What Others Know, but Not What They Believe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is currently much controversy about which, if any, mental states chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates understand. In the current two studies we tested both chimpanzees' and human children's understanding of both knowledge-ignorance and false belief--in the same experimental paradigm involving competition with a conspecific. We found that…

  11. The apes' edge: positional learning in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Carden, Sarah; Versace, Elisabetta; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-05-01

    A wide variety of organisms produce actions and signals in particular temporal sequences, including the motor actions recruited during tool-mediated foraging, the arrangement of notes in the songs of birds, whales and gibbons, and the patterning of words in human speech. To accurately reproduce such events, the elements that comprise such sequences must be memorized. Both memory and artificial language learning studies have revealed at least two mechanisms for memorizing sequences, one tracking co-occurrence statistics among items in sequences (i.e., transitional probabilities) and the other one tracking the positions of items in sequences, in particular those of items in sequence-edges. The latter mechanism seems to dominate the encoding of sequences after limited exposure, and to be recruited by a wide array of grammatical phenomena. To assess whether humans differ from other species in their reliance on one mechanism over the other after limited exposure, we presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human adults with brief exposure to six items, auditory sequences. Each sequence consisted of three distinct sound types (X, A, B), arranged according to two simple temporal rules: the A item always preceded the B item, and the sequence-edges were always occupied by the X item. In line with previous results with human adults, both species primarily encoded positional information from the sequences; that is, they kept track of the items that occurred in the sequence-edges. In contrast, the sensitivity to co-occurrence statistics was much weaker. Our results suggest that a mechanism to spontaneously encode positional information from sequences is present in both chimpanzees and humans and may represent the default in the absence of training and with brief exposure. As many grammatical regularities exhibit properties of this mechanism, it may be recruited by language and constrain the form that certain grammatical regularities take. PMID:20012457

  12. Chronic widespread pain in spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Atzeni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pain associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA can be intense, persistent and disabling. It frequently has a multifactorial, simultaneously central and peripheral origin, and may be due to currently active inflammation, or joint damage and tissue destruction arising from a previous inflammatory condition. Inflammatory pain symptoms can be reduced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but many patients continue to experience moderate pain due to alterations in the mechanisms that regulate central pain, as in the case of the chronic widespread pain (CWP that characterises fibromyalgia (FM. The importance of distinguishing SpA and FM is underlined by the fact that SpA is currently treated with costly drugs such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF inhibitors, and direct costs are higher in patients with concomitant CWP or FM than in those with FM or SpA alone. Optimal treatment needs to take into account symptoms such as fatigue, mood, sleep, and the overall quality of life, and is based on the use of tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, rather than adjustments in the dose of anti-TNF agents or disease-modifying drugs.

  13. The "Super Chimpanzee": The Ecological Dimensions of Rehabilitation of Orphan Chimpanzees in Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongman, Lissa; Colin, Christelle; Raballand, Estelle; Humle, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    To date few studies, especially among non-human primates, have evaluated or monitored rehabilitation effectiveness and identified key species-specific behavioral indicators for release success. This four-months study aimed to identify behavioral indicators of rehabilitation success among ten infant and juvenile orphaned chimpanzees cared for in peer groups at the Centre for Conservation of Chimpanzees (CCC), Guinea, West Africa. Behavioral data focused on foraging skills and activity budget. During bush-outings, rehabilitants spent on average nearly a quarter of their activity budget foraging, resting or traveling, respectively. Neither age, sex, the level of abnormal behaviors demonstrated upon arrival nor human contact during bush-outings predicted individual dietary knowledge. However, individuals who spent more time arboreal demonstrated a greater dietary breadth than conspecifics who dwelled more terrestrially. Although our data failed to demonstrate a role of conspecific observation in dietary acquisition, we propose that the mingling of individuals from different geographical origins may act as a catalyst for acquiring new dietary knowledge, promoted by ecological opportunities offered during bush-outings. This "Super Chimpanzee" theory opens up new questions about cultural transmission and socially-biased learning among our closest living relatives and provides a novel outlook on rehabilitation in chimpanzees. PMID:26487312

  14. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Video Displays for Use With Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Steven J. Schapiro

    2012-01-01

    Video displays for behavioral research lend themselves particularly well to studies with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), as their vision is comparable to humans’, yet there has been no formal test of the efficacy of video displays as a form of social information for chimpanzees. To address this, we compared the learning success of chimpanzees shown video footage of a conspecific compared to chimpanzees shown a live conspecific performing the same novel task. Footage of an unfamiliar chimpanzee...

  15. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Langergraber

    Full Text Available A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal.

  16. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Siedel, Heike; Mitani, John C; Wrangham, Richard W; Reynolds, Vernon; Hunt, Kevin; Vigilant, Linda

    2007-01-01

    A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal. PMID:17912352

  17. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Peter J; Holowka, Nicholas B; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as "dorsal doming" are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2-5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  18. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. PMID:27289102

  19. Conservation of human chromosome 13 polymorphic microsatellite (CA){sub n} repeats in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, R.; Shriver, M.D.; Yu, L.M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Tandemly repeated (dC-dA){sub n} {center_dot} (dG-dT){sub n} sequences occur abundantly and are found in most eukaryotic genomes. To investigate the level of conservation of these repeat sequences in nonhuman primates, the authors have analyzed seven human chromosome 13 dinucleotide (CA){sub n} repeat loci in chimpanzees by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. Comparable levels of polymorphism at these loci in the two species, revealed by the number of alleles, heterozygosity, and allele sizes, suggest that the (CA){sub n} repeat arrays and their genomic locations are highly conserved. Even though the proportion of shared alleles between the two species varies enormously and the modal alleles are not the same, allelic lengths at each locus in the chimpanzees are detected within the bounds of the allele size range observed in humans. A similar observation has been noted in a limited number of gorillas and orangutans. Using a new measure of genetic distance that takes into account the size of alleles, they have compared the genetic distance between humans and chimpanzees. The genetic distance between these two species was found to be ninefold smaller than expected assuming there is no selection or mutational bias toward retention of (CA){sub n} repeat arrays. These findings suggest a functional significance for these microsatellite loci. 34 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania. Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. PMID:27289102

  1. Semi-wild chimpanzees open hard-shelled fruits differently across communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Bruce; Davila-Ross, Marina; Boysen, Sarah T

    2014-07-01

    Researchers investigating the evolutionary roots of human culture have turned to comparing behaviours across nonhuman primate communities, with tool-based foraging in particular receiving much attention. This study examined whether natural extractive foraging behaviours other than tool selection differed across nonhuman primate colonies that had the same foods available. Specifically, the behaviours applied to open the hard-shelled fruits of Strychnos spp. were examined in three socially separate, semi-wild colonies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that lived under shared ecological conditions at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage, and were comparable in their genetic makeup. The chimpanzees (N=56) consistently applied six techniques to open these fruits. GLMM results revealed differences in the number of combined technique types to open fruits across the colonies. They also showed colony differences in the application of three specific techniques. Two techniques (full biting and fruit cracking) were entirely absent in some colonies. This study provides empirical evidence that natural hard-shelled fruit-opening behaviours are distinct across chimpanzee colonies, differences that most likely have not resulted from ecological and genetic reasons. PMID:24337784

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Pan_pan...iscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NS ...

  3. Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, D M

    1997-04-01

    The African apes are a group of closely related taxa that differ considerably in body size. In spite of the large body size difference, the African apes are similar in many aspects of their morphology; it has been suggested that most of their differences result from selection for these body size differences (Shea, 1988). The influence of body size on locomotion has been well-documented, but what is less clear, is whether these behavioral differences occur throughout ontogeny because few studies have directly addressed the influence of ontogeny (and changing body size) on locomotion. This study documents the ontogeny of mountain gorilla locomotion and compares it with that of chimpanzees in order to consider how changing body size during ontogeny influences locomotion in the two species. Results indicate that gorilla locomotor development is greatly accelerated compared with chimpanzees, and that much of the interspecific variation in age can be explained by body size. When chimpanzees and gorillas are at similar sizes (although widely disparate ages), they perform very similar locomotor activities. However, it is incorrect to view a gorilla as a faster growing and ultimately larger chimpanzee. Throughout ontogeny, gorillas have broader scapulae and relatively shorter phalanges and metacarpals than chimpanzees (Susman, 1979; Shea, 1981; Jungers & Susman, 1984; Inouye, 1992) which are associated differences in mountain gorilla and chimpanzee suspensory behavior; gorillas never show as high an incidence of suspensory behavior as chimpanzees during ontogeny. PMID:9085185

  4. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  5. Laterality in hand use across four tool-use behaviors among the wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Population-level right handedness is a human universal, whose evolutionary origins are the source of considerable empirical and theoretical debate. Although our closest neighbor, the chimpanzee, shows some evidence for population-level handedness in captivity, there is little evidence from the wild. Tool-use measures of hand use in chimpanzees have yielded a great deal of variation in directionality and strength in hand preference, which still remains largely unexplored and unexplained. Data on five measures of hand use across four tool-use skills--ant-dipping, algae-scooping, pestle-pounding and nut-cracking--among the wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, are presented here. This study aims to explore age- and sex-class effects, as well as the influence of task motor, cognitive and haptic demands, on the strength and directionality of hand preference within and across all five measures of hand use. Although there was no age- or sex-class effect on the directionality of hand preference, immature tool use, i.e. ant-dipping, and the sole haptic task, i.e. the extraction by hand of crushed oil-palm heart, were laterally biased and both to the right. Shared motor or grip patterns in tool-use skills failed to reveal any specialization in hand use at the individual level. Finally, Bossou chimpanzees demonstrated a tendency for a population-level right-hand use. PMID:18942096

  6. Genetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis isolated from a chimpanzee with lethal hemorrhagic colitis and pathology of the associated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7% similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific. PMID:25138069

  7. A behavioral view on chimpanzee personality: exploration tendency, persistence, boldness, and tool-orientation measured with group experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Antonides, Alexandra; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Bionda, Thomas; Koski, Sonja E

    2013-09-01

    Human and nonhuman animals show personality: temporal and contextual consistency in behavior patterns that vary among individuals. In contrast to most other species, personality of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, has mainly been studied with non-behavioral methods. We examined boldness, exploration tendency, persistence and tool-orientation in 29 captive chimpanzees using repeated experiments conducted in an ecologically valid social setting. High temporal repeatability and contextual consistency in all these traits indicated they reflected personality. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed two independent syndromes, labeled exploration-persistence and boldness. We found no sex or rank differences in the trait scores, but the scores declined with age. Nonetheless, there was considerable inter-individual variation within age-classes, suggesting that behavior was not merely determined by age but also by dispositional effects. In conclusion, our study complements earlier rating studies and adds new traits to the chimpanzee personality, thereby supporting the existence of multiple personality traits among chimpanzees. We stress the importance of ecologically valid behavioral research to assess multiple personality traits and their association, as it allows inclusion of ape studies in the comparison of personality structures across species studied behaviorally, and furthers our attempts to unravel the causes and consequences of animal personality. PMID:23649750

  8. Bayesian inference of the demographic history of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Daniel; Excoffier, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Due to an almost complete absence of fossil record, the evolutionary history of chimpanzees has only been studied recently on the basis of genetic data. Although the general topology of the chimpanzee phylogeny is well established, uncertainties remain concerning the size of current and past populations, the occurrence of bottlenecks or population expansions, or about divergence times and migrations rates between subspecies. Here, we present a novel attempt at globally inferring the detailed evolution of the Pan genus based on approximate Bayesian computation, an approach preferentially applied to complex models where the likelihood cannot be computed analytically. Based on two microsatellite and DNA sequence data sets and adjusting simulated data for local levels of inbreeding and patterns of missing data, we find support for several new features of chimpanzee evolution as compared with previous studies based on smaller data sets and simpler evolutionary models. We find that the central chimpanzees are certainly the oldest population of all P. troglodytes subspecies and that the other two P. t. subspecies diverged from the central chimpanzees by founder events. We also find an older divergence time (1.6 million years [My]) between common chimpanzee and Bonobos than previous studies (0.9-1.3 My), but this divergence appears to have been very progressive with the maintenance of relatively high levels of gene flow between the ancestral chimpanzee population and the Bonobos. Finally, we could also confirm the existence of strong unidirectional gene flow from the western into the central chimpanzee. These results show that interesting and innovative features of chimpanzee history emerge when considering their whole evolutionary history in a single analysis, rather than relying on simpler models involving several comparisons of pairs of populations. PMID:20118191

  9. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine;

    2014-01-01

    -significant with the exception of one negative correlation between age and the fronto-orbital sulcus. In short, results showed that chimpanzees exhibit few age-related changes in global cortical organization, sulcus folding and sulcus width. These findings support previous studies and the theory that the age-related changes...... and white matter over the adult lifespan. However, these previous studies were limited with a small sample of chimpanzees of the most advanced ages. In the present study, we sought to further test for potential age-related decline in cortical organization in chimpanzees by expanding the sample size of aged...

  10. The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a hominoid ape phylogenically and chromosomally closely related to man. In agreement with the similarity of the chromosome characteristics, no significant difference was observed between man and chimpanzee with respect to the incidence of dicentrics and fragments. It is obvious that the nuclear area, which apparently constitutes the most evident difference between the nuclei of man and chimpanzee lymphocytes, did not play an important role in the yields of aberrations

  11. Genetic Influences on Receptive Joint Attention in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Jennifer Schaeffer; Steven J. Schapiro; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees. Studies have shown that chimpanzees are polymorphic for a deletion in a sequence in the 5′ flanking region of the AVPR1A, DupB, which contains the variable RS3 repetitive element, which has been a...

  12. Sexually Coercive Male Chimpanzees Sire More Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblum, Joseph T.; Wroblewski, Emily E.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict [1]. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice [2, 3], but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior [4-11]. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success [12]. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female’s swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal. PMID:25454788

  13. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard William

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a ‘natural experiment’ to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and n...

  14. Social comparison mediates chimpanzees' responses to loss, not frustration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2014-01-01

    Why do chimpanzees react when their partner gets a better deal than them? Do they note the inequity or do their responses reflect frustration in response to unattainable rewards? To tease apart inequity and contrast, we tested chimpanzees in a series of conditions that created loss through...... individual contrast, through inequity, or by both. Chimpanzees were tested in four social and two individual conditions in which they received food rewards in return for exchanging tokens with an experimenter. In conditions designed to create individual contrast, after completing an exchange, the chimpanzees......), than when they received a more-preferred reward (advantageous inequity). Specifically, the females' refusals were typified by refusals to exchange tokens rather than refusals to accept food rewards. Males showed no difference in their responses to inequity or individual contrast. These results support...

  15. Visual kin recognition and family resemblance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokey, John R; Rendall, Drew; Tangen, Jason M; Parr, Lisa A; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-06-01

    The male-offspring biased visual kin recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) reported by L. A. Parr and F. B. M. de Waal (1999) was replicated with human (Homo sapiens) participants and a principal components analysis (PCA) of pixel maps of the chimpanzee face photos. With the same original materials and methods, both humans and the PCA produced the same asymmetry in kin recognition as found with the chimpanzees. The PCA suggested that the asymmetry was a function of differences in the distribution of global characteristics associated with the framing of the faces in the son and daughter test sets. Eliminating potential framing biases, either by cropping the photos tightly to the faces or by rebalancing the recognition foils, eliminated the asymmetry but not human participants' ability to recognize chimpanzee kin. PMID:15250806

  16. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback). ISBN 9781109025370.

  17. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Physiology of chimpanzees in orbit. Part 1: Scientific Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, A.; Mcnew, J.

    1972-01-01

    Major achievements and accomplishments are reported for the Physiology of Chimpanzees in Orbit Program. Scientific studies relate to behavior and physiology, and engineering studies cover telemetry, behavioral training, systems tests, life support subsystems, and program plan.

  19. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-01-01

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use. PMID:26079292

  20. Evolution and the expression of biases: situational value changes the endowment effect in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Jones, Owen D; Gardner, Molly; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive and behavioral biases, which are widespread among humans, have recently been demonstrated in other primates, suggesting a common origin. Here we examine whether the expression of one shared bias, the endowment effect, varies as a function of context. We tested whether objects lacking inherent value elicited a stronger endowment effect (or preference for keeping the object) in a context in which the objects had immediate instrumental value for obtaining valuable resources (food). Chimpanzee subjects had opportunities to trade tools when food was not present, visible but unobtainable, and obtainable using the tools. We found that the endowment effect for these tools existed only when they were immediately useful, showing that the effect varies as a function of context-specific utility. Such context-specific variation suggests that the variation seen in some human biases may trace predictably to behaviors that evolved to maximize gains in specific circumstances. PMID:25419111

  1. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A;

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanze....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees....

  2. Consolation as possible expression of sympathetic concern among chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Teresa; Castellanos, Miguel A.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees are known to spontaneously provide contact comfort to recent victims of aggression, a behavior known as consolation. Similar behavior in human children is attributed to empathic or sympathetic concern. In line with this empathy hypothesis, chimpanzee consolation has been shown to reduce the recipient's state of arousal, hence to likely alleviate distress. Other predictions from the empathy hypothesis have rarely been tested, however, owing to small sample sizes in previous studies...

  3. High diversity at PRDM9 in chimpanzees and bonobos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Fenna Groeneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PRDM9 locus in mammals has increasingly attracted research attention due to its role in mediating chromosomal recombination and possible involvement in hybrid sterility and hence speciation processes. The aim of this study was to characterize sequence variation at the PRDM9 locus in a sample of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRDM9 contains a highly variable and repetitive zinc finger array. We amplified this domain using long-range PCR and determined the DNA sequences using conventional Sanger sequencing. From 17 chimpanzees representing three subspecies and five bonobos we obtained a total of 12 alleles differing at the nucleotide level. Based on a data set consisting of our data and recently published Pan PRDM9 sequences, we found that at the subspecies level, diversity levels did not differ among chimpanzee subspecies or between chimpanzee subspecies and bonobos. In contrast, the sample of chimpanzees harbors significantly more diversity at PRDM9 than samples of humans. Pan PRDM9 shows signs of rapid evolution including no alleles or ZnFs in common with humans as well as signals of positive selection in the residues responsible for DNA binding. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high number of alleles specific to the genus Pan, signs of positive selection in the DNA binding residues, and reported lack of conservation of recombination hotspots between chimpanzees and humans suggest that PRDM9 could be active in hotspot recruitment in the genus Pan. Chimpanzees and bonobos are considered separate species and do not have overlapping ranges in the wild, making the presence of shared alleles at the amino acid level between the chimpanzee and bonobo species interesting in view of the hypothesis that PRDM9 plays a universal role in interspecific hybrid sterility.

  4. Chimpanzee chromosome 12 is homologous to human chromosome 2q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes correspond to the human chromosomes 2p and 2g. This conclusion is based primarily on chromosome banding techniques, and the somatic cell hybridization technique has also been used. (HLW)

  5. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has mad...

  6. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Roffman; Eviatar Nevo

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving cap...

  7. Facial expression categorization by chimpanzees using standardized stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, L.; Waller, Bridget; Heintz, M

    2008-01-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions are critical social cognition skills in primates, yet very few studies have examined how primates discriminate these social signals and which features are the most salient. Four experiments examined chimpanzee facial expression processing using a set of standardized, prototypical stimuli created using the new ChimpFACS coding system. First, chimpanzees were found to accurately discriminate between these expressions using a c...

  8. Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdowsian, Hope R.; Durham, Debra L.; Kimwele, Charles; Kranendonk, Godelieve; Otali, Emily; Akugizibwe, Timothy; Mulcahy, J. B.; Ajarova, Lilly; Johnson, Cassie Meré

    2011-01-01

    Background In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety diso...

  9. Asymmetries in Spontaneous Head Orientation in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral laterality in head orientation while sleeping in either a supine or prone posture was examined in 43 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for the first 3 months of life. An overall significant right-side lateral bias was found for head orientation in the supine posture. A trend toward greater right-side bias in females compared with males was observed but failed to reach significance. These data suggest that asymmetries in head orientation are present early in life in chimpanzees, and the...

  10. Differing views: Can chimpanzees do Level 2 perspective-taking?

    OpenAIRE

    Karg, K.; Schmelz, M; Call, J.; Tomasello, M

    2016-01-01

    Although chimpanzees understand what others may see, it is unclear whether they understand how others see things (Level 2 perspective-taking). We investigated whether chimpanzees can predict the behavior of a conspecific which is holding a mistaken perspective that differs from their own. The subject competed with a conspecific over two food sticks. While the subject could see that both were the same size, to the competitor one appeared bigger than the other. In a previously established game,...

  11. Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee tool use

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Crickette M; MORGAN, DAVID B.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of technology has been suggested to coincide with scarcity of staple resources that led to innovations in the form of tool-assisted strategies to diversify or augment typical diets. We examined seasonal patterns of several types of tool use exhibited by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population residing in central Africa, to determine whether their technical skills provided access to fallback resources when preferred food items were scarce. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle ...

  12. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    OpenAIRE

    Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Yeakel, Justin D; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-sp...

  13. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha;

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to...... reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  14. Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1 and human faces (Experiment 2. The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces.

  15. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  16. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jill D; Bertolani, Paco

    2007-03-01

    Although tool use is known to occur in species ranging from naked mole rats [1] to owls [2], chimpanzees are the most accomplished tool users [3-5]. The modification and use of tools during hunting, however, is still considered to be a uniquely human trait among primates. Here, we report the first account of habitual tool use during vertebrate hunting by nonhumans. At the Fongoli site in Senegal, we observed ten different chimpanzees use tools to hunt prosimian prey in 22 bouts. This includes immature chimpanzees and females, members of age-sex classes not normally characterized by extensive hunting behavior. Chimpanzees made 26 different tools, and we were able to recover and analyze 12 of these. Tool construction entailed up to five steps, including trimming the tool tip to a point. Tools were used in the manner of a spear, rather than a probe or rousing tool. This new information on chimpanzee tool use has important implications for the evolution of tool use and construction for hunting in the earliest hominids, especially given our observations that females and immature chimpanzees exhibited this behavior more frequently than adult males. PMID:17320393

  17. Tolerance allows bonobos to outperform chimpanzees on a cooperative task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Brian; Melis, Alicia P; Woods, Vanessa; Hastings, Sara; Wrangham, Richard

    2007-04-01

    To understand constraints on the evolution of cooperation, we compared the ability of bonobos and chimpanzees to cooperatively solve a food-retrieval problem. We addressed two hypotheses. The "emotional-reactivity hypothesis" predicts that bonobos will cooperate more successfully because tolerance levels are higher in bonobos. This prediction is inspired by studies of domesticated animals; such studies suggest that selection on emotional reactivity can influence the ability to solve social problems [1, 2]. In contrast, the "hunting hypothesis" predicts that chimpanzees will cooperate more successfully because only chimpanzees have been reported to cooperatively hunt in the wild [3-5]. We indexed emotional reactivity by measuring social tolerance while the animals were cofeeding and found that bonobos were more tolerant of cofeeding than chimpanzees. In addition, during cofeeding tests only bonobos exhibited socio-sexual behavior, and they played more. When presented with a task of retrieving food that was difficult to monopolize, bonobos and chimpanzees were equally cooperative. However, when the food reward was highly monopolizable, bonobos were more successful than chimpanzees at cooperating to retrieve it. These results support the emotional-reactivity hypothesis. Selection on temperament may in part explain the variance in cooperative ability across species, including hominoids. PMID:17346970

  18. Differing views: Can chimpanzees do Level 2 perspective-taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Although chimpanzees understand what others may see, it is unclear whether they understand how others see things (Level 2 perspective-taking). We investigated whether chimpanzees can predict the behavior of a conspecific which is holding a mistaken perspective that differs from their own. The subject competed with a conspecific over two food sticks. While the subject could see that both were the same size, to the competitor one appeared bigger than the other. In a previously established game, the competitor chose one stick in private first and the subject chose thereafter, without knowing which of the sticks was gone. Chimpanzees and 6-year-old children chose the 'riskier' stick (that looked bigger to the competitor) significantly less in the game than in a nonsocial control. Children chose randomly in the control, thus showing Level 2 perspective-taking skills; in contrast, chimpanzees had a preference for the 'riskier' stick here, rendering it possible that they attributed their own preference to the competitor to predict her choice. We thus run a follow-up in which chimpanzees did not have a preference in the control. Now, they also chose randomly in the game. We conclude that chimpanzees solved the task by attributing their own preference to the other, while children truly understood the other's mistaken perspective. PMID:26852383

  19. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:26475872

  20. Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve;

    2010-01-01

    stance, without the use of one hand for support, will elicit a right hand preference. Results supported the first, but not the second hypothesis: bipedalism induced the subjects to become more lateralized, but not in any particular direction. Instead, it appears that subtle pre-existing lateral biases......The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced...... tool use in a supported bipedal posture, an unsupported bipedal posture, and a seated posture. Neither bipedal tool use nor these supported conditions have been previously evaluated in apes. The hypotheses tested were 1) bipedal posture will increase the strength of hand preference, and 2) a bipedal...

  1. Independent intrachromosomal recombination events underlie the pericentric inversions of chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes homologous to human chromosome 16

    OpenAIRE

    Goidts, Violaine; Szamalek, Justyna M.; de Jong, Pieter J; Cooper, David N.; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Hameister, Horst; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of chromosomal rearrangements that have occurred during the evolution of the hominoids can reveal much about the mutational mechanisms underlying primate chromosome evolution. We characterized the breakpoints of the pericentric inversion of chimpanzee chromosome 18 (PTR XVI), which is homologous to human chromosome 16 (HSA 16). A conserved 23-kb inverted repeat composed of satellites, LINE and Alu elements was identified near the breakpoints and could have mediated the inversion by b...

  2. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Variation as a Proximate Base for Inter- and Intraspecific Behavioral Differences in Bonobos and Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and pros...

  3. Chimpanzee-red colobus encounter rates show a red colobus population decline associated with predation by chimpanzees at Ngogo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P; Amsler, Sylvia J

    2013-09-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) hunt various primates, but concentrate on red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus spp.) wherever the two species are sympatric. The extraordinarily large Ngogo chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda, preys heavily on the local population of red colobus (P. tephrosceles). Census data showed a steep decline in this population in the center of the chimpanzees' home range between 1975 and 2007 [Lwanga et al., 2011; Teelen, 2007b]. Given no obvious change in food availability, predation by chimpanzees was the most likely cause [ibid.; Teelen, 2008]. However, census data from other parts of the home range raised the possibility that the decline was restricted to this central area [Teelen, 2007a] We present data from 1998 to 2012 on the rate of encounters between chimpanzees and red colobus that provide a chimpanzee-centered estimate of red colobus density, thus of predation opportunities, throughout the home range. These corroborate census data by showing a long-term decline in encounters near the center. They also show that encounters become relatively more common at increasing distances from the center, but encounter rates have decreased even in peripheral areas and, by implication, the red colobus population has declined throughout the study area. These data corroborate Teelen's [2008] conclusion that chimpanzee predation on red colobus during the 1990s and early 2000s was unsustainable. Hunting rates and prey offtake rates have also declined markedly; whether this will allow the red colobus population to recover is unknown. In contrast, rates at which chimpanzees encountered redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) and grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) did not decrease. Neither did they increase, however, contrary to long-term census data from the center of the study area [Lwanga et al., 2011]. PMID:23775942

  4. Relationship between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density and large, fleshy-fruit tree density: conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcomb, S R; Chapman, C A; Wrangham, R W

    2000-07-01

    Conservation efforts to protect chimpanzees in their natural habitat are of the highest priority. Unfortunately, chimpanzee density is notoriously difficult to determine, making it difficult to assess potential chimpanzee conservation areas. The objective of this study was to determine whether chimpanzee density could be predicted from the density of trees that produce large, fleshy fruits. Using chimpanzee nest counts from six sites within Kibale National Park, Uganda, collected during a year-long study, a predictive trend was found between chimpanzee nest density and large, fleshy-fruit tree density. This relationship may offer a quick, reasonably reliable method of estimating potential chimpanzee densities in previously unsurveyed habitats and may be used to evaluate the suitability of possible re-introduction sites. Thus, in conjunction with other survey techniques, such as forest reconnaissance, it may provide an effective and efficient means of determining appropriate chimpanzee habitat in which to allocate conservation efforts. PMID:10902668

  5. Franco-Japanese and other collaborative contributions to understanding chimpanzee culture at Bossou and the Nimba Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese approach to science has permitted theoretical leaps in our understanding of culture in non-human animals and challenged human uniqueness, as it is not embedded in the Western traditional dualisms of human/animal and nature/culture. This paper highlights the value of an interdisciplinary approach and combining methodological approaches in exploring putative cultural variation among chimpanzees. I focus particularly on driver ants (Dorylus sp.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) consumption among the Bossou and Nimba chimpanzees, in south-eastern Guinea at the border with Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, and hand use across different tool use tasks commonly witnessed at Bossou, i.e. ant-dipping, nut-cracking, pestle-pounding, and algae-scooping. Observed variation in resource use was addressed across differing scales exploring both within- and between-community differences. Our findings have highlighted a tight interplay between ecology, social dynamics and culture, and between social and individual learning and maternal contribution to tool-use acquisition. Exploration of hand use by chimpanzees revealed no evidence for individual-level hand or community-level task specialisation. However, more complex types of tool use such as nut-cracking showed distinct lateralization, while the equivalent of a haptic manual action revealed a strong right hand bias. The data also suggest an overall population tendency for a right hand preference. As well as describing these sites' key contributions to our understanding of chimpanzees and to challenging our perceptions of human uniqueness, this paper also highlights the critical condition and high levels of threats facing this emblematic chimpanzee population, and several questions that remain to be addressed. In the spirit of the Japanese approach to science, I recommend that an interdisciplinary and collaborative research approach can best help us to challenge perceptions of human uniqueness and to further our

  6. Discovery of Human Inversion Polymorphisms by Comparative Analysis of Human and Chimpanzee DNA Sequence Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Feuk; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Terence Tang; Carson, Andrew R.; Martin Li; Girish Rao; Razi Khaja; Stephen W Scherer

    2005-01-01

    With a draft genome-sequence assembly for the chimpanzee available, it is now possible to perform genome-wide analyses to identify, at a submicroscopic level, structural rearrangements that have occurred between chimpanzees and humans. The goal of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions that are inverted between the chimpanzee and human genomes. Using the net alignments for the builds of the human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we identified a total of 1,576 putative regions of i...

  7. Short KIR Haplotypes in Pygmy Chimpanzee (Bonobo) Resemble the Conserved Framework of Diverse Human KIR Haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalingam, Raja; Hong, Mei; Adams, Erin J.; Shum, Benny P.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Parham, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Some pygmy chimpanzees (also called Bonobos) give much simpler patterns of hybridization on Southern blotting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) cDNA probes than do either humans or common chimpanzees. Characterization of KIRs from pygmy chimpanzees having simple and complex banding patterns identified nine different KIRs, representing seven genes. Five of these genes have orthologs in the common chimpanzee, and three of them (KIRCI, KIR2DL4, and KIR2DL5) also have human orth...

  8. Immunoblot analyses of chimpanzee sera after infection and after immunization and challenge with Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzoso, G; Hu, P. C.; Meloni, G A; Barile, M F

    1994-01-01

    Consecutive weekly or biweekly serum specimens obtained during a 3- or 4-month study from 16 chimpanzees were examined by immunoblot analyses to identify the immunogenic components of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Six experimentally infected chimpanzees showed significant signs of overt disease, including cough, pharyngitis, rhinitis, fever, and loss of appetite. The sera of these infected chimpanzees recognized from 17 to 20 protein bands. Two control chimpanzees that were not inoculated were inclu...

  9. Inference of Purifying and Positive Selection in Three Subspecies of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from Exome Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina; Jin, Xin; Li, Yingrui; Skov, Laurits; Glemin, Sylvain; Munch, Kasper; Jiang, Tao; Qian, Yu; Hobolth, Asger; Wang, Jun; Mailund, Thomas; Siegismund, Hans R.; Schierup, Mikkel H.

    2015-01-01

    We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and indels were called and genotyped for greater than 50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35× per individual. Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are the most polymorphic (nucleotide diversity, θw = 0.0023 per site) followed by Eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0016) and Western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees ...

  10. How chimpanzees look at pictures: a comparative eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the eye movements of chimpanzees, despite the potential contribution of such knowledge to comparative cognition studies. Here, we present the first examination of eye tracking in chimpanzees. We recorded the eye movements of chimpanzees as they viewed naturalistic pictures containing a full-body image of a chimpanzee, a human or another mammal; results were compared with those from humans. We found a striking similarity in viewing patterns between the two sp...

  11. Chimpanzee nesting patterns in savanna habitat: environmental influences and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Moore, Jim; Stanford, Craig B

    2013-10-01

    Data on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nesting patterns were collected in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. Ugalla is one of the driest, most open, and seasonal habitats inhabited by chimpanzees. We investigated the physical characteristics of nests and trees used for nesting to understand environmental influences on nest building and identify the characteristics preferred by the chimpanzees and the basis for such preferences. We analyzed 2,167 nests and 1,523 nesting trees. Most nests were built in the middle section of the tree crown and close to the tree trunk, and used a single tree in construction. Some physical characteristics of nests (e.g., distance from tree trunk) seemed to be the result of constraints imposed by tree structure. Issa chimpanzees preferred tall trees with high first branches for nesting supporting the hypothesis that elevated height of a sleeping place is a predator defense strategy. The height from the ground to the first branch showed less variation than either tree height or crown height and correlated weakly with tree height, suggesting that height from the ground to the first branch may be a more important factor than tree height alone in selecting a tree in which to nest. As in other study sites, the chimpanzees used tree species in proportions that did not correspond to their abundance suggesting tree species preference. We report for the first time that chimpanzees directionally oriented their nests and propose that this may be to maximize sunlight. We compare our data to those of other chimpanzee study sites. PMID:23653164

  12. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit

  13. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foragi...

  14. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  15. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments – particularly within the US – therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of

  16. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild--as many older research chimpanzees once were--and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments--particularly within the US--therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of chimpanzees, and other research fields

  17. Comprehension of functional support by enculturated chimpanzees Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. YOCOM, Sarah T. BOYSEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of causal understanding of tool relationships in captive chimpanzees have yielded disparate findings, particularly those reported by Povinelli & colleagues (2000 for tool tasks by laboratory chimpanzees. The present set of experiments tested nine enculturated chimpanzees on three versions of a support task, as described by Povinelli (2000, during which food rewards were presented in different experimental configurations. In Experiment 1, stimulus pairs included a choice between a cloth with a reward on the upper right corner or with a second reward off the cloth, adjacent to a corner, with the second pair comprised of a cloth with food on the upper right corner, and a second cloth with the reward on the substrate, partially covered. All subjects were successful with both test conditions in Experiment 1. In a second study, the experimental choices included one of two possible correct options, paired with one of three incorrect options, with the three incorrect choices all involving varying degrees of perceptual containment. All nine chimpanzees scored significantly above chance across all six conditions. In Experiment 3, four unique conditions were presented, combining one of two possible correct choices with one of two incorrect choices. Six of the subjects scored significantly above chance across the four conditions, and group performance on individual conditions was also significant. Superior performance was demonstrated by female subjects in Experiment 3, similar to sex differences in tool use previously reported for wild chimpanzees and some tool tasks in captive chimpanzees. The present results for Experiments 2 & 3 were significantly differed from those reported by Povinelli et al. (2000 for laboratory-born, peer-reared chimpanzees. One contribution towards the dramatic differences between the two study populations may be the significant rearing and housing differences of the chimpanzee groups. One explanation is that under

  18. The chimpanzees of Oluwa Forest Reserve, southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Ogunjemite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of accurate information on the population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes is a cause for concern on their conservation and management in Southwest Nigeria. We conducted surveys on the chimpanzees of Oluwa Forest Reserve, Ondo State between the month of September 2011 and February 2012. We used the combination of recce survey and GIS mapping to determine Chimpanzees’ locations in the reserve. Chimpanzee distribution was confined to the central portion of the OA2 axis of the reserve. This portion is approximately 39.22km2 representing 5.78% of the total size of the original area of the reserve. Four sightings of Chimpanzee groups were achieved with an average of 9.50 ± 1.55 individuals observed. We observed nests built on rock platforms. The numbers of tree nests observed at sleeping sites were usually fewer than the number of animals seen, indicating that not all of them build nest on trees at their nesting sites. These observations were new in nesting behavior of chimpanzees across Nigeria and it is postulated to be on account of insecurity and deprivation of essential material necessary for nesting in their night sleeping sites. We explained this on the conceptual frame work of psycho-infrastructuralism model.

  19. Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; Brosnan, Sarah F; Vonk, Jennifer; Henrich, Joseph; Povinelli, Daniel J; Richardson, Amanda S; Lambeth, Susan P; Mascaro, Jenny; Schapiro, Steven J

    2005-10-27

    Humans are an unusually prosocial species-we vote, give blood, recycle, give tithes and punish violators of social norms. Experimental evidence indicates that people willingly incur costs to help strangers in anonymous one-shot interactions, and that altruistic behaviour is motivated, at least in part, by empathy and concern for the welfare of others (hereafter referred to as other-regarding preferences). In contrast, cooperative behaviour in non-human primates is mainly limited to kin and reciprocating partners, and is virtually never extended to unfamiliar individuals. Here we present experimental tests of the existence of other-regarding preferences in non-human primates, and show that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) do not take advantage of opportunities to deliver benefits to familiar individuals at no material cost to themselves, suggesting that chimpanzee behaviour is not motivated by other-regarding preferences. Chimpanzees are among the primates most likely to demonstrate prosocial behaviours. They participate in a variety of collective activities, including territorial patrols, coalitionary aggression, cooperative hunting, food sharing and joint mate guarding. Consolation of victims of aggression and anecdotal accounts of solicitous treatment of injured individuals suggest that chimpanzees may feel empathy. Chimpanzees sometimes reject exchanges in which they receive less valuable rewards than others, which may be one element of a 'sense of fairness', but there is no evidence that they are averse to interactions in which they benefit more than others. PMID:16251965

  20. Untrained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii fail to imitate novel actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning. METHODS: Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context has been conducted--with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study. Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy--and he did so across several contexts. CONCLUSION: Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.

  1. Permanent tooth calcification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): patterns and polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, K L; Conroy, G C

    1996-01-01

    Tooth calcification is an important developmental marker for use in constructing models for early hominid life history, particularly for its application to the fossil record. As chimpanzees are commonly utilized in interspecific comparisons in such research, this study aims to improve available baseline data for tooth calcification patterns in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and to quantify basic patterns and polymorphisms. We present an analysis of developmental patterns for the left mandibular dentition (I1-M3) based on intraoral radiographs obtained from a cross-sectional sample of chimpanzees (58 males, 60 females) housed at LEMSIP (NYU Medical Center) and Yerkes (Emory University). No significant differences with previous descriptions of the basic sequences of tooth calcification in chimpanzees were found, but variation in such patterns was documented for the first time. In the overall sequence, polymorphisms between the canine and the group (M2 P4 P3) reached significant levels. This is due to the relative delay in canine crown formation compared to other teeth. Differences in the basic sequence between males and females were recorded, but are due to minor shifts in the percentages of occurrence for polymorphic sequences which are common to both genders. Perhaps our most important findings are that a) different polymorphic sequences occur in tooth calcification and tooth emergence in chimpanzees, and b) developmental relationships among teeth fluctuate throughout tooth calcification. Thus, characterizations of dental developmental patterns based on particular stages of development cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other stages without supporting data. PMID:8928717

  2. Can chimpanzee biology highlight human origin and evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-07-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily "Homininae". This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human-chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine's subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  3. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  4. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  5. Spontaneous Reproductive Tract Lesions in Aged Captive Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, B K; Beck, A P; Owston, M A; Kumar, S; Baze, W B; Magden, E R; Dick, E J; Lammey, M; Abee, C R

    2016-03-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have served as an important model for studies of reproductive diseases and aging-related disorders in humans. However, limited information is available about spontaneously occurring reproductive tract lesions in aging chimpanzees. In this article, the authors present histopathologic descriptions of lesions identified in the reproductive tract, including the mammary gland, of 33 female and 34 male aged chimpanzees from 3 captive populations. The most common findings in female chimpanzees were ovarian atrophy, uterine leiomyoma, adenomyosis, and endometrial atrophy. The most common findings in male chimpanzees were seminiferous tubule degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrates in the prostate gland. Other less common lesions included an ovarian granulosa cell tumor, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, an endometrial polyp, uterine artery hypertrophy and mineralization, atrophic vaginitis, mammary gland inflammation, prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, dilated seminal vesicles, a sperm granuloma, and lymphocytic infiltrates in the epididymis. The findings in this study closely mimic changes described in the reproductive tract of aged humans, with the exception of a lack of malignant changes observed in the mammary gland and prostate gland. PMID:26823448

  6. Atypical early histories predict lower extraversion in captive chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Weiss, Alexander; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    Although much research has been conducted to understand personality development in humans, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of these processes, particularly in relation to social influences. As such, investigations into personality development in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, may provide useful insight. We evaluated the impact of early social exposure (to both humans and conspecifics) on personality development by studying 88 chimpanzees, including former pets and entertainers, living in accredited zoos and sanctuaries. During infancy, subjects varied in the amount of time spent with conspecifics compared with humans. Caregivers familiar with the chimpanzees rated them using a modified version of the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and the ratings were found to have strong inter-rater reliability. We used the published structure of the HPQ to evaluate our results in relation to differences in early life experience. Chimpanzees who as infants spent less time with conspecifics were rated as lower in Extraversion later in life in comparison with chimpanzees who as infants spent more time with conspecifics. These results suggest that a broad range of social influences should be considered when evaluating the impact of early social environment on later personality expression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 519-527, 2016. PMID:26814701

  7. Comparing maternal styles in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2004-12-01

    Studies on Cercopithecine primate maternal styles, using factor analysis on a set of maternal behaviors, commonly render two factors that describe separate dimensions of maternal behavior: protectiveness and rejection. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate whether this method for determining maternal styles in Cercopithecine species can be applied to bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 2) determine whether they follow the same pattern, and 3) assess whether species differences in maternal style are apparent. We performed a factor analysis on nine maternal behaviors using data on eight mother-infant pairs of each species. This resulted in three factors: protectiveness, distance, and refusal. Protectiveness is positively correlated with time spent in ventral contact, making contact, approaching, and restraining. Distance is positively related with breaking contact and leaving. Refusal is positively correlated with rejecting and nipple-rejecting. The pattern of protectiveness corresponds with the pattern found in Cercopithecine species, suggesting a high consistency of this dimension across species and higher taxa. The retention of the other two factors indicates that in the Pan species, breaking contact and leaving represent another dimension, apart from rejecting and nipple-rejecting, which usually fall under one dimension in Cercopithecine species. An interspecific comparison of the factor scores for each dimension of maternal behavior reveals that, on average, bonobos and chimpanzees score equally on protectiveness. Scores on distance increase positively with infant age in chimpanzees, and negatively in bonobos, and on average bonobos have higher scores on refusal. These interspecies differences in maternal style are discussed in the light of interspecies differences in infant development, infant vulnerability to aggression, interbirth intervals, and female sociality. PMID:15580581

  8. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication. PMID:26448391

  9. Chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-04-23

    Many animal species cooperate, but the underlying proximate mechanisms are often unclear. We presented chimpanzees with a mutualistic collaborative food-retrieval task requiring complementary roles, and tested subjects' ability to help their partner perform her role. For each role, subjects required a different tool, and the tools were not interchangeable. We gave one individual in each dyad both tools, and measured subjects' willingness to transfer a tool to their partner as well as which tool (correct versus incorrect) they transferred. Most subjects helped their partner and transferred the tool the partner needed. Thus, chimpanzees not only coordinate different roles, but they also know which particular action the partner needs to perform. These results add to previous findings suggesting that many of chimpanzees' limitations in collaboration are, perhaps, more motivational than cognitive. PMID:23426915

  10. Handedness is more than laterality: lessons from chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Linda F; McGrew, William C

    2013-06-01

    Is human handedness unique? That is, do our nearest living relations, chimpanzee and bonobo (Pan spp.) show species-wide handedness, as is seen in living Homo sapiens? The answer may depend on definition: Handedness (congruence across subjects and across tasks) should be distinguished from hand preference (within subject and task), manual specialization (within subject, across tasks), and task specialization (across subjects, within task). Comparison is required at both population and species level. Several methodological issues (e.g., ecological validity) are crucial, as are major confounding variables (e.g., bimanuality). The behavioral manual laterality of chimpanzees is well-studied in a variety of contexts. Especially important is tool use, which seems to enhance extent of lateralization, but this varies both within and across populations. There is much evidence for task specialization in chimpanzees, but no conclusive evidence of handedness in the strictest sense. Thus, human handedness seems to be unique among living hominoids. PMID:23601007

  11. Perseverance and food sharing among closely affiliated female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Suchak, Malini; Crick, Jen; de Waal, Frans B M

    2013-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been frequently observed to share food with one another, with numerous hypotheses proposed to explain why. These often focus on reciprocity exchanges for social benefits (e.g., food for grooming, food for sex, affiliation, kinship, and dominance rank) as well as sharing based on begging and deterring harassment. Although previous studies have shown that each of these hypotheses has a viable basis, they have only examined situations in which males have preferential access to food whereby females are required to obtain the food from males. For example, studies on male chimpanzee food sharing take advantage of successful crop-raids and/or acquisitions of meat from hunting, situations that only leave females access to food controlled by male food possessors. This begs the question how and with whom might a female chimpanzee in sole possession of a high-quality food item choose to share? In two large captive groups of chimpanzees, we examined each of the hypotheses with female food possessors of a high-quality food item and compared these data to a previous study examining food transfers from male chimpanzees. Our results show that alpha females shared significantly more with closely affiliated females displaying perseverance, while kinship and dominance rank had no effect. This positive interaction between long-term affiliation and perseverance shows that individuals with whom the female possessor was significantly affiliated received more food while persevering more than those with neutral or avoidant relationships towards her. Furthermore, females with avoidant relationships persevered far less than others, suggesting that this strategy is not equally available to all individuals. In comparison to the mixed-sex trials, females chose to co-feed with other females more than was observed when the alpha male was sharing food. This research indicates that male and female chimpanzees (as possessors of a desired food item) share food in

  12. Leaf-folding behavior for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, R

    2001-11-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was observed intensively. The natural hollow of a tree, used by chimpanzees, was filled up with fresh water every morning. Seventy episodes of leaf-using behavior by 14 chimpanzees were directly observed and video-recorded. The chimpanzees at Bossou most frequently (70.3%) used a particular kind of leaf, Hybophrynium braunianum as tool material. The chimpanzees folded one or more leaves in the mouth. This technique, "leaf folding", was observed more frequently (57.9 %) than "leaf sponge" or "leaf spoon". Chimpanzees began to perform this behavior at about 2.5 years old. Infant chimpanzees showed more frequent observations of others (especially their mothers) using leaves before trying to drink water with leaves. Both observation and trial and error might be necessary for the acquisition of this tool-use behavior. PMID:24777523

  13. First report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Charlotte; Eguma, Robert; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. Here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda. In both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. In one case the duiker was still alive when retrieved and subsequently fully consumed by the chimpanzees. In the other, the chimpanzees encountered the duiker while alive, but retrieved it soon after its death; here only a small portion was consumed. These observations are discussed in comparison to observations of chimpanzee hunting, scavenging, and their exploitation of an environment increasingly modified by human activity. PMID:24682899

  14. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong......We study genome-wide nucleotide diversity in three subspecies of extant chimpanzees using exome capture. After strict filtering, SNVs and indels were called and genotyped for >50% of exons at a mean coverage of 35x per individual. Central chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) are the most polymorphic...... (nucleotide diversity, θw= 0.0023 per site) followed by Eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0016) and Western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees (θw = 0.0008). A demographic scenario of divergence without gene flow fits the patterns of autosomal synonymous nucleotide diversity well except for a signal...

  15. Use of tool sets by chimpanzees for multiple purposes in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfried, Ebang Ella Ghislain; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    We report our recent findings on the use of tool sets by chimpanzees in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Direct observations and evidences left by chimpanzees showed that chimpanzees used sticks as pounders, enlargers, and collectors to extract honey from beehives of stingless bees (Meliponula sp.), which may correspond to those previously found in the same site for fishing termites and to those found in Loango National Park, Gabon. However, we observed chimpanzees using a similar set of tools for hunting a medium-sized mammal (possibly mongoose) that hid inside a log. This is the first report of hunting with tools by a chimpanzee population in Central Africa. Chimpanzees may recognize the multiple functions and applicability of tools (extracting honey and driving prey), although it is still a preliminary speculation. Our findings may provide us a new insight on the chimpanzee's flexibility of tool use and cognitive abilities of complex food gathering. PMID:24916372

  16. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Reynolds; Andrew W Lloyd; English, Christopher J.; Peter Lyons; Howard Dodd; Catherine Hobaiter; Nicholas Newton-Fisher; Caroline Mullins; Noemie Lamon; Anne Marijke Schel; Brittany Fallon

    2015-01-01

    Date of Acceptance: 06/07/2015 Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay ea...

  17. Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Alison W; Weghorst, Jennifer A

    2005-05-01

    Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens. However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up, eat, and pluck. Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed comparatively with reference to

  18. The significance of fibrous foods for Kibale Forest chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, R W; Conklin, N L; Chapman, C A; Hunt, K D

    1991-11-29

    Four categories of plant food dominated the diet of chimpanzees in Kibale Forest, Uganda: non-fig tree fruits, fig tree fruits, herbaceous piths and terrestrial leaves. Fruit abundance varied unpredictably, more among non-figs than figs. Pith intake was correlated negatively with fruit abundance and positively with rainfall, whereas leaf intake was not influenced by fruit abundance. Piths typically have low sugar and protein levels. Compared with fruits and leaves they are consistently high in hemicellulose and cellulose, which are insoluble fibres partly digestible by chimpanzees. Herbaceous piths appear to be a vital resource for African forest apes, offering an alternative energy supply when fruits are scarce. PMID:1685575

  19. Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Qian, Yu; Bataillon, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much as...... 30% of all amino acid replacements being adaptive. Adaptive evolution is barely detectable on the autosomes except for a few striking cases of recent selective sweeps associated with immunity gene clusters. We also find much stronger purifying selection than observed in humans, and in contrast to...

  20. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location

    OpenAIRE

    Janmaat, Karline R. L.; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    How do large-brained primates maintain high rates of energy intake when times are lean? By analyzing early-morning departure times and sleeping nest positioning of female chimpanzees as a function of the ephemerality of next day’s breakfast fruit and its location, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan when and where they will have breakfast after weighing multiple factors, such as the time of day, their egocentric distance to, and the type of food to be eaten. To our knowledge...

  1. Comparative metabolism of 2-nitropropane in rats and chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain more information about the metabolic fate of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in rats and to study the relevance of the findings for man, the authors investigated the metabolism of 2-NP in rats and chimpanzees. The results of this study show that 2-NP is eliminated largely by exhalation, while excretion in urine and feces are only minor pathways. Carbon dioxide, acetone and isopropanol are the major metabolites. Preliminary chromatographic results suggest different conjugates formed by rats and chimpanzees. 2-NP has little potential for accumulation; the lipid tissues, which can absorb it to considerable concentrations, are rapidly depleted

  2. Comparative metabolism of 2-nitropropane in rats and chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.F.; Coulston, F.; Korte, F.

    1983-01-01

    To obtain more information about the metabolic fate of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in rats and to study the relevance of the findings for man, the authors investigated the metabolism of 2-NP in rats and chimpanzees. The results of this study show that 2-NP is eliminated largely by exhalation, while excretion in urine and feces are only minor pathways. Carbon dioxide, acetone and isopropanol are the major metabolites. Preliminary chromatographic results suggest different conjugates formed by rats and chimpanzees. 2-NP has little potential for accumulation; the lipid tissues, which can absorb it to considerable concentrations, are rapidly depleted.

  3. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  4. Departure from neutrality at the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene in humans, but not in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, C A; Sraml, M; Easteal, S

    1998-01-01

    To test whether patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are consistent with a neutral model of molecular evolution, nucleotide sequences were determined for the 1041 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene in 20 geographically diverse humans and 20 common chimpanzees. Contingency tests of neutrality were performed using four mutational categories for the ND2 molecule: synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the transmembrane regions, and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the surface regions. The following three topological mutational categories were also used: intraspecific tips, intraspecific interiors, and interspecific fixed differences. The analyses reveal a significantly greater number of nonsynonymous polymorphisms within human transmembrane regions than expected based on interspecific comparisons, and they are inconsistent with a neutral equilibrium model. This pattern of excess nonsynonymous polymorphism is not seen within chimpanzees. Statistical tests of neutrality, such as TAJIMA's D test, and the D and F tests proposed by FU and LI, indicate an excess of low frequency polymorphisms in the human data, but not in the chimpanzee data. This is consistent with recent directional selection, a population bottleneck or background selection of slightly deleterious mutations in human mtDNA samples. The analyses further support the idea that mitochondrial genome evolution is governed by selective forces that have the potential to affect its use as a "neutral" marker in evolutionary and population genetic studies. PMID:9475751

  5. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  7. AAV Natural Infection Induces Broad Cross-Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Multiple AAV Serotypes in Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of primates have revealed that natural neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to adeno-associated viruses (AAV) span multiple serotypes. This differs from the phenotype of the NAb response to an AAV vector delivered to seronegative nonhuman primates that is typically restricted to the administered AAV serotype. To better understand the mechanism by which natural AAV infections result in broad NAb responses, we conducted a longitudinal study spanning 10 years in which we evaluated serum-circulating AAV NAb levels in captive-housed chimpanzees. In a cohort of 25 chimpanzees we identified 3 distinct groups of animals: those that never seroconverted to AAV (naïve), those that were persistently seropositive (chronic), and those that seroconverted during the 10-year period (acute). For the chronic group we found a broad seroresponse characterized by NAbs reacting to multiple AAV serotypes. A similar cross-neutralization pattern of NAbs was observed in the acute group. These data support our hypothesis that a single natural infection with AAV induces a broadly cross-reactive NAb response to multiple AAV serotypes. PMID:27314914

  8. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consum

  9. Gestures and social-emotional communicative development in chimpanzee infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Dunbar, Sophie; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Veira, Yvette; Hayes, Kathryn G; McDonald, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Communicative skills of chimpanzees are of significant interest across many domains, such as developmental psychology (how does communication emerge in prelinguistic beings?), evolution (e.g., did human language evolve from primate gestures?), and in comparative psychology (how does the nonverbal communication of chimpanzees and humans compare?). Here we ask about how gestures develop in chimpanzee infants (n = 16) that were raised in an interactive program designed to study skill development. Data on socio-communicative development were collected following 4 hr of daily interaction with each infant, longitudinally from birth through the first year of life. A consistent and significant developmental pattern was found across the contexts of tickle play, grooming, and chase play: Infant chimpanzees first engaged in interactions initiated by others, then they initiated interactions, and finally, they requested others to join them in the interaction. Gestures were documented for initiating and requesting tickle play, for initiating and requesting grooming, and for initiating and requesting chase play. Gestural requests emerged significantly later than gestural initiations, but the age at which gestures emerged was significantly different across contexts. Those gestures related to hierarchical rank relations, that is, gestures used by subordinates in interaction with more dominant individuals, such as wrist presenting and rump presenting, did not emerge in the same manner as the other gestures. This study offers a new view on the development of gestures, specifically that many develop through interaction and communicate socio-emotional desires, but that not all gestures emerge in the same manner. PMID:24038115

  10. Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Michiko; Hockings, Kimberley J; Soumah, Aly Gaspard; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Despite intensive observation of nonhuman great apes during long-term field studies, observations of great ape births in the wild are rare. Research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea has been ongoing for 35 years, yet chimpanzee parturitions have been observed on only two occasions. Here we provide information regarding both chimpanzee births, with detailed information from the close observation of one. During this birth, the mother built a day nest in a tree before parturition. After giving birth, the mother consumed the placenta, and the other chimpanzees in her party gathered near her and her neonate. However, she did not share the placenta, and consumed it all herself. In the second observation, the mother also built a nest in a tree and subsequently gave birth. Thereafter, she shared the placenta with some individuals and consumed part of the placenta herself. Although maternal placentophagy is a ubiquitous behavior among the majority of non-human primates, observations of placenta sharing by wild primates are infrequent, and the proximate and ultimate explanations for the behavior remain unclear. PMID:26769192

  11. Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2005-09-29

    Rich circumstantial evidence suggests that the extensive behavioural diversity recorded in wild great apes reflects a complexity of cultural variation unmatched by species other than our own. However, the capacity for cultural transmission assumed by this interpretation has remained difficult to test rigorously in the field, where the scope for controlled experimentation is limited. Here we show that experimentally introduced technologies will spread within different ape communities. Unobserved by group mates, we first trained a high-ranking female from each of two groups of captive chimpanzees to adopt one of two different tool-use techniques for obtaining food from the same 'Pan-pipe' apparatus, then re-introduced each female to her respective group. All but two of 32 chimpanzees mastered the new technique under the influence of their local expert, whereas none did so in a third population lacking an expert. Most chimpanzees adopted the method seeded in their group, and these traditions continued to diverge over time. A subset of chimpanzees that discovered the alternative method nevertheless went on to match the predominant approach of their companions, showing a conformity bias that is regarded as a hallmark of human culture. PMID:16113685

  12. Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Nakamura, N; Matsuzawa, T

    1997-06-01

    At the age of 3.5 years, wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, begin to use hammer and anvil stones to crack oil-palm nuts to get the kernels. To clarify the developmental processes, the authors did a field experiment in which stones and oil-palm nuts were provided. Infant chimpanzees' stone-nut manipulation was observed and video recorded. Data were collected from 3 infants younger than 4 years old from 1992 to 1995. The authors analyzed 692 episodes of infants' stone-nut manipulation and 150 episodes of infants' observation of nut cracking performed by adults. Infants observed other chimpanzees' nut cracking and got the kernels from them. The stone-nut manipulation developed from a single action on a single object to multiple actions on multiple objects. Although infant chimpanzees at the age of 2.5 years already acquired basic actions necessary for nut cracking, they did not combine the actions in an appropriate sequence to perform actual nut cracking. PMID:9170281

  13. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  14. Diurnal variation in nutrients and chimpanzee foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bryce A; Rothman, Jessica M; Mitani, John C

    2013-04-01

    Primate feeding behavior varies over long (e.g., weekly, seasonally, yearly) and short (e.g., hourly) scales of time due to changes in resource availability and the nutritional composition of foods. While the factors that affect long-term changes in feeding behavior have received considerable attention, few data exist regarding what drives variability in feeding behavior over the course of a single day. To address this problem, we investigated diurnal variation in chimpanzee feeding on the leaves of two species of saplings, Pterygota mildbraedii and Celtis africana, at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Specifically, we related short-term changes in chimpanzee feeding behavior on these leaves to diurnal variation in their nutritional composition. Results showed that chimpanzees fed on the leaves of both saplings more in the evening than they did in the morning. The nutritional quality of leaves also improved over the course of the day. Concentrations of cellulose and lignin were lower and total nonstructural carbohydrates (including sugars and starch) were higher in the evening for P. mildbraedii, and sugars were higher in the evening for C. africana. These data suggest that chimpanzees consume these resources when their quality is highest, and consequently, may track the nutrient composition of their foods over very short periods that span only a few hours. In the future, foods collected for analyses must control for time of sampling to ensure biologically meaningful assays of nutrient composition. PMID:23300012

  15. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  16. The Development of a Greeting Signal in Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Marion N. C.; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Adult chimpanzees produce a unique vocal signal, the pant-grunt, when encountering higher-ranking group members. The behaviour is typically directed to a specific receiver and has thus been interpreted as a "greeting" signal. The alpha male obtains a large share of these calls, followed by the other adult males of the group. In this study, we…

  17. Three Studies on Configural Face Processing by Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Akamagwuna, Unoma

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of chimpanzees to facial configurations. Three studies further these findings by showing this sensitivity to be specific to second-order relational properties. In humans, this type of configural processing requires prolonged experience and enables subordinate-level discriminations of many…

  18. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  19. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  20. Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, S; McDonald, K; Sevcik, R A; Hopkins, W D; Rubert, E

    1986-09-01

    Two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) have spontaneously begun to use symbols to communicate with people. In contrast to common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using the same communicative system, the pygmy chimpanzees did not need explicit training in order to form referential symbol-object associations. Instead, they acquired symbols by observing others use these symbols in daily communications with them. In addition, the pygmy chimpanzees have begun to comprehend spoken English words and can readily identify lexigrams upon hearing the spoken words. By contrast, common chimpanzees who received similar exposure to spoken English are unable to do so. The older pygmy chimpanzee has begun to form requests of the form agent-verb-recipient in which he is neither the agent nor the recipient. By contrast, similarly aged common chimpanzees limited their requests to simple verbs, in which the agent was always presumed to be the addressee and the chimpanzee itself was always the recipient, thus they had no need to indicate a specific agent or recipient. These results suggest that these pygmy chimpanzees exhibit symbolic and auditory perceptual skills that are distinctly different from those of common chimpanzees. PMID:2428917

  1. Widespread Excess Ice in Arcadia Planitia, Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bramson, Ali M; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Sutton, Sarah; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Brothers, T Charles; Holt, John W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of subsurface water ice on Mars is a key constraint on past climate, while the volumetric concentration of buried ice (pore-filling versus excess) provides information about the process that led to its deposition. We investigate the subsurface of Arcadia Planitia by measuring the depth of terraces in simple impact craters and mapping a widespread subsurface reflection in radar sounding data. Assuming that the contrast in material strengths responsible for the terracing is the same dielectric interface that causes the radar reflection, we can combine these data to estimate the dielectric constant of the overlying material. We compare these results to a three-component dielectric mixing model to constrain composition. Our results indicate a widespread, decameters-thick layer that is excess water ice ~10^4 km^3 in volume. The accumulation and long-term preservation of this ice is a challenge for current Martian climate models.

  2. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Feany, M B; Dickson, D W

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized ...

  3. Is the unfoldome widespread in proteomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Deiana, Antonio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term unfoldome has been recently used to indicate the universe of intrinsically disordered proteins. These proteins are characterized by an ensemble of high-flexible interchangeable conformations and therefore they can interact with many targets without requiring pre-existing stereo-chemical complementarity. It has been suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins are frequent in proteomes and disorder is widespread also in structured proteins. However, several studies raise some doub...

  4. Peripheral Pain Mechanisms in Chronic Widespread Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Staud, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of chronic widespread pain (CWP) conditions including fibromyalgia (FM), include pain, stiffness, subjective weakness, and muscle fatigue. Muscle pain in CWP is usually described as fluctuating and often associated with local or generalized tenderness (hyperalgesia and/or allodynia). This tenderness related to muscle pain depends on increased peripheral and/or central nervous system responsiveness to peripheral stimuli which can be either noxious (hyperalgesia) or non-noxiou...

  5. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue. PMID:24104173

  6. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ilona Roberts

    Full Text Available The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away, chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  7. Density estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire, and Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, Nicolas; Hambuckers, Alain; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography, and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km(2) . These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of two geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of two distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. PMID:25099739

  8. Chimpanzee insectivory in the northern half of Uganda's Rift Valley: do Bulindi chimpanzees conform to a regional pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2014-04-01

    Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology. PMID:24522970

  9. Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2009-10-01

    Long-term field studies have revealed considerable behavioural differences among groups of wild Pan troglodytes. Here, we report three sets of cladistic analyses that were designed to shed light on issues relating to this interpopulation variation that are of particular relevance to palaeoanthropology. In the first set of analyses, we focused on the proximate cause of the variation. Some researchers have argued that it is cultural, while others have suggested that it is the result of genetic differences. Because the eastern and western subspecies of P. troglodytes are well differentiated genetically while groups within the subspecies are not, we reasoned that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the phylogenetic signal should be stronger when data from the eastern and western subspecies are analysed together compared to when data from only the eastern subspecies are analysed. Using randomisation procedures, we found that the phylogenetic signal was substantially stronger with in a single subspecies rather than with two. The results of the first sets of analyses, therefore, were inconsistent with the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. The other two sets of analyses built on the results of the first and assumed that the intergroup behavioural variation is cultural in nature. Recent work has shown that, contrary to what anthropologists and archaeologists have long believed, vertical intergroup transmission is often more important than horizontal intergroup transmission in human cultural evolution. In the second set of analyses, we sought to determine how important vertical transmission has been in the evolution of chimpanzee cultural diversity. The first analysis we carried out indicated that the intergroup similarities and differences in behaviour are consistent with the divergence of the western and eastern subspecies, which is what would be expected if vertical intergroup transmission has been the dominant process. In the second analysis, we found that the

  10. The Distribution and Development of Handedness for Manual Gestures in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie; Freeman, Hani; Buehler, Nicole; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and development of handedness for manual gestures in captive chimpanzees. Data on handedness for unimanual gestures were collected in a sample of 227 captive chimpanzees. Handedness for these gestures was compared with handedness for three other measures of hand use: tool use, reaching, and coordinated bimanual actions. Chimpanzees were significantly more right-handed for gestures than for all other measures of hand use. Hand use for simple reaching at ...

  11. A case report of a novel type of stick use by wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Okayasu, Naobi; Hamada, Yuzuru; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2003-04-01

    We have found evidence that wild chimpanzees used stout sticks to dig into one end of a decayed fallen trunk from the side and a long stick with a frayed end to dig into or brush its stump, in the Moukalaba Reserve, Gabon. This type of stick use by wild chimpanzees has not been recorded in any habitat. This finding should contribute to future studies and discussions of variations in tool use and cultural processes among wild chimpanzees. PMID:12687486

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in a Captive Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. ...

  13. No Evidence of Short-Term Exchange of Meat for Sex among Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Gilby, Ian C.; Emery Thompson, M; Ruane, Jonathan D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The meat-for-sex hypothesis posits that male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) trade meat with estrous females in exchange for short-term mating access. This notion is widely cited in the anthropological literature and has been used to construct scenarios about human evolution. Here we review the theoretical and empirical basis for the meat-for-sex hypothesis. We argue that chimpanzee behavioral ecology does not favor the evolution of such exchanges because 1) female chimpanzees show low mate sel...

  14. Menopause occurs late in life in the captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, James G.; Paredes, Jamespaul; Wilson, Mark E.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Walker, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Menopause in women occurs at mid-life. Chimpanzees, in contrast, continue to display cycles of menstrual bleeding and genital swelling, suggestive of ovulation, until near their maximum life span of about 60 years. Because ovulation was not confirmed hormonally, however, the age at which chimpanzees experience menopause has remained uncertain. In the present study, we provide hormonal data from urine samples collected from 30 female chimpanzees, of which 9 were old (>30 years), including 2 ab...

  15. De novo assembly of the chimpanzee transcriptome from NextGen mRNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Maudhoo, Mnirnal D; Madison, Jacob D; Norgren, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Background Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the species most closely related to humans. For this reason, it is especially important to have complete and accurate chimpanzee nucleotide and protein sequences to understand how humans evolved their unique capabilities. We provide transcriptome data from four untransformed cell types derived from the reference Pan troglodytes, “Clint”, to better annotate the chimpanzee genome and provide empirical validation for ...

  16. Contrasting Effects of Natural Selection on Human and Chimpanzee CC Chemokine Receptor 5

    OpenAIRE

    Wooding, Stephen ; Stone, Anne C. ; Dunn, Diane M. ; Mummidi, Srinivas ; Jorde, Lynn B. ; Weiss, Robert K. ; Ahuja, Sunil ; Bamshad, Michael J. 

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolved via cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees, like humans, are susceptible to infection by HIV-1. However, unlike humans, infected chimpanzees seldom develop immunodeficiency when infected with SIVcpz or HIV-1. SIVcpz and most strains of HIV-1 require the cell-surface receptor CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) to infect specific leukocyte subsets, and, subsequent to inf...

  17. A genome-wide survey of structural variation between human and chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Tera L; Tuzun, Eray; Morrison, V. Anne; Hayden, Karen E.; Ventura, Mario; McGrath, Sean D.; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes (deletions, insertions, and inversions) between human and chimpanzee genomes have likely had a significant impact on lineage-specific evolution because of their potential for dramatic and irreversible mutation. The low-quality nature of the current chimpanzee genome assembly precludes the reliable identification of many of these differences. To circumvent this, we applied a method to optimally map chimpanzee fosmid paired-end sequences against the human genome to systematic...

  18. The Malagarasi River Does Not Form an Absolute Barrier to Chimpanzee Movement in Western Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Lilian Pintea; Yingying Li; Miguel A Ramirez; Loy, Dorothy E.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Learn, Gerald H.; Knapp, Leslie A.; Paul M. Sharp; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2013-01-01

    The Malagarasi River has long been thought to be a barrier to chimpanzee movements in western Tanzania. This potential geographic boundary could affect chimpanzee ranging behavior, population connectivity and pathogen transmission, and thus has implications for conservation strategies and government policy. Indeed, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons it was recently argued that chimpanzees from communities to the north and to the south of the Malagarasi are surprisingly distantly ...

  19. Recognizing Facial Cues: Individual Discrimination by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Winslow, James T.; Hopkins, William D.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Faces are one of the most salient classes of stimuli involved in social communication. Three experiments compared face-recognition abilities in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In the face-matching task, the chimpanzees matched identical photographs of conspecifics' faces on Trial 1, and the rhesus monkeys did the same after 4 generalization trials. In the individual-recognition task, the chimpanzees matched 2 different photographs of the same individual afte...

  20. Sex and Handedness Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphology in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Leslie A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Findings suggest that in humans, sex and hand preference may be associated with the size of the corpus callosum (CC). The authors measured CC morphology from MRIs in 67 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to see whether similar effects were present in this species. Hand preference was assessed by performance on 4 tasks, and chimpanzees were classified as left-handed, right-handed, or ambidextrous. In a subsequent analysis, the chimpanzees were reclassified into 2 groups: right-handed and left-hande...

  1. Use of “Entertainment” Chimpanzees in Commercials Distorts Public Perception Regarding Their Conservation Status

    OpenAIRE

    Schroepfer, Kara K.; Rosati, Alexandra G; Chartrand, Tanya; Hare, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to c...

  2. Evaluation of IL-28B Polymorphisms and Serum IP-10 in Hepatitis C Infected Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Verstrepen, Babs; de Groot, Natasja; Groothuismink, Zwier; Verschoor, Ernst; Groen, Rik; Bogers, Willy; Janssen, Harry; Mooij, Petra; Bontrop, Ronald; Koopman, Gerrit; Boonstra, André

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn humans, clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with genetic variation near the IL-28B gene and the induction of interferon-stimulated genes, like IP-10. Also in chimpanzees spontaneous clearance of HCV is observed. To study whether similar correlations exist in these animals, a direct comparison of IP-10 and IL-28B polymorphism between chimpanzees and patients was performed. All chimpanzees studied were monomorphic for the human IL-28B SNPs which are assoc...

  3. Timing of Turn Initiations in Signed Conversations with Cross-Fostered Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, J. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined turn taking by adult and infant cross-fostered chimpanzees in one-on-one signed conversations with a human. The study identified turns as alternating, overlapping, or simultaneousand explored the timing of overlapping turn initiations in detail for both age groups. Adult chimpanzee turn taking was furthermore examined in two conditions; in the first condition the human responded to the chimpanzees with scripted probes and in the second condition the human signed freely. Re...

  4. Chimpanzees do not take into account what others can hear in a competitive situation

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) know what others can and cannot see in a competitive situation. Does this reflect a general understanding the perceptions of others? In a study by Hare et al. (2000) pairs of chimpanzees competed over two pieces of food. Subordinate individuals preferred to approach food that was behind a barrier that the dominant could not see, suggesting that chimpanzees can take the visual perspective of others. We extended this paradigm to the auditory modality to investigate...

  5. Cues to personality and health in the facial appearance of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Humans (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can extract socially-relevant information from the static, non-expressive faces of conspecifics. In humans, the face is a valid signal of both personality and health. Recent evidence shows that, like humans, chimpanzee faces also contain personality information, and that humans can accurately judge aspects of chimpanzee personality relating to extraversion from the face alone (Kramer, King, and Ward, 2011). These findings suggest the hyp...

  6. A New Change-of-Contents False Belief Test: Children and Chimpanzees Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Canada Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the handful of existing comparative false belief studies, chimpanzees have consistently failed tests that 5- to 6-year-old children have passed. However, those tests were either explicitly cooperative communicativeor competitive, both of which are problematic for different reasons. We therefore devised a new change-of-contents false belief test for children and chimpanzees that did not include these problematic elements. Nevertheless, chimpanzees showed no evidence of understanding false b...

  7. Natural Choice in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Perceptual and Temporal Effects on Selective Value

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Ratliff, Chasity L.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, four chimpanzees made choices between two visible food options to assess the validity of the selective value effect (the assignment of value to only the most preferred type of food presented in a comparison). In Experiment 1, we established that all chimpanzees preferred single banana pieces to single apple pieces before presenting the critical test. In this test two chimpanzees preferred a mix of one banana piece and one apple piece to a single banana piece when both ba...

  8. Lateralized Scratching in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence of a Functional Asymmetry During Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie L; Freeman, Hani; Reynolds, Elizabeth A. M.; GRIFFIS, CAROLINE; Leavens, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated laterality in scratching by chimpanzees (n = 89) during socially arousing circumstances. Hand use and the side of the body scratched was recorded during a baseline and experimental condition. In the experimental condition, chimpanzees were shown a video of other conspecifics sharing, fighting over, and consuming a watermelon. Self-touches were categorized as either rubs or scratches. The chimpanzees showed a significant right hand bias for rubbing and also significantly d...

  9. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa. PMID:23720026

  10. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Crickette; Call, Josep; Morgan, David

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the approach taken with New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides), we present evidence of design complexity in one of the termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Prior to termite fishing, chimpanzees applied a set of deliberate, distinguishable actions to modify herb stems to fashion a brush-tipped probe, which is different from the form of fishing tools used by chimpanzees in East and West Africa. This means that ‘brush-t...

  11. Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees:evidence from field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, Dora; Inoue-Nakamura, Noriko; Tonooka, Rikako; Yamakoshi, Ren; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-01-01

    Animal Cognition, V.6, pp. 213-223 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are the most proficient and versatile users of tools in the wild. How such skills become integrated into the behavioural repertoire of wild chimpanzee communities is investigated here by drawing together evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- (Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. First, extensive surveys of communities adjacent to Bossou have shown t...

  12. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Lucie; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Sudmant, Peter H.; Wu, Lily I.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Emerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee’s main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses. PMID:26394054

  13. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals' face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos' and chimpanzees' spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time.

  14. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  15. Behavioral response of a chimpanzee mother toward her dead infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Bodamer, Mark D

    2011-05-01

    The mother-offspring bond is one of the strongest and most essential social bonds. Following is a detailed behavioral report of a female chimpanzee 2 days after her 16-month-old infant died, on the first day that the mother is observed to create distance between her and the corpse. A series of repeated approaches and retreats to and from the body are documented, along with detailed accounts of behaviors directed toward the dead infant by the mother and other group members. The behavior of the mother toward her dead infant not only highlights the maternal contribution to the mother-infant relationship but also elucidates the opportunities chimpanzees have to learn about the sensory cues associated with death, and the implications of death for the social environment. PMID:21259302

  16. The scope of culture in chimpanzees, humans and ancestral apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2011-04-12

    More studies have focused on aspects of chimpanzee behaviour and cognition relevant to the evolution of culture than on any other species except our own. Accordingly, analysis of the features shared by chimpanzees and humans is here used to infer the scope of cultural phenomena in our last common ancestor, at the same time clarifying the nature of the special characteristics that advanced further in the hominin line. To do this, culture is broken down into three major aspects: the large scale, population-level patterning of traditions; social learning mechanisms; and the behavioural and cognitive contents of culture. Each of these is further dissected into subcomponents. Shared features, as well as differences, are identified in as many as a dozen of these, offering a case study for the comparative analysis of culture across animal taxa and a deeper understanding of the roots of our own cultural capacities. PMID:21357222

  17. Chimpanzees' socially maintained food preferences indicate both conservatism and conformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, LM; Schapiro, Steve; Lambeth, SP;

    2011-01-01

    counter to their original, individual, preferences. Moreover, the chimpanzees’ food preferences did not change over time, demonstrating that these results were not due to a simple shift in preferences. We discuss social factors apparent in the interactions and suggest that, despite seeming...... with a different food reward: one type was rewarded with a highly preferred food (grape) and the other type was rewarded with a less preferred food (carrot). Individuals first observed a model chimpanzee from their social group trained to choose one of the two types of tokens. In one group, this token earned...... a carrot, while in the other, control, group the token earned a grape. In both groups, chimpanzees conformed to the trained model’s choice. This was especially striking for those gaining the pieces of carrot, the less favoured reward. This resulted in a population-level trend of food choices, even when...

  18. Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D;

    2010-01-01

    Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreacti......Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin...... relationship between hand preference on a coordinated bimanual task and the interhemispheric distribution of synaptophysin as measured by both stereologic counts of immunoreactive puncta and by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta density is not asymmetric at the...... density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees....

  19. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Brandon F; Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Li, Yingying; Bailes, Elizabeth; Takehisa, Jun; Santiago, Mario L; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Chen, Yalu; Wain, Louise V; Liegeois, Florian; Loul, Severin; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Bienvenue, Yanga; Delaporte, Eric; Brookfield, John F Y; Sharp, Paul M; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2006-07-28

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cause of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a zoonotic infection of staggering proportions and social impact. Yet uncertainty persists regarding its natural reservoir. The virus most closely related to HIV-1 is a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) thus far identified only in captive members of the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Here we report the detection of SIVcpz antibodies and nucleic acids in fecal samples from wild-living P. t. troglodytes apes in southern Cameroon, where prevalence rates in some communities reached 29 to 35%. By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, we could trace the origins of pandemic (group M) and nonpandemic (group N) HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities. These findings establish P. t. troglodytes as a natural reservoir of HIV-1. PMID:16728595

  20. Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Mothers' Response to Separation From Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomsmith, M. A.; Merhalski, J. J.; Gregor, Gigi

    1988-01-01

    Three chimpanzee infants were separated from their mothers. The behavior of the mothers was monitored before and after separation. Data were equally divided between pre- and post-separation observation periods. The mothers exhibited significantly reduced levels of play and significantly more time spent in proximity to an older offspring after they were permanently separated from their infants. No other recorded behaviors were significantly altered. The mothers exhibited individual differences...

  1. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces amon...

  2. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Marijke Schel; Simon W Townsend; Zarin Machanda; Klaus Zuberbühler; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    BBSRC-funded, but difficult to identify the specific grant. Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality...

  3. Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality

    OpenAIRE

    Schel, Anne Marijke; Simon W Townsend; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) sociall...

  4. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality

    OpenAIRE

    Schel, Anne M.; Simon W Townsend; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) sociall...

  5. Interstitial Myocardial Fibrosis in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lammey, Michael L; Baskin, Gary B; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J.; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and necropsy records of 36 (25 male and 11 female) chimpanzees age 10 to 40 y old that died over a 6-y period (2001 to 2006) were reviewed. All animals had annual physical exams that included electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Nine of the 36 animals had a complete cardiac evaluation by a board certified veterinary cardiologist, and 7 of the 36 animals (19%) were diagnosed with some form of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in 3 cases. Cardiac arrhythmias...

  6. High Diversity at PRDM9 in Chimpanzees and Bonobos

    OpenAIRE

    Linn Fenna Groeneveld; Rebeca Atencia; Rosa M Garriga; Linda Vigilant

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The PRDM9 locus in mammals has increasingly attracted research attention due to its role in mediating chromosomal recombination and possible involvement in hybrid sterility and hence speciation processes. The aim of this study was to characterize sequence variation at the PRDM9 locus in a sample of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRDM9 contains a highly variable and repetitive zinc finger array. We amplified this domain us...

  7. The Hunting Behavior and Carnivory of Wild Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit, capture and consumption of small- and medium-sized vertebrates appear to be typical of all chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations, although large variation exists. Red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus sp.) appear to be the preferred prey, but intensity and frequency of hunting varies from month to month and among populations. Hunting is a predominately male activity and is typically opportunistic, although there is some evidence of searching for prey. The degree of cooperation dur...

  8. Distinctive structures between chimpanzee and humanin a brain noncoding RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Beniaminov, Artemy; Westhof, Eric; Krol, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Human accelerated region 1 (HAR1) is a short DNA region identified recently to have evolved the most rapidly among highly constrained regions since the divergence from our common ancestor with chimpanzee. It is transcribed as part of a noncoding RNA specifically expressed in the developing human neocortex. Employing a panoply of enzymatic and chemical probes, our analysis of HAR1 RNA proposed a secondary structure model differing from that published. Most surprisingly, we discovered that the ...

  9. Microsatellite evolution inferred from human– chimpanzee genomic sequence alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Matthew T.; Smith, Nick G.C.; Ellegren, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Most studies of microsatellite evolution utilize long, highly mutable loci, which are unrepresentative of the majority of simple repeats in the human genome. Here we use an unbiased sample of 2,467 microsatellite loci derived from alignments of 5.1 Mb of genomic sequence from human and chimpanzee to investigate the mutation process of tandemly repetitive DNA. The results indicate that the process of microsatellite evolution is highly heterogeneous, exhibiting differences between loci of diffe...

  10. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted...

  11. Introduction of chimpanzees onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huffman, M. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Moscovice, L. R.; Mapua, Mwanahamissi Issa; Bobáková, Lucia; Mazoch, Vladimír; Singh, J.; Kaur, T.

    Abu Dhabi : IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, 2008 - (Soorae, P.), s. 213-216 ISBN 978-2-8317-1113-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduction * ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.iucnsscrsg.org/download/Global%20Reintro%20Perspectives.pdf

  12. Behavioral recovery from tetraparesis in a captive chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Misato; Sakuraba, Yoko; Watanabe, Shohei; Kaneko, Akihisa; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    An adult male chimpanzee living in a captive social group at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University developed acute tetraparesis. He was paralyzed and received intensive care and veterinary treatment as previously reported in Miyabe-Nishiwaki et al. (J Med Primatol 39:336-346, 2010). The behavioral recovery of the chimpanzee was longitudinally monitored using an index of upright posture between 0 and 41 months after the onset of tetraparesis. Four phases were identified during the course of behavioral recovery. During Phase 0 (0-13 months), the chimpanzee remained lying on his back during the absence of human caretakers. An increase in upright posture occurred in Phase I (14-17 months), then remained at a stable level of around 50-70 % in Phase II (18-29 months). During Phases I and II, the subject's small treatment cage represented a spatial limitation. Thus, behavioral recovery was mainly mediated by arm muscle strengthening caused by raising the body trunk with the aid of materials attached to the cage walls as environmental enrichment. When the chimpanzee was moved to a larger rehabilitation room in Phase III (30-41 months), the percentage of upright posture constantly exceeded 80 %, except in the 40th month when he injured his ankle and was inactive for several days. The enlargement of the living space had a positive effect on behavioral recovery by increasing the types of locomotion exhibited by the subject, including the use of legs during walking. Rehabilitation works were applied in face-to-face situations which enabled the use of rehabilitation methods used in humans. The process of behavioral recovery reported in this study provides a basic data set for planning future rehabilitation programs and for comparisons with further cases of physical disability in non-human primates. PMID:23673560

  13. Children, but not chimpanzees, have facial correlates of determination

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Bridget M.; Misch, A.; Whitehouse, Jamie; E. Herrmann

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions have long been proposed to be important agents in forming and maintaining cooperative interactions in social groups. Human beings are inordinately cooperative when compared with their closest-living relatives, the great apes, and hence one might expect species differences in facial expressivity in contexts in which cooperation could be advantageous. Here, human children and chimpanzees were given an identical task designed to induce an element of frustration (it was impossi...

  14. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A.R. was supported by ERC Advanced Grant 230604 SOMACCA to W. Tecumseh Fitch. SMP was supported by funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n. [311870]. Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that ma...

  15. The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

  16. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie, Kristin E.; Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a rich cultural repertoire—traditions common in some communities are not present in others. The majority of reports describe functional, material traditions, such as tool use. Arbitrary conventions have received far less attention. In the same way that observations of material culture in wild apes led to experiments to confirm social transmission and identify underlying learning mechanisms, experiments investigating how arbitrary habits or conventions a...

  17. Population size and structure of the Ngogo chimpanzee community in the Kibale Forest, Uganda, and the impact of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Grieser Johns, B.

    1997-01-01

    Although both species of chimpanzees, the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) show a so-called fission-fusion social organisation, they differ significantly in the details of social relationships between and within genders. These differences have been linked to ecological differences between the species, habitats. Common chimpanzees living in forested habitats were put forward as providing a link between common chimpanzees in less forested...

  18. Manual Specialisation and Tool Use in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): The Effect of Unimanual and Bimanual Strategies on Hand Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Rabinowitz, Deborah M.

    1997-01-01

    Hand preference for tool use was assessed in a sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Whether the subjects solved the tool task using either a unimanual or coordinated bimanual strategy was manipulated in the chimpanzees. No population-level hand preference was found for tool use when unimanual strategies were used by the chimpanzees. However, a population-level right-hand bias was found when coordinated bimanual actions were required of the chimpanzees. A significant correlation wa...

  19. Reduce the occurrence of abnormal behaviour of chimpanzees with the addition of gaming devices in Ljubljana ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman, Maja

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of behavioural changes in chimpanzees whilst adding gaming aids to their living environment. At the beginning of the study, we encounter the spread of pneumonia in the Ljubljana zoo, where two younger chimpanzees and adult females lost their lives. The study included three female chimpanzees. After this tragic event we took a break in our research to give the chimpanzees some time to recover. We began recording a month later. After six months of observation, we...

  20. Quantifying lateral femoral condyle ellipticalness in chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Adam D; Pfisterer, Theresa

    2012-11-01

    Articular surfaces of limb bones provide information for understanding animal locomotion because their size and shape are a reflection of habitual postures and movements. Here we present a novel method for quantifying the ellipticalness (i.e., departure from perfectly circular) of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), applying this technique to hominid femora. Three-dimensional surface models were created for 49 Homo sapiens, 34 Pan troglodytes and 25 Gorilla gorilla femora. Software was developed that fit separate cylinders to each of the femoral condyles. These cylinders were constrained to have a single axis, but could have different radii. The cylinder fit to the LFC was allowed to assume an elliptical cross-section, while the cylinder fit to the medial condyle was constrained to remain circular. The shape of the elliptical cylinder (ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse) was recorded, and the orientation of the elliptical cylinder quantified as angles between the major axis of the ellipse and the anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. Species were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. Confirming qualitative descriptions, human LFCs are more elliptical than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Human femora exhibit a narrow range for the angle between the major axis of the elliptical cylinder and femoral axes. Conversely, the chimpanzee sample is bimodal for these angles, exhibiting two ellipse orientations, while Gorilla shows no preferred angle. Our results suggest that like modern human femora, chimpanzee femoral condyles have preferentially used regions. PMID:23042636

  1. Female chimpanzees use copulation calls flexibly to prevent social competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon W Townsend

    Full Text Available The adaptive function of copulation calls in female primates has been debated for years. One influential idea is that copulation calls are a sexually selected trait, which enables females to advertise their receptive state to males. Male-male competition ensues and females benefit by getting better mating partners and higher quality offspring. We analysed the copulation calling behaviour of wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Budongo Forest, Uganda, but found no support for the male-male competition hypothesis. Hormone analysis showed that the calling behaviour of copulating females was unrelated to their fertile period and likelihood of conception. Instead, females called significantly more while with high-ranking males, but suppressed their calls if high-ranking females were nearby. Copulation calling may therefore be one potential strategy employed by female chimpanzees to advertise receptivity to high-ranked males, confuse paternity and secure future support from these socially important individuals. Competition between females can be dangerously high in wild chimpanzees, and our results indicate that females use their copulation calls strategically to minimise the risks associated with such competition.

  2. Vaccination of chimpanzees against infection by the hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Q L; Kuo, G; Ralston, R; Weiner, A; Chien, D; Van Nest, G; Han, J; Berger, K; Thudium, K; Kuo, C

    1994-02-15

    A high incidence of community-acquired hepatitis C virus infection that can lead to the progressive development of chronic active hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma occurs throughout the world. A vaccine to control the spread of this agent that represents a major cause of chronic liver disease is therefore needed. Seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been immunized with both putative envelope glycoproteins [E1 (gp33) and E2 (gp72)] that were copurified from HeLa cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expression vector. Despite the induction of a weak humoral immune response to these viral glycoproteins in experimentally infected chimpanzees, a strong humoral immune response was obtained in all vaccines. The five highest responders showed complete protection against an i.v. challenge with homologous hepatitis C virus 1. The remaining two vaccines became infected, but both infection and disease may have been ameliorated in comparison with four similarly challenged control chimpanzees, all of which developed acute hepatitis and chronic infections. These results provide considerable encouragement for the eventual control of hepatitis C virus infection by vaccination. PMID:7509068

  3. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-02-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a rich cultural repertoire--traditions common in some communities are not present in others. The majority of reports describe functional, material traditions, such as tool use. Arbitrary conventions have received far less attention. In the same way that observations of material culture in wild apes led to experiments to confirm social transmission and identify underlying learning mechanisms, experiments investigating how arbitrary habits or conventions arise and spread within a group are also required. The few relevant experimental studies reported thus far have relied on cross-species (i.e. human-ape) interaction offering limited ecological validity, and no study has successfully generated a tradition not involving tool use in an established group. We seeded one of two rewarded alternative endpoints to a complex sequence of behaviour in each of two chimpanzee groups. Each sequence spread in the group in which it was seeded, with many individuals unambiguously adopting the sequence demonstrated by a group member. In one group, the alternative sequence was discovered by a low ranking female, but was not learned by others. Since the action-sequences lacked meaning before the experiment and had no logical connection with reward, chimpanzees must have extracted both the form and benefits of these sequences through observation of others. PMID:17164200

  4. Wild chimpanzees show population-level handedness for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Hopkins, William D

    2005-08-30

    Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable theoretical and empirical debate. One continued subject of discussion is whether evidence of population-level handedness in primates is confined to studies in captive animals or whether it is in both captive and wild subjects. Here, we report evidence of population-level handedness in wild chimpanzees for a tool-use task known as "termite-fishing." We subsequently compared the handedness for termite-fishing with other published reports on handedness for nut-cracking and wadge-dipping and found task-specific differences in handedness. Last, when combing all of the published data on tool use in wild chimpanzees, we show that hand preferences are heritable. Contrary to previous claims, our results demonstrate that population-level handedness is evident in wild chimpanzees and suggest that the antecedents of lateralization of function associated with hand use were present at least 5 million years ago, before the Pan-Homo split. PMID:16105943

  5. Visual texture segregation by the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, M

    1999-03-01

    One adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained to detect a target area consisting of texture elements from the background texture made of the different elements from the target area. The subject was given eight different stimulus conditions. In Condition 1, segregation was based on the difference of local feature of elements but not on global similarity. Conditions 2-3 investigated the effects of the number of terminators, which was considered as 'textons' in human texture perception. The chimpanzee showed better performance when the discrimination can be based on the difference of the number of terminators. This tendency, however, was reversed when the local salient feature (length of shorter lines) was enhanced, as in Enns' [15] study with humans as subjects. The subject showed asymmetries in segregation performance when discriminating based on gap (Conditions 4-5), line length (Condition 6), and regularity of line arrangement (Condition 7). Observed asymmetries were consistent with humans and with visual search asymmetries. The performance of texture segregation by the chimpanzee was consistent with humans, and the texture segregation is one of the useful tasks for comparative study of early vision as well as visual search task. PMID:10512587

  6. Obtaining raw material: plants as tool sources for Nigerian chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Buba, Umaru; Nodza, George; Sommer, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of plant materials from which Nigerian chimpanzees manufacture wooden tools to harvest insects and honey from nests of army ants, honey bees and stingless bees. Slender trunks of juvenile trees and branches are most commonly used, and bendable vines rarely, probably reflecting the need to work with relatively sturdy tools to extract resources. While several tools are sometimes sourced from the same plant, there is also evidence for a depletion effect, as multiple tool sources at the same site are often spaced several metres apart. Identified tool sources belong to 27 species of at least 13 families. Honey-gathering implements are often chewed upon by chimpanzees. Interestingly, twigs of the most commonly used honey-gathering species possess antibacterial propensities and are favoured by Nigerians as chewing sticks. This suggests that extractive tools might possess associated medicinal or stimulatory properties. We do not know if chimpanzees actively select specific plant parts or species as we cannot compare observed with expected frequencies. Nevertheless, about three quarters of tools are picked from plants more than 6 m away from the extraction site, potentially indicating some degree of forward planning. PMID:22759783

  7. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  8. Cooperative hunting roles among taï chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe

    2002-03-01

    All known chimpanzee populations have been observed to hunt small mammals for meat. Detailed observations have shown, however, that hunting strategies differ considerably between populations, with some merely collecting prey that happens to pass by while others hunt in coordinated groups to chase fast-moving prey. Of all known populations, Taï chimpanzees exhibit the highest level of cooperation when hunting. Some of the group hunting roles require elaborate coordination with other hunters as well as precise anticipation of the movements of the prey. The meat-sharing rules observed in this community guarantee the largest share of the meat to hunters who perform the most important roles leading to a capture. The learning time of such hunting roles is sometimes especially long. Taï chimpanzee males begin hunting monkeys at about age 10. The hunters' progress in learning the more sophisticated hunting roles is clearly correlated with age; only after 20 years of practice are they able to perform them reliably. This lengthy learning period has also been shown in some hunter-gatherer societies and confirms the special challenge that hunting represents. PMID:26192594

  9. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  10. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites. PMID:24403325

  11. Why do chimpanzee males attack the females of neighboring communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gauri R; Pandit, Sagar A; Van schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Our closest nonhuman primate relatives, chimpanzees, engage in potentially lethal between-group conflict; this collective aggressive behavior shows parallels with human warfare. In some communities, chimpanzee males also severely attack and even kill females of the neighboring groups. This is surprising given their system of resource defense polygyny, where males are expected to acquire potential mates. We develop a simple mathematical model based on reproductive skew among primate males to solve this puzzle. The model predicts that it is advantageous for high-ranking males but not for low-ranking males to attack females. It also predicts that more males gain a benefit from attacking females as the community's reproductive skew decreases, i.e., as mating success is more evenly distributed. Thus, fatal attacks on females should be concentrated in communities with low reproductive skew. These attacks should also concur with between-community infanticide. A review of the chimpanzee literature provides enough preliminary support for this prediction to warrant more detailed testing. PMID:25100507

  12. Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2013-11-19

    The emergence of technology has been suggested to coincide with scarcity of staple resources that led to innovations in the form of tool-assisted strategies to diversify or augment typical diets. We examined seasonal patterns of several types of tool use exhibited by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population residing in central Africa, to determine whether their technical skills provided access to fallback resources when preferred food items were scarce. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle exhibit a diverse repertoire of tool behaviours, many of which are exhibited throughout the year. Further, they have developed specific tool sets to overcome the issues of accessibility to particular food items. Our conclusion is that these chimpanzees use a sophisticated tool technology to cope with seasonal changes in relative food abundance and gain access to high-quality foods. Subgroup sizes were smaller in tool using contexts than other foraging contexts, suggesting that the size of the social group may not be as important in promoting complex tool traditions as the frequency and type of social interactions. Further, reports from other populations and species showed that tool use may occur more often in response to ecological opportunities and relative profitability of foraging techniques than scarcity of resources. PMID:24101626

  13. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function. PMID:24923651

  14. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua;

    2012-01-01

    Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species......, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian...... Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central...

  15. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN. So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological – in particular, fungal – IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at −5 to −6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina. By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  16. Ground night nesting in chimpanzees: new insights from central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in South-East Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert; Haggis, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Some chimpanzee populations exhibit ground night nesting, which occurs in different habitat types, is driven by a variety of interconnected factors, and may reflect cultural or social differences. This has important implications for ape conservation management, given that accurate nest builder identification is required to estimate density, crucial in monitoring, and allows inferences about environmental and social factors that may have contributed to the transition from tree to ground sleeping in early hominins. We conducted a 24-month marked nest count survey in La Belgique, Cameroon, and recorded the occurrence of chimpanzee tree and ground night nests, temperature and rainfall, predator and large mammal abundance, human activities, nesting tree species, and Uapaca spp. consumption. Ground night nesting occurred at a rate of 3.47% (n = 1,008), with more in swamps, in the dry season and with increasing human activities. We found no influence of leopard/elephant presence, but a possible influence of lack of nesting trees. We suggest chimpanzees visit swamps in the dry season (low water levels) for relief from hunting pressure and to consume Uapaca spp. fruits. Ground nesting may be enabled due to high abundance of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation, and may be favoured for inconspicuousness and safety from gun hunters. PMID:23988519

  17. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve;

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n...... = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that...

  18. Probable transmission of coxsackie B3 virus from human to chimpanzee, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mourier, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik;

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among...... humans and other primates....

  19. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia; Casanova, Catarina C N; Vicente, Luís

    2011-05-01

    Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed. PMID:21259301

  20. Influence of chimpanzee predation on the red colobus population at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelen, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Frequent hunting of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus) takes place at all long-term chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites where both species are present. Red colobus are the most commonly selected prey of chimpanzees even when other monkey species are more abundant. In particular, the chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, preys heavily on red colobus monkeys: the chimpanzee hunting success rate is extremely high, and chimpanzees kill many individuals per successful hunt. Census data had suggested that the red colobus population is declining and that predation by chimpanzees may be contributing to this decline. In this paper, I address the impact of hunting on the red colobus population at Ngogo. To test the hypothesis that chimpanzee hunting is sustainable, I am using demographic data collected on red colobus monkeys over a period of 3 years, as well as fecundity and mortality data from previous studies of this species. I apply matrix models and vortex analyses using a sensitivity analysis approach to project future population development. Results show that current rates of hunting are not sustainable, but that chimpanzees are neither more "noble", nor more "savage" than humans are, but that they also hunt to ensure maximum benefit without regard for the consequences for the prey population. PMID:17906844

  1. Different Social Motives in the Gestural Communication of Chimpanzees and Human Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Anke F.; Zimmermann, Felizitas; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both chimpanzees and human infants use the pointing gesture with human adults, but it is not clear if they are doing so for the same social motives. In two studies, we presented chimpanzees and human 25-month-olds with the opportunity to point for a hidden tool (in the presence of a non-functional distractor). In one condition it was clear that…

  2. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism. PMID:24123061

  3. Natural Choice in Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes"): Perceptual and Temporal Effects on Selective Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Ratliff, Chasity L.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, four chimpanzees made choices between two visible food options to assess the validity of the "selective value effect" (the assignment of value to only the most preferred type of food presented in a comparison). In Experiment 1, we established that all chimpanzees preferred single banana pieces to single apple pieces before…

  4. Differences in Cognitive Processes Underlying the Collaborative Activities of Children and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grace E.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of 3- and 5-year-old children with that of chimpanzees in two tasks requiring collaboration via complementary roles. In both tasks, children and chimpanzees were able to coordinate two complementary roles with peers and solve the problem cooperatively. This is the first experimental demonstration of the coordination of…

  5. Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Gaku

    2015-04-01

    Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool use behaviors by chimpanzees living in forests of the Kpala area in Nimba County. We directly observed pestle-pounding behavior, which had been confirmed only in the Bossou group of wild chimpanzees. Moreover, we heard sounds of nut-cracking, and successfully filmed chimpanzees cracking open oil palm nuts with stones. The uniqueness of stone-tool use behaviors has been emphasized with the group of chimpanzees that have been longitudinally studied at Bossou, but the behaviors probably have a wide distribution in this area. Emigrant chimpanzees are thought to contribute to the propagation of the cultural tool-use behaviors. It is also thought that, if the distantly located groups share similar cultural behaviors, there might be genetic exchange between them. Conservation efforts should be needed not only at Bossou, but also in a wider area including nonprotected forests beyond the national border. PMID:25721009

  6. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  7. Social environment elicits lateralized behaviors in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresmini, Caterina; Forrester, Gillian S; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the social environment on lateralized behaviors has now been investigated across a wide variety of animal species. New evidence suggests that the social environment can modulate behavior. Currently, there is a paucity of data relating to how primates navigate their environmental space, and investigations that consider the naturalistic context of the individual are few and fragmented. Moreover, there are competing theories about whether only the right or rather both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the processing of social stimuli, especially in emotion processing. Here we provide the first report of lateralized social behaviors elicited by great apes. We employed a continuous focal animal sampling method to record the spontaneous interactions of a captive zoo-living colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a biological family group of peer-reared western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We specifically focused on which side of the body (i.e., front, rear, left, right) the focal individual preferred to keep conspecifics. Utilizing a newly developed quantitative corpus-coding scheme, analysis revealed both chimpanzees and gorillas demonstrated a significant group-level preference for focal individuals to keep conspecifics positioned to the front of them compared with behind them. More interestingly, both groups also manifested a population-level bias to keep conspecifics on their left side compared with their right side. Our findings suggest a social processing dominance of the right hemisphere for context-specific social environments. Results are discussed in light of the evolutionary adaptive value of social stimulus as a triggering factor for the manifestation of group-level lateralized behaviors. PMID:24749503

  8. Widespread Expansion of Protein Interaction Capabilities by Alternative Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinping; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Kang, Shuli; Sheynkman, Gloria M; Hao, Tong; Richardson, Aaron; Sun, Song; Yang, Fan; Shen, Yun A; Murray, Ryan R; Spirohn, Kerstin; Begg, Bridget E; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; MacWilliams, Andrew; Pevzner, Samuel J; Zhong, Quan; Trigg, Shelly A; Tam, Stanley; Ghamsari, Lila; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Rodriguez, Maria D; Balcha, Dawit; Tan, Guihong; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Zhou, Xianghong J; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Charloteaux, Benoit; Chen, Alyce A; Calderwood, Michael A; Aloy, Patrick; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Xia, Yu; Vidal, Marc

    2016-02-11

    While alternative splicing is known to diversify the functional characteristics of some genes, the extent to which protein isoforms globally contribute to functional complexity on a proteomic scale remains unknown. To address this systematically, we cloned full-length open reading frames of alternatively spliced transcripts for a large number of human genes and used protein-protein interaction profiling to functionally compare hundreds of protein isoform pairs. The majority of isoform pairs share less than 50% of their interactions. In the global context of interactome network maps, alternative isoforms tend to behave like distinct proteins rather than minor variants of each other. Interaction partners specific to alternative isoforms tend to be expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and belong to distinct functional modules. Our strategy, applicable to other functional characteristics, reveals a widespread expansion of protein interaction capabilities through alternative splicing and suggests that many alternative "isoforms" are functionally divergent (i.e., "functional alloforms"). PMID:26871637

  9. Use of leaves as cushions to sit on wet ground by wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S; Myowa, M; Matsuzawa, T

    1998-01-01

    A new type of tool use, leaf cushion, by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was found. We report two cases: one is indirect evidence; the other is direct observation of a chimpanzee who used the tool. Both cases indicate that chimpanzees used a set of leaves as a cushion while sitting on wet ground. Chimpanzees at Bossou show various kinds of tool use, some of which are unique to the community. Most of these behavioral patterns are substance tool use for obtaining food, as at other study sites. The use of leaves as a cushion adds to the few instances of nonsubstance, elementary technology seen used by wild chimpanzees. PMID:9519241

  10. First observation of Dorylus ant feeding in Budongo chimpanzees supports absence of stick-tool culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25 years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the chimpanzees employ a rich repertoire of leaf-tools for a variety of dietary and hygiene tasks. One use of stick-tools in other communities is in feeding on the aggressive Dorylus 'army ant' species, consumed by chimpanzees at all long-term study sites outside of mid-Western Uganda. Here we report the first observation of army-ant feeding in Budongo, in which individuals from the Waibira chimpanzee community employed detached leaves to feed on a ground swarm. We describe the behaviour and discuss whether or not it can be considered tool use, together with its implication for the absence of stick-tool 'culture' in Budongo chimpanzees. PMID:27038810

  11. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-04-22

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments, they could choose between providing food solely for another chimpanzee (altruism), or for neither while preventing the other chimpanzee from receiving a benefit (spite). The main result across all studies was that chimpanzees made their choices based solely on personal gain, with no regard for the outcomes of a conspecific. These results raise questions about the origins of human cooperative behaviour. PMID:16627288

  12. Evaluation of thrombogenicity of beta-propiolactone/ultraviolet (beta-PL/UV) treated PPSB in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotitschke, R.; Stephan, W.; Prince, A.M.; Brotman, B.

    1983-05-01

    The thrombogenicity of beta-PL/UV-treated PPSB (factor IX concentrate) was evaluated in chimpanzees. PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma was injected into chimpanzees at a dose of approximately 100 units/kg body weight. An FDA licensed PPSB preparation served as the negative control, and a preparation containing activated as well as precursor clotting factors served as the positive control. 15 minutes, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after the PPSB application the following parameters were determined in the chimpanzee blood: factors II, VII, IX, X, VIII, fibrinogen, AT III, thrombin coagulase, Quick value, APTT and platelet count. Neither the untreated control preparation, nor the PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma, showed signs of thrombogenicity in the chimpanzee model. The positive control indicated that the chimpanzee is a suitable model for the thrombogenicity testing of activated clotting factors.

  13. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) instrumentally help but do not communicate in a mutualistic cooperative task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Anke F; Melis, Alicia P; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Chimpanzees cooperate in a variety of contexts, but communicating to influence and regulate cooperative activities is rare. It is unclear whether this reflects chimpanzees' general inability or whether they have found other means to coordinate cooperative activities. In the present study chimpanzees could help a partner play her role in a mutually beneficial food-retrieval task either by transferring a needed tool (transfer condition) or by visually or acoustically communicating the hiding-location of the needed tool (communication condition). Overall, chimpanzees readily helped their partner by delivering the needed tool, but none of them communicated the hiding location of the tool to their partner reliably across trials. These results demonstrate that although chimpanzees can coordinate their cooperative activities by instrumentally helping their partner in her role, they do not readily use communication with their partner for this same end. PMID:25133465

  14. Comparing ape densities and habitats in northern Congo: surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the Odzala and Ndoki regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Céline; Sanz, Crickette; Morgan, David; Onononga, Jean-Robert; Laporte, Nadine; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2008-05-01

    The conservation status of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees in western equatorial Africa remains largely speculative because many remote areas have never been surveyed and the impact of emergent diseases in the region has not been well documented. In this study, we compared ape densities and habitats in the Lokoué study area in Odzala National Park and the Goualougo Triangle in Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Republic of Congo. Both of these sites have long been considered strongholds for the conservation of chimpanzees and gorillas, but supposedly differ in vegetative composition and relative ape abundance. We compared habitats between these sites using conventional ground surveys and classified Landsat-7 ETM+ satellite images. We present density estimates via both standing-crop and marked-nest methods for the first time for sympatric apes of the Congo Basin. The marked-nest method was effective in depicting chimpanzee densities, but underestimated gorilla densities at both sites. Marked-nest surveys also revealed a dramatic decline in the ape population of Lokoué which coincided with a local Ebola epidemic. Normal baseline fluctuations in ape nest encounter rates during the repeated passages of marked-nest surveys were clearly distinguishable from a 80% decline in ape nest encounter rates at Lokoué. Our results showed that ape densities, habitat composition, and population dynamics differed between these populations in northern Congo. We emphasize the importance of intensifying monitoring efforts and further refinement of ape survey methods, as our results indicated that even the largest remaining ape populations in intact and protected forests are susceptible to sudden and dramatic declines. PMID:18176937

  15. Widespread Methanol Emission from the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Viti, S; Wardle, M; Royster, M

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4_{-1} to 3$_0 E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66'x18' (160x43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of ~16.6 km/s taken from 41 channels of a VLA continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2--1) and CH3OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km/s clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25+0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H2. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH3OH abundance of 10^{-8} to 10^{...

  16. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Beran

    Full Text Available A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals. Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  17. Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-03-01

    Chimpanzees are renowned for their use of foraging tools in harvesting social insects and some populations use tools to prey on aggressive army ants (Dorylus spp.). Tool use in army ant predation varies across chimpanzee study sites with differences in tool length, harvesting technique, and army ant species targeted. However, surprisingly little is known about the detailed ecology of army ant predation. We studied army ant predation by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at the Seringbara study site in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea (West Africa), over 10 years (2003-2013). We investigated chimpanzee selectivity with regards to army ant prey species. We assessed the temporal variation in army ant-feeding and examined whether army ant predation was related to rainfall or ripe fruit availability. Moreover, we examined whether chimpanzees showed selectivity regarding plant species used for tool manufacture, as well as the relationship between tool species preference and tool collection distance. Lastly, we measured tool properties and investigated the use of tool sets and composite tools in army ant predation. Seringbara chimpanzees preyed on one army ant species (D. nigricans) more often than expected based on encounter rates, which may be explained by the overlap in altitudinal distribution between chimpanzees and D. nigricans. Army ant predation was not related to rainfall or fruit availability. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tool materials and collected their preferred tool species (Alchornea hirtella) from greater distances than they did other species. Lastly, Seringbara chimpanzees used both tool sets and composite tools (tree perch) in army ant predation. Tool types (dig vs. dip) differed in width and strength, but not length. Tool composites were found at 40% of ant-feeding sites. Our study sheds new light on the ecology of army ant predation and provides novel insights into chimpanzee selection of army ant prey and tool species. PMID:25315798

  18. Applying remote sensing and GIS for chimpanzee habitat change detection, behaviour and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintea, Lilian

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relatives, are declining alarmingly in abundance and distribution all across Africa. Clearing of forests and woodlands has one of the most rapid and devastating impacts, leaving chimpanzees in isolated, small populations that face edge effects and elevated risk of extinction. Satellite imagery could be a powerful tool to map chimpanzee habitats and threats at the landscape scale even in the most remote, difficult to access areas. However, few applications exist to demonstrate how remote sensing methods can be used in Africa for chimpanzee research and conservation in practice. In chapter one, I investigate the use of Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite imagery to monitor dry tropical forests and miombo woodlands change between 1972-1999 inside and outside Gombe National Park, Tanzania. I show that canopy cover increased in the northern and middle parts of the park but with severe canopy loss outside protected area. Deforestation has had unequal effects on the three chimpanzee communities inside the park. The Kasekela chimpanzees have been least affected by canopy loss outside the park. In contrast, the Mitumba and Kalande communities have likely lost key range areas. In chapter two, I use 25 years of data on Gombe chimpanzees to investigate to what extent vegetation variables detected from multi-temporal satellite images can be applied to understand changes in chimpanzee feeding and party size. NDVI positively correlated with the time chimpanzees spent feeding but had no affect on the average number of adult males in the party. Instead the number of males in the party increased with proximity to hostile neighboring communities. In chapter three, I use Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery as the basis for Threat Reduction Assessment to evaluate conservation outcomes of a ten year community based conservation project in Tanzania. The findings suggest that the remote sensing methods applied in this study could provide new

  19. Brief communication: Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of "fire behavior" and the case for a chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jill D; LaDuke, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    The use and control of fire are uniquely human traits thought to have come about fairly late in the evolution of our lineage, and they are hypothesized to correlate with an increase in intellectual complexity. Given the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities yet small brain size of living apes compared to humans and even early hominins, observations of wild chimpanzees' reactions to naturally occurring fire can help inform hypotheses about the likely responses of early hominins to fire. We use data on the behavior of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal during two encounters with wildfires to illuminate the similarities between great apes and humans regarding their reaction to fire. Chimpanzees' close relatedness to our lineage makes them phylogenetically relevant to the study of hominid evolution, and the open, hot and dry environment at Fongoli, similar to the savanna mosaic thought to characterize much of hominid evolution, makes these apes ecologically important as a living primate model as well. Chimpanzees at Fongoli calmly monitor wildfires and change their behavior in anticipation of the fire's movement. The ability to conceptualize the "behavior" of fire may be a synapomorphic trait characterizing the human-chimpanzee clade. If the cognitive underpinnings of fire conceptualization are a primitive hominid trait, hypotheses concerning the origins of the control and use of fire may need revision. We argue that our findings exemplify the importance of using living chimpanzees as models for better understanding human evolution despite recently published suggestions to the contrary. PMID:20027607

  20. A comparative approach reveals differences in patterns of numt insertion during hominoid evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Seaman, M.I.; Wildschutte, J.H.; Soto-Calderón, I.D.; Anthony, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear integrations of mitochondrial DNA (numts) are widespread among eukaryotes although their prevalence differs greatly among taxa. Most knowledge of numt evolution comes from analyses of whole genome sequences of single species, or more recently from genomic comparisons across vast phylogenetic distances. Here, we employ a comparative approach using human and chimpanzee genome sequence data to infer differences in the patterns and processes underlying numt integrations. We identified 66 ...

  1. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  2. Thyroid blockade in fetuses and infants in a chimpanzee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident large populations might be exposed to fallout. The main internal radiation dose is received from radioiodine which enters the body with air, food or through the skin. A large fraction of the iodide in the circulation is concentrated by the cells of the thyroid, which have an iodide pump in their cell membrane. Radiation damage will occur mainly in the thyroid. Protection of the thyroid is achieved by preventing ingestion of radioiodine (shielding, food- and water control) and by stopping the thyroid from concentrating circulating radioiodine. Blockade of the thyroidal iodide pump by high levels of circulating iodide is responsible for the reduction of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid. For pregnant women no specific recommendations regarding the administration of stable iodide have been made. For infants younger than one year half the dose is recommended (2,4,5), though data to support this advice do not exist. Fetuses and infants might be more vulnerable to irradiation of the thyroid and therefore require effective protection. Efficiency of thyroid protection with stable iodide, however, was never assessed for these groups in the population. Nineteen infants and thirteen pregnant chimpanzees have been tested. The results demonstrate the efficiency of thyroid blockade with stable iodide in pregnancy and infancy, in chimpanzees. We feel that these data can be safely applied to the human situation. The main risk when fetuses and children are exposed to massive amounts of stable iodide is the induction of hypothyroidism. In the infant chimpanzees this didn't occur. 9 tabs

  3. Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    McLennan, Matthew R.; Hockings, Kimberley J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of wild animals to respond flexibly to anthropogenic environmental changes, including agriculture, is critical to survival in human-impacted habitats. Understanding use of human foods by wildlife can shed light on the acquisition of novel feeding habits and how animals respond to human-driven land-use changes. Little attention has focused on within-species variation in use of human foods or its causes. We examined crop-feeding in two groups of wild chimpanzees – a specialist frugi...

  4. Physiology of chimpanzees in orbit. Part 2: Interface document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, A.

    1972-01-01

    Interface requirements are presented for the design and development of an earth orbiting experiment to be known as POCO, Physiology of Chimpanzees in Orbit. The POCO experiment may be designed to operate within an orbiting space station (provided artificial gravity measures are not employed), a Saturn 4-B workshop, an Apollo command module or service module, a Saturn-1B spacecraft LM adapter, or aboard one of the presently conceived appendages connected by an umbilical to a space station. This document sets forth the experiment definition and requirements and describes the hardware under development to accomplish these objectives.

  5. Terrestrial nest-building by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): implications for the tree-to-ground sleep transition in early hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-07-01

    Nest-building is a great ape universal and arboreal nesting in chimpanzees and bonobos suggests that the common ancestor of Pan and Homo also nested in trees. It has been proposed that arboreal nest-building remained the prevailing pattern until Homo erectus, a fully terrestrial biped, emerged. We investigated the unusual occurrence of ground-nesting in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which may inform on factors influencing the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the hominin lineage. We used a novel genetic approach to examine ground-nesting in unhabituated chimpanzees at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea. Previous research showed that ground-nesting at Seringbara was not ecologically determined. Here, we tested a possible mate-guarding function of ground-nesting by analyzing DNA from shed hairs collected from ground nests and tree nests found in close proximity. We examined whether or not ground-nesting was a group-level behavioral pattern and whether or not it occurred in more than one community. We used multiple genetic markers to identify sex and to examine variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (HV1, HV2) sequences. Ground-nesting was a male-biased behavior and males constructed more elaborate ("night") nests than simple ("day") nests on the ground. The mate-guarding hypothesis was not supported, as ground and associated tree nests were built either by maternally-related males or possibly by the same individuals. Ground-nesting was widespread and likely habitual in two communities. We suggest that terrestrial nest-building may have already occurred in arboreally-adapted early hominins before the emergence of H. erectus. PMID:22460549

  6. Chimpanzee nest distribution and site reuse in a dry habitat: implications for early hominin ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports on a 20-month study of chimpanzee nesting patterns in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. Ugalla is one of the driest, most open, and seasonal habitats where chimpanzees are found. The methods used were ethoarchaeological, as the chimpanzees were not habituated and behavioural observations were rare. Systematic data on the spatial and temporal distribution of nests are presented. Places with no nests at the beginning of the study, despite being suitable for nesting, were used as controls. Similar to other chimpanzee study sites, nests were highly concentrated in some parts of the landscape. Issa chimpanzees preferred to nest on slopes. They extensively used the woodland vegetation type of their habitat for nesting throughout the annual cycle. Ninety percent of nest sites were used repeatedly throughout the study period, but none of the control places had nests during this period. The results indicate that chimpanzees ranged more widely during the dry season, when food abundance was lowest, food was available mainly in open vegetation types, and when drinking water was restricted to a few sources. Early hominins in similar habitats may have followed the ranging strategy of Issa chimpanzees. As with a previous study, the distribution of nests was spatially similar to archaeological distributions in early hominin sites. Hominin topography and vegetation type preferences may be misrepresented in the archaeological record. Nest sites may have been the antecedents of carcass processing sites. PMID:19744699

  7. Survey of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Southeastern Sénégal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, J D; Marchant, L F; Arno, J; McGrew, W C

    2002-09-01

    A survey of the western subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) was conducted from 1 February to 9 April 2000 in Sénégal, West Africa, by the Miami Assirik Pan Project (MAPP). In addition to the Assirik area of the Parc National du Niokolo Koba (PNNK), areas south and east of the park were surveyed. Nests made by chimpanzees were used to estimate chimpanzee distribution and densities. Within the PNNK, chimpanzees were estimated to occur at an average of 0.13 individuals/km(2). Chimpanzee nests were recorded in nine of 10 locales surveyed outside of the PNNK, as well as within the park. Data on 994 nests made by chimpanzees were recorded outside the PNNK, while 736 nests were recorded inside the park. Nest density in areas surveyed outside the PNNK, such as Bandafassi, Tomboronkoto, and Segou, was comparable to that of Assirik in habitats where nests were concentrated (i.e., evergreen gallery forest). The purpose of MAPP was to initiate long-term research of chimpanzees in southeastern Sénégal, as a follow-up to the Stirling African Primate Project (SAPP) of the 1970s. We sought to replicate the standards set by the SAPP project, except when technological innovations allowed improvement in data collection procedures (e.g., the global positioning system (GPS)). PMID:12325117

  8. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

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    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  9. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. PMID:25256960

  10. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  11. CD4+ T Cells Are Not Required for Suppression of Hepatitis B Virus Replication in the Liver of Vaccinated Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynska, Jolanta; Campbell, Katherine; Kamili, Saleem; Locarnini, Stephen; Krawczynski, Krzysztof; Walker, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Humans vaccinated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) sometimes develop humoral and cellular immunity to HBV proteins such as core and polymerase that are not vaccine components, providing indirect evidence that vaccine-induced immunity is not sterilizing. We previously described CD4(+) T-cell immunity against HBsAg and polymerase in chimpanzees after vaccination and HBV challenge. Here, vaccinated chimpanzees with protective levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies were rechallenged with HBV after antibody-mediated CD4(+) T-cell depletion. HBV DNA was detected in liver for at least 3 months after rechallenge, but virus replication was suppressed, as revealed by the absence of HBV DNA and HBsAg in serum. These observations provide direct virological evidence for nonsterilizing immunity in individuals with anti-HBsAg antibodies and are consistent with translation of HBV proteins to prime immune responses. They also indicate that CD4(+) T cells were not required for suppression of HBV replication in previously vaccinated individuals. PMID:26324781

  12. Displacement behaviors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A neurogenomics investigation of the RDoC Negative Valence Systems domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Young, Larry J; Hopkins, William D

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to systematically investigate genetic and neuroanatomical correlates of individual variation in scratching behaviors, a well-validated animal-behavioral indicator of negative emotional states with clear links to the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) response to potential harm ("anxiety") construct within the Negative Valence Systems domain. Utilizing data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we (a) examined the association between scratching and presence or absence of the RS3-containing DupB element in the AVPR1A 5' flanking region, (b) utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify gray matter (GM) voxel clusters that differentiated AVPR1A genotype, and (c) conducted a VBM-guided voxel-of-interest analysis to examine the association between GM intensity and scratching. AVPR1A evidenced sexually dimorphic associations with scratching. VBM analyses revealed significant differences in GM by genotype across twelve clusters largely in the frontal cortex. Regions differentiating AVPR1A genotype showed sex-specific associations with scratching. Results suggest that sexually dimorphic associations between AVPR1A and scratching may be explained by genotype-specific neuroanatomical variation. The current study provides an example of the way in which chimpanzee research is uniquely poised for multilevel, systematic investigations of psychopathology-relevant constructs within the context of the RDoC framework. PMID:26877126

  13. The impact of atypical early histories on pet or performer chimpanzees

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    Hani D. Freeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that an animal’s early history, including but not limited to its rearing history, can have a profound impact on later behavior. In the case of captive animals, many studies have used categorical measures such as mother reared or human reared that do not account for both the influence of human and conspecific interaction. In order to account for the influence of both human and conspecific early exposure to later behavior, we collected 1385 h of data on 60 chimpanzees, of which 36 were former pets or performers, currently housed at accredited zoos or sanctuaries. We developed a unique metric, the Chimpanzee-Human Interaction (CHI Index that represented a continuous measure of the proportion of human and chimpanzee exposure subjects experienced and here focused on their exposure during the first four years of life. We found that chimpanzees who experienced less exposure to other chimpanzees as infants showed a lower frequency of grooming and sexual behaviors later in life which can influence social dynamics within groups. We also found chimpanzees who experienced more exposure to other chimpanzees as infants showed a higher frequency of coprophagy, suggesting coprophagy could be a socially-learned behavior. These results help characterize some of the long-term effects borne by chimpanzees maintained as pets and performers and may help inform managers seeking to integrate these types of chimpanzees into larger social groups, as in zoos and sanctuaries. In addition, these results highlight the necessity of taking into account the time-weighted influence of human and conspecific interactions when assessing the impact that humans can have on animals living in captivity.

  14. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D;

    2014-01-01

    two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N=24) and male (N=12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14-47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females' estrous state-a potential influence on cognitive reasoning-by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally...... tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel...

  15. Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S; Yamakoshi, G; Fujita, S; Ohashi, G; Matsuzawa, T

    2001-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were observed capturing and toying with western tree hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis, Order Hyracoidea) at Bossou, Guinea. An adolescent female carried one hyrax for 15 hr, slept with it in her nest, and groomed it. The captive was not consumed. Nearby adults ignored the hyrax. In another case, two adolescent males timidly inspected a small hyrax. These observations indicate that the chimpanzees at Bossou do not regard the hyrax as a prey animal, supporting the idea that lack of opportunity does not seem to be the only reason that chimpanzees do not consume an individual of a potential prey species. PMID:11170171

  16. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R;

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees are naturally and asymptomatically infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Pathogenic properties of SIV/HIV vary and differences in susceptibility and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV depend in part on host-specific factors such as virus-receptor/co-receptor interactions. Since CD4...... plays a primary role in virus binding and since SIVcpz have been found only in two African chimpanzee subspecies, we characterized the genetic diversity of CD4 receptors in all four recognized subspecies of chimpanzees. We found noticeable variation in the first variable region V1 of CD4 and in intron...

  17. Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels

    OpenAIRE

    Britten, Roy J.

    2002-01-01

    Five chimpanzee bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences (described in GenBank) have been compared with the best matching regions of the human genome sequence to assay the amount and kind of DNA divergence. The conclusion is the old saw that we share 98.5% of our DNA sequence with chimpanzee is probably in error. For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA. In this sample of 779 kb, the divergence due to bas...

  18. Delay of Gratification by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Working and Waiting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested four chimpanzees in a self-control task in which food rewards accumulated as long as they were not eaten. In one condition, the chimpanzees had to perform a computer task that directly led to the delivery of the food rewards. In another condition, working on the computerized task was not required and any such work was not linked to the delivery of rewards. The third condition offered no computerized task (chimpanzees simply waited for food rewards to be delivered). Three of four chi...

  19. Psychological health of orphan bonobos and chimpanzees in African sanctuaries.

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    Victoria Wobber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities across Africa care for apes orphaned by the trade for "bushmeat." These facilities, called sanctuaries, provide housing for apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes who have been illegally taken from the wild and sold as pets. Although these circumstances are undoubtedly stressful for the apes, most individuals arrive at the sanctuaries as infants and are subsequently provided with rich physical and social environments that can facilitate the expression of species-typical behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested whether bonobo and chimpanzee orphans living in sanctuaries show any behavioral, physiological, or cognitive abnormalities relative to other individuals in captivity as a result of the early-life stress they experience. Orphans showed lower levels of aberrant behaviors, similar levels of average cortisol, and highly similar performances on a broad battery of cognitive tests in comparisons with individuals of the same species who were either living at a zoo or were reared by their mothers at the sanctuaries. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results support the rehabilitation strategy used by sanctuaries in the Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA and suggest that the orphans we examined did not show long-term signs of stress as a result of their capture. Our findings also show that sanctuary apes are as psychologically healthy as apes in other captive settings and thus represent a valuable resource for non-invasive research.

  20. Ant fishing by wild chimpanzees is not lateralised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, L F; McGrew, W C

    2007-01-01

    Right-dominant handedness is unique and universal in Homo sapiens, suggesting that it is a highly derived trait. Our nearest living relations, chimpanzees, show lateralised hand preference when using tools, but not when otherwise manipulating objects. We report the first contrary data, that is, non-lateralised tool-use, for ant fishing as done in the Mahale Mountains of Tanzania. Unlike nut cracking, termite fishing, and fruit pounding, as seen elsewhere, in which most individuals are either significantly or wholly left- or right-biassed, ant fishers are mostly ambilateral. The clue to this exception lies in arboreality; all other patterns of chimpanzee elementary technology are done on the ground. Arboreal tool use usually requires not only that one hand be used to hold the tool, but also that the other hand gives postural support. When the supporting hand is fatigued, then it must be relieved by the other. Terrestrial tool use entails no such trading off. To test the hypothesis, we compared frequency of hand changing with the incidence of major hand support, and found them to be significantly positively correlated. The evolutionary transition from arboreality to terrestriality may have been a key enabler for the origins of human laterality. PMID:17106789

  1. Origins of De Novo Genes in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Albà, M Mar

    2015-12-01

    The birth of new genes is an important motor of evolutionary innovation. Whereas many new genes arise by gene duplication, others originate at genomic regions that did not contain any genes or gene copies. Some of these newly expressed genes may acquire coding or non-coding functions and be preserved by natural selection. However, it is yet unclear which is the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of de novo gene emergence. In order to obtain a comprehensive view of this process, we have performed in-depth sequencing of the transcriptomes of four mammalian species--human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse--and subsequently compared the assembled transcripts and the corresponding syntenic genomic regions. This has resulted in the identification of over five thousand new multiexonic transcriptional events in human and/or chimpanzee that are not observed in the rest of species. Using comparative genomics, we show that the expression of these transcripts is associated with the gain of regulatory motifs upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) and of U1 snRNP sites downstream of the TSS. In general, these transcripts show little evidence of purifying selection, suggesting that many of them are not functional. However, we find signatures of selection in a subset of de novo genes which have evidence of protein translation. Taken together, the data support a model in which frequently-occurring new transcriptional events in the genome provide the raw material for the evolution of new proteins. PMID:26720152

  2. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  3. Third-party postconflict affiliation of aggressors in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M

    2011-04-01

    Postconflict management strategies have been defined as any postconflict interaction that mitigates the negative consequences of the preceding agonistic conflict. Although most studies have investigated postconflict interactions between former opponents or between victims and uninvolved bystanders, interactions between aggressors and bystanders have received much less attention. In this study, we examined a database of 1,102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees in order to test the occurrence of postconflict third-party affiliation of aggressors. Our results confirmed the occurrence of appeasement, i.e. postconflict affiliation by a bystander toward an aggressor, but failed to detect the occurrence of postconflict affiliation directed from aggressors toward bystanders. Appeasement rates did not differ according to the sex of the involved individuals. In addition, appeasement occurred more often in the absence of reconciliation than after its occurrence suggesting that appeasement may act as an alternative to reconciliation when the latter fails to occur. Both study groups showed behavioral specificity for appeasement, i.e. context-specific use of certain behaviors, supporting the view that chimpanzees exhibit highly visible explicit postconflict affiliation. PMID:21328598

  4. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. PMID:24086688

  5. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Gruber

    Full Text Available Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  6. Pasteurella multocida involved in respiratory disease of wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Köndgen

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes.

  7. Memory for distant past events in chimpanzees and orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Berntsen, Dorthe; Call, Josep

    2013-08-01

    Determining the memory systems that support nonhuman animals' capacity to remember distant past events is currently the focus an intense research effort and a lively debate [1-3]. Comparative psychology has largely adopted Tulving's framework by focusing on whether animals remember what-where-when something happened (i.e., episodic-like memory) [4-6]. However, apes have also been reported to recall other episodic components [7] after single-trial exposures [8, 9]. Using a new experimental paradigm we show that chimpanzees and orangutans recalled a tool-finding event that happened four times 3 years earlier (experiment 1) and a tool-finding unique event that happened once 2 weeks earlier (experiment 2). Subjects were able to distinguish these events from other tool-finding events, which indicates binding of relevant temporal-spatial components. Like in human involuntary autobiographical memory, a cued, associative retrieval process triggered apes' memories: when presented with a particular setup, subjects instantaneously remembered not only where to search for the tools (experiment 1), but also the location of the tool seen only once (experiment 2). The complex nature of the events retrieved, the unexpected and fast retrieval, the long retention intervals involved, and the detection of binding strongly suggest that chimpanzees and orangutans' memories for past events mirror some of the features of human autobiographical memory. PMID:23871242

  8. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warimwe, George M; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K; Al-dubaib, Musaad A; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A 'One Health' vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  9. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic, and...... Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest that this...

  10. An evaluation of nest-building behavior by sanctuary chimpanzees with access to forested habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Amy; Brent, Linda; Breaux, Sarah D; Grand, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    All of the great apes build nests, but captive chimpanzees rarely have vegetation from which to build nests. The forested environment at Chimp Haven does allow captive chimpanzees to build nests of natural vegetation. Between February 2007 and December 2010, 238 nests were found in 2 forested habitats. Nests were made of naturally available vegetation, and more nests were made on the ground than in the trees (Z = 7.27, p nests were also built in the interior forest rather than on the periphery (Z = 7.06, p nests built per chimpanzee (rs = -0.07, p = 0.52). More nests were observed when more wild-born females were in the group (rs = 0.27, p = 0.01), and during warmer temperatures (rs = 0.45, p chimpanzees. PMID:24081200

  11. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  12. Human fibroblasts display a differential focal adhesion phenotype relative to chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Alexander S; Chen, Annie Y; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of documented differences between humans and our closest relatives in responses to wound healing and in disease susceptibilities, suggesting a differential cellular response to certain environmental factors. In this study, we sought to look at a specific cell type, fibroblasts, to examine differences in cellular adhesion between humans and chimpanzees in visualized cells and in gene expression. We have found significant differences in the number of focal adhesions between primary human and chimpanzee fibroblasts. Additionally, we see that adhesion related gene ontology categories are some of the most differentially expressed between human and chimpanzee in normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that human and chimpanzee fibroblasts may have somewhat different adhesive properties, which could play a role in differential disease phenotypes and responses to external factors. PMID:26971204

  13. Chimpanzees' Bystander Reactions to Infanticide: An Evolutionary Precursor of Social Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohr, Claudia Rudolf; van Schaik, Carel P; Kissling, Alexandra; Burkart, Judith M

    2015-06-01

    Social norms-generalized expectations about how others should behave in a given context-implicitly guide human social life. However, their existence becomes explicit when they are violated because norm violations provoke negative reactions, even from personally uninvolved bystanders. To explore the evolutionary origin of human social norms, we presented chimpanzees with videos depicting a putative norm violation: unfamiliar conspecifics engaging in infanticidal attacks on an infant chimpanzee. The chimpanzees looked far longer at infanticide scenes than at control videos showing nut cracking, hunting a colobus monkey, or displays and aggression among adult males. Furthermore, several alternative explanations for this looking pattern could be ruled out. However, infanticide scenes did not generally elicit higher arousal. We propose that chimpanzees as uninvolved bystanders may detect norm violations but may restrict emotional reactions to such situations to in-group contexts. We discuss the implications for the evolution of human morality. PMID:26108616

  14. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-01

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  15. The evolution of shelter: ecology and ethology of chimpanzee nest building

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Fiona Anne

    2011-01-01

    Human beings of all cultures build some form of shelter, and the global distribution of Homo sapiens depends on this basic trait. All great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan) build analogous structures (called nests or beds) at least once a day throughout their adult lives, which suggests that this elementary technology was present before the hominid lines separated. This thesis investigates the variability and function of specifically wild chimpanzee shelters. I compared ch...

  16. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)Population Density and Abundance in Kibira National Park,Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Hakizimana, Dismas; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Successful conservation and management strategy of wild animals usually starts by assessing their population size. This is of particular relevance in areas submitted to long periods of human conflicts which is the case of Burundi. A census of chimpanzee populations was made throughout Kibira National Park between September 2011 and February 2013 to provide reliable information on density estimates of chimpanzees inhabiting the forest. The method was based on marked nest counts from line trans...

  17. Tool-use to obtain honey by chimpanzees at Bulindi: new record from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2011-10-01

    Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost. PMID:21633915

  18. Amplification of a Complete Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Genome from Fecal RNA of a Wild Chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, ML; Bibollet-Ruche, F.; Bailes, E; Kamenya, S; Muller, MN; Lukasik, M; Pusey, AE; Collins, DA; Wrangham, RW; Goodall, J.; Shaw, GM; Sharp, PM; Hahn, BH

    2003-01-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is incomplete since few isolates, mostly from captive apes from Cameroon and Gabon, have been characterized; yet this information is critical for understanding the origins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the circumstances leading to the HIV-1 pandemic. Here, we report the first full-length SIVcpz sequence (TAN1) from a wild chimpanzee (Pan tro...

  19. Pathologic lesions in chimpanzees (Pan trogylodytes schweinfurthii) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Karen A; Kinsel, Michael J; Raphael, Jane; Mlengeya, Titus; Lipende, Iddi; Kirchhoff, Claire A; Gilagiza, Baraka; Wilson, Michael L; Kamenya, Shadrack; Estes, Jacob D; Keele, Brandon F; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Liu, Weimin; Patton, Sharon; Collins, Anthony; Hahn, Beatrice H; Travis, Dominic A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-12-01

    During a population decline or disease outbreak, the true risk of specific diseases to a wild population is often difficult to determine because of a lack of baseline disease information. To better understand the risk of disease in an endangered and scientifically important population of chimpanzees (Pan trogylodytes schweinfurthii), a health monitoring program was initiated in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. As part of this health monitoring program, comprehensive necropsies with histopathology were conducted on chimpanzees (n = 11; 5 male, 6 female), ranging in age from fetal to 44 yr, that were found dead between August 2004 and January 2010. In contrast to previous reports, respiratory disease was not noted as a cause of morbidity or mortality. Trauma was the most common cause of death in these 11 chimpanzees. All of the chimpanzees greater than 1 yr of age had intestinal and mesenteric parasitic granulomas associated with true strongyles consistent with Oesophagostomum spp. The relative numbers of granulomas increased with age and, in some cases, may have been a cause of weight loss and diarrhea. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)cpz infection was documented in four deceased apes, all of whom exhibited varying amounts of lymphoid depletion including two females with marked CD4+ T cell loss consistent with endstage SIVmac or human immunodeficiency virus infections. Myocardial megalokaryosis was common in chimpanzees greater than 1 mo of age; yet myocardial interstitial fibrosis, a common lesion in captive chimpanzees, was uncommon and only noted in two aged chimpanzees. These findings provide important information on causes of morbidity and mortality in wild chimpanzees, information that can be used to interpret findings during population declines and lead to better management of this population in the context of disease risk. PMID:22204054

  20. Chimpanzee vocal signaling points to a multimodal origin of human language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared P Taglialatela

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origin of human language and its neurobiological foundations has long been the object of intense scientific debate. Although a number of theories have been proposed, one particularly contentious model suggests that human language evolved from a manual gestural communication system in a common ape-human ancestor. Consistent with a gestural origins theory are data indicating that chimpanzees intentionally and referentially communicate via manual gestures, and the production of manual gestures, in conjunction with vocalizations, activates the chimpanzee Broca's area homologue--a region in the human brain that is critical for the planning and execution of language. However, it is not known if this activity observed in the chimpanzee Broca's area is the result of the chimpanzees producing manual communicative gestures, communicative sounds, or both. This information is critical for evaluating the theory that human language evolved from a strictly manual gestural system. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (PET to examine the neural metabolic activity in the chimpanzee brain. We collected PET data in 4 subjects, all of whom produced manual communicative gestures. However, 2 of these subjects also produced so-called attention-getting vocalizations directed towards a human experimenter. Interestingly, only the two subjects that produced these attention-getting sounds showed greater mean metabolic activity in the Broca's area homologue as compared to a baseline scan. The two subjects that did not produce attention-getting sounds did not. These data contradict an exclusive "gestural origins" theory for they suggest that it is vocal signaling that selectively activates the Broca's area homologue in chimpanzees. In other words, the activity observed in the Broca's area homologue reflects the production of vocal signals by the chimpanzees, suggesting that this critical human language region was involved in vocal signaling in

  1. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments,...

  2. Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cloutier, Christina T.; COXWORTH, JAMES E.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Similarity in oldest parturitions in humans and great apes suggests that we maintain ancestral rates of ovarian aging. Consistent with that hypothesis, previous counts of primordial follicles in postmortem ovarian sections from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed follicle stock decline at the same rate that human stocks decline across the same ages. Here, we correct that finding with a chimpanzee sample more than three times larger than the previous one, which also allows comparison into old...

  3. Comparative Feeding Ecology of Two Chimpanzee Communities in Kibale National Park (Uganda)

    OpenAIRE

    Wrangham, Richard W.; Potts, Kevin B.; David P Watts

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have documented considerable intraspecific and intrapopulation ecological variation in primates. However, we generally lack an understanding of how such variability may be linked to concomitant demographic variation among groups and/or populations of the same species, particularly in regards to large-bodied and wide-ranging species with high ecological flexibility, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We compared the feeding ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting two sites...

  4. Placing confidence limits on the molecular age of the human–chimpanzee divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sudhir; Filipski, Alan; Swarna, Vinod; Walker, Alan; Hedges, S. Blair

    2005-01-01

    Molecular clocks have been used to date the divergence of humans and chimpanzees for nearly four decades. Nonetheless, this date and its confidence interval remain to be firmly established. In an effort to generate a genomic view of the human–chimpanzee divergence, we have analyzed 167 nuclear protein-coding genes and built a reliable confidence interval around the calculated time by applying a multifactor bootstrap-resampling approach. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of neutral DNA ...

  5. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Greve; Evguenia Alechine; Pasantes, Juan J.; Christine Hodler; Wolfram Rietschel; Robinson, Terence J.; Werner Schempp

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in go...

  6. Molecular cloning of a family of retroviral sequences found in chimpanzee but not human DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, T I; Birkenmeier, E. H.; Gonda, M A; Mark, G E; Searfoss, G H; Todaro, G J

    1982-01-01

    A number of retrovirus-like sequences have been cloned from chimpanzee DNA which constitute the chimpanzee homologs of the endogenous colobus type C virus CPC-1. One of the clones contains a nearly complete viral genome, but others have sustained deletions of 1 to 2 kilobases in the polymerase gene. The pattern of related sequences detected in other primate species is consistent with the genetic transmission of these sequences for millions of years. However, the appropriately related sequence...

  7. Genetic Analysis of Putative Familial Relationships in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Population

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Renato; Lorenz, Joseph; Beck, Jeanne; Else, James; Bender, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Twelve autosomal dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed in chimpanzees genomes by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. The markers span the entire length of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Nine markers were polymorphic in chimpanzee as well, with a somewhat comparable level of polymorphism and allele size range. Even in the presence of very limited information and in spite of missing samples, it was possible to reconstruct a complex pedigree and to provide molecul...

  8. Language-Trained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Delay Gratification by Choosing Token Exchange Over Immediate Reward Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Token exchange inherently introduces an element of delay between behavior and reward and so token studies may help us better understand delay of gratification and self-control. To examine this possibility, we presented three language-trained chimpanzees with repeated choices involving different foods that could be eaten immediately or lexigram (graphic symbol) tokens that represented (and could be traded for) foods later. When both options were foods, chimpanzees always chose more preferred f...

  9. Morphometric Variables Related to Metabolic Profile in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Marcia CR; Higgins, Paul B.; Mattern, Vicki L; Garza, Melissa A De La; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, trig...

  10. Mechanisms influencing friendship in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Kinship, familiarity or personality trait similarity?

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Julia Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally the term ‘friendship’ in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) research has been avoided. Yet descriptions of close affiliative bonds similar to those described in human friendships have been well documented. The present study aimed to prove the existence of chimpanzee friendship, by considering whether there are similar mechanisms to those which have been implicated in the formation of human friendships, kinship and the residual effects of two kin recognition mechanisms; familiarity and...

  11. A novel herpesvirus in the sanctuary chimpanzees on Ngamba Island in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Leendertz, Fabian; Opuda-Asibo, John; Olobo, J.O.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies in non-human primates have led to the discovery of novel primate herpesviruses. In order to get more information on herpesvirus infections in apes, we studied wild born captive chimpanzees. Methods: Chimpanzees of the Ngamba island sanctuary, Uganda, were analyzed with pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene. The obtained sequences were connected by long-distance PCR, and analyzed phylogen...

  12. Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Elfriede Kalcher-Sommersguter; Signe Preuschoft; Cornelia Franz-Schaider; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Karl Crailsheim; Jorg J. M. Massen

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of early adverse experiences on later psychosocial functioning are well described in humans, but sparsely documented for chimpanzees. In our earlier studies, we investigated the effects of maternal and social deprivation on three groups of ex-laboratory chimpanzees who experienced either an early or later onset of long-term deprivation. Here we expand our research by adding data on subjects that came from two stable zoo groups. The groups comprised of early maternally de...

  13. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ashlynn Dube; Marjanne Kameka; Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studi...

  14. Handedness Is Associated with Asymmetries in Gyrification of the Cerebral Cortex of Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Cantalupo, Claudio; Taglialatela, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Gyrification of the cerebral cortex reflects complexity in cortical folding during development of the brain. In this paper, we evaluated whether chimpanzees show asymmetries in gyrification and if variation in gyrification asymmetries were associated with handedness. Magnetic resonance images were obtained in a sample of 76 chimpanzees, and gyrification measures were obtained from 10 equally spaced slices of the cortex. Asymmetry quotients (AQs) in gyrification were compared for 4 measures of...

  15. Asymmetries of the Parietal Operculum in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Relation to Handedness for Tool Use

    OpenAIRE

    Gilissen, Emmanuel P.; Hopkins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    A left larger than right planum temporale (PT) is a neuroanatomical asymmetry common to both humans and chimpanzees. A similar asymmetry was observed in the human parietal operculum (PO), and the convergence of PT and PO asymmetries is strongly associated with right-handedness. Here, we assessed whether this combination also exists in common chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained in 83 captive subjects. PT was quantified following procedures previously employed and PO was defined...

  16. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Are Predominantly Right-Handed: Replication in Three Populations of Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Wesley, Michael J.; Izard, M. Kay; Hook, Michelle; Steven J. Schapiro

    2004-01-01

    Population-level right-handedness has historically been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Even though recent studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have demonstrated population-level right-handedness for certain behaviors, some have questioned the validity and consistency of these findings by arguing that reported laterality effects are specific to certain colonies of apes and to those chimpanzees reared by humans. The authors report evidence of population-level right-handedness in ...

  17. A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Heterochrony in the Cranium of Chimpanzees and Bonobos

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Daniel Eric; Carlo, Julian; Ponce de Leon, Marcia; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, there remains a lack of consensus on the extent to which bonobos are paedomorphic (juvenilized) chimpanzees in terms of cranial morphology. This study reexamines the issue by comparing the ontogeny of cranial shape in cross-sectional samples of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using both internal and external 3D landmarks digitized from CT scans. Geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify shape and size; dental-maturation ...

  18. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Gabriele; Alechine, Evguenia; Pasantes, Juan J.; Hodler, Christine; Rietschel, Wolfram; Robinson, Terence J; Schempp, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gor...

  19. A cognitive approach to the study of culture in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud

    2011-01-01

    The question of animal culture has been of interest for decades. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have played a key role in the debate of whether or not it is appropriate to use the term ‘culture’ to describe animal behaviour and they continue to be one of the prime species for the study of the origins of human culture. Data suggesting that chimpanzees can be considered a cultural species continue to accumulate, but this has only enhanced the debate between proponents and opponent...

  20. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individ...

  1. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  2. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  3. Arboreal nesting as anti-predator adaptation by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in southeastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, J D; Fulton, S J; Marchant, L F; McGrew, W C; Schiel, M; Waller, M

    2008-04-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) make nests for resting and sleeping, which is unusual for anthropoid primates but common to all great apes. Arboreal nesting has been linked to predation pressure, but few studies have tested the adaptive nature of this behavior. We collected data at two chimpanzee study sites in southeastern Senegal that differed in predator presence to test the hypothesis that elevated sleeping platforms are adaptations for predator defense. At Assirik in the Parc National du Niokolo-Koba, chimpanzees face four species of large carnivore, whereas at Fongoli, outside national park boundaries, humans have exterminated almost all natural predators. We quantified the availability of vegetation at the two sites to test the alternative hypothesis that differences in nesting reflect differences in habitat structure. We also examined possible sex differences in nesting behavior, community demographic differences, seasonality and nest age differences as variables also potentially affecting nest characteristics and nesting behavior between the two sites. Chimpanzees at Fongoli nested at lower heights and farther apart than did chimpanzees at Assirik and sometimes made nests on the ground. The absence of predators outside of the national park may account for the differences in nest characteristics at the two sites, given the similarities in habitat structure between Fongoli and Assirik. However, Fongoli chimpanzees regularly build arboreal nests for sleeping, even under minimal predation pressure, and this requires explanation. PMID:18161774

  4. Asymmetries of the parietal operculum in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in relation to handedness for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Emmanuel P; Hopkins, William D

    2013-02-01

    A left larger than right planum temporale (PT) is a neuroanatomical asymmetry common to both humans and chimpanzees. A similar asymmetry was observed in the human parietal operculum (PO), and the convergence of PT and PO asymmetries is strongly associated with right-handedness. Here, we assessed whether this combination also exists in common chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained in 83 captive subjects. PT was quantified following procedures previously employed and PO was defined as the maximal linear distance between the end point of the sylvian fissure and the central sulcus. Handedness was assessed using 2 tasks that were designed to simulate termite fishing of wild chimpanzees and to elicit bimanual coordination without tool use. Chimpanzees showed population-level leftward asymmetries for both PT and PO. As in humans, these leftward asymmetries were not correlated. Handedness for tool use but not for nontool use motor actions mediated the expression of asymmetries in PT and PO, with right-handed apes showing more pronounced leftward asymmetries. Consistent PT and PO asymmetry combinations were observed in chimpanzees. The proportions of individuals showing these combinations were comparable in humans and chimpanzees; however, interaction between handedness and patterns of combined PO and PT asymmetries differed between the 2 species. PMID:22368087

  5. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette; Call, Josep; Morgan, David

    2009-06-23

    Adopting the approach taken with New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides), we present evidence of design complexity in one of the termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Prior to termite fishing, chimpanzees applied a set of deliberate, distinguishable actions to modify herb stems to fashion a brush-tipped probe, which is different from the form of fishing tools used by chimpanzees in East and West Africa. This means that 'brush-tipped fishing probes', unlike 'brush sticks', are not a by-product of use but a deliberate design feature absent in other chimpanzee populations. The specialized modifications to prepare the tool for termite fishing, measures taken to repair non-functional brushes and appropriate orientation of the modified end suggest that these wild chimpanzees are attentive to tool modifications. We also conducted experimental trials that showed that a brush-tipped probe is more effective in gathering insects than an unmodified fishing probe. Based on these findings, we suggest that chimpanzees in the Congo Basin have developed an improved fishing probe design. PMID:19324641

  6. Chimpanzee deaths at Mahale caused by a flu-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamura, Shunkichi; Kiyono, Mieko; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mlengeya, Titus; Fujimoto, Mariko; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2008-01-01

    A flu-like disease spread among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the M group at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, from June to July 2006. This epizootic or epidemic killed up to 12 chimpanzees. The obvious evidence of their deaths came from finding the bodies of three infants who had previously shown some symptoms of the disease. At least one of these infants died of pneumonia. In addition, nine chimpanzees were missing after the outbreak. These individuals were assumed to have been killed by this epizootic because most of them had contact with the infected individuals on the last days they were observed. We also found two dead bodies during this period, which were thought to be those of two missing individuals. We confirmed 23 (35.4%) of 65 individuals of the M group showed some symptoms of the disease, although most of them (20/23) did not die. More than half of them (14/23) had kin showing symptoms. Since this epizootic may have been caused by contact with humans, it will be necessary to establish and follow appropriate protocols for researchers, tourists, and park staff to observe chimpanzees, and to explore the mechanism of disease transmission from humans to chimpanzees and among chimpanzees. PMID:17721678

  7. Comparison of diaphyseal growth between the Libben Population and the Hamann-Todd chimpanzee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S W; Russell, K F; Lovejoy, C O

    1996-01-01

    The differences in limb lengths and proportions between humans and chimpanzees are widely known. Humans have relatively shorter forelimbs and longer hind limbs than chimpanzees. Humans have a longer period of long bone formation than chimpanzees. Recent advances in estimating age-at-death in chimpanzees from their dentition have allowed us to reexamine long bone growth in chimpanzees using their skeletal remains and compare it with similar data for humans. A chronological normalization procedure allowing direct interspecific comparison of long bone growth is presented. The preadult chimpanzee sample (n = 43) is from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. All human specimens (n = 202) are from the late Woodland Libben Population currently housed at Kent State University. Relying on these cross-sectional data, we conclude that both species elongate their femora at similar absolute (length per unit time) but different relative (length relative to normalized dental age) rates. The species differ in the absolute growth rate of the humerus but share a common normalized rate of growth. Forelimb segment proportion differences between species are due to differential elongation rates of the segments. Hind limb diaphyseal proportions are the same in both species, which suggests that changes in segment length are proportional. Therefore, alternative developmental mechanisms exist in these closely related species which can produce changes in limb length. PMID:8928724

  8. Microsatellite allele frequencies in humans and chimpanzees, with implications for constraints on allele size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, J C; Slatkin, M; Freimer, N B

    1995-07-01

    The distributions of allele sizes at eight simple-sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite loci in chimpanzees are found and compared with the distributions previously obtained from several human populations. At several loci, the differences in average allele size between chimpanzees and humans are sufficiently small that there might be a constraint on the evolution of average allele size. Furthermore, a model that allows for a bias in the mutation process shows that for some loci a weak bias can account for the observations. Several alleles at one of the loci (Mfd 59) were sequenced. Differences between alleles of different lengths were found to be more complex than previously assumed. An 8-base-pair deletion was present in the nonvariable region of the chimpanzee locus. This locus contains a previously unrecognized repeated region, which is imperfect in humans and perfect in chimpanzees. The apparently greater opportunity for mutation conferred by the two perfect repeat regions in chimpanzees is reflected in the higher variance in repeat number at Mfd 59 in chimpanzees than in humans. These data indicate that interspecific differences in allele length are not always attributable to simple changes in the number of repeats. PMID:7659015

  9. Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: the influence of morphology on locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, D M

    1993-05-01

    Results from a 10 month study of adult male and female bonobos (Pan paniscus) in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, and those from a 7 month study of adult male and female chimpanzees in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast (Pan troglodytes verus), were compared in order to determine whether there are species differences in locomotor behavior and substrate use and, if so, whether these differences support predictions made on the basis of interspecific morphological differences. Results indicate that bonobos are more arboreal than chimpanzees and that male bonobos are more suspensory than their chimpanzee counterpart. This would be predicted on the basis of male bonobo's longer and more narrow scapula. This particular finding is contrary to the prediction that the bonobo is a "scaled reduced version of a chimpanzee" with little or no positional behavior difference as had been suggested. This study provides the behavioral data necessary to untangle contradictory interpretations of the morphological differences between chimpanzees and bonobos, and raises a previously discussed (Fleagle: Size and Scaling in Primate Biology, pp. 1-19, 1985) but frequently overlooked point--that isometry in allometric studies does not necessarily equate with behavioral equivalence. Several researchers have demonstrated that bonobos and chimpanzees follow the same scaling trends for many features, and are in some sense functionally equivalent, since they manage to feed and reproduce. However, as reflected in their morphologies, they do so through different types and frequencies of locomotor behaviors. PMID:8512056

  10. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Boesch, H

    1989-04-01

    Hunting is often considered one of the major behaviors that shaped early hominids' evolution, along with the shift toward a drier and more open habitat. We suggest that a precise comparison of the hunting behavior of a species closely related to man might help us understand which aspects of hunting could be affected by environmental conditions. The hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees is discussed, and new observations on a population living in the tropical rain forest of the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, are presented. Some of the forest chimpanzees' hunting performances are similar to those of savanna-woodlands populations; others are different. Forest chimpanzees have a more specialized prey image, intentionally search for more adult prey, and hunt in larger groups and with a more elaborate cooperative level than savanna-woodlands chimpanzees. In addition, forest chimpanzees tend to share meat more actively and more frequently. These findings are related to some theories on aspects of hunting behavior in early hominids and discussed in order to understand some factors influencing the hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees. Finally, the hunting behavior of primates is compared with that of social carnivores. PMID:2540662

  11. The malagarasi river does not form an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movement in Western Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Piel

    Full Text Available The Malagarasi River has long been thought to be a barrier to chimpanzee movements in western Tanzania. This potential geographic boundary could affect chimpanzee ranging behavior, population connectivity and pathogen transmission, and thus has implications for conservation strategies and government policy. Indeed, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons it was recently argued that chimpanzees from communities to the north and to the south of the Malagarasi are surprisingly distantly related, suggesting that the river prevents gene flow. To investigate this, we conducted a survey along the Malagarasi River. We found a ford comprised of rocks that researchers could cross on foot. On a trail leading to this ford, we collected 13 fresh fecal samples containing chimpanzee DNA, two of which tested positive for SIVcpz. We also found chimpanzee feces within the riverbed. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the Malagarasi River is not an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movements and communities from the areas to the north and south should be considered a single population. These results have important consequences for our understanding of gene flow, disease dynamics and conservation management.

  12. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 11/2 years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 21/2 years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 11/2 years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied

  13. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-03-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2/sup 1///sub 2/ years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied.

  14. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahou, Bram; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank; Sá, Rui M; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Mulama, Martin; Kiang, John; Rossi, Mirko; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-11-01

    A number of Helicobacter species cause gastrointestinal or hepatic disease in humans, including H. pylori, gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters from animal origin and enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Little is known on the presence of Helicobacter species in great apes, our closest living relatives and potential reservoirs of microorganisms that might emerge in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species in African chimpanzees and gorillas. Fresh fecal samples were collected from wild endangered chimpanzees and critically endangered western lowland gorillas from different African National Parks, as well as wild-born captive animals from primate sanctuaries. Intact Helicobacter bacteria were demonstrated in feces by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Screening using a Helicobacter genus-specific PCR revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the majority of animals in all groups. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed a high homology to sequences from various zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species, including H. cinaedi and H. canadensis. A number of gorillas and chimpanzees also tested positive using PCR assays designed to amplify part of the ureAB gene cluster and the hsp60 gene of gastric helicobacters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a putative novel zoonotic gastric Helicobacter taxon/species. For this species, we propose the name 'Candidatus Helicobacter homininae', pending isolation and further genetic characterization. The presence of several Helicobacter species not only implies a possible health threat for these endangered great apes, but also a possible zoonotic transmission of gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters from these primate reservoirs to humans. PMID:25248691

  15. Modulation of gene expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes following in vitro HIV infection: a comparison between human and chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant-Lubrano, Bénédicte; Apoil, Pol-André; Gleizes, Arnaud; Forestier, Lionel; Julien, Raymond; Winterton, Peter; Pasquier, Christophe; Izopet, Jacques; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to experimental infection by human deficiency virus (HIV)-1, but unlike humans, they exceptionally develop an immunodeficiency syndrome after HIV-1 inoculation. To explore the difference between human and chimpanzee, we analyzed the expression of 1547 genes of various functions in human or chimpanzee CD4+ lymphoblasts inoculated in vitro with HIV-1. We observed that, 1 day after HIV inoculation, fifty-eight genes were up-regulated in lymphoblasts of the three human...

  16. Cognitive aspects of travel and food location by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    Finding food in tropical forests poses a potentially major problem for chimpanzees, whose ranging is thought primarily to be directed at locating suitable food resources: (1) chimpanzees are frugivorous, large bodied and live in large home ranges; (2) they lack specialised sensory or locomotor abilities, and terrestrial travel is known to be costly; but (3) fruits are randomly distributed in space and time. Evidence from studies of captive individuals suggests chimpanzees are c...

  17. First GIS Analysis of Modern Stone Tools Used by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo; Susana Carvalho; Adrian Arroyo; Tetsuro Matsuzawa; Ignacio de la Torre

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Aut...

  18. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Hobaiter; Byrne, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Fieldwork of CH was generously supported by grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation (http://wennergren.org) and the Russell Trust. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natura...

  19. Archaea were widespread in sediments of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgel, Daniel; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) was among the most extreme and short-lived paleooceanographic events in Earth history and dramatically impacted the depositional environments of the Mediterranean. Many of the Messinian sedimentary sequences reflect environmental variability on extremely short time scales, typified by phenomena like evaporation and high salinities, anoxia, and desiccation. Only few organisms tolerate such severe conditions. Among those are archaea, many of which are especially well adapted to extreme conditions. We studied various MSC locations and deposits to shed light onto the role of archaea in the MSC, focusing on lipid biomarkers. These are (1) primary gypsum with abundant, yet problematic filamentous microfossils from various locations in the Mediterranean, (2) Calcare di Base, limestones from Sicily and Calabria, and (3) Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates associated with native sulfur from Sicily. (1) Primary gypsum beds with abundant filamentous fossils are widespread in the Mediterranean. Archaea were found as important contributor of organic matter in these evaporites. The filaments, however, have previously been interpreted to represent cyanobacteria based on the extraction and amplification of cyanobacterial DNA. Cyanobacteria produce specific and long-lasting biomarkers, but no such compounds were found in the studied deposits, thus, the assignment of the filaments to cyanobacteria necessitates further verification. (2) The Calcare di Base are widespread, genetically heterogeneous Messinian limestones, which are particularly common in Sicily and Calabria. The environmental conditions during their deposition, as well as mechanisms and timing of formation are a matter of debate. The studied Calcare di Base samples were found to contain specific halophilic archaeal signatures and numerous pseudomorphs after halite. (3) The Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates accompanied by elemental sulfur formed in the course of microbial

  20. Laterality in the gestural communication of wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    We examined hand preference in the intentional gestural communication of wild chimpanzees in the Budongo forest, Uganda. Individuals showed some tendency to be lateralized, although less than has been reported for begging and pointing gestures in captivity; on average, their absolute bias was around 0.25 (where 1.0 represents complete right- or left-hand use and 0.0 represents no bias). Lateralization was incomplete even in individuals with major manual disabilities. Where individuals had a stronger preference, this was more often toward the right hand; moreover, as age increased, the direction (but not the extent) of hand preference shifted toward the right. While the gestural repertoire as a whole was largely employed ambilateraly, object-manipulation gestures showed a strong right-hand bias. PMID:23600943

  1. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-01-01

    Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

  2. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marijke Schel

    Full Text Available Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

  3. Socially learned habituation to human observers in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Liran; Mundry, Roger; Terkel, Joseph; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Habituation to human observers is an essential tool in animal behaviour research. Habituation occurs when repeated and inconsequential exposure to a human observer gradually reduces an animal's natural aversive response. Despite the importance of habituation, little is known about the psychological mechanisms facilitating it in wild animals. Although animal learning theory offers some account, the patterns are more complex in natural than in laboratory settings, especially in large social groups in which individual experiences vary and individuals influence each other. Here, we investigate the role of social learning during the habituation process of a wild chimpanzee group, the Waibira community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Through post hoc hypothesis testing, we found that the immigration of two well-habituated, young females from the neighbouring Sonso community had a significant effect on the behaviour of non-habituated Waibira individuals towards human observers, suggesting that habituation is partially acquired via social learning. PMID:24500498

  4. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. . PMID:25546107

  5. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees. PMID:20700527

  6. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees.

  7. Natural history of Camponotus ant-fishing by the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishie, Hitonaru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data on ant-fishing behavior among the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Ant-fishing is a type of tool-using behavior that has been exhibited by Mahale chimpanzees when feeding upon arboreal carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) since the 1970s, and is now regarded as a candidate of wild chimpanzee culture. Herein, I describe in detail the features of ant-fishing shown by the Mahale M group chimpanzees: (1) 2 species of ...

  8. Nonlinear acoustics in the pant-hoot vocalization of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Arcadi, Adam Clark; Owren, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    Pant-hoots produced by chimpanzees are multi-call vocalizations. While predominantly harmonically structured, pant-hoots can exhibit acoustic complexity that has recently been found to result from inherent nonlinearity in the vocal-fold dynamics. This complexity reflects abrupt shifts between qualitatively distinct vibration patterns (known as modes), which include but are not limited to simple, synchronous movements by the two vocal folds. Studies with humans in particular have shown that as the amplitude and vibration rate increase, vocal-fold action becomes increasingly susceptible to higher-order synchronizations, desynchronized movements, and irregular behavior. We examined the occurrence of these sorts of nonlinear phenomena in pant-hoots, contrasting quieter and lower-pitched introduction components with loud and high-pitched climax calls in the same sounds. Spectrographic evidence revealed four classic kinds of nonlinear phenomena, including discrete frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos. While these events were virtually never found in the introduction, they occurred in more than half of the climax calls. Biphonation was by far the most common. Individual callers varied in the degree to which their climax calls exhibited nonlinear phenomena, but we are consistent in showing more biphonation than any of the other forms. These outcomes demonstrate that understanding these calls requisitely requires an understanding of such events.

  9. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Aghokeng Avelin F; Tamoufe Ubald; Djoko Cyrille F; Nana Ahmadou; Rousset Dominique; Foupouapouognigni Yacouba; Bibila Godwin; LeBreton Matthew; Nerrienet Eric; Etienne Lucie; Mpoudi-Ngole Eitel; Delaporte Eric; Peeters Martine; Wolfe Nathan D; Ayouba Ahidjo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data a...

  10. Population-Level Right Handedness for a Coordinated Bimanual Task in Chimpanzees: Replication and Extension in a Second Colony of Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Hook, Michelle; Braccini, Stephanie; Steven J. Schapiro

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of previously published findings on hand preferences in chimpanzees by evaluating hand use in a second colony of captive chimpanzees. We assessed hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task in 116 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and compared them to previously published findings in captive chimpanzees at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The new sample showed signifi...

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of the chimpanzee population introduced onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelková, Klára J; Hasegawa, Hideo; Appleton, Chris C; Huffman, Michael A; Archer, Colleen E; Moscovice, Liza R; Mapua, Mwanahamissi Issa; Singh, Jatinder; Kaur, Taranjit

    2010-04-01

    The release of any species into a novel environment can evoke transmission of parasites that do not normally parasitize the host as well as potentially introducing new parasites into the environment. Species introductions potentially incur such risks, yet little is currently known about the parasite fauna of introduced primate species over the long term. We describe the results of long-term monitoring of the intestinal parasite fauna of an unprovisioned, reproducing population of chimpanzees introduced 40 years earlier (1966-1969) onto Rubondo Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, a non-native habitat for chimpanzees. Two parasitological surveys (March 1997-October 1998 and October 2002-December 2005) identified Entamoeba spp. including E. coli, Iodamoeba buetschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichuris sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Strongyloides spp., Strongylida fam. gen. sp., Enterobius anthropopitheci, Subulura sp., Ascarididae gen. sp., and Protospirura muricola. The parasite fauna of the Rubondo chimpanzees is similar to wild chimpanzees living in their natural habitats, but Rubondo chimpanzees have a lower prevalence of strongylids (9%, 3.8%) and a higher prevalence of E. anthropopitheci (8.6%, 17.9%) than reported elsewhere. Species prevalence was similar between our two surveys, with the exception of Strongyloides spp. being higher in the first survey. None of these species are considered to pose a serious health risk to chimpanzees, but continued monitoring of the population and surveys of the parasitic fauna of the two coinhabitant primate species and other animals, natural reservoir hosts of some of the same parasites, is important to better understand the dynamics of host-parasite ecology and potential long-term implications for chimpanzees introduced into a new habitat. PMID:20014274

  12. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator. PMID:15549502

  13. The price of play: self-organized infant mortality cycles in chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar S Kuehl

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees have been used extensively as a model system for laboratory research on infectious diseases. Ironically, we know next to nothing about disease dynamics in wild chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze long-term demographic and behavioral data from two habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, where previous work has shown respiratory pathogens to be an important source of infant mortality. In this paper we trace the effect of social connectivity on infant mortality dynamics. We focus on social play which, as the primary context of contact between young chimpanzees, may serve as a key venue for pathogen transmission. Infant abundance and mortality rates at Taï cycled regularly and in a way that was not well explained in terms of environmental forcing. Rather, infant mortality cycles appeared to self-organize in response to the ontogeny of social play. Each cycle started when the death of multiple infants in an outbreak synchronized the reproductive cycles of their mothers. A pulse of births predictably arrived about twelve months later, with social connectivity increasing over the following two years as the large birth cohort approached the peak of social play. The high social connectivity at this play peak then appeared to facilitate further outbreaks. Our results provide the first evidence that social play has a strong role in determining chimpanzee disease transmission risk and the first record of chimpanzee disease cycles similar to those seen in human children. They also lend more support to the view that infectious diseases are a major threat to the survival of remaining chimpanzee populations.

  14. Evolution of the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maughan Peter J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NANOG gene is expressed in mammalian embryonic stem cells where it maintains cellular pluripotency. An unusually large family of pseudogenes arose from it with one unprocessed and ten processed pseudogenes in the human genome. This article compares the NANOG gene and its pseudogenes in the human and chimpanzee genomes and derives an evolutionary history of this pseudogene family. Results The NANOG gene and all pseudogenes except NANOGP8 are present at their expected orthologous chromosomal positions in the chimpanzee genome when compared to the human genome, indicating that their origins predate the human-chimpanzee divergence. Analysis of flanking DNA sequences demonstrates that NANOGP8 is absent from the chimpanzee genome. Conclusion Based on the most parsimonious ordering of inferred source-gene mutations, the deduced evolutionary origins for the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes, in order of most ancient to most recent, are NANOGP6, NANOGP5, NANOGP3, NANOGP10, NANOGP2, NANOGP9, NANOGP7, NANOGP1, and NANOGP4. All of these pseudogenes were fixed in the genome of the human-chimpanzee common ancestor. NANOGP8 is the most recent pseudogene and it originated exclusively in the human lineage after the human-chimpanzee divergence. NANOGP1 is apparently an unprocessed pseudogene. Comparison of its sequence to the functional NANOG gene's reading frame suggests that this apparent pseudogene remained functional after duplication and, therefore, was subject to selection-driven conservation of its reading frame, and that it may retain some functionality or that its loss of function may be evolutionarily recent.

  15. Suitable habitats for endangered frugivorous mammals: small-scale comparison, regeneration forest and chimpanzee density in Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bortolamiol

    Full Text Available Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2. Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment and outside its limits (food and cash crops may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli. Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially. Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site.

  16. Widespread positive selection in the photosynthetic Rubisco enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitry A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubisco enzyme catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation and is responsible for almost all carbon fixation on Earth. The large subunit of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene, which is widely used for reconstruction of plant phylogenies due to its conservative nature. Plant systematicists have mainly used rbcL paying little attention to its function, and the question whether it evolves under Darwinian selection has received little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how common is positive selection in Rubisco among the phototrophs and where in the Rubisco structure does positive selection occur. Results We searched for positive selection in rbcL sequences from over 3000 species representing all lineages of green plants and some lineages of other phototrophs, such as brown and red algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanobacteria. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis found the presence of positive selection in rbcL of most analyzed land plants, but not in algae and cyanobacteria. The mapping of the positively selected residues on the Rubisco tertiary structure revealed that they are located in regions important for dimer-dimer, intradimer, large subunit-small subunit and Rubisco-Rubisco activase interactions, and that some of the positively selected residues are close to the active site. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite its conservative nature, Rubisco evolves under positive selection in most lineages of land plants, and after billions of years of evolution Darwinian selection still fine-tunes its performance. Widespread positive selection in rbcL has to be taken into account when this gene is used for phylogenetic reconstructions.

  17. Widespread native and alien plant species occupy different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pouteau, Robin; Hulme, P. E.; Duncan, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Theories to explain the success of alien species often assume that they are inherently different from native species. Although there is an increasing body of evidence showing that alien plants tend to dominate in highly human-modified environments, the underlying reasons why widespread natives might differ in their habitat distribution have rarely been addressed. We used species distribution models to quantify the dominant environmental axes shaping the habitat of 95 widespread native and ali...

  18. Acid mediates a prolonged antinociception via substance P signaling in acid-induced chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Nan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance P is an important neuropeptide released from nociceptors to mediate pain signals. We recently revealed antinociceptive signaling by substance P in acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3)-expressing muscle nociceptors in a mouse model of acid-induced chronic widespread pain. However, methods to specifically trigger the substance P antinociception were still lacking. Results Here we show that acid could induce antinociceptive signaling via substance P release in muscle. We preve...

  19. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare. (orig.)

  20. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Pruetz, J. D.; Bertolani, P.; Ontl, K. Boyer; Lindshield, S.; Shelley, M.; Wessling, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t...