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Sample records for chimeric anti-platelet glycoprotein

  1. Novel agents for anti-platelet therapy

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    Ji Xuebin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.

  2. Functionality of Chimeric E2 Glycoproteins of BVDV and CSFV in Virus Replication

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    H.G.P. van Gennip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An intriguing difference between the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV and the other groups of pestiviruses (nonCSFV is a lack of two cysteine residues on positions cysteine 751 and 798. Other groups of pestivirus are not restricted to one species as swine, whereas CSFV is restricted to swine and wild boar. We constructed chimeric CSFV/BVDV E2 genes based on a 2D model of E2 proposed by van Rijn et al. (van Rijn et al. 1994, J Virol 68, 3934–42 and confirmed their expression by immunostaining of plasmid-transfected SK6 cells. No equivalents for the antigenic units B/C and A were found on E2 of BVDVII. This indicates major structural differences in E2. However, the immunodominant BVDVII domain A, containing epitopes with essential amino acids between position 760–764, showed to be dependent on the presence of the region defined by amino acids 684 to 796. As for the A domain of CSFV, the BVDVII A-like domain seemed to function as a separate unit. These combined domains in E2 proved to be the only combination which was functional in viral background of CSFV C-strain. The fitness of this virus (vfl c36BVDVII 684–796 seemed to be reduced compared to vfl c9 (with the complete antigenic region of BVDVII.

  3. Chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with potent intrinsic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF activity.

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    Gözde Isik

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acquisition can be prevented by broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs that target the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env. An ideal vaccine should therefore be able to induce BrNAbs that can provide immunity over a prolonged period of time, but the low intrinsic immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env makes the elicitation of such BrNAbs challenging. Co-stimulatory molecules can increase the immunogenicity of Env and we have engineered a soluble chimeric Env trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF domain. This chimeric molecule induced enhanced B and helper T cell responses in mice compared to Env without GM-CSF. We studied whether we could optimize the activity of the embedded GM-CSF as well as the antigenic structure of the Env component of the chimeric molecule. We assessed the effect of truncating GM-CSF, removing glycosylation-sites in GM-CSF, and adjusting the linker length between GM-CSF and Env. One of our designed Env(GM-CSF chimeras improved GM-CSF-dependent cell proliferation by 6-fold, reaching the same activity as soluble recombinant GM-CSF. In addition, we incorporated GM-CSF into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of GM-CSF did not compromise Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not compromise GM-CSF activity. Importantly, these optimized Env(GM-CSF proteins were able to differentiate human monocytes into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Chimeric Env(GM-CSF should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins.

  4. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

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    Aurelija Zvirbliene

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89 or site #4 (aa 280–289. The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8 of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  5. Anti-platelet agents in pediatric cardiac practice

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    Sweta Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiac conditions receive antithrombotic therapy. Many of the indications are empirical, and have either not been proven in controlled studies or are extrapolated from adult studies. This article reviews the current available literature regarding the use of anti-platelet drugs in the pediatric cardiac population.

  6. Changing common sense: Anti-platelet/coagulation therapyagainst cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, anti-platelet/coagulation therapy hadnot been recommended for patients with cirrhosis.Although venous thrombosis is one of the representativecomplications of cirrhosis and ischemic disordersassociated with atherosclerosis are not infrequent incirrhotic patients, many clinicians have tended to hesitateto introduce anti-platelet/coagulation therapy to theirpatients. Undoubtedly, this is due to the increased riskof hemorrhagic diathesis in cirrhotic patients. However,accumulating evidence has revealed the benefits ofanti-platelet/coagulation therapy for cirrhotic patients.In addition to the safety of the therapy carried outagainst cardiovascular diseases in cirrhotic patients,some clinical data have indicated its preventive effecton venous thrombosis. Moreover, the efficacy of antiplatelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis itself hasbeen demonstrated both clinically and experimentally.The conceptual basis for application of anti-platelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis was constructedthrough two pathologic studies on intrahepatic thrombosisin cirrhotic livers. It may be better to use thrombopoietinreceptoragonists, which have been tested as a treatmentfor cirrhosis-related thrombocytopenia, in combinationwith anti-platelet drugs to reduce the risk of venousthrombosis. During the last decade, the World Journalof Gastroenterology , a sister journal of World Journal ofHepatology , has been one of the main platforms of activediscussion of this theme.

  7. Reverse genetics generation of chimeric infectious Junin/Lassa virus is dependent on interaction of homologous glycoprotein stable signal peptide and G2 cytoplasmic domains.

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    Albariño, César G; Bird, Brian H; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Dodd, Kimberly A; White, David M; Bergeron, Eric; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-01-01

    The Arenaviridae are a diverse and globally distributed collection of viruses that are maintained primarily by rodent reservoirs. Junin virus (JUNV) and Lassa virus (LASV) can both cause significant outbreaks of severe and often fatal human disease throughout their respective areas of endemicity. In an effort to improve upon the existing live attenuated JUNV Candid1 vaccine, we generated a genetically homogenous stock of this virus from cDNA copies of the virus S and L segments by using a reverse genetics system. Further, these cDNAs were used in combination with LASV cDNAs to successfully generate two recombinant Candid1 JUNV/LASV chimeric viruses (via envelope glycoprotein [GPC] exchange). It was found that while the GPC extravirion domains were readily exchangeable, homologous stable signal peptide (SSP) and G2 transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains were essential for correct GPC maturation and production of infectious chimeric viruses. The switching of the JUNV and LASV G1/G2 ectodomains within the Candid1 vaccine background did not alter the attenuated phenotype of the vaccine strain in a lethal mouse model. These recombinant chimeric viruses shed light on the fundamental requirements of arenavirus GPC maturation and may serve as a strategy for the development of bivalent JUNV and LASV vaccine candidates.

  8. Anti-platelet effects of yuzu extract and its component.

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    Yu, Hye Yon; Park, Se Won; Chung, Ill Min; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the methanolic extract of yuzu (yuzu ME) and its components hesperidin and naringin, have anti-platelet activities. Yuzu ME and hesperidin inhibited collagen-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, ADP- and thrombin-induced rat platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. Naringin also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, AA, or thrombin, but not aggregation induced by ADP. The oral administration of yuzu ME or hesperidin prolonged mouse tail vein bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. These results suggest that yuzu ME and hesperidin have anti-platelet activity, and that intake of yuzu, which includes various flavonoids such as hesperidin, may be beneficial for individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Generation of Anti-platelet Autoantibody During Dengue Virus Infection

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    Huan-Yao Lei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection causes dengue fever, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS. Thrombocytopenia is common in dengue fever and is always found in DHF/DSS. The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia is poorly understood. To further understand the relationship between anti-dengue virus antibody and anti-platelet antibody, we generated monoclonal anti-dengue virus antibodies from the dengue virus infected mice that developed transient thrombocytopenia post dengue infection. The analysis of a panel of monoclonal anti-NS-1 antibodies reveals three different patterns of platelet binding: strong, intermediate, or dull. Their isotypes are different, some are IgM while others are IgG1. Most of anti-platelet antibodies are cross-reactive with NS-1 of dengue virus and can be competitively inhibited by recombinant NS-1 protein, suggesting a molecular mimicry between dengue virus NS-1 protein and platelet. A clone, 13-F4-G5, preferentially bound activated platelets, can recognize two or three proteins around 150 kD on platelets. The binding to platelet would lyse the platelet in the presence of complement or enhance the ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, some of these monoclonal antibodies would also react with the cellular antigens of BHK. Based on the data, we conclude that dengue virus infection induces auto anti-platelet antibodies which thereafter may involve in the manifestation of thrombocytopenia. A molecular mimicry between NS-1 and platelet is demonstrated.

  10. The peri-operative management of anti-platelet therapy in elective, non-cardiac surgery.

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    Alcock, Richard F; Naoum, Chris; Aliprandi-Costa, Bernadette; Hillis, Graham S; Brieger, David B

    2013-07-31

    Cardiovascular complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery, with adverse cardiac outcomes estimated to occur in approximately 4% of all patients. Anti-platelet therapy withdrawal may precede up to 10% of acute cardiovascular syndromes, with withdrawal in the peri-operative setting incompletely appraised. The aims of our study were to determine the proportion of patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery currently prescribed anti-platelet therapy, and identify current practice in peri-operative management. In addition, the relationship between management of anti-platelet therapy and peri-operative cardiac risk was assessed. We evaluated consecutive patients attending elective non-cardiac surgery at a major tertiary referral centre. Clinical and biochemical data were collected and analysed on patients currently prescribed anti-platelet therapy. Peri-operative management of anti-platelet therapy was compared with estimated peri-operative cardiac risk. Included were 2950 consecutive patients, with 516 (17%) prescribed anti-platelet therapy, primarily for ischaemic heart disease. Two hundred and eighty nine (56%) patients had all anti-platelet therapy ceased in the peri-operative period, including 49% of patients with ischaemic heart disease and 46% of patients with previous coronary stenting. Peri-operative cardiac risk score did not influence anti-platelet therapy management. Approximately 17% of patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery are prescribed anti-platelet therapy, the predominant indication being for ischaemic heart disease. Almost half of all patients with previous coronary stenting had no anti-platelet therapy during the peri-operative period. The decision to cease anti-platelet therapy, which occurred commonly, did not appear to be guided by peri-operative cardiac risk stratification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-platelet Therapy Resistance – Concept, Mechanisms and Platelet Function Tests in Intensive Care Facilities

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    Mărginean Alina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that critically ill patients require special attention and additional consideration during their treatment and management. The multiple systems and organ dysfunctions, typical of the critical patient, often results in different patterns of enteral absorption in these patients. Anti-platelet drugs are the cornerstone in treating patients with coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is the treatment of choice in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions and is still widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, despite the use of dual anti-platelet therapy, some patients continue to experience cardiovascular ischemic events. Recurrence of ischemic events is partly attributed to the fact that some patients have poor inhibition of platelet reactivity despite treatment. These patients are considered low- or nonresponders to therapy. The underlying mechanisms leading to resistance are not yet fully elucidated and are probably multifactorial, cellular, genetic and clinical factors being implicated. Several methods have been developed to asses platelet function and can be used to identify patients with persistent platelet reactivity, which have an increased risk of thrombosis. In this paper, the concept of anti-platelet therapy resistance, the underlying mechanisms and the methods used to identify patients with low responsiveness to anti-platelet therapy will be highlighted with a focus on aspirin and clopidogrel therapy and addressing especially critically ill patients.

  12. Is anti-platelet therapy interruption a real clinical issue? Its implications in dentistry and particularly in periodontics.

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    Kumar, A Jaya; Kumari, M Meena; Arora, Nupur; Haritha, A

    2009-09-01

    The use of anti-platelet therapy has reduced the mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease remarkably. A considerable number of patients presenting before a dentist or periodontist give a history of anti-platelet therapy. A clinical dilemma whether to discontinue the anti-platelet therapy or continue the same always confronts the practitioner. Diverse opinions exist regarding the management of such patients. While one group of researchers advise continuation of anti-platelet therapy rather than invite remote, but possible, thromboembolic events, another group encourages discontinuation for variable periods. This study aims at reviewing the current rationale of anti-platelet therapy and the various options available to a clinician, with regard to the management of a patient under anti-platelet therapy. Current recommendations and consensus favour no discontinuation of anti-platelet therapy. This recommendation, however, comes with a rider to use caution and consider other mitigating factors as well. With a large number of patients giving a history of anti-platelet therapy, the topic is of interest and helps a clinician to arrive at a decision.

  13. Is anti-platelet therapy interruption a real clinical issue? Its implications in dentistry and particularly in periodontics

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    Kumar A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of anti-platelet therapy has reduced the mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease remarkably. A considerable number of patients presenting before a dentist or periodontist give a history of anti-platelet therapy. A clinical dilemma whether to discontinue the anti-platelet therapy or continue the same always confronts the practitioner. Diverse opinions exist regarding the management of such patients. While one group of researchers advise continuation of anti-platelet therapy rather than invite remote, but possible, thromboembolic events, another group encourages discontinuation for variable periods. This study aims at reviewing the current rationale of anti-platelet therapy and the various options available to a clinician, with regard to the management of a patient under anti-platelet therapy. Current recommendations and consensus favour no discontinuation of anti-platelet therapy. This recommendation, however, comes with a rider to use caution and consider other mitigating factors as well. With a large number of patients giving a history of anti-platelet therapy, the topic is of interest and helps a clinician to arrive at a decision.

  14. Dentists' approach to patients on anti-platelet agents and warfarin: a survey of practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, James

    2010-04-23

    In everyday practice, dentists are confronted with the dilemma of patients on anti-platelet agents and warfarin who require invasive dental procedures and, more pertinently, dental extractions. There may be a divergence of opinion among dentists regarding how they manage these patients. AIMS: To assess general dental practitioners\\' approach to the management of patients taking anti-platelet agents and\\/or warfarin who are undergoing invasive dental procedures. METHODS AND DATA: A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to survey general dental practitioners in a large Irish urban area. RESULTS: A response rate of 89% was achieved in a study population of 54 general dental practitioners. A total of 25% of respondents who carry out extractions on warfarinised patients do not check the INR prior to invasive dental procedures. Some 90% of respondents stop anti-platelet agents prior to extractions. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of respondents fail to check warfarinised patients\\' INR prior to invasive dental procedures. Furthermore, a trend of stopping anti-platelet agents was noted, which is in contrast with current recommendations in the dental literature. Certain practices in this small study population proved alarming and highlight the need for improved awareness of current guidelines. A further large-scale study may be justified, as variation in practice may have clinical and medico-legal repercussions.

  15. Anti-platelet antibodies in a natural animal model of sulphonamide-associated thrombocytopaenia.

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    Lavergne, Sidonie N; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2007-12-01

    Delayed hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to sulphonamide antimicrobials occur in both humans and dogs with a similar clinical presentation, and may include thrombocytopaenia. Drug-dependent anti-platelet antibodies have been identified in humans with sulphonamide-associated thrombocytopaenia. Our purpose was to determine whether similar antibodies were present in dogs with sulphonamide-associated thrombocytopaenia. Flow cytometry was used to detect anti-platelet antibodies in sera from 32 dogs with sulphonamide HS, eight dogs that tolerated sulphonamide therapy without adverse reactions and nine healthy control dogs were used as controls. Anti-platelet antibodies were found more frequently, with significantly stronger fluorescence signals, in HS dogs (75%) compared to 'tolerant' dogs (38%), and in HS dogs with thrombocytopaenia (90%) compared to HS dogs with normal platelet counts (46%). Binding to platelets was enhanced in the presence of soluble sulphonamide in 42% of positive samples. Experiments with canine Glanzmann's platelets, and competition assays with fibrinogen fragments or anti-GP antibodies, did not support the hypothesis that these canine antibodies target the fibrinogen receptor. In conclusion, anti-platelet antibodies were identified in dogs with sulphonamide-associated thrombocytopaenia, which suggests a similar immunopathogenesis for this reaction in dogs as seen in humans. Further work in both species will determine whether these antibodies are pathogenic in vitro.

  16. Sequential measurement of anti-platelet antibodies in a patient who developed EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

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    Edelman, B; Kickler, T

    1993-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is the occurrence of a falsely low platelet count caused by antibodies that agglutinate platelets in the presence of EDTA. If unrecognized, it may result in the erroneous diagnosis of thrombocytopenia and possible inappropriate therapy. It has been noted that this phenomenon tends to appear in hospitalized patients after an initially normal platelet count, but sequential measurements of anti-platelet antibody have not been reported. The case of a patient who developed EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia approximately 1 week after being hospitalized for severe trauma is described. Anti-platelet antibodies were not detected on admission by a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique but were shown to increase in titer concurrent with the appearance of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

  17. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

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    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  18. Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade by a chimeric monoclonal antibody (abciximab) on acute and six-month outcomes after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. EPIC investigators.

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    Lefkovits, J; Ivanhoe, R J; Califf, R M; Bergelson, B A; Anderson, K M; Stoner, G L; Weisman, H F; Topol, E J

    1996-05-15

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction is an attractive alternative to thrombolysis, but is still limited by recurrent ischemia and restenosis. We determined whether adjunctive platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade improved outcomes in patients undergoing direct and rescue PTCA in the Evaluation of c7E3 for Prevention of Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial. Of the 2,099 patients undergoing percutaneous intervention who randomly received chimeric 7E3 Fab (c7E3) as a bolus, a bolus and 12-hour infusion, or placebo, 42 underwent direct PTCA for acute myocardial infarction and 22 patients had rescue PTCA after failed thrombolysis. The primary composite end point comprised death, reinfarction, repeat intervention, or bypass surgery. Outcomes were assessed at 30 days and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar in direct and rescue PTCA patients. Pooling the 2 groups, c7E3 bolus and infusion reduced the primary composite end point by 83% (26.1% placebo vs 4.5% c7E3 bolus and infusion, p = 0.06). No reinfarctions or repeat urgent interventions occurred in c7E3 bolus and infusion patients at 30 days, although there was a trend toward more deaths in c7E3-treated patients. Major bleeding was increased with c7E3 (24% vs 13%, p = 0.28). At 6 months, ischemic events were reduced from 47.8% with placebo to 4.5% with c7E3 bolus and infusion (p = 0.002), particularly reinfarction (p = 0.05) and repeat revascularization (p = 0.002). We conclude that adjunctive c7E3 therapy during direct and rescue PTCA decreased acute ischemic events and clinical restenosis in the EPIC trial. These data provide initial evidence of benefit for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade during PTCA for acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Analysis of anti-platelet aggregation components of Rhizoma Zingiberis using chicken thrombocyte extract and high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Hong; MENG Lan-zhen; ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Jian-yu; YIN Zhen; HUANG Xue-song

    2008-01-01

    Background The conventional procedure for screening bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine is time-consuming,expensive and low efficient.Therefore,some alternative strategies are needed urgently.A novel method for screening anti-platelet aggregation components from oleoresins was developed using chicken thrombocyte extract and high performance liquid chromatography.Methods The anti-platelet aggregation components of oleoresins were combined with receptors,channels and enzymes of chicken thrombocytes under physiological environment.Unbound substances were washed away and bound compounds were eluted using specific phosphate buffered solution(PBS).Compounds released from target sites were collected and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and LC-MS.The activity of three compounds which were screened from this model was confirmed using platelet aggregation pharmacology in vivo.Results There were four typical compounds that bound to the thrombocytes:6-gingerol,8-gingerol,6-shogaol and 10-gingerol,and all had shown anti-platelet aggregation activities.Eight-gingerol displayed the best anti-platelet aggregation effect.Conclusions Chicken thromobcyte extract can be used to isolate chemicals that are ligands of the receptor or other bio-targets on the platelet.This may therefore be a simple and efficient method to screen for anti-platelet aggregation compounds from traditional Chinese medicine.

  20. The Pharmacogenomics of Anti-Platelet Intervention (PAPI) Study: Variation in Platelet Response to Clopidogrel and Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Laura M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Lewis, Joshua P; Ryan, Kathy A; Herzog, William R; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Horenstein, Richard B; Shuldiner, Alan R; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Clopidogrel and aspirin are commonly prescribed anti-platelet medications indicated for patients who have experienced, or are at risk for, ischemic cardiovascular events. The Pharmacogenomics of Anti-Platelet Intervention (PAPI) Study was designed to characterize determinants of clopidogrel and dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) response in a healthy cohort of Old Order Amish from Lancaster, PA. Following a loading dose, clopidogrel was taken once a day for 7 days. One hour after the last dose of clopidogrel, 325 mg of aspirin was given. Ex vivo platelet aggregometry was performed at baseline, post-clopidogrel, and post-DAPT. Platelet aggregation measurements were significantly lower after both interventions for all agonists tested (p pharmacogenomics studies.

  1. [Anti-platelet aggregation bioassay based quality control for XST capsules].

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    Han, Bing; Mao, Xin; Han, Shu-xian; Chen, Ying; Xiang, Yan-hua; Ge, Yi-meng; Liao, Fu-long; You, Yun

    2015-12-01

    A in vitro platelet aggregation bioassay was developed for the quality control of XST capsules. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation effect in rats was observed to detect the bioactivity of XST capsules. Panax notoginseng saponins and Xuesaitong lyophilizedpowder for injection were taken as standard control substances to determine the potency. According to the results, XST capsules showeda significant inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro anti-platelet activity oflyophilized powder for injection was stabler than that of Panax notoginseng saponins, and so suitable to serve as a standard control substance. The biological potency of XST capsules compared with standard control substance was detected by using parallel line assay. According to the results, the established bioassay method had a good repeatability (RSD 2.92%). The sample test results could pass thereliability test(linear deviation P > 0.05, parallel deviation P > 0.05). This bioassay method could be used as one of the complementary quality control methods for XST capsules.

  2. Effect of combined anti-platelets drugs on platelet activation in the elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of combined anti-platelets drugs on platelet activation in the elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS).Methods Totally 72 elderly patients with ACS were divided randomly into two groups according to age ≤80 years and>80 years.

  3. Experimental evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet potential of Dashamoola

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    Reshma R Parekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dashamoola, in the form of arishta and kwath, is a commonly used classical Ayurvedic multi-ingredient formulation for management of pain, arthritis and inflammatory disorders. Objective: To study analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activity of Dashamoola and its combination with aspirin. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats (180-200 g and Swiss albino mice (20-25 g of either sex were divided randomly into five groups: Distilled water, aspirin (500mg/kg in rats; 722.2 mg/kg in mice, Dashamoolarishta (1.8 mL/kg in rats; 2.5 mL/kg in mice and Dashamoolarishta with aspirin. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by change in paw volume in carrageenan-induced inflammation, protein content in model of peritonitis and granuloma weight in cotton pellet granuloma. Analgesic effect was evaluated by counting number of writhes in writhing model. Maximum platelet aggregation and percentage inhibition of ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation were estimated in vitro. Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey′s test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Dashamoolarishta and its combination with aspirin showed significantly (P < 0.01 less number of writhes. It showed significant (P < 0.001 anti-inflammatory activity by paw edema reduction in rats, decrease in proteins in peritoneal fluid (P < 0.001 and decrease in granuloma weight (P < 0.05 as compared to respective vehicle control groups. Dashamoola kwath alone and in combination with aspirin inhibited maximum platelet aggregation and percent inhibition of platelets as compared to vehicle (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Dashamoola formulation alone and its combination with aspirin showed comparable anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-platelet effects to aspirin.

  4. Comparison of cytotoxic and anti-platelet activities of polyphenolic extracts from Arnica montana flowers and Juglans regia husks.

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    Rywaniak, Joanna; Luzak, Boguslawa; Podsedek, Anna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marcin; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of plant origin are well known to be beneficial to human health: they exert protective effects on haemostasis and have a particular influence on blood platelets. However, the anti-platelet properties of polyphenolic compounds observed so far have not been weighed against their potential cytotoxic action against platelets. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that anti-platelet and cytotoxic effects on blood platelets may interfere and therefore, may often lead to confusion when evaluating the properties of plant extracts or other agents towards blood platelets. The anti-platelet and cytotoxic in vitro effects of plant extracts obtained from the husks of walnuts (J. regia) and flowers of arnica (A. montana) on platelet reactivity and viability were examined. Platelet function was assessed using standard methods (flow cytometry: P-selectin expression, activation of GPIIbIIIa complex, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, VASP index; turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry) and newly set assays (flow cytometric monitoring of platelet cytotoxicity). The results reveal that none of the studied plant extracts demonstrated cytotoxicity towards blood platelets. The phenolic acid-rich extract of A. montana (7.5 and 15 µg/ml) significantly reduced the ADP-induced aggregation in both whole blood and PRP, and decreased the platelet reactivity index (PRI; VASP phosphorylation) in whole blood, while showing excellent antioxidant capacity. The extract of J. regia husks significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood when applied at 7.5 µg/ml, and only slightly decreased the PRI at 15 µg/ml. Both examined extracts suppressed platelet hyper-reactivity, and such influence did not interfere with cytotoxic effects of the extracts. Thus, its high polyphenol content, excellent antioxidant capacity and distinct anti-platelet properties, in combination with its lack of toxicity, make the extract of A. montana flowers a possible

  5. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

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    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13 and [6]-shogaol (17 exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15 inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  6. Clinical significance of chimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Dianne

    2009-05-15

    Twins have been previously classified as either monozygotic or dizygotic. In recent years, fascinating, non-traditional mechanisms of twinning have been uncovered. We define chimerism versus mosaicism, touch on chimerism in the animal world, and explain timing of chimerism in humans. In addition, we discuss when to suspect chimerism in patients, and how to proceed with diagnostic evaluation and confirmation.

  7. A novel ranacyclin-like peptide with anti-platelet activity identified from skin secretions of the frog Amolops loloensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue; Tang, Xiaopeng; Luo, Lei; Wang, Yuming; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiumin

    2016-01-15

    Albeit many bioactive peptides have been reported from amphibian skins, no anti-platelet peptide has been identified till to date. Here, an anti-platelet peptide, namely Zongdian platelet inhibitor (ZDPI), with the molecular weight of 1798.6 Da, was purified and characterized from skin secretions of the frog, Amolops loloensis. The amino acid sequence of ZDPI was determined as FRGCWLKNYSPRGCL-NH2 by combination methods of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis and carboxypeptidase Y treatment revealing that it is composed of 15 amino acid residues with two cysteines formed an intra-molecular disulfide bridge and C-terminal amidation. cDNA encoding ZDPI precursor was cloned from skin cDNA library of A. loloensis. The precursor is composed of 63 amino acid (aa) residues including the predicted signal peptide (22 aa), an acidic spacer peptide (19 aa), and mature ZDPI. BLAST search indicates that ZDPI belongs to antimicrobial peptide family of ranacyclin, peptide leucine arginine or odorranain. It was found to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentration of 32 μg/ml, ZDPI completely inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about an anti-platelet peptide from amphibian skin secretions. Considering its strong inhibitory ability on platelets and simple structure, ZDPI might be an excellent candidate or template to develop anti-thrombosis agent. In addition, the discovery of anti-platelet peptide in the frog skin increases biological function spectrum of amphibian skin peptides.

  8. Cigarette smoking inhibits the anti-platelet activity of aspirin in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHANG Hong-yin; MIAO Cheng-long; TANG Ri-bo; DU Xin; SHI Ji-hui; MA Chang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which suggests that low-dose aspirin used in common clinical practice may not effectively inhibit platelet activity in smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review was performed to assess the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in patients with CHD.Data sources We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE (starting from the beginning to March 15, 2009)using the term "smoking" or "tobacco" paired with the following: "platelet", "aspirin" or "coronary heart disease".Study selection We looked for review articles regarding the effect of tobacco smoking on platelet activity and on the anti-platelet efficacy of aspirin in healthy people and patients with CHD. The search was limited in "core clinical journal".In total, 1321 relevant articles were retrieved, and 36 articles were ultimately cited.Results Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which can be inhibited by low-dose aspirin in the healthy population. However, in patients with CHD, the increased platelet aggregability can not be effectively inhibited by the same low-dose of aspirin. A recent study indicated that clopidogrel or an increased dose of aspirin can effectively inhibit the increased platelet aggregability induced by tobacco smoking in patients with CHD.Conclusions It is important for patients with CHD to quit smoking. For the current smoker, it may be necessary to take larger doses of aspirin than normal or take an adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor along with aspirin to effectively inhibit the increased platelet activity.

  9. Anti-platelet effects of different phenolic compounds from Yucca schidigera Roezl. bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2002-05-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-fungal and anti-platelet effects. It occurs naturally in different medicinal plants. Recently, resveratrol and other related phenolic compounds including trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene and yuccaols A and C were isolated from the bark of Yucca schidigera. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of these compounds on platelet aggregation induced by thrombin and ADP. Pretreatment of platelets with resveratrol or other tested phenolics (1-25 microg/ml) slightly reduced platelet aggregation stimulated by 5 microM ADP (P < 0.05) or 10 microM ADP (P < 0.005). The comparison of the inhibitory effects of tested compound in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation revealed that phenolic showed even stronger antiplatelet actions than resveratrol. These compounds also had an inhibitory effect on the thrombin-induced enzymatic platelet lipid peroxidation determined as the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.

  10. Co-stimulation with LPS or Poly I:C markedly enhances the anti-platelet immune response and severity of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Conglei; Chen, Pingguo; Vadasz, Brian; Ma, Li; Zhou, Hui; Lang, Sean; Freedman, John; Ni, Heyu

    2013-12-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life-threatening bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibodies against fetal/neonatal platelets. FNAIT is also linked with miscarriages, although the incidence and mechanisms of fetal death have not been well studied. IntegrinαIIbβ3 (GPIIbIIIa) and the GPIbα complex are major glycoproteins expressed on platelets and are also major antigens targeted in autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP), but reported cases of anti-GPIb-mediated FNAIT are rare. Bacterial and viral infections have been causally linked with the pathogenesis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP); however, it is unknown whether these infections contribute to the severity of FNAIT. Here, immune responses against platelet antigens were examined by transfusing wild-type (WT) mouse platelets into β3-/- or GPIbα-/- mice. To mimic bacterial or viral infections, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) were injected intraperitoneally following platelet transfusions. The FNAIT model was established by breeding the immunised female mice with WT male mice. We demonstrated for the first time that the platelet GPIbα has lower immunogenicity compared to β3 integrin. Interestingly, co-stimulation with LPS or Poly I:C markedly enhanced the immune response against platelet GPIbα and caused severe pathology of FNAIT (i.e. miscarriages). LPS or Poly I:C also enhanced the immune response against platelet β3 integrin. Our data suggest that bacterial and viral infections facilitate the anti-platelet GPIbα response, which may lead to a severe non-classical FNAIT (i.e. miscarriage but not neonatal bleeding) that has not been adequately reported in humans.

  11. Effect of Desmopressin in Reducing Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery in Patients Receiving Anti-Platelet Agents

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    Kamran Shadvar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe bleeding is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery using the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB pump. Desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, is used to prevent postoperative bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of desmopressin in reducing blood loss after cardiac surgery in patients receiving antiplatelet drugs. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, 40 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery with CPB, aged over 18 years, and on antiplatelet therapy for a week before surgery were divided in two groups. Case and control groups received nasal desmopressin spray and nasal normal saline spray, respectively. Patient vital signs, blood loss, administration of blood products, prescription drugs to improve the coagulation status, serum and whole intake and output of patients, need for a second surgery to control the bleeding, remaining sternum open, mortality due to bleeding, duration of intensive care unit (ICU stay and mechanical ventilation were recorded. Results: In the case and control groups there were no differences in duration of operation, mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay. There was no significant difference in terms of postoperative bleeding and intake of blood products between two groups (P>0.05. Reoperation due to bleeding in the case and control groups was observed in 3 (15%, and 1 (5% patient(s, respectively (P=0.3. Conclusion: Desmopressin has no significant effect on reducing the amount of bleeding after cardiac surgery in patients receiving anti-platelet agents.   Keywords: CABG; cardio pulmonary bypass pump; hemorrhage; desmopressin

  12. New organic nitrate-containing benzyloxy isonipecotanilide derivatives with vasodilatory and anti-platelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Candia, Modesto; Marini, Elisabetta; Zaetta, Giorgia; Cellamare, Saverio; Di Stilo, Antonella; Altomare, Cosimo D

    2015-05-25

    A number of new nitric oxide (NO)-precursors were synthesized by grafting nitrate-containing moieties on the structures of the benzyloxy isonipecotanilide derivatives 1 and 2 already reported as moderately potent antiplatelet agents. Various nitrooxy (ONO2)-alkyl side chains were covalently linked to the piperidine nitrogen of the parent compounds through carbamate and amide linkage, and the synthesis of a benzyl nitrate analog (15) of compound 1 was also achieved. The in vitro vasodilatory activities, as well as platelet anti-aggregatory effects, of the newly synthesized organic nitrates were assessed. The (ONO2)methyl carbamate-based derivative 5a and the benzyl nitrate analog 15, which on the other hand retain activity as inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, exhibited strong NO-mediated vasodilatory effects on pre-contracted rat aorta strips, with EC50 values in the low nanomolar range (13 and 29 nM, respectively). Experiments carried out with the selectively inhibited soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which is the key enzyme of the NO-mediated pathway leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation, confirmed the involvement of NO in the observed vasodilation. The nitrate derivatives proved to be stable in acidic aqueous solution and at pH 7.4. In human serum, unlike 5a, which showed not to undergo enzyme-catalyzed decomposition, the other tested (ONO2)-alkyl carbamate-based compounds (5b and 5e) and benzyl nitrate 15 underwent a faster degradation. However, their decomposition rates in serum were quite slow (t½>2.6 h), which suggests that nitrate moiety is poorly metabolized in blood plasma and that much of the in vitro anti-platelet activity has to be attributed to the intact (ONO2)-containing molecules.

  13. Investigation of standardized administration of anti-platelet drugs and its effect on the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chao; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Rongcheng; Wang, Jiacai; Hu, Yongcang; Chen, Yanyan; Li, Xiannan; Xu, Yan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of adherence to standardized administration of anti-platelet drugs on the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease. A total of 144 patients newly diagnosed with coronary heart disease at Lu'an Shili Hospital of Anhui Province (Lu'an, China) between June 2010 and June 2012 were followed up. Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox regression model were used to evaluate the effects of standardized administration of anti-platelet drugs on primary and secondary end-point events. Of the patients with coronary heart disease, 109 (76%) patients took standard anti-platelet drugs following discharge. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression analysis showed that standardized administration of anti-platelet drugs reduced the risk of primary end-point events (including all-cause mortality, non-lethal myocardial infarction and stroke) of patients with coronary heart disease [hazard ratio (HR)=0.307; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.099-0.953; P=0.041) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.162; 95% CI: 0.029-0.890; P=0.036); however, standardized administration had no predictive value with regard to secondary end-point events. Standardized administration of anti-platelet drugs obviously reduced the risk of primary end-point events in patients with coronary heart disease, and further analysis showed that only all-cause mortality exhibited a statistically significant reduction.

  14. [Metabolomics study of anti-platelet effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba by UPLC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Li; Xiong, Aizhen; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-03-01

    To study the anti-platelet effect and influence of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba on rat's endogenous metabolites by animal experiment and UPLC-MS based metabolomic method. After administration of 80% ethanol extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba for 6 d, the serum samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to find out the potential biomarker. Both of the extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba have good effects of inhibition on platelet coacervation, and the effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba is better than that of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Malic acid, alpha-acetone dicarboxylic acid, leukotrieneA4 (LTA4), prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) are proved to be significant expressed biomarkers. Metabolomics is helpful for the further research of the mechanism of anti-platelet action of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba.

  15. Anti-Platelet and Anti-Endothelial Cell Autoantibodies in Vietnamese Infants and Children with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Nguyen Thanh Hung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a serious public health problem. Increased vascular permeaxbility and thrombocytopenia are the hallmarks of DHF. The mechanisms involved in DHF/Dengue shock syndrome (DSS pathogenesis is not fully understood. This study gives evidence of the presence of antibodies which cross-reacted with platelets, and endothelial cells in the sera of Vietnamese infants and children with DHF/DSS. The anti-platelet, anti-endothelial cell IgM levels were higher in the sera of DHF/DSS infants and children, compared with controls. However, the levels of these autoantibodies were not correlated with the severity of DHF (non-shock DHF vs DSS. The anti-platelet, and anti-endothelial cell autoantibodies may play a role in the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS in infants and children with predominantly primary, and secondary dengue infections, respectively. The epitopes shared by surface molecules of platelets and endothelial cells and dengue virus antigens need to be identified and avoided in designing the safe candidate vaccines.

  16. Effects of Pre-Injury Anti-Platelet Agents on Short-Term Outcome of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

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    Davood Farsi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of pre-injury consumption of anti-platelet agents on the 30-day outcomes of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at three general hospitals in Tehran, Iran between July 2013 and July 2014. The study population included all patients with mild TBI aged over 18 years that medicated with aspirin or clopidogrel before occurring trauma. Within hospitalization, all patients were assessed with respect to in-hospital conditions especially complications and adverse events. After discharge, the individuals were followed for 30 days by telephone to assess mortality and disability using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS. Results: Of 1140 patients with mild TBI, only 135 had previously received aspirin and/or clopidogrel. The mean age was dramatically higher in those who were taking aspirin or clopidogrel (p<0.001. The patients with previously use of anti-platelets were more transferred by ambulance when compared to another group (p=0.006. The patients on anti-platelets had significantly lower GCS on admission when compared to others (p<0.001. Length of hospitalization was significantly longer in those receiving anti-platelets (p=0.003. In follow-up, 30-day mortality and disability was revealed in 2.8% of patients that received only aspirin and 7.5% in aspirin with clopidogrel and in 1.6 % of those who did not receive drugs without any significant difference between aspirin and control group (p=0.208 and significant difference in aspirin with clopidogrel group (p<0.001. Conclusion: The premedication by anti-platelets (aspirin and/or clopidogrel in patients with mild TBI leads to prolonged hospital stay, and increase rate of disability. Age and on admission GCS are the independent risk factors for predicting the outcome in patients with mild TBI receiving anti-platelet agents.

  17. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  18. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated With Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Dual Anti-platelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Fatma; Kara, İskender; Okuyan, Hızır; Abaci, Adnan; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin

    2016-01-19

    A 54-year-old man had undergone to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and two stents were placed to left anterior coronary artery and circumflex artery. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) together with ticagrelor 90 mg twice a day and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) were started after PCI due to high risk of stent trombosis. On the fourth day of patient's follow-up in the intensive care unit (ICU), bloody secretion was started from endotracheal tube. Hemoglobin dropping, bilateral infiltration on the chest X-ray and bleeding from lung were diagnosed as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Apart from LMWH and antiplatelet therapies with aspirin and ticagrelor, there were no other identified risk factors for DAH. As far as we know, our report is the first case of DAH caused by LMWH and dual anti-platelet therapy including ticagrelor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-platelet Aggregation and Anti-thrombotic Effects of Marine Natural Products Sargahydroquinoic Acid and Sargaquinoic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byonggon; Oh, Sangtae; Kwon, Daeho; Cui, Yuan; Ham, Jungyeob; Shin, Woonseob; Lee, Seokjoon [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    On the basis of the results of the in vitro platelet aggregation inhibition test, we discovered that of SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. To enable preclinical and clinical studies to be conducted, we synthesized SQA from natural SHQA in high yield. In addition, we confirmed that SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a fast recovery time from paralysis in the mouse pulmonary thromboembolism model, indicating that they are strong, novel anti-platelet drug candidates. As bleeding is a main side effect of the APDs used clinically, we also plan to conduct a bleeding test with SHQA and SQA and will report these results in a future proper paper. Platelets circulate in blood and their activity is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin I{sub 2} (PGI{sub 2}) released from endothelial cells in a quiescent state under physiological conditions.

  20. Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye V.; Massare, Michael J.; Barnard, Dale L.; Kort, Thomas; Nathan, Margret; Wang, Lei; Smith, Gale

    2011-01-01

    SARS-CoV was the cause of the global pandemic in 2003 that infected over 8000 people in 8 months. Vaccines against SARS are still not available. We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. These chimeric SARS VLPs have a similar size and morphology to the wild type SARS-CoV. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified chimeric SARS VLPs and full length SARS S protein vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model. The SARS VLP vaccine, containing 0.8 μg of SARS S protein, completely protected mice from death when administered intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes in the absence of an adjuvant. Likewise, the SARS VLP vaccine, containing 4 μg of S protein without adjuvant, reduced lung virus titer to below detectable level, protected mice from weight loss, and elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV. Sf9 cell-produced full length purified SARS S protein was also an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV but only when co-administered IM with aluminum hydroxide. SARS-CoV VLPs are highly immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. Sf9 cell-based VLP vaccines are a potential tool to provide protection against novel pandemic agents. PMID:21762752

  1. Influence of low-dose proton pump inhibitors administered concomitantly or separately on the anti-platelet function of clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Nishino, Masafumi; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Umemura, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) at low doses can effectively prevent gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin and are widely used in Japan for gastroprotection in patients taking anti-platelet agents. We examined the influence of different PPIs at low doses administered concomitantly or separately on anti-platelet functions of clopidogrel. In 41 healthy Japanese volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes who took clopidogrel 75 mg in the morning alone, or with omeprazole 10 mg, esomeprazole 10 mg, lansoprazole 15 mg, or rabeprazole 10 mg, either concomitantly in the morning or separately in the evening, we measured the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA, %) using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at 4 h after the last clopidogrel dose on Day 7 of each regimen. IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime, approximately 4 h after clopidogrel, was also measured. Mean IPAs in those concomitantly receiving omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole or rabeprazole (47.2 ± 21.1%, 43.2 ± 20.2%, 46.4 ± 18.8%, and 47.3 ± 19.2%, respectively) were significantly decreased compared with those receiving clopidogrel alone (56.0%) (all ps clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime was 51.6%, which was markedly similar to that of clopidogrel alone (p = 0.114). All tested PPIs reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel when administered concomitantly. Our preliminary data suggest that administration of rabeprazole 4 h following clopidogrel may minimize potential drug-drug interactions.

  2. Use of recombinant lentivirus pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G for efficient generation of human anti-cancer chimeric T cells by transduction of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro

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    Kolokoltsov Andrey A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic redirection of lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to recognize antigens other than those originally programmed in their germlines is a potentially powerful tool for immunotherapy of cancers and potentially also of persistent viral infections. The basis for this procedure is that both cancers and some viruses have developed strikingly similar mechanisms of evading attacks by host immune mechanisms. To redirect human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs with a chimeric T cell receptor (chTCR so that they recognize a new target requires a high degree of transfection efficiency, a process that is regarded as technically demanding. Results Infection with a retroviral vector carrying a chTCR cassette was shown to transduce 100% of rapidly dividing murine T cells but typically, only ~10% of PBLs could be infected with the same vector. In contrast with other retroviruses, lentiviruses integrate their genomes into non-dividing cells. To increase host cell range, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein was pseudotyped with a lentivirus vector, which resulted in ~100% PBL transduction efficiency. Signaling of PBLs bearing chimeric receptors was shown by specific proliferation on exposure to cells expressing cognate ligand. Further, T-bodies against CEA showed a startling abilty to cause regression of maligant colon tumors in a nude mouse model of human cancer. Conclusion A lentivirus/VSV pseudotyped virus, which does not require replicating cells for integration of its genome, efficiently transduced a high proportion of human PBLs with chTCRs against CEA. PBLs transduced by infection with a lentivirus/VSV pseudotyped vector were able to proliferate specifically in vitro on exposure to CEA-expressing cells and further they had a startling therapeutic effect in a mouse model of human colon cancer.

  3. Maternal anti-platelet β3 integrins impair angiogenesis and cause intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yougbaré, Issaka; Lang, Sean; Yang, Hong; Chen, Pingguo; Zhao, Xu; Tai, Wei-She; Zdravic, Darko; Vadasz, Brian; Li, Conglei; Piran, Siavash; Marshall, Alexandra; Zhu, Guangheng; Tiller, Heidi; Killie, Mette Kjaer; Boyd, Shelley; Leong-Poi, Howard; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Skogen, Bjorn; Adamson, S Lee; Freedman, John; Ni, Heyu

    2015-04-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life-threatening disease in which intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the major risk. Although thrombocytopenia, which is caused by maternal antibodies against β3 integrin and occasionally by maternal antibodies against other platelet antigens, such as glycoprotein GPIbα, has long been assumed to be the cause of bleeding, the mechanism of ICH has not been adequately explored. Utilizing murine models of FNAIT and a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system, we found that ICH only occurred in fetuses and neonates with anti-β3 integrin-mediated, but not anti-GPIbα-mediated, FNAIT, despite similar thrombocytopenia in both groups. Only anti-β3 integrin-mediated FNAIT reduced brain and retina vessel density, impaired angiogenic signaling, and increased endothelial cell apoptosis, all of which were abrogated by maternal administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). ICH and impairment of retinal angiogenesis were further reproduced in neonates by injection of anti-β3 integrin, but not anti-GPIbα antisera. Utilizing cultured human endothelial cells, we found that cell proliferation, network formation, and AKT phosphorylation were inhibited only by murine anti-β3 integrin antisera and human anti-HPA-1a IgG purified from mothers with FNAIT children. Our data suggest that fetal hemostasis is distinct and that impairment of angiogenesis rather than thrombocytopenia likely causes FNAIT-associated ICH. Additionally, our results indicate that maternal IVIG therapy can effectively prevent this devastating disorder.

  4. The effect of pre-injury anti-platelet therapy on the development of complications in isolated blunt chest wall trauma: a retrospective study.

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    Ceri Battle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The difficulties in the management of the blunt chest wall trauma patient in the Emergency Department due to the development of late complications are well recognised in the literature. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy has been previously investigated as a risk factor for poor outcomes following traumatic head injury, but not in the blunt chest wall trauma patient cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-injury anti-platelet therapy as a risk factor for the development of complications in the recovery phase following blunt chest wall trauma. METHODS: A retrospective study was completed in which the medical notes were analysed of all blunt chest wall trauma patients presenting to a large trauma centre in Wales in 2012 and 2013. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-injury platelet therapy was investigated as a risk factor for the development of complications following blunt chest wall trauma. Previously identified risk factors were included in the analysis to address the influence of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 1303 isolated blunt chest wall trauma patients presented to the ED in Morriston Hospital in 2012 and 2013 with complications recorded in 144 patients (11%. On multi-variable analysis, pre-injury anti-platelet therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for the development of complications following isolated blunt chest wall trauma (odds ratio: 16.9; 95% confidence intervals: 8.2-35.2. As in previous studies patient age, number of rib fractures, chronic lung disease and pre-injury anti-coagulant use were also found to be significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy is being increasingly used as a first line treatment for a number of conditions and there is a concurrent increase in trauma in the elderly population. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy should be considered as a risk factor for the development of complications by clinicians managing

  5. Spray-dried solid dispersions containing ferulic acid: comparative analysis of three carriers, in vitro dissolution, antioxidant potential and in vivo anti-platelet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-11-01

    This article aimed to improve the relative solubility and dissolution rate of ferulic acid (FA) by the use of spray-dried solid dispersions (SDs) in order to ensure its in vitro antioxidant potential and to enhance its in vivo anti-platelet effect. These SDs were prepared by spray-drying at 10 and 20% of drug concentration using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP-K30), polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and poloxamer-188 (PLX-188) as carriers. SDs and physical mixtures (PM) were characterized by SEM, XRPD, FTIR spectroscopy and TGA analysis. Spray-dried SDs containing FA were successfully obtained. Relative solubility of FA was improved with increasing carrier concentration. PVP-K30 and PEG 6000 formulations showed suitable drug content values close to 100%, whereas PLX-188 presented mean values between 70 and 90%. Agglomerates were observed depending on the carrier used. XRPD patterns and thermograms indicated that spray-drying led to drug amorphization and provided appropriate thermal stability, respectively. FTIR spectra demonstrated no remarkable interaction between carrier and drug for PEG 6000 and PLX-188 SDs. PVP-K30 formulations had changes in FTIR spectra, which denoted intermolecular O-H•••O = C bonds. Spray-dried SDs played an important role in enhancing dissolution rate of FA when compared to pure drug. The free radical-scavenging assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PEG 6000 10% SDs was kept. This formulation also provided a statistically increased in vivo anti-platelet effect compared to pure drug. In summary, these formulations enhanced relative solubility and dissolution rate of FA and chosen formulation demonstrated suitable in vitro antioxidant activity and improved in vivo anti-platelet effect.

  6. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  7. Relationship between ADP-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength and anti-platelet responsiveness in ticagrelor treated ACS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xu-Yun; Xi, Shao-Zhi; Liu, Jia; Qin, Liu-An; Jing, Jing; Yin, Tong; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Background Ticagrelor provides enhanced antiplatelet efficacy but increased risk of bleeding and dyspnea. This study aimed to display the relationship between ADP-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (MAADP) and clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated by ticagrelor. Methods Consecutive Chinese-Han patients with ACS who received maintenance dose of ticagrelor on top of aspirin were recruited. After 5-day ticagrelor maintenance treatment, MAADP measured by thrombelastography (TEG) were recorded for the evaluation of ticagrelor anti-platelet reactivity. Pre-specified cutoffs of MAADP > 47 mm for high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) and MAADP < 31 mm for low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LTPR) were applied for evaluation. The occurrences of primary ischemic cardiovascular events (including a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke), the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) defined bleeding events, and ticagrelor related dyspnea were recorded after a follow-up of three months. Results Overall, 176 ACS patients (Male: 79.55%, Age: 59.91 ± 10.54 years) under ticagrelor maintenance treatment were recruited. The value of MAADP ranged from 4.80% to 72.90% (21.27% ± 12.07% on average), with the distribution higher skewed towards the lower values. Using the pre-specific cutoffs for HTPR and LTPR, seven patients (3.98%) were identified as HTPR and 144 patients (81.82%) as LTPR. After a follow-up of three months in 172 patients, major cardiovascular events occurred in no patient, but TIMI bleeding events in 81 (47.09%) with major bleedings in three patients. All patients with major bleedings were classified as LTPR. Ticagrelor related dyspnea occurred in 31 (18.02%) patients, with 30 (21.28%) classified as LTPR and no one as HTPR (P = 0.02). Conclusions In ticagrelor treated ACS patients, MAADP measured by TEG might be valuable for the prediction of major bleeding and ticagrelor related dyspnea

  8. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2010-11-16

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  9. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2010-11-02

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  10. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

    2009-07-14

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  11. Causes, Timing, and Impact of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Interruption for Surgery (from the Patterns of Non-adherence to Anti-platelet Regimens In Stented Patients Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoos, Mikkel; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Baber, Usman; Bhasin, Aarti; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Vogel, Birgit; Farhan, Serdar; Sorrentino, Sabato; Kini, Annapoorna; Kruckoff, Mitchell; Moliterno, David; Henry, Timothy D; Weisz, Giora; Gibson, C Michael; Iakovou, Ioannis; Colombo, Antonio; Steg, P Gabriel; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Chieffo, Alaide; Cohen, David; Stuckey, Thomas; Ariti, Cono; Dangas, George; Pocock, Stuart; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-09-15

    Temporary interruption of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is not infrequently required in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to describe the procedures and outcomes associated with DAPT interruption in patients treated with DAPT following successful PCI from the Patterns of non-adherence to anti-platelet regimens in stented patients registry (n = 5018). DAPT interruption was prespecified as physician recommended cessation for antiplatelet agent was interrupted in 57.2% cases and interruption was frequently recommended by noncardiologists (51.3%). Where type of surgery was reported, majority of DAPT interruptions occurred for minor surgery (68.4% vs 31.6%) and a similar cessation pattern of single versus dual antiplatelet cessation was observed regardless of minor or major surgery. Subsequent to DAPT interruption, 12 patients (2.4%) experienced 1 thrombotic event each, of which 5 (1.0%) occurred during the interruption period. All events occurred in patients who either stopped both agents (8 of 12) or clopidogrel-only (4 of 12), with no events occurring due to aspirin cessation alone. In conclusion, in the Patterns of Non-adherence to Anti-platelet Regiments in Stented Patients registry, 1 in 10 patients were recommended DAPT interruption for surgery within 2 years of PCI. Interruption was more common for a single agent rather than both antiplatelet agents regardless of severity of surgery, and was frequently recommended by noncardiologists. Only 1% of patients with DAPT interruption experienced a subsequent thrombotic event during the interruption period, which mainly occurred in patients stopping both antiplatelet agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Borsato, Débora Maria [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Almeida, Martinha Antunes [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zawadzki, Sônia Faria [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Kanunfre, Carla Cristine [Postgraduate Program in Biomedical Science, Department of General Biology, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Farago, Paulo Vitor, E-mail: pvfarago@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3 μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. - Highlights: • Ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles with high drug-loading were obtained. • Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid showed improved in vitro cytoprotective effect. • Ferulic acid spray-dried microparticles had potential as in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. • In vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced antiplatelet effect for ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles.

  13. Study design and rationale of 'Influence of Cilostazol-based triple anti-platelet therapy on ischemic complication after drug-eluting stent implantation (CILON-T' study: A multicenter randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of Cilostazol on ischemic vascular complications after drug-eluting stent implantation for coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seung-Pyo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines recommend dual anti-platelet therapy, aspirin and clopidogrel, for patients treated with drug-eluting stent for coronary heart disease. In a few small trials, addition of cilostazol on dual anti-platelet therapy (triple anti-platelet therapy showed better late luminal loss. In the real-world unselected patients with coronary heart disease, however, the effect of cilostazol on platelet reactivity and ischemic vascular events after drug-eluting stent implantation has not been tested. It is also controversial whether there is a significant interaction between lipophilic statin and clopidogrel. Methods/Design CILON-T trial was a prospective, randomized, open-label, multi-center, near-all-comer trial to demonstrate the superiority of triple anti-platelet therapy to dual anti-platelet therapy in reducing 6 months' major adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events, composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization and ischemic stroke. It also tested whether triple anti-platelet therapy is superior to dual anti-platelet therapy in inhibiting platelet reactivity in patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent. Total 960 patients were randomized to receive either dual anti-platelet therapy or triple anti-platelet therapy for 6 months and also, randomly stratified to either lipophilic statin (atorvastatin or non-lipophilic statin (rosuvastatin indefinitely. Secondary endpoints included all components of major adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events, platelet reactivity as assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, effect of statin on major adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events, bleeding complications, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio to test the nephroprotective effect of cilostazol. Major adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events will also be checked at 1, 2, and 3 years to test the 'legacy' effect of triple anti-platelet therapy

  14. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6 h post-adm...

  15. Chimeric enzymes with improved cellulase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E

    2015-03-31

    Nucleic acid molecules encoding chimeric cellulase polypeptides that exhibit improved cellulase activities are disclosed herein. The chimeric cellulase polypeptides encoded by these nucleic acids and methods to produce the cellulases are also described, along with methods of using chimeric cellulases for the conversion of cellulose to sugars such as glucose.

  16. Liver transplantation : chimerism, complications and matrix metalloproteinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Willem Rogier ten

    2011-01-01

    Chimerism after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the main focus of the studies described in this thesis. The first study showed that chimerism of different cell lineages within the liver graft does occur after OLT. Subsequently, in allogeneic blood stem cell recipients, chimerism was demons

  17. Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background0 : Human chimerism is rare and usually uncovered through investigations of ambiguous genitalia or blood grouping or prenatal diagnosis. Most of the publications on placental chimerism are mainly case reports. There is no systematic search with sensitive techniques for placental chimerism in human. Aim0 : This study was aimed to asses placental chimerism through two sensitive molecular techniques i.e., interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative fluorescent PCR. Material and methods0 : Placental chimerism was analyzed using X & Y dual color fluorescent in-situ hybridization onto 154 placentae from natural conceptions, obtained at termination of pregnancy between 7 to 16 weeks of gestation. Results0 : Three cases of placental sex chromosome chimerism were observed (1.95%. Exclusion of maternal contamination and diagnosis was confirmed later by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conclusion0 : This finding indicates that placental chimerism in early human pregnancy is not rare.

  18. Comparison of the chemical profiles and anti-platelet aggregation effects of two "Dragon's Blood" drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-27

    "Dragon's Blood" has been used as a medicine since ancient times by many cultures. In traditional Chinese medicine, the resin obtained from Daemonorops draco (RDD) and the resin from Dracaena cochinchinensis (RDC) are equally prescribed as "Dragon's Blood" for facilitating blood circulation. To verify the traditional efficacy and elucidate the mechanism, the present study compared the chemical profiles and the pharmacological effects of two species of "Dragon's Blood" mainly used in China. A UPLC-MS fingerprinting method was developed to compare the chemical profiles of the two medicines. The anti-platelet aggregation effects of the two medicines induced by arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated. The chemical profiles of these two species of "Dragon's Blood" were significantly different. The characteristic constituents were found to be: flavanes in RDD and stilbenes in RDC. In the in vivo platelet inhibition test, performed with the dose of 200 mg/kg on rats, the peak inhibitory effects of RDD and RDC were 35.8% and 27.6%, respectively, compared with the control group. With the in vitro concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml, RDD exerted significant inhibition of aggregation by 18.7%, 20.0%, and 61.6%, respectively, and RDC exerted significant inhibition of aggregation by 13.3%, 20.2%, and 31.6%, respectively. The fingerprinting method used here is suitable for distinguishing them. All pharmacological tests indicated that RDD was more potent than RDC against platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved Monosynaptic Neural Circuit Tracing Using Engineered Rabies Virus Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euiseok J. Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monosynaptic rabies virus tracing is a unique and powerful tool used to identify neurons making direct presynaptic connections onto neurons of interest across the entire nervous system. Current methods utilize complementation of glycoprotein gene-deleted rabies of the SAD B19 strain with its glycoprotein, B19G, to mediate retrograde transsynaptic spread across a single synaptic step. In most conditions, this method labels only a fraction of input neurons and would thus benefit from improved efficiency of transsynaptic spread. Here, we report newly engineered glycoprotein variants to improve transsynaptic efficiency. Among them, oG (optimized glycoprotein is a codon-optimized version of a chimeric glycoprotein consisting of the transmembrane/cytoplasmic domain of B19G and the extracellular domain of rabies Pasteur virus strain glycoprotein. We demonstrate that oG increases the tracing efficiency for long-distance input neurons up to 20-fold compared to B19G. oG-mediated rabies tracing will therefore allow identification and study of more complete monosynaptic input neural networks.

  20. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  1. Optimal duration of dual anti-platelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: 2016 consensus position of the Italian Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillà, Francesco; Pelliccia, Francesco; Borzi, Mauro; Camici, Paolo; Cas, Livio Dei; Di Biase, Matteo; Indolfi, Ciro; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Montemurro, Vincenzo; Padeletti, Luigi; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Vizza, Carmine D; Romeo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Definition of the optimal duration of dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) is an important clinical issue, given the large number of patients having percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the costs and risks of pharmacologic therapy, the consequences of stent thrombosis, and the potential benefits of DAPT in preventing ischaemic outcomes beyond stent thrombosis. Nowadays, the rationale for a prolonged duration of DAPT should be not only the prevention of stent thrombosis, but also the prevention of ischaemic events unrelated to the coronary stenosis treated with index PCI. A higher predisposition to athero-thrombosis may persist for years after an acute myocardial infarction, and even stable patients with a history of prior myocardial infarction are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Recently, results of pre-specified post-hoc analyses of randomized clinical trials, including the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, have shed light on strategies of DAPT in various clinical situations, and should impact the next rounds of international guidelines, and also routine practice. Accordingly, the 2015 to 2016 the Board of the Italian Society of Cardiology addressed newer recommendations on duration of DAPT based on most recent scientific information. The document states that physicians should decide duration of DAPT on an individual basis, taking into account ischaemic and bleeding risks of any given patient. Indeed, current controversy surrounding optimal duration of DAPT clearly reflects the fact that, nowadays, a one size fits all strategy cannot be reliably applied to patients treated with PCI. Indeed, patients usually have factors for both increased ischaemic and bleeding risks that must be carefully evaluated to assess the benefit/risk ratio of prolonged DAPT. Personalized management of DAPT must be seen as a dynamic prescription with regular re-evaluations of the risk/benefit to the patient according to changes in his/her clinical profile. Also, in order to

  2. Tratamiento perioperatorio del paciente con antiagregación o anticoagulación Peri-operative management of patients with anti-platelet or anticoagulation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Déaz M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento del paciente que recibe terapias que afectan la hemostasia normal (anticoagulantes y/o antiagregantes plaquetarios y que será sometido a un procedimiento quirúrgico, es uno de los retos que se presentan cada vez con mayor frecuencia en los servicios de cardiología. La toma de la mejor opción terapéutica en este grupo de pacientes requiere un profundo conocimiento sobre los riesgos de sangrado en caso de continuarse el tratamiento, frente a los riesgos de trombosis o embolismo en caso de suspenderlo. Por tradición, esa decisión se ha basado más en el temor al riesgo de sangrado, por lo cual en muchos casos se ha suspendido dicha terapia de manera innecesaria. En los últimos años, la aparición de la evidencia que indica que no sólo no es alto el riesgo de sangrado sino que además la continuación de estos medicamentos en muchos casos disminuye desenlaces adversos mayores, ha llevado a replantear esta conducta. En este artículo se revisará la evidencia actual existente al respecto y se suministrarán pautas que permitan la toma de una decisión adecuada.Treatment of patients receiving therapies that affect normal hemostasis (anticoagulants and / or anti-platelet aggregators and that will undergo surgery, is one of the challenges that arise with increasing frequency in the cardiology services. Making the best therapeutic option in these patients requires a thorough understanding of the risks of bleeding in case of continuing the treatment against the risks of thrombosis or embolism in case of stopping it. By tradition, this decision has been based more on fear to the risk of bleeding, whereby in many cases this therapy has been suspended unnecessarily. In recent years, the emergence of evidence indicates that the risk of bleeding is not high and that continuation of these drugs in many cases reduce major adverse outcomes. This has led to redefine this behavior. In this article we review the current evidence available on

  3. A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Wen

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus (HMPV are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. The fusion (F glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1 is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections.

  4. A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaolin; Pickens, Jennifer; Mousa, Jarrod J.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Crowe, James E.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. PMID:27224013

  5. The Glycoprotein and the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Affect Pathogenicity by Regulating Viral Replication and Facilitating Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant ...

  6. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  7. Chikungunya, Influenza, Nipah, and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Mao, Guochao; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Rose, John K; Davis, John N

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein (G) gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain, including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya (CHIKV), and influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene. We also test a virus-like vesicle (VLV) in which the VSV glycoprotein gene is expressed from a replicon encoding the nonstructural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV were all safe in the adult mouse brain, as were VSVΔG viruses expressing either the Nipah F or G glycoprotein. In contrast, a complementing pair of VSVΔG viruses expressing Nipah G and F glycoproteins were lethal within the brain within a surprisingly short time frame of 2 days. Intranasal inoculation in postnatal day 14 mice with VSVΔG-CHIKV or VLV evoked no adverse response, whereas VSVΔG-H5N1 by this route was lethal in most mice. A key immune mechanism underlying the safety of VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV in the adult brain was the type I interferon response; all three viruses were lethal in the brains of adult mice lacking the interferon receptor, suggesting that the viruses can infect and replicate and spread in brain cells if not blocked by interferon-stimulated genes within the brain.IMPORTANCE Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows considerable promise both as a vaccine vector and as an oncolytic virus. The greatest limitation of VSV is that it is highly neurotropic and can be lethal within the brain. The neurotropism can be mostly attributed to the VSV G glycoprotein. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses of VSV with glycoprotein genes from Nipah

  8. Progress in Chimeric Vector and Chimeric Gene Based Cardiovascular Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-Song; YOON Young-sup; ISNER Jeffrey M.; LOSORDO Douglas W.

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy for cardiovascular diseases has developed from preliminary animal experiments to clinical trials. However, vectors and target genes used currently in gene therapy are mainly focused on viral, nonviral vector and single target gene or monogene. Each vector system has a series of advantages and limitations. Chimeric vectors which combine the advantages of viral and nonviral vector,chimeric target genes which combine two or more target genes and novel gene delivery modes are being developed. In this article, we summarized the progress in chimeric vectors and chimeric genes based cardiovascular gene therapy, which including proliferative or occlusive vascular diseases such as atheroslerosis and restenosis, hypertonic vascular disease such as hypertension and cardiac diseases such as myocardium ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even heart transplantation. The development of chimeric vector, chimeric gene and their cardiovascular gene therapy is promising.

  9. Manufacture of diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, T Y; Markert, C L

    1980-01-01

    Tetraploid mouse embryos were produced by cytochalasin B treatment. These embryos usually die before completion of embryonic development and are abnormal morphologically and physiologically. The tetraploid embryos can be rescued to develop to maturity by aggregating them with normal diploid embryos to produce diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice. The diploid/tetraploid chimeric embryos are frequently abnormal: the larger the proportion of tetraploid cells, the greater the abnormality. By karyotyp...

  10. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in calf kidney. Glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities towards serum glycoproteins and calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W; Lasthuis, A M; van den Eijnden, D H

    1979-04-18

    CMP-AcNeu:glycoprotein sialyltransltransltransltransltransferase of calf kidney cortex was characterized using serum glycoproteins and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, obtained from calf urine, as acceptors. Native calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein showed the best acceptor properties, followed by desialylated calf fetuin and desialylated human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein exhibiting V values of, respectively, 114, 63 and 41 nmol/h per g wet wt. of kidney cortex and Km values of 0.12, 0.16 and 0.26 mM glycoprotein acceptor. Desialylated ovine submaxillary mucine appeared to be a very poor acceptor. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferase could be distinguished from serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase by competition studies. In addition the two glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities showed different distributions over the three regions of the calf kidney: the ratios of the Tamm-Horsfall to serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities decreased from 3.3 in the cortex to 0.8 and 0.4 in the medulla and the papilla, respectively. It was concluded that in calf kidney at least two different sialyltransferases exist. The high cortical Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferases activity corresponds markedly to the origin of the urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, namely the distal part of the kidney tubule. Inactivation of glycoprotein sialyltransferase activity by preincubation at various temperatures and during storage at 0 degree C, could be reduced by the addition of CMP-AcNeu. The possible relevance towards the in vivo sialylation of this finding is discussed.

  11. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  12. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  13. Chimerism and xenotransplantation. New concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzl, T E; Rao, A S; Murase, N; Demetris, A J; Thomson, A; Fung, J J

    1999-02-01

    In both transplant and infectious circumstances, the immune response is governed by migration and localization of the antigen. If the antigenic epitopes of transgenic xenografts are sufficiently altered to avoid evoking the destructive force of innate immunity, the mechanisms of engraftment should be the same as those that permit the chimerism-dependent immunologic confrontation and resolution that is the basis of allograft acceptance. In addition to "humanizing" the epitopes, one of the unanswered questions is whether the species restriction of complement described in 1994 by Valdivia and colleagues also necessitates the introduction of human complement regulatory genes in animal donors. Because the liver is the principal or sole source of most complement components, the complement quickly is transformed to that of the donor after hepatic transplantation. Thus, the need for complementary regulatory transgenes may vary according to the kind of xenograft used. Much evidence shows that physiologically important peptides produced by xenografts (e.g., insulin, clotting factors, and enzymes) are incorporated into the metabolic machinery of the recipient body. To the extent that this is not true, xenotransplantation could result in the production of diseases that are analogous to inborn errors of metabolism. In the climate of pessimism that followed the failures of baboon to human liver xenotransplantation in 1992-1993, it seemed inconceivable that the use of even more discordant donors, such as the pig, could ever be seriously entertained; however, this preceded insight into the xenogeneic and allogeneic barriers that has brought transplantation infectious immunity to common ground. With this new insight and the increasing ease of producing transgenic donors, the goal of clinical xenotransplantation may not be so distant.

  14. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder

    2015-12-01

    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of 12 human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell

  15. Chimerism in health, transplantation and autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Marije; Kremer Hovinga, Idske Cornelia Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The term “chimerism” originates from Greek mythology and refers to the creature Chimaera, whose body was in front a lion, the back a serpent and the midsection a goat. In medicine, the term chimerism refers to an individual, organ or part consisting of tissues of diverse genetic constitution. Pregna

  16. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of a novel chimeric pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Reimann, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination–challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved to be aviru......A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination–challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved...... to be avirulent and neither chimeric virus nor viral RNA was detected in serum after vaccination. The safety of the vaccine was tested by horizontal transmission to sentinel pigs, which remained uninfected. The vaccine efficacy was examined by challenge infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Eystrup......' and horizontal transmission of challenge virus to sentinel pigs was not observed. A supplementary figure is available in JGV Online...

  17. Therapy of anti-platelet in acute cerebral infarction with cerebral microbleeds%急性脑梗死伴脑微出血患者的抗血小板治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 刘维洲; 潘华; 储照虎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨抗血小板聚集治疗对急性脑梗死合并脑微出血(cerebral microbleeds,CMB)患者的临床意义.方法 选择铜陵市人民医院神经内科2011年2~12月收治的急性脑梗死患者107例.入院时均常规行MRI加梯度回波T2加权成像(grandient-echo T2 weighted MRI,GRE)检查.根据是否存在CMB分为有CMB组,无CMB组.记录CMB组的CMB发生例数、CMB病灶部位、数目、记录两组患者腔隙性脑梗死、脑白质疏松等情况,记录两组患者的血压、血脂、血糖、既往卒中病史.107例患者均接受抗血小板聚集治疗.治疗后2周复查MRI加GRE.观察两组患者CMB的总数、部位有无变化,有无梗死后出血转化,并探讨CMB的危险因素.结果 CMB在脑部各个区域均有分布,以基底节区最多;高血压(OR=4.004,95%CI=1.483~10.814,P<0.05)、腔隙性脑梗死(OR=10.727,95%CI =3.646~31.563,P<0.05)是CMB发生的危险因素;高血脂、糖尿病、脑白质疏松、抗血小板聚集治疗与CMB发生无明显相关(OR=0.887,95%CI =0.631~1.248,P>0.05).无CMB组治疗两周后无新发CMB;有CMB组CMB的总数、部位均无明显变化(P>0.05);两组患者均无出血转化的发生.结论 CMB在急性脑梗死患者中有较高的发生率,高血压、腔隙性脑梗死是急性脑梗死发生CMB的危险因素.急性脑梗死合并CMB患者在2周内行抗血小板聚集治疗不增加CMB发生率,不增加出血转化的危险.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of anti-platelet therapy to acute cerebral infarction' with cerebral microbleeds (CMB). Methods 107 patients with acute cerebral infarction had been admitted in the Neurological Department of Tongling People Hospital from February 2011 to December 2011, all patients had been scanned with MRI and GRE series. According to the existence of CMB,the patients fell into two groups,CMB group and non-CMB group. CMB group was recorded in items: CMB occurrence cases,CMB focus

  18. Evidence of a cold immunoglobulin M autoantibody against 78-kD platelet glycoprotein in a case of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caterina, M; Fratellanza, G; Grimaldi, E; Varriale, V; Scopacasa, F; Di Maro, G; Formisano, S

    1993-02-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia is a phenomenon in which the electronic count shows spuriously low platelet counts in subjects with normal platelet levels. The mechanism of anticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia appears to involve cold reactive agglutinins against platelet antigens. The authors report a case of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia with evidence of a cold immunoglobulin M antibody against 78-kD platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP). Cell counts were performed by Coulter Counter S-Plus VI (Coulter, Hialeah, FL) in the following anticoagulants: EDTA, Na-citrate, and citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole. Anti-platelet antibodies and platelet membrane GP antigens were assayed by an immunofluorescence technique as described by Van dem Borne in 1978. An immunoglobulin M/lambda anti-platelet antibody was found to react in serum as well as in plasma EDTA at room temperature, but not at 37 degrees C. This antibody appeared to be directed against GP78 membrane antigen because this antigen was not detectable by immunofluorescence in platelets collected in EDTA and Na-citrate anticoagulant, whereas a fluorescence signal was revealed in platelets collected in citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole. This evidence was confirmed by platelet clumping inhibition tests in which target platelets were pretreated with anti-GP monoclonal antibodies. Clumping in the presence of pseudothrombocytopenia serum was inhibited by anti-GP78kD and anti-GPIIb/IIIa but not by anti-Ib. In this case, GP78 appears to be involved in platelet clumping, together with IIb/IIIa complex. The partial inhibition of the phenomenon observed in citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole is probably related to a lower expression of the membrane antigens in platelets collected in this anticoagulant.

  19. Chimeric rhinoviruses displaying MPER epitopes elicit anti-HIV neutralizing responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been a formidable task, but remains a critical necessity. The well conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein is one of the crucial targets for AIDS vaccine development, as it has the necessary attribute of being able to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse isolates of HIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Guided by X-ray crystallography, molecular modeling, combinatorial chemistry, and powerful selection techniques, we designed and produced six combinatorial libraries of chimeric human rhinoviruses (HRV displaying the MPER epitopes corresponding to mAbs 2F5, 4E10, and/or Z13e1, connected to an immunogenic surface loop of HRV via linkers of varying lengths and sequences. Not all libraries led to viable chimeric viruses with the desired sequences, but the combinatorial approach allowed us to examine large numbers of MPER-displaying chimeras. Among the chimeras were five that elicited antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing HIV-1 pseudoviruses from at least three subtypes, in one case leading to neutralization of 10 pseudoviruses from all six subtypes tested. CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of these chimeras or closely related chimeras could conceivably lead to useful components of an effective AIDS vaccine. While the MPER of HIV may not be immunodominant in natural infection by HIV-1, its presence in a vaccine cocktail could provide critical breadth of protection.

  20. Regional atmospheric composition modeling with CHIMERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Beekmann, M.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Curci, G.; Foret, G.; Hodzic, A.; Mailler, S.; Meleux, F.; Monge, J.-L.; Pison, I.; Turquety, S.; Valari, M.; Vautard, R.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric trace gas and aerosol pollutants have adverse effects on health, environment and climate. In order to quantify and mitigate such effects, a wide range of processes leading to the formation and transport of pollutants must be considered, understood and represented in numerical models. Regional scale pollution episodes result from the combination of several factors: high emissions (from anthropogenic or natural sources), stagnant meteorological conditions, velocity and efficiency of the chemistry and the deposition. All these processes are highly variable in time and space, and their relative importance to the pollutants budgets can be quantified within a chemistry-transport models (CTM). The offline CTM CHIMERE model uses meteorological model fields and emissions fluxes and calculates deterministically their behavior in the troposphere. The calculated three-dimensional fields of chemical concentrations can be compared to measurements to analyze past periods or used to make air quality forecasts and CHIMERE has enabled a fine understanding of pollutants transport during numerous measurements campaigns. It is a part of the PREVAIR french national forecast platform, delivering pollutant concentrations up to three days in advance. The model also allows scenario studies and long term simulations for pollution trends. The modelling of photochemical air pollution has reached a good level of maturity, and the latest projects involving CHIMERE now aim at increasing our understanding of pollution impact on health at the urban scale or at the other end of the spectrum for long term air quality and climate change interlinkage studies, quantifying the emissions and transport of pollen, but also, at a larger scale, analyzing the transport of pollutants plumes emitted by volcanic eruptions and forest fires.

  1. Regional atmospheric composition modeling with CHIMERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric trace gas and aerosol pollutants have adverse effects on health, environment and climate. In order to quantify and mitigate such effects, a wide range of processes leading to the formation and transport of pollutants must be considered, understood and represented in numerical models. Regional scale pollution episodes result from the combination of several factors: high emissions (from anthropogenic or natural sources, stagnant meteorological conditions, velocity and efficiency of the chemistry and the deposition. All these processes are highly variable in time and space, and their relative importance to the pollutants budgets can be quantified within a chemistry-transport models (CTM. The offline CTM CHIMERE model uses meteorological model fields and emissions fluxes and calculates deterministically their behavior in the troposphere. The calculated three-dimensional fields of chemical concentrations can be compared to measurements to analyze past periods or used to make air quality forecasts and CHIMERE has enabled a fine understanding of pollutants transport during numerous measurements campaigns. It is a part of the PREVAIR french national forecast platform, delivering pollutant concentrations up to three days in advance. The model also allows scenario studies and long term simulations for pollution trends. The modelling of photochemical air pollution has reached a good level of maturity, and the latest projects involving CHIMERE now aim at increasing our understanding of pollution impact on health at the urban scale or at the other end of the spectrum for long term air quality and climate change interlinkage studies, quantifying the emissions and transport of pollen, but also, at a larger scale, analyzing the transport of pollutants plumes emitted by volcanic eruptions and forest fires.

  2. Lentiviral Gag assembly analyzed through the functional characterization of chimeric simian immunodeficiency viruses expressing different domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Esteva

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses.

  3. Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2012-10-17

    Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  4. Envelope Glycoprotein of Arenaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasquato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1/Site-1 Protease (S1P yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP. GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  5. Pregnancy, chimerism and lupus nephritis: a multi-centre study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovinga, I.C. Kremer; Koopmans, M.; Grootscholten, C.; Wal, A.M. van der; Bijl, M. van der; Derksen, R.H.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Heer, E. de; Bruijn, J.A.; Berden, J.H.M.; Bajema, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Chimerism occurs twice as often in the kidneys of women with lupus nephritis as in normal kidneys and may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Pregnancy is considered the most important source of chimerism, but the exact relationship between pregnancy, the persistence of

  6. Pregnancy, chimerism and lupus nephritis : a multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovinga, I. C. L. Kremer; Koopmans, M.; Grootscholten, C.; van der Wal, A. M.; Bijl, M.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Voslcuyl, A. E.; de Heer, E.; Bruijn, J. A.; Berden, J. H. M.; Rajema, I. M.

    2008-01-01

    Chimerism occurs twice as often in the kidneys of women with lupus nephritis as in normal kidneys and may he involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Pregnancy is considered the most important source of chimerism, but the exact relationship between pregnancy, the persistence of

  7. Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Platero-Luengo, Aida; Sakurai, Masahiro; Sugawara, Atsushi; Gil, Maria Antonia; Yamauchi, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Bogliotti, Yanina Soledad; Cuello, Cristina; Morales Valencia, Mariana; Okumura, Daiji; Luo, Jingping; Vilariño, Marcela; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Soto, Delia Alba; Martinez, Cristina A; Hishida, Tomoaki; Sánchez-Bautista, Sonia; Martinez-Martinez, M Llanos; Wang, Huili; Nohalez, Alicia; Aizawa, Emi; Martinez-Redondo, Paloma; Ocampo, Alejandro; Reddy, Pradeep; Roca, Jordi; Maga, Elizabeth A; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Berggren, W Travis; Nuñez Delicado, Estrella; Lajara, Jeronimo; Guillen, Isabel; Guillen, Pedro; Campistol, Josep M; Martinez, Emilio A; Ross, Pablo Juan; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-26

    Interspecies blastocyst complementation enables organ-specific enrichment of xenogenic pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derivatives. Here, we establish a versatile blastocyst complementation platform based on CRISPR-Cas9-mediated zygote genome editing and show enrichment of rat PSC-derivatives in several tissues of gene-edited organogenesis-disabled mice. Besides gaining insights into species evolution, embryogenesis, and human disease, interspecies blastocyst complementation might allow human organ generation in animals whose organ size, anatomy, and physiology are closer to humans. To date, however, whether human PSCs (hPSCs) can contribute to chimera formation in non-rodent species remains unknown. We systematically evaluate the chimeric competency of several types of hPSCs using a more diversified clade of mammals, the ungulates. We find that naïve hPSCs robustly engraft in both pig and cattle pre-implantation blastocysts but show limited contribution to post-implantation pig embryos. Instead, an intermediate hPSC type exhibits higher degree of chimerism and is able to generate differentiated progenies in post-implantation pig embryos.

  8. Vectors expressing chimeric Japanese encephalitis dengue 2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Wang, S; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Vectors based on self-replicating RNAs (replicons) of flaviviruses are becoming powerful tool for expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells and development of novel antiviral and anticancer vaccines. We constructed two vectors expressing chimeric viruses consisting of attenuated SA14-14-2 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in which the PrM/M-E genes were replaced fully or partially with those of dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). These vectors, named pJED2 and pJED2-1770 were transfected to BHK-21 cells and produced chimeric viruses JED2V and JED2-1770V, respectively. The chimeric viruses could be passaged in C6/36 but not BHK-21 cells. The chimeric viruses produced in C6/36 cells CPE 4-5 days after infection and RT-PCR, sequencing, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot analysis confirmed the chimeric nature of produced viruses. The immunogenicity of chimeric viruses in mice was proved by detecting DENV-2 E protein-specific serum IgG antibodies with neutralization titer of 10. Successful preparation of infectious clones of chimeric JEV-DENV-2 viruses showed that JEV-based expression vectors are fully functional.

  9. chimeraviz: a tool for visualizing chimeric RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lågstad, Stian; Zhao, Sen; Hoff, Andreas M; Johannessen, Bjarne; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2017-09-15

    Advances in high-throughput RNA sequencing have enabled more efficient detection of fusion transcripts, but the technology and associated software used for fusion detection from sequencing data often yield a high false discovery rate. Good prioritization of the results is important, and this can be helped by a visualization framework that automatically integrates RNA data with known genomic features. Here we present chimeraviz , a Bioconductor package that automates the creation of chimeric RNA visualizations. The package supports input from nine different fusion-finder tools: deFuse, EricScript, InFusion, JAFFA, FusionCatcher, FusionMap, PRADA, SOAPfuse and STAR-FUSION. chimeraviz is an R package available via Bioconductor ( https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/chimeraviz.html ) under Artistic-2.0. Source code and support is available at GitHub ( https://github.com/stianlagstad/chimeraviz ). rolf.i.skotheim@rr-research.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. 新型N-取代四氢噻吩并[3,2-c]吡啶类衍生物的合成及其抗血小板聚集活性%Synthesis and Anti-platelet Aggregation Activities of Novel N-substituted-tetrahydrothieno [3,2-c] pyridine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 陈立功; 廖上腾; 刘登科

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel piperazine-bearing thienopyridine derivatives (3a ~ 3p) were designed and synthesized from 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c] pyridine.The structures were characterized by 1H NMR,13C NMR,IR and ESI-HR-MS.In vivo anti-platelet aggregation tests in rats showed that 3a ~ 3p exhibited certain anti-platelet aggregation activities.The inhibitions of 3a,3c,3i and 3j were 66.8%,69.5%,70.4% and 65.2%,respectively.%以4,5,6,7-四氢噻吩并[3,2-c]吡啶为起始原料,设计并合成了一系列新型的含哌嗪结构的噻吩并吡啶类化合物(3a ~3p),其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR,IR和ESI-HR-MS表征.大鼠体内抗血小板聚集活性研究表明,3a~3p均具有一定的抗血小板聚集作用,其中3a,3c,3i和3j的抑制率分别为66.8%,69.5%,70.4%和65.2%.

  11. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of a novel chimeric pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Reimann, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination–challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved...... to be avirulent and neither chimeric virus nor viral RNA was detected in serum after vaccination. The safety of the vaccine was tested by horizontal transmission to sentinel pigs, which remained uninfected. The vaccine efficacy was examined by challenge infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Eystrup....... In ‘challenge controls’, the viral load of CSFV coincided with the development of pronounced clinical symptoms. In contrast, the vaccinated pigs showed transient and weak clinical signs. Analysis of the viral load in these pigs showed 1000-fold lower viral RNA levels compared to ‘challenge controls...

  12. Chimeric alignment by dynamic programming: Algorithm and biological uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsoulis, G.A.; Waterman, M.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A new nearest-neighbor method for detecting chimeric 16S rRNA artifacts generated during PCR amplification from mixed populations has been developed. The method uses dynamic programming to generate an optimal chimeric alignment, defined as the highest scoring alignment between a query and a concatenation of a 5{prime} and a 3{prime} segment from two separate entries from a database of related sequences. Chimeras are detected by studying the scores and form of the chimeric and global sequence alignments. The chimeric alignment method was found to be marginally more effective than k-tuple based nearest-neighbor methods in simulation studies, but its most effective use is in concert with k-tuple methods. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Uichi; Anzai, Jun-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of electrochemical biosensors for glycoproteins. Electrochemical glycoprotein sensors are constructed by combining metal and carbon electrodes with glycoprotein-selective binding elements including antibodies, lectin, phenylboronic acid and molecularly imprinted polymers. A recent trend in the preparation of glycoprotein sensors is the successful use of nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotube, and metal nanoparticles. These nanomaterials are extremely useful for improving the sensitivity of glycoprotein sensors. This review focuses mainly on the protocols for the preparation of glycoprotein sensors and the materials used. Recent improvements in glycoprotein sensors are discussed by grouping the sensors into several categories based on the materials used as recognition elements.

  14. Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uichi Akiba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of electrochemical biosensors for glycoproteins. Electrochemical glycoprotein sensors are constructed by combining metal and carbon electrodes with glycoprotein-selective binding elements including antibodies, lectin, phenylboronic acid and molecularly imprinted polymers. A recent trend in the preparation of glycoprotein sensors is the successful use of nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotube, and metal nanoparticles. These nanomaterials are extremely useful for improving the sensitivity of glycoprotein sensors. This review focuses mainly on the protocols for the preparation of glycoprotein sensors and the materials used. Recent improvements in glycoprotein sensors are discussed by grouping the sensors into several categories based on the materials used as recognition elements.

  15. T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Kateley, J.R.; Gengozian, N.

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vascular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields >95% T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yields >95% B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens.

  16. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Seligmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A, multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200× rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000. Among 186 peptides with >8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.

  17. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200 × rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000). Among 186 peptides with > 8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.

  18. Quantification of mixed chimerism allows early therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jóice Merzoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the curative option for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome; however, it requires a long post-transplantation follow-up. A 53-year-old woman with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome underwent related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in July 2006. Three months after transplantation, a comparative short tandem repeat analysis between donor and recipient revealed full chimerism, indicating complete, healthy bone marrow reconstitution. Three years and ten months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient developed leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Another short tandem repeat analysis was carried out which showed mixed chimerism (52.62%, indicating relapsed disease. A donor lymphocyte infusion was administered. The purpose of donor lymphocyte infusion is to induce a graft-versus-leukemia effect; in fact, this donor's lymphocyte infusion induced full chimerism. Successive short tandem repeat analyses were performed as part of post-transplantation follow-up, and in July 2010, one such analysis again showed mixed chimerism (64.25%. Based on this finding, a second donor lymphocyte infusion was administered, but failed to eradicate the disease. In September 2011, the patient presented with relapsed disease, and a second related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed. Subsequent short tandem repeat analyses revealed full chimerism, indicating complete bone marrow reconstitution. We conclude that quantitative detection of mixed chimerism is an important diagnostic tool that can guide early therapeutic intervention.

  19. Generating chimeric zebrafish embryos by transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Hilary A; Carmany-Rampey, Amanda; Moens, Cecilia

    2009-07-17

    One of the most powerful tools used to gain insight into complex developmental processes is the analysis of chimeric embryos. A chimera is defined as an organism that contains cells from more than one animal; mosaics are one type of chimera in which cells from more than one genotype are mixed, usually wild-type and mutant. In the zebrafish, chimeras can be readily made by transplantation of cells from a donor embryo into a host embryo at the appropriate embryonic stage. Labeled donor cells are generated by injection of a lineage marker, such as a fluorescent dye, into the one-cell stage embryo. Labeled donor cells are removed from donor embryos and introduced into unlabeled host embryos using an oil-controlled glass pipette mounted on either a compound or dissecting microscope. Donor cells can in some cases be targeted to a specific region or tissue of the developing blastula or gastrula stage host embryo by choosing a transplantation site in the host embryo based on well-established fate maps.

  20. 正确认识血小板功能检测在急性冠状动脉综合征患者抗血小板治疗中的价值%Deciphering the platelet function test inacute coronary syndrome patients subjected to anti-platelet therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真路; 张李涛

    2016-01-01

    抗血小板治疗是急性冠脉综合征( ACS)治疗的基石,血小板功能检测可以评估抗血小板治疗的效果,而关于血小板功能检测是否能用于指导ACS抗血小板治疗依然存在争论。另外血小板功能检测的方法众多,常见用于抗血小板治疗监测的检测方法各有优缺点。根据近年循证资料、指南共识和临床经验,对ACS疾病中,血小板功能检测的目标人群、药物、检测方法、质量保证及结果解释进行综述,希望能有助于检验人员和临床医生正确理解血小板功能检测在ACS患者抗血小板治疗中的意义。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:743-746)%Anti-platelet therapy plays a key role in acute coronary syndrome ( ACS ) treatments.Platelet function tests could monitor the effect of anti-platelet drugs′, however, it is still under debate that whether platelet function monitoring could be used to adjust antiplatelet therapy.Additionally, there are a number of platelet function assays, and each of them has specifically advantages and disadvantages.This article reviewed evidence-based information, guidelines, consensus and clinical experience about platelet function monitoring in ACS patients, which was intend to help laboratory technicians and clinicians understanding the value of platelet function tests in monitoring anti-platelet therapy.

  1. Construction, Expression and Characterization of a Chimeric Protein Targeting Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; HUA Shu-cheng; MA Cheng-yuan; YU Zhen-xiang; XU Li-jun; LI Dan; SUN Li-li; LI Xiao; PENG Li-ping

    2011-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) is an oncofetal glycoprotein known as an important clinical tumor marker and is overexpressed in several types of tumors, including colorectal and lung carcinomas. We constructed a chimeric protein that exhibits both specific binding and immune stimulating activities, by fusing staphylococcal enterotoxin A(SEA) to the C-terminus of an anti-CEA single-chain disulfide-stabilized Fv(scdsFv) antibody (single-chain-C-terminus/SEA, SC-C/SEA). The SC-C/SEA protein was expressed in Escherichia coli(E. coli), refolded, and purified on an immobilized Ni2+ affinity chromatography column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis reveal that the target protein was expressed sufficiently. We used immunofluorescence assays to demonstrate that SC-C/SEA could bind specifically to human lung carcinoma cells(A549), but almost human uterine cervix cells(HeLa). We also used the L-lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release assay to show that SC-C/SEA elicits a strong A549 tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) response in vitro. The results suggest that SC-C/SEA shows specific activity against CEA-positive cells and has potential application in CEA-targeted cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  3. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  4. The Glycoprotein and the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Affect Pathogenicity by Regulating Viral Replication and Facilitating Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant increase in the pathogenicity of the SN strain bearing the RV G from the pathogenic SB strain. Moreover, the pathogenicity was further increased when both G and M from SB were introduced into SN. Interestingly, the replacement of the G or M gene or both in SN by the corresponding genes of SB was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of viral replication and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, a chimeric SN virus bearing both the M and G genes from SB exhibited more efficient cell-to-cell spread than a chimeric SN virus in which only the G gene was replaced. Together, these data indicate that both G and M play an important role in RV pathogenesis by regulating virus replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread. PMID:18094173

  5. The glycoprotein and the matrix protein of rabies virus affect pathogenicity by regulating viral replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant increase in the pathogenicity of the SN strain bearing the RV G from the pathogenic SB strain. Moreover, the pathogenicity was further increased when both G and M from SB were introduced into SN. Interestingly, the replacement of the G or M gene or both in SN by the corresponding genes of SB was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of viral replication and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, a chimeric SN virus bearing both the M and G genes from SB exhibited more efficient cell-to-cell spread than a chimeric SN virus in which only the G gene was replaced. Together, these data indicate that both G and M play an important role in RV pathogenesis by regulating virus replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread.

  6. A meta-analysis on efficacy of anti-platelet agents and anticoagulants for preventing stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation%抗血小板与抗凝治疗预防非瓣膜性心房颤动缺血性卒中的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂荣会; 钟国强; 曾志羽; 伍伟锋; 何燕

    2011-01-01

    的大样本RCT来进一步证实.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and security of anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy on prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation ( NAF). Methods We searched PubMed, EMbase, CENTREN and its affiliated clinical trial registration data center, CBMdisc,VIP,and CNKI databases from establishment to Dec 2009 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs)covering the use of anti-platelet agents and anticoagulants for patients with NAF. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.0 software after the strict evaluation of the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Results Fourteen RCTs involving 15 880 patients were include. Compared with placebo or no use of anti-platelet drugs, antiplatelet therapy didn't reduce ischemic stroke (RR = 0. 83,95% CI0. 68 to 1.00, P = 0. 05 ), systemic emboli ( RR= 0. 71, 95% CI0. 34 to 1.51, P = 0. 38 ) and all-cause mortality (RR = 0. 88, 95% CI0. 73 to 1.07, P= 0. 21 ) while significantly increased the major bleeding ( RR = 2. 88, 95% CI 1.21 to 6. 86, P= 0. 02 ) in patients with NAF, intracranial hemorrhage was not affected by antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation ( RR= 3. 25, 95% CI0. 84 to 12.62, P =0. 09). Compared with anti-platelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy significantly reduced the incidence of ischemic stroke (RR = 1.84,95% CI 1.48 to 2. 28 ,P <0. 01 ) and systemic emboli (RR= 1.94, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.03, P = 0. 004 ) but significantly increased the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage ( RR =0. 49, 95% CI0. 31 to 0. 78, P= 0. 003 ), did not affect all-cause mortality ( RR = 1.06, 95% CI0. 90 to 1.23, P = 0. 50) and the incidence of major bleeding ( RR = 0. 95, 95 % CI0. 76 to 1.19, P = 0. 66) in NAF patients. Conclusions Compared with the placebo and no use of anti-platelet drugs, anti-platelet therapy didn't reduce ischemic stroke and systemic emboli but increased the risk of major bleeding in NAF patients. Compared with

  7. The Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Contributes to but Is Not Sufficient for Virulence In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Marzi, Andrea; Hoenen, Thomas; Herwig, Astrid; Gardner, Don; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Among the Ebola viruses most species cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans; however, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has not been associated with human disease despite numerous documented infections. While the molecular basis for this difference remains unclear, in vitro evidence has suggested a role for the glycoprotein (GP) as a major filovirus pathogenicity factor, but direct evidence for such a role in the context of virus infection has been notably lacking. In order to assess the role of GP in EBOV virulence, we have developed a novel reverse genetics system for REBOV, which we report here. Together with a previously published full-length clone for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), this provides a unique possibility to directly investigate the role of an entire filovirus protein in pathogenesis. To this end we have generated recombinant ZEBOV (rZEBOV) and REBOV (rREBOV), as well as chimeric viruses in which the glycoproteins from these two virus species have been exchanged (rZEBOV-RGP and rREBOV-ZGP). All of these viruses could be rescued and the chimeras replicated with kinetics similar to their parent virus in tissue culture, indicating that the exchange of GP in these chimeric viruses is well tolerated. However, in a mouse model of infection rZEBOV-RGP demonstrated markedly decreased lethality and prolonged time to death when compared to rZEBOV, confirming that GP does indeed contribute to the full expression of virulence by ZEBOV. In contrast, rREBOV-ZGP did not show any signs of virulence, and was in fact slightly attenuated compared to rREBOV, demonstrating that GP alone is not sufficient to confer a lethal phenotype or exacerbate disease in this model. Thus, while these findings provide direct evidence that GP contributes to filovirus virulence in vivo, they also clearly indicate that other factors are needed for the acquisition of full virulence. PMID:22876185

  8. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene

    2017-04-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/) is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/CW-articles.php). This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  9. Chimera: construction of chimeric sequences for phylogenetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Chimera allows the construction of chimeric protein or nucleic acid sequence files by concatenating sequences from two or more sequence files in PHYLIP formats. It allows the user to interactively select genes and species from the input files. The concatenated result is stored to one single output

  10. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  11. Blood chimerism in dizygotic monochorionic twins during five years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hansen, Morten Høgh; Haedersdal, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    and again at five years. We found an increase in the proportion of allogeneic cells from 63% to 89% in one twin, and a similar increase in autologous cells in the other twin from 57% to 84%. A paradigm for stem cell therapy could be modelled on this case: induction of tolerance and chimerism by antenatal...

  12. CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF A HUMAN-MOUSE CHIMERIC ANTIBODY AGAINST HUMAN BLADDER CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银; 王琰; 周丽君; 俞莉章

    2001-01-01

    To construct and express a human-mouse chimeric antibody against human bladder cancer. Method: The variable region genes of anti-human bladder cancer monoclonal antibody BDI-1 were cloned by RT-PCR. A human-mouse chimeric antibody expression vector was constructed and transfected into CHO cells. The chimeric antibody against bladder cancer was expressed and characterized. Result: Eukaryotic expression vector of the chimeric antibody against human bladder carcinoma was successfully constructed, and was expressed in eukaryotic cells; the expressed chimeric antibody ch-BDI showed same specificity as its parent McAb against human bladder cancer cells. Conclusion: The constructed chimeric antibody was expressed successfully in eukaryotic cells, and the chimeric antibody had desired affinity against human bladder cancer cells.

  13. N6-烷基-2-烷氧基腺苷化合物的合成及抗血小板凝集活性%Synthesis of 2-Alkoxy-N6-alkyl Adenosine Compounds and Their Anti-platelet Aggregation Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆军; 李顺来; 丁忠仁; 杜洪光

    2011-01-01

    Guanosine (1) as the starting material was protected by acetic anhydride to get 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-guanosine (2), then chlorinated with phosphorus oxychloride to obtain 2-amino-6-chloro-9-(2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine (3). Compound 3 was diazotized and hydrolyzed, subsequently reacted with several alkyl halides respectively to afford 2-alkoxy-6-chloro-9-(2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine (4a~4c). 2-Alkoxy-N6-alkyl adenosine compounds 5a~5c were acquired by aminolysis and deprotection reaction of compounds 4a~4c. All compounds 5a~5c have not been reported so far. The structures of compounds 5a~5c were identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS techniques. What is more, the anti-platelet aggregation rates for the final compounds were measured. At a concentration of 100 μmol/L, the test results of the biological activity of anti-platelet aggregation showed that N6-(4-methylbenzyl)-2-benzyloxy adenosine (5c3) and N6-(2-phenethyl)-2-benzyloxy adenosine (5c4) have a relatively low aggregation rate and have a certain anti-platelet aggregation activity.%以鸟瞟呤核苷(1)为原料,经羟基保护得到2’,3’,5’-三-O-乙酰基鸟嘌呤核苷(2),2与三氯氧磷反应得到2-氨基-6-氯-9-(2’,3’,5’-三-O-乙酰基-β-D-呋喃核糖)嘌呤(3),3经重氮化、水解和O-烷基化得到2-烷氧基-6-氯-9-(2’,3’,5’-三-O-乙酰基-β-D-呋喃核糖)嘌呤(4a~4c),4a~4c经胺解和水解脱保护反应得到12个未见报道的N6-烷基-2-烷氧基腺苷化合物5a~5c.化合物的结构经1HNMR,13C NMR,IR和HRMS等得到表征,同时对合成的N6-烷基-2-烷氧基腺苷化合物进行了抗血小板凝集活性测试.结果表明,在测试浓度为100 μmol/L时,N6-(4-甲基苄基)-2-苄氧基腺苷(5c3)和N6-(2-苯乙基)-2-苄氧基腺苷(5c4)具有相对较低的聚集率,具有一定的抗血小板凝集活性.

  14. A directed molecular evolution approach to improved immunogenicity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean X Du

    Full Text Available A prophylactic vaccine is needed to slow the spread of HIV-1 infection. Optimization of the wild-type envelope glycoproteins to create immunogens that can elicit effective neutralizing antibodies is a high priority. Starting with ten genes encoding subtype B HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoproteins and using in vitro homologous DNA recombination, we created chimeric gp120 variants that were screened for their ability to bind neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Hundreds of variants were identified with novel antigenic phenotypes that exhibit considerable sequence diversity. Immunization of rabbits with these gp120 variants demonstrated that the majority can induce neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1. One novel variant, called ST-008, induced significantly improved neutralizing antibody responses when assayed against a large panel of primary HIV-1 isolates. Further study of various deletion constructs of ST-008 showed that the enhanced immunogenicity results from a combination of effective DNA priming, an enhanced V3-based response, and an improved response to the constant backbone sequences.

  15. High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biplab Bose; Navin Khanna; Subrat K Acharya; Subrata Sinha

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody.METHODS: We cloned the VH and VL genes of this mouse antibody; and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and CL domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. Coli.RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal.This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E> coli to increase the yield.CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a fulllength chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.

  16. An E2-Substituted Chimeric Pestivirus With DIVA Vaccine Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    An advantage of the use of chimeric pestiviruses as modified live vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) resides in their capacity to be manipulated to achieve the characteristics desired for safe and efficacious DIVA vaccines. We have recently generated a new chimeric virus, Riems26_E2gif...... engineered specifically for this purpose. The E2-substituted Riems26_E2gif was derived by homologues recombination of the complete E2 protein encoding genome region from Border disease strain Gifhorn into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harbouring the genome of the CSFV vaccine strain C......-Riems. The virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of Riems26_E2gif were tested in a vaccine-challenge experiment in pigs. Riems26_E2gif vaccinated pigs could be differentiated from infected pigs using a CSFV-E2 specific ELISA. Following challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Koslov, all...

  17. Blood Chimerism in Dizygotic Monochorionic Twins During 5 Years Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegiel, M H; Hansen, M H; Haedersdal, S; Barrett, A N; Rieneck, K; Main, K M; Hansen, A T; Clausen, F B

    2017-04-19

    Dizygotic monochorionic twin pregnancies can result in blood chimerism due to in utero twin-to-twin exchange of stem cells. In this case, we examined the proportion of allogeneic red blood cells by flow cytometry and the proportion of allogeneic nucleated cells by digital polymerase chain reaction at 7 months and again at 5 years. We found an increase in the proportion of allogeneic cells from 63% to 89% in one twin, and a similar increase in autologous cells in the other twin from 57% to 84%. A paradigm for stem cell therapy could be modeled on this case: induction of tolerance and chimerism by antenatal transfusion of donor stem cells. The procedure would hold the promise of transplantation and tolerance induction without myeloablative conditioning for inheritable benign hematological diseases such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Birth of two chimeric genes in the Hominidae lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courseaux, A; Nahon, J L

    2001-02-16

    How genes with newly characterized functions originate remains a fundamental question. PMCHL1 and PMCHL2, two chimeric genes derived from the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) gene, offer an opportunity to examine such an issue in the human lineage. Detailed structural, expression, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the PMCHL1 gene was created near 25 million years ago (Ma) by a complex mechanism of exon shuffling through retrotransposition of an antisense MCH messenger RNA coupled to de novo creation of splice sites. PMCHL2 arose 5 to 10 Ma by an event of duplication involving a large chromosomal region encompassing the PMCHL1 locus. The RNA expression patterns of those chimeric genes suggest that they have been submitted to strong regulatory constraints during primate evolution.

  19. Mechanisms of Tolerance Induction by Hematopoietic Chimerism: The Immune Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Esma S; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

    2017-03-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism is one of the effective approaches to induce tolerance to donor-derived tissue and organ grafts without administration of life-long immunosuppressive therapy. Although experimental efforts to develop such regimens have been ongoing for decades, substantial cumulative toxicity of combined hematopoietic and tissue transplants precludes wide clinical implementation. Tolerance is an active immunological process that includes both peripheral and central mechanisms of mutual education of coresident donor and host immune systems. The major stages include sequential suppression of early alloreactivity, establishment of hematopoietic chimerism and suppressor cells that sustain the state of tolerance, with significant mechanistic and temporal overlap along the tolerization process. Efforts to devise less toxic transplant strategies by reduction of preparatory conditioning focus on modulation rather than deletion of residual host immunity and early reinstitution of regulatory subsets at the central and peripheral levels. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:700-712.

  20. Chimeric Amino Acid Rearrangements as Immune Targets in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    minimum of one chimeric transcript containing a coding region breakpoint (range of 1-13). For this class of fusions, translation and proteome alignment...patients and contained a predicted HLA*02:01 restricted epitope. In vitro, we identified T cells from healthy donor peripheral blood that recognizes...low frequency. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Next generation sequencing, T cell immunotherapy, mutations, neoantigens, prostate cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  1. Novel nanocomposites from spider silk–silica fusion (chimeric) proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Patwardhan, Siddharth V.; Belton, David J.; Kitchel, Brandon; Anastasiades, Daphne; Huang, Jia; Naik, Rajesh R.; Perry, Carole C.; Kaplan, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Silica skeletal architectures in diatoms are characterized by remarkable morphological and nanostructural details. Silk proteins from spiders and silkworms form strong and intricate self-assembling fibrous biomaterials in nature. We combined the features of silk with biosilica through the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel family of chimeric proteins for subsequent use in model materials forming reactions. The domains from the major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) protein of Neph...

  2. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development.

  3. Rotavirus VP7 epitope chimeric proteins elicit cross-immunoreactivity in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingxin; Zhao; Xiaoxia; Pan; Yumei; Teng; Wenyue; Xia; Jing; Wang; Yuling; Wen; Yuanding; Chen

    2015-01-01

    VP7 of group A rotavirus(RVA) contains major neutralizing epitopes. Using the antigenic protein VP6 as the vector, chimeric proteins carrying foreign epitopes have been shown to possess good immunoreactivity and immunogenicity. In the present study, using modified VP6 as the vector,three chimeric proteins carrying epitopes derived from VP7 of RVA were constructed. The results showed that the chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6 and with SA11 and Wa virus strains.Antibodies from guinea pigs inoculated with the chimeric proteins recognized VP6 and VP7 of RVA and protected mammalian cells from SA11 and Wa infection in vitro. The neutralizing activities of the antibodies against the chimeric proteins were significantly higher than those against the vector protein VP6 F. Thus, development of chimeric vaccines carrying VP7 epitopes using VP6 as a vector could be a promising alternative to enhance immunization against RVAs.

  4. Rotavirus VP7 epitope chimeric proteins elicit cross-immunoreactivity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingxin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Teng, Yumei; Xia, Wenyue; Wang, Jing; Wen, Yuling; Chen, Yuanding

    2015-10-01

    VP7 of group A rotavirus (RVA) contains major neutralizing epitopes. Using the antigenic protein VP6 as the vector, chimeric proteins carrying foreign epitopes have been shown to possess good immunoreactivity and immunogenicity. In the present study, using modified VP6 as the vector, three chimeric proteins carrying epitopes derived from VP7 of RVA were constructed. The results showed that the chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6 and with SA11 and Wa virus strains. Antibodies from guinea pigs inoculated with the chimeric proteins recognized VP6 and VP7 of RVA and protected mammalian cells from SA11 and Wa infection in vitro. The neutralizing activities of the antibodies against the chimeric proteins were significantly higher than those against the vector protein VP6F. Thus, development of chimeric vaccines carrying VP7 epitopes using VP6 as a vector could be a promising alternative to enhance immunization against RVAs.

  5. Benefit and safety of dual anti-platelet therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting: a Meta-analysis of 15 studies%冠状动脉旁路移植术后双联抗血小板治疗meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏光夏; 孙战文

    2016-01-01

    -term curative effect after coronary artery bypass grafting with the comparison of benefit and safety between dual anti-platelet therapy and aspirin therapy alone.Methods Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials concerning the comparison of benefit and safety between dual anti-platelet therapy and aspirin therapy alone, with extraction effect sizes including mortality, bleeding events, myocardial ischemia and graft occlusion.Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadal scales were used to evaluate the quality of observational case-control studies and randomized controlled studies.Statistical analysis was performed using Meta R.15.2 software package.Results 15 literatures were enrolled for Meta-analyses, including 8randomized controlled studies, 3 prospective observational studies and 4 retrospective observational studies.Among a total of 31 365patiens, 8 642 patients were received combination therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel after CABG, and 22 723 patients were received combination therapy of aspirin and placebo or aspirin therapy alone.The Meta-analysis results, with comparison of the early postoperative curative effect in 13 literatures, showed that, relative to aspirin therapy alone, dual anti-platelet therapy could reduce the risk of graft occlusion(OR =0.53,95% CI: 0.37-0.76, P =0.001), reduce the risk of myocardial ischemia (OR =0.84, 95 % CI: 0.71-0.99, P =0.038) , reduce the risk of mortality after CABG (OR =0.47,95 % CI: 0.36-0.61, P <0.001), simultaneously not increase the risk of bleeding events.The Meta-analysis results, with comparison of the long-term postoperative curative effect in 2 literatures, showed that the significant difference could not be found between two method of therapy about affecting the risk of graft occlusion (OR =0.40, 95 % CI: 0.02-6.90, P =0.523) , myocardial ischemia(OR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.04-6.10, P =0.597), and mortality (OR =0.55, 95 % CI: 0.13-2.80, P =0.420).Conclusion

  6. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Azevedo

    Full Text Available The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2 and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2. The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  7. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M B

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  8. Thionin-D4E1 chimeric protein protects plants against bacterial infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stover, Eddie W; Gupta, Goutam; Hao, Guixia

    2017-08-08

    The generation of a chimeric protein containing a first domain encoding either a pro-thionon or thionin, a second domain encoding D4E1 or pro-D4E1, and a third domain encoding a peptide linker located between the first domain and second domain is described. Either the first domain or the second domain is located at the amino terminal of the chimeric protein and the other domain (second domain or first domain, respectively) is located at the carboxyl terminal. The chimeric protein has antibacterial activity. Genetically altered plants and their progeny expressing a polynucleotide encoding the chimeric protein resist diseases caused by bacteria.

  9. Chimeric RNA Oligonucleotides with Triazole and Phosphate Linkages: Synthesis and RNA Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoko; Kogashi, Kanako; Okada, Koudai; Mattarella, Martin; Suzuki, Takeru; Yasumoto, Kenichi; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric RNA oligonucleotides with an artificial triazole linker were synthesized using solution-phase click chemistry and solid-phase automated synthesis. Scalable synthesis methods for jointing units for the chimeric structure have been developed, and after click-coupling of the jointing units with triazole linkers, a series of chimeric oligonucleotides was prepared by utilizing the well-established phosphoramidite method for the elongation. The series of chimeric 21-mer oligonucleotides that possessed the triazole linker at different strands and positions allowed for a screening study of the RNA interference to clarify the preference of the triazole modifications in small-interfering RNA molecules.

  10. Studies of tolerance induction through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys. Method for detection of chimeric cells and effect of thymic irradiation on induction of tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tomoaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    To establish the method for the detection of chimerism in cynomologus monkeys, we tested cross reactivity of various anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cynomolgus monkeys. In 29 mAb we tested, only three monoclonal anti-HLA antibodies crossreacted with lymphocytes of monkeys. With these mAb, chimeric cell can be detected up to 1% by flow cytometric analysis (study 1). Utilizing the method we developed in study 1, we applied the regimen that induces mixed chimerism and skin graft tolerance in mice to renal allotransplantation of cynomolgus monkey. Regimen A includes non-lethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI), administration of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for 3 days, donor bone marrow infusion and 45 days course of cyclosporine (CYA) administration. We added 7 Gy of thymic irradiation on day-6 in regimen B and on day-1 in regimen C. Although all monkeys in regimen A and B consistently developed chimerism, they rejected kidney allografts soon after stopping CYA. In contrast, 4 monkeys out of 5 failed to develop chimerism in regimen C, but renal allograft tolerance was induced in one monkey who developed chimerism in regimen C. In conclusion, the induction of chimerism is considered necessary but not sufficient for tolerance induction. (author)

  11. Novel nanocomposites from spider silk–silica fusion (chimeric) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Patwardhan, Siddharth V.; Belton, David J.; Kitchel, Brandon; Anastasiades, Daphne; Huang, Jia; Naik, Rajesh R.; Perry, Carole C.; Kaplan, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Silica skeletal architectures in diatoms are characterized by remarkable morphological and nanostructural details. Silk proteins from spiders and silkworms form strong and intricate self-assembling fibrous biomaterials in nature. We combined the features of silk with biosilica through the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel family of chimeric proteins for subsequent use in model materials forming reactions. The domains from the major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) protein of Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk provide control over structural and morphological details because it can be self-assembled through diverse processing methods including film casting and fiber electrospinning. Biosilica nanostructures in diatoms are formed in aqueous ambient conditions at neutral pH and low temperatures. The R5 peptide derived from the silaffin protein of Cylindrotheca fusiformis induces and regulates silica precipitation in the chimeric protein designs under similar ambient conditions. Whereas mineralization reactions performed in the presence of R5 peptide alone form silica particles with a size distribution of 0.5–10 μm in diameter, reactions performed in the presence of the new fusion proteins generate nanocomposite materials containing silica particles with a narrower size distribution of 0.5–2 μm in diameter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that composite morphology and structure could be regulated by controlling processing conditions to produce films and fibers. These results suggest that the chimeric protein provides new options for processing and control over silica particle sizes, important benefits for biomedical and specialty materials, particularly in light of the all aqueous processing and the nanocomposite features of these new materials. PMID:16769898

  12. Immunogenicity of candidate chimeric DNA vaccine against tuberculosis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ayan; Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2009-08-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania donovani are important intracellular pathogens, especially in Indian context. In India and other South East Asian countries, both these infections are highly endemic and in about 20% cases co-infection of these pathogens is reported. For both these pathogens cell mediated immunity plays most important role. The available treatment of these infections is either prolonged or cumbersome or it is ineffective in controlling the outbreaks and spread. Therefore, potentiation of a common host defense mechanism can be used to prevent both the infections simultaneously. In this study we have developed a novel chimeric DNA vaccine candidate comprising the esat-6 gene of M. tuberculosis and kinesin motor domain gene of L. donovani. After developing this novel chimera, its immunogenicity was studied in mouse model. The immune response was compared with individual constructs of esat-6 and kinesin motor domain. The results showed that immunization with chimeric DNA vaccine construct resulted in stronger IFN-gamma and IL-2 response against kinesin (3012+/-102 and 367.5+/-8.92pg/ml) and ESAT-6 (1334+/-46.5 and 245.1+/-7.72pg/ml) in comparison to the individual vaccine constructs. The reciprocal immune response (IFN-gamma and IL-2) against individual construct was lower (kinesin motor domain: 1788+/-36.48 and 341.8+/-9.801pg/ml and ESAT-6: 867.0+/-47.23 and 170.8+/-4.578pg/ml, respectively). The results also suggest that using the chimeric construct both proteins yielded a reciprocal adjuvant affect over each other as the IFN-gamma production against chimera vaccination is statistically significant (pleishmaniasis and tuberculosis and have important implication in future vaccine design.

  13. Characterization of chimeric Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Shelton, Anthony M; Cheng, Jiaan; Feng, Ming-Guang; Shen, Zhicheng

    2007-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) are potential alternatives for B. thuringiensis endotoxins that are currently utilized in commercial transgenic insect-resistant crops. Screening a large number of B. thuringiensis isolates resulted in the cloning of vip3Ac1. Vip3Ac1 showed high insecticidal activity against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea but very low activity against the silkworm Bombyx mori. The host specificity of this Vip3 toxin was altered by sequence swapping with a previously identified toxin, Vip3Aa1. While both Vip3Aa1 and Vip3Ac1 showed no detectable toxicity against the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis, the chimeric protein Vip3AcAa, consisting of the N-terminal region of Vip3Ac1 and the C-terminal region of Vip3Aa1, became insecticidal to the European corn borer. In addition, the chimeric Vip3AcAa had increased toxicity to the fall armyworm. Furthermore, both Vip3Ac1 and Vip3AcAa are highly insecticidal to a strain of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) that is highly resistant to the B. thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac, thus experimentally showing for the first time the lack of cross-resistance between B. thuringiensis Cry1A proteins and Vip3A toxins. The results in this study demonstrated that vip3Ac1 and its chimeric vip3 genes can be excellent candidates for engineering a new generation of transgenic plants for insect pest control.

  14. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Seligmann

    2016-01-01

    Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human m...

  15. Chimeric honeybees (Apis mellifera) produced by transplantation of embryonic cells into pre-gastrula stage embryos and detection of chimerism by use of microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergem, M; Norberg, K; Roseth, A; Meuwissen, T; Lien, S; Aamodt, R H

    2006-04-01

    The production of chimeras, by use of cell transplantation, has proved to be highly valuable in studies of development by providing insights into cell fate, differentiation, and developmental potential. So far, chimeric honeybees have been created by nuclear transfer technologies. We have developed protocols to produce chimeric honeybees by use of cell transplantation. Embryonic cells were transplanted between pre-gastrula stage embryos (32-34 hr after oviposition) and hatched larvae were reared in vitro for 4 days. Chimeric individuals were detected by use of microsatellite analysis and a conservative estimation approach. 4.8% of embryos, posteriorly injected with embryonic cells, developed into chimeric honeybee larvae. By injection of cells pre-stained with fluorescent cell tracer dye, we studied the integration of transplanted cells in the developing embryos. Number of injected cells varied from 0 to 50 and cells remained and multiplied mainly in the area of injection.

  16. High-resolution air quality simulation over Europe with the chemistry transport model CHIMERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrenoire

    2015-01-01

    The results suggest that future work should focus on the development of national bottom-up emission inventories including a better account for semi-volatile organic compounds and their conversion to SOA, the improvement of the CHIMERE urban parameterization, the introduction into CHIMERE of the coarse nitrate chemistry and an advanced parameterization accounting for windblown dust emissions.

  17. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  18. Relationship between the expression of autoantibodies against platelet membrance glycoprotein and therapeutic effect in primary immune thrombocytopenia%血小板膜糖蛋白特异性抗体在原发免疫性血小板减少症患者中的分布及与疗效的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓帆; 薛峰; 张磊; 周雪丽; 刘永泽; 刘葳; 陈云飞; 黄月婷; 杨仁池

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究血小板膜糖蛋白GPⅡb/Ⅲa、GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ、GPⅠa/Ⅱa特异性抗体(抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa、GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ 、GP Ⅰ a/Ⅱa抗体)在原发免疫性血小板减少症(ITP)患者的分布,评价抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa、GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ、GPⅠ a/Ⅱa抗体与疗效的关系.方法 2010年12月至2012年11月442例ITP患者纳入研究,分为新诊断ITP组(132例)、持续性ITP组(152例)、慢性ITP组(158例).应用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测各组患者抗血小板GP Ⅱb/Ⅲa、GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ、GPⅠa/Ⅱa抗体.新诊断ITP患者给予静脉丙种球蛋白(IVIG)联合糖皮质激素治疗,分析抗体分布与疗效的关系.结果 新诊断ITP组、持续性ITP组、慢性ITP组患者血小板膜糖蛋白抗体的阳性率分别为59.09% 、26.97%、37.35%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);新诊断ITP组单一抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa抗体阳性率为38.64%,抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa与抗GPⅠa/Ⅱa双抗体阳性率为15.91%,与持续性ITP组、慢性ITP组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05);抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa抗体阳性的新诊断ITP组患者,IVIG联合糖皮质激素方案的完全反应率(80.39%)高于三种抗体均阴性患者(57.41%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 与持续性ITP组和慢性ITP组比较,新诊断ITP患者单一抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa抗体、抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa与抗GPⅠa/Ⅱa双抗体阳性呈高表达.抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa抗体阳性患者对IVIG联合糖皮质激素的标准治疗方案有良好的治疗反应.%Objective To study the expression of specific anti-platelet glycoprotein autoantibodies GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a,GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ and GP Ⅰ a/Ⅱ a in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP),and to evaluate the relationship between the therapeutic effect and the expression of specific anti-platelet glycoprotein antibodies GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a,GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ and GP Ⅰ a/Ⅱ a.Methods Anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a,GP Ⅰ b/Ⅸ and GP Ⅰ a/Ⅱ a antibodies were assayed by ELISA for patients with ITP.Total 442 patients in our hospital,who were

  19. [Neutralizing Monoclonal and Chimeric Antibodies to Human IFN-γ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, M V; Aliev, T K; Solopova, O N; Pozdnyakova, L P; Korobova, S V; Yakimov, S A; Sveshnikov, P G; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autoiminune disorders are chronic diseases characterized by abnormal immune response directed against self-antigens that leads to tissue damage and violation of its normal functioning. Such diseases often result in disability or even death of patients. Nowadays a number of monoclonal antibodies to pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors are successfully used for the targeted treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the perspective targets in autoimmune disease therapy is interferon gamma, a key cytokine in Th1 cells differentiation, activation of macrophages, and inflammation. In the present work, 5 monoclonal antibodies to human IFN-γ were obtained. For the development of potential therapeutic agent, we have performed neutralizing activity and affinity analysis of the antibodies. Based on the data obtained, the monoclonal antibody F1 was selected. This antibody has a dissociation constant 1.7 x 10(-9) M and IC90 = 8.9 ± 2.0 nM measured upon antibody inhibition of the IFN-γ-induced HLA-DR expression on the surface of U937 cells. We have constructed a bicistronic vector for the production of recombinant chimeric Fab fragment F1 chim in E. coli cells. The recombinant chimeric Fab fragment Fl chim neutralizes IFN-γ activity in vitro and has a dissociation constant 1.8 x 10(-9) M.

  20. Chimeric antigen receptor engineered stem cells: a novel HIV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Anjie; Carrillo, Mayra A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2017-03-01

    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for suppressing HIV and improving patients' quality of life, HIV persists in cART-treated patients and remains an incurable disease. Financial burdens and health consequences of lifelong cART treatment call for novel HIV therapies that result in a permanent cure. Cellular immunity is central in controlling HIV replication. However, HIV adopts numerous strategies to evade immune surveillance. Engineered immunity via genetic manipulation could offer a functional cure by generating cells that have enhanced antiviral activity and are resistant to HIV infection. Recently, encouraging reports from several human clinical trials using an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T-cell therapy for treating B-cell malignancies have provided valuable insights and generated remarkable enthusiasm in engineered T-cell therapy. In this review, we discuss the development of HIV-specific chimeric antigen receptors and the use of stem cell based therapies to generate lifelong anti-HIV immunity.

  1. CHIMERE 2013: a model for regional atmospheric composition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric trace gas and aerosol pollutants have adverse effects on health, environment and climate. In order to quantify and mitigate such effects, a wide range of processes leading to the formation and transport of pollutants must be considered, understood and represented in numerical models. Regional scale pollution episodes result from the combination of several factors: high emissions (from anthropogenic or natural sources, stagnant meteorological conditions, kinetics and efficiency of the chemistry and the deposition. All these processes are highly variable in time and space, and their relative contribution to the pollutants budgets can be quantified with chemistry-transport models. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is dedicated to regional atmospheric pollution event studies. Since it has now reached a certain level a maturity, the new stable version, CHIMERE 2013, is described to provide a reference model paper. The successive developments of the model are reviewed on the basis of published investigations that are referenced in order to discuss the scientific choices and to provide an overview of the main results.

  2. Chimeric Antisense Oligonucleotide Conjugated to α-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Nishina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an efficient system for delivering short interfering RNA (siRNA to the liver by using α-tocopherol conjugation. The α-tocopherol–conjugated siRNA was effective and safe for RNA interference–mediated gene silencing in vivo. In contrast, when the 13-mer LNA (locked nucleic acid-DNA gapmer antisense oligonucleotide (ASO was directly conjugated with α-tocopherol it showed markedly reduced silencing activity in mouse liver. Here, therefore, we tried to extend the 5′-end of the ASO sequence by using 5′-α-tocopherol–conjugated 4- to 7-mers of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA as a “second wing.” Intravenous injection of mice with this α-tocopherol–conjugated chimeric ASO achieved more potent silencing than ASO alone in the liver, suggesting increased delivery of the ASO to the liver. Within the cells, the UNA wing was cleaved or degraded and α-tocopherol was released from the 13-mer gapmer ASO, resulting in activation of the gapmer. The α-tocopherol–conjugated chimeric ASO showed high efficacy, with hepatic tropism, and was effective and safe for gene silencing in vivo. We have thus identified a new, effective LNA-DNA gapmer structure in which drug delivery system (DDS molecules are bound to ASO with UNA sequences.

  3. Serotype Chimeric Human Adenoviruses for Cancer GeneTherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akseli Hemminki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy consists of numerous approaches where the common denominator is utilization of vectors for achieving therapeutic effect. A particularly potent embodiment of the approach is virotherapy, in which the replication potential of an oncolytic virus is directed towards tumor cells to cause lysis, while normal cells are spared. Importantly, the therapeutic effect of the initial viral load is amplified through viral replication cycles and production of progeny virions. All cancer gene therapy approaches rely on a sufficient level of delivery of the anticancer agent into target cells. Thus,enhancement of delivery to target cells, and reduction of delivery to non-target cells, in an approach called transductional targeting, is attractive. Both genetic and non-genetic retargeting strategies have been utilized. However, in the context of oncolytic viruses, it is beneficial to have the specific modification included in progeny virions and hence genetic modification may be preferable. Serotype chimerism utilizes serotype specific differences in receptor usage, liver tropism and seroprevalence in order to gain enhanced infection of target tissue. This review will focus on serotype chimeric adenoviruses for cancer gene therapy applications.

  4. Chimeric behavior of excited thioxanthone in protic solvents: II. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai-Constapel, Vidisha; Villnow, Torben; Ryseck, Gerald; Gilch, Peter; Marian, Christel M

    2014-12-18

    The chimeric behavior of thioxanthone in protic solvents has been investigated employing computational chemistry methods. In particular, methanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol have been chosen in this study. The solvent environment has been modeled using microsolvation in combination with a conductor-like screening model. The vertical excitation spectrum within the same solvent is seen to depend on the number of specific bonds formed between the chromophore and the solvent molecules. Two different models have been discussed in this work, namely, one and two H-bond models. In particular, the formation of the second H-bond causes the energy gap between the πHπL* and nOπL* states to increase further. Excited-state absorption spectra for the photophysically relevant electronic states have been theoretically determined for comparison with the time-resolved spectra recorded experimentally [Villnow, T.; Ryseck, G.; Rai-Constapel, V.; Marian, C. M.; Gilch, P. J. Phys. Chem. A 2014]. The equilibration of the 1(πHπL*) and 3(nOπL*) states holds responsible for the chimeric behavior. This equilibrium sets in with a calculated time constant of 23 ps in methanol and 14 ps in TFE (5 and 10 ps in experiment, respectively). The radiative decay from the optically bright 1(πHπL*) state is computed to occur with a time constant of 25 ns in both solvents (14–25 ns in experiment).

  5. Identification and analysis of pig chimeric mRNAs using RNA sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Lei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene fusion is ubiquitous over the course of evolution. It is expected to increase the diversity and complexity of transcriptomes and proteomes through chimeric sequence segments or altered regulation. However, chimeric mRNAs in pigs remain unclear. Here we identified some chimeric mRNAs in pigs and analyzed the expression of them across individuals and breeds using RNA-sequencing data. Results The present study identified 669 putative chimeric mRNAs in pigs, of which 251 chimeric candidates were detected in a set of RNA-sequencing data. The 618 candidates had clear trans-splicing sites, 537 of which obeyed the canonical GU-AG splice rule. Only two putative pig chimera variants whose fusion junction was overlapped with that of a known human chimeric mRNA were found. A set of unique chimeric events were considered middle variances in the expression across individuals and breeds, and revealed non-significant variance between sexes. Furthermore, the genomic region of the 5′ partner gene shares a similar DNA sequence with that of the 3′ partner gene for 458 putative chimeric mRNAs. The 81 of those shared DNA sequences significantly matched the known DNA-binding motifs in the JASPAR CORE database. Four DNA motifs shared in parental genomic regions had significant similarity with known human CTCF binding sites. Conclusions The present study provided detailed information on some pig chimeric mRNAs. We proposed a model that trans-acting factors, such as CTCF, induced the spatial organisation of parental genes to the same transcriptional factory so that parental genes were coordinatively transcribed to give birth to chimeric mRNAs.

  6. Donor chimerism early after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T; Nikiforow, Sarah; Milford, Edgar L; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P

    2014-10-01

    The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T cell-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We evaluated 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid and 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18 to 74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T cell-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched), with a median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6 to 120.7). In multivariable analysis, total donor cell and T cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism D100 total donor cell chimerism or T cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment......, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our...

  8. Novel fusion genes and chimeric transcripts in ependymal tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thale Kristin; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified two ALK rearrangements in a subset of ependymal tumors using a combination of cytogenetic data and RNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform an unbiased search for fusion transcripts in our entire series of ependymal tumors. Fusion analysis was performed...... using the FusionCatcher algorithm on 12 RNA-sequenced ependymal tumors. Candidate transcripts were prioritized based on the software's filtering and manual visualization using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and BLAT (BLAST-like alignment tool) tools. Genomic and reverse transcriptase PCR...... with subsequent Sanger sequencing was used to validate the potential fusions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using locus-specific probes was also performed. A total of 841 candidate chimeric transcripts were identified in the 12 tumors, with an average of 49 unique candidate fusions per tumor. After...

  9. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  10. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67:262-67. 20. Arthur JF, Dunkley S and Andrews RK. Platelet glycoprotein VI-related...Moroi M. Antibody against platelet membrane glyco- protein VI in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67: 262–7. 9 Arthur JF...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the

  11. Interaction of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) spike glycoprotein with receptor glycoprotein MHVR is required for infection with an MHV strain that expresses the hemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagneten, S; Gout, O; Dubois-Dalcq, M; Rottier, P; Rossen, J; Holmes, K V

    1995-01-01

    In addition to the spike (S) glycoprotein that binds to carcinoembryonic antigen-related receptors on the host cell membrane, some strains of mouse coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus [MHV]) express a hemagglutinin esterase (HE) glycoprotein with hemagglutinating and acetylesterase activity. Virions

  12. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exhibited low cytotoxic effect on both HEK293 cells (IC50: 724.43, 269.08 and 407.89 mg/mL respectively) and .... suspended in a small volume of suspending buffer (0.4 mM ..... reported to selectively inhibit myeloid leukemia. (HL-60) cell line ...

  13. Anti-Platelet Fraction Isolated from Galega Officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasov A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis has been purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100. The final purification factor of the fraction is 120. The peak in elution profile after Sephadex G-150 shows a molecular weight of 100-140 kDa. The isolated fraction appears to have 74% polysaccharides and 23% of proteins. No loss of activity of the final fraction is observed after storage for several months at 4°C and in lyophilized condition. The fraction compounds inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and thrombin.

  14. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (PPanax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of a common chimeric transcript between human chromosomes 7 and 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wenwen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interchromosomal chimeric RNA molecules are often transcription products from genomic rearrangement in cancerous cells. Here we report the computational detection of an interchromosomal RNA fusion between ZC3HAV1L and CHMP1A from RNA-seq data of normal human mammary epithelial cells, and experimental confirmation of the chimeric transcript in multiple human cells and tissues. Our experimental characterization also detected three variants of the ZC3HAV1L-CHMP1A chimeric RNA, suggesting that these genes are involved in complex splicing. The fusion sequence at the novel exon-exon boundary, and the absence of corresponding DNA rearrangement suggest that this chimeric RNA is likely produced by trans-splicing in human cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Rory Johnson (nominated by Fyodor Kondrashov; Gal Avital and Itai Yanai

  16. T cells expressing VHH-directed oligoclonal chimeric HER2 antigen receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnani, Fatemeh Rahimi; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) originated from antibodies is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Several unsuccessful trials, however, highlight the need for alternative conventional binding domains and the better combination...

  17. Frequency of chimerism in populations of the kelp Lessonia spicata in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Chimerism occurs when two genetically distinct conspecific individuals fuse together generating a single entity. Coalescence and chimerism in red seaweeds has been positively related to an increase in body size, and the consequent reduction in susceptibility to mortality factors, thus increasing survival, reproductive potential and tolerance to stress in contrast to genetically homogeneous organisms. In addition, they showed that a particular pattern of post-fusion growth maintains higher genetic diversity and chimerism in the holdfast but homogenous axes. In Chilean kelps (brown seaweeds), intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity (IGH) and holdfast coalescence has been described in previous research, but the extent of chimerism in wild populations and the patterns of distribution of the genetically heterogeneous thallus zone have scarcely been studied. Since kelps are under continuous harvesting, with enormous social, ecological and economic importance, natural chimerism can be considered a priceless in-situ reservoir of natural genetic resources and variability. In this study, we therefore examined the frequency of IGH and chimerism in three harvested populations of Lessonia spicata. We then evaluated whether chimeric wild-type holdfasts show higher genetic diversity than erect axes (stipe and lamina) and explored the impact of this on the traditional estimation of genetic diversity at the population level. We found a high frequency of IGH (60–100%) and chimerism (33.3–86.7%), varying according to the studied population. We evidenced that chimerism occurs mostly in holdfasts, exhibiting heterogeneous tissues, whereas stipes and lamina were more homogeneous, generating a vertical gradient of allele and genotype abundance as well as divergence, constituting the first time “within- plant” genetic patterns have been reported in kelps. This is very different from the chimeric patterns described in land plants and animals. Finally, we evidenced that IGH affected

  18. Frequency of chimerism in populations of the kelp Lessonia spicata in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandra V; Santelices, Bernabé

    2017-01-01

    Chimerism occurs when two genetically distinct conspecific individuals fuse together generating a single entity. Coalescence and chimerism in red seaweeds has been positively related to an increase in body size, and the consequent reduction in susceptibility to mortality factors, thus increasing survival, reproductive potential and tolerance to stress in contrast to genetically homogeneous organisms. In addition, they showed that a particular pattern of post-fusion growth maintains higher genetic diversity and chimerism in the holdfast but homogenous axes. In Chilean kelps (brown seaweeds), intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity (IGH) and holdfast coalescence has been described in previous research, but the extent of chimerism in wild populations and the patterns of distribution of the genetically heterogeneous thallus zone have scarcely been studied. Since kelps are under continuous harvesting, with enormous social, ecological and economic importance, natural chimerism can be considered a priceless in-situ reservoir of natural genetic resources and variability. In this study, we therefore examined the frequency of IGH and chimerism in three harvested populations of Lessonia spicata. We then evaluated whether chimeric wild-type holdfasts show higher genetic diversity than erect axes (stipe and lamina) and explored the impact of this on the traditional estimation of genetic diversity at the population level. We found a high frequency of IGH (60-100%) and chimerism (33.3-86.7%), varying according to the studied population. We evidenced that chimerism occurs mostly in holdfasts, exhibiting heterogeneous tissues, whereas stipes and lamina were more homogeneous, generating a vertical gradient of allele and genotype abundance as well as divergence, constituting the first time "within- plant" genetic patterns have been reported in kelps. This is very different from the chimeric patterns described in land plants and animals. Finally, we evidenced that IGH affected genetic

  19. Quantitative chimerism kinetics in relapsed leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-ying; WANG Jing-zhi; ZHANG Xiao-hui; LI Jin-lan; LI Ling-di; LIU Kai-yan; HUANG Xiao-jun; LI Guo-xuan; QIN Ya-zhen; WANG Yu; WANG Feng-rong; LIU Dai-hong; XU Lan-ping; CHEN Huan; HAN Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Chimerism analysis is an important tool for the surveillance of post-transplant engraftment.It offers the possibility of identifying impending graft rejection and recurrence of underlying malignant or non-malignant disease.Here we investigated the quantitative chimerism kinetics of 21 relapsed leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).Methods A panel of 29 selected sequence polymorphism (SP) markers was screened by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to obtain the informative marker for every leukemia patient.Quantitative chimerism analysis of bone marrow (BM) samples of 21 relapsed patients and 20 patients in stable remission was performed longitudinally.The chimerisms of BM and peripheral blood (PB) samples of 14 patients at relapse were compared.Results Twenty-one patients experienced leukemia relapse at a median of 135 days (range,30-720 days) after transplantation.High recipient chimerism in BM was found in all patients at relapse,and increased recipient chimerism in BM samples was observed in 90% (19/21) of patients before relapse.With 0.5% recipient DNA as the cut-off,median time between the detection of increased recipient chimerism and relapse was 45 days (range,0-120 days),with 76% of patients showing increased recipient chimerism at least 1 month prior to relapse.Median percentage of recipient DNA in 20 stable remission patients was 0.28%,0.04%,0.05%,0.05%,0.08%,and 0.05% at 1,2,3,6,9,and 12 months,respectively,after transplantation.This was concordant with other specific fusion transcripts and fluorescent in situ hybridization examination.The recipient chimerisms in BM were significantly higher than those in PB at relapse (P=0.001).Conclusions This SP-based RT-PCR essay is a reliable method for chimerism analysis.Chimerism kinetics in BM can be used as a marker of impending leukemia relapse,especially when no other specific marker is available.Based on our findings

  20. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiFang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO, further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.

  1. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2013-09-24

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e124; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013

  2. Zygotes segregate entire parental genomes in distinct blastomere lineages causing cleavage-stage chimerism and mixoploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Destouni, Aspasia; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Catteeuw, Maaike; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Smits, Katrien; Kurg, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Van Soom, Ann; Voet, Thierry; Vermeesch, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic genome dynamics, such as chromosome instability, contribute to the remarkable genomic heterogeneity among the blastomeres comprising a single embryo during human preimplantation development. This heterogeneity, when compatible with life, manifests as constitutional mosaicism, chimerism, and mixoploidy in live-born individuals. Chimerism and mixoploidy are defined by the presence of cell lineages with different parental genomes or different ploidy states in a single individual, respec...

  3. Mosaic origins of a complex chimeric mitochondrial gene in Silene vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Storchova

    Full Text Available Chimeric genes are significant sources of evolutionary innovation that are normally created when portions of two or more protein coding regions fuse to form a new open reading frame. In plant mitochondria astonishingly high numbers of different novel chimeric genes have been reported, where they are generated through processes of rearrangement and recombination. Nonetheless, because most studies do not find or report nucleotide variation within the same chimeric gene, evolution after the origination of these chimeric genes remains unstudied. Here we identify two alleles of a complex chimera in Silene vulgaris that are divergent in nucleotide sequence, genomic position relative to other mitochondrial genes, and expression patterns. Structural patterns suggest a history partially influenced by gene conversion between the chimeric gene and functional copies of subunit 1 of the mitochondrial ATP synthase gene (atp1. We identified small repeat structures within the chimeras that are likely recombination sites allowing generation of the chimera. These results establish the potential for chimeric gene divergence in different plant mitochondrial lineages within the same species. This result contrasts with the absence of diversity within mitochondrial chimeras found in crop species.

  4. Targeting duplex DNA with chimeric α,β-triplex-forming oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolganova, N. A.; Shchyolkina, A. K.; Chudinov, A. V.; Zasedatelev, A. S.; Florentiev, V. L.; Timofeev, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Triplex-directed DNA recognition is strictly limited by polypurine sequences. In an attempt to address this problem with synthetic biology tools, we designed a panel of short chimeric α,β-triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and studied their interaction with fluorescently labelled duplex hairpins using various techniques. The hybridization of hairpin with an array of chimeric probes suggests that recognition of double-stranded DNA follows complicated rules combining reversed Hoogsteen and non-canonical homologous hydrogen bonding. In the presence of magnesium ions, chimeric TFOs are able to form highly stable α,β-triplexes, as indicated by native gel-electrophoresis, on-array thermal denaturation and fluorescence-quenching experiments. CD spectra of chimeric triplexes exhibited features typically observed for anti-parallel purine triplexes with a GA or GT third strand. The high potential of chimeric α,β-TFOs in targeting double-stranded DNA was demonstrated in the EcoRI endonuclease protection assay. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the recognition of base pair inversions in a duplex by chimeric TFOs containing α-thymidine and α-deoxyguanosine. PMID:22641847

  5. Study the effect of F17S mutation on the chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase

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    Seyed Hossein Khaleghinejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3 are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have potential applications in biotechnology for detergents, food, pharmaceuticals, leather, textiles, cosmetics, and paper industries; and are currently receiving considerable attention because of their potential applications in biotechnology. Bacillus thermocatenulatus Lipase 2 (BTL2 is one of the most important research targets, because of its potential industrial applications. In this study, the effect of substitution Phe17 with Ser in mutated BTL2 lipase, which conserved pentapeptide (112Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly116 was replaced with similar sequences (207Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly211 of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR at the nucleophilic elbow region. Docking results confirmed the mutated lipase to be better than the chimeric lipase. So, cloning was conducted, and the mutated and chimeric btl2 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the enzymes were purified by anion exchange chromatography. The mutation increased lipase lipolytic activity against most of the applied substrates, with the exception of tributyrin when compared with chimeric lipase. Further, the mutated lipase exhibited higher activity than the chimeric lipase at all temperatures. Optimum pH of the mutated lipase was obtained at pH 9.5, which was more than the chimeric one. Enzyme activity of the mutated lipase in the presence of organic solvents, detergents, and metal ions was also improved than the chimeric lipase.

  6. Antistaphylococcal activity of bacteriophage derived chimeric protein P128

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    Vipra Aradhana A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial drug resistance is one of the most significant challenges to human health today. In particular, effective antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are urgently needed. A causal relationship between nasal commensal S. aureus and infection has been reported. Accordingly, elimination of nasal S. aureus reduces the risk of infection. Enzymes that degrade bacterial cell walls show promise as antibacterial agents. Bacteriophage-encoded bacterial cell wall-degrading enzymes exhibit intrinsic bactericidal activity. P128 is a chimeric protein that combines the lethal activity of the phage tail-associated muralytic enzyme of Phage K and the staphylococcal cell wall targeting-domain (SH3b of lysostaphin. Here we report results of in vitro studies evaluating the susceptibility of staphylococcal strains to this novel protein. Results Using the broth microdilution method adapted for lysostaphin, we found that P128 is effective against S. aureus clinical strains including MRSA, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, and a mupirocin-resistant S. aureus. Minimum bactericidal concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations of P128 (1-64 μg/mL were similar across the 32 S. aureus strains tested, demonstrating its bactericidal nature. In time-kill assays, P128 reduced colony-forming units by 99.99% within 1 h and inhibited growth up to 24 h. In an assay simulating topical application of P128 to skin or other biological surfaces, P128 hydrogel was efficacious when layered on cells seeded on solid media. P128 hydrogel was lethal to Staphylococci recovered from nares of healthy people and treated without any processing or culturing steps, indicating its in situ efficacy. This methodology used for in vitro assessment of P128 as an agent for eradicating nasal carriage is unique. Conclusions The novel chimeric protein P128 is a staphylococcal cell wall-degrading enzyme under development for

  7. Experimental Study on Pharmacological Equivalence of Salvia Granules and Standard Decoction on the Anti-platelet Aggregation of Rabbits in vivo%丹参配方颗粒与标准煎剂体内抗家兔血小板聚集药理等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁良; 赵自明; 陈玉兴; 崔景朝; 曾晓会; 黄雪君; 姚楠; 周瑞玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the pharmacological equivalence of Salvia granules and standard decoction on the anti-platelet aggregation of rabbits in vivo. Method: The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups and respectively given single oral dose of Salvia standard decoction (1/4-32 times of the clinical equivalent dose),Salvia granules ( 1/4-32 times of the clinical equivalent dose) and compound Salvia dropping pills ( 1/8-16 times of the clinical equivalent dose). The platelet aggregation inhibition rate at 1,3 and 5 min and the maximum platelet aggregation inhibition rate (MAIR) of the three groups were observed and compared. The dose equivalent effect ( DEE) and equivalent effect dose ( EED) of the three Salvia preparations were calculated in the comparable range by the dose-effect curves with MAIR as the effect indicator. Result; The three Salvia preparations all could significantly inhibit the ADP-induced platelet aggregation (P <0. 01) , and the effect of Salvia granules and compound Salvia dropping pills was both better than that of Salvia standard decoction (P < 0. 01 ). Within the MAIR limit of 47. 15% -63. 99% , DEESalvia Granules ( mg · kg-1 ) = - 62. 432 + 0. 115 × DEESalvis standara decoction (mg·kg-1 ) ,and in the range of 1/4-2 times the clinical equivalent dose (175-1 400 mg·kg-1 ) ,EEDSalvia granules ( % ) = 30. 558 + 0. 775 × EEDSalvis standara decoction (%). Conclusion: Within the certain range of doses, the effect of Salvia granules on anti-platelet aggregation is lower than that of compound Salvia dropping pills, while better than that of Salvia standard decoction at the same dose.%目的:观察丹参配方颗粒与丹参标准煎剂体内抗血小板聚集效应的药理等效性.方法:对比观察8个剂量丹参标准煎剂(1/4~32倍临床等效剂量)、丹参配方颗粒(1/4~32倍临床等效剂量)和复方丹参滴丸(1/8 ~16倍)一次口服给药后对家兔血小板1,3,5 min和最大聚集抑制率(MAIR)的影响,并

  8. Chimeric Rabies Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored GM-CSF Enhances the Immune Response against Rabies Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe vaccine against rabies, we have constructed a chimeric rabies virus-like particle (VLP, which containing glycoprotein (G and matrix protein (M of rabies virus (RABV Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA strain, and membrane-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and it was named of EVLP-G. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of EVLP-G against RABV were evaluated by intramuscular administration in a mouse model. The EVLP-G was successfully produced in insect cells by coinfection with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing G, M, and GM-CSF, respectively. The membrane-anchored GM-CSF possesses a strong adjuvant activity. More B cells and dendritic cells (DCs were recruited and/or activated in inguinal lymph nodes in mice immunized with EVLP-G. EVLP-G was found to induce a significantly increased RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody and elicit a larger and broader antibody subclass responses compared with the standard rabies VLP (sRVLP, consisting of G and M. The EVLP-G also elicited significantly more IFN-γ- or IL-4-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the sRVLP. Moreover, the immune responses induced by EVLP-G protect all vaccinated mice from lethal challenge with RABV. These results suggest that EVLP-G has the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of animal rabies.

  9. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed.

  10. Engineering HIV-Specific Immunity with Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Scott G; Zack, Jerome A

    2016-12-01

    HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections. There are considerable efforts to enhance CTL responses in HIV-infected individuals in hopes of providing the immune response with armaments to more effectively control viral replication. In this review, we discuss some of these efforts and focus on the development of a gene therapy-based approach to engineer hematopoietic stem cells with an HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor, which seeks to provide an inexhaustible source of HIV-1-specific immune cells that are MHC unrestricted and superior to natural antiviral T cell responses. These efforts provide the basis for further development of T cell functional enhancement to target and treat chronic HIV infection in hopes of eradicating the virus from the body.

  11. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies for lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudno, Jennifer N; Kochenderfer, James N

    2017-08-31

    New therapies are needed for patients with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphomas that are resistant to standard therapies. Indeed, unresponsiveness to standard chemotherapy and relapse after autologous stem-cell transplantation are indicators of an especially poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are emerging as a novel treatment modality for these patients. Clinical trial data have demonstrated the potent activity of anti-CD19 CAR T cells against multiple subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, including diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, mantle-cell lymphoma, and marginal-zone lymphoma. Importantly, anti-CD19 CAR T cells have impressive activity against chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma, inducing durable complete remissions lasting >2 years in some patients with refractory DLBCL. CAR-T-cell therapies are, however, associated with potentially fatal toxicities, including cytokine-release syndrome and neurological toxicities. CAR T cells with novel target antigens, including CD20, CD22, and κ-light chain for B-cell lymphomas, and CD30 for Hodgkin and T-cell lymphomas, are currently being investigated in clinical trials. Centrally manufactured CAR T cells are also being tested in industry-sponsored multicentre clinical trials, and will probably soon become a standard therapy. Herein, we review the clinical efficacy and toxicity of CAR-T-cell therapies for lymphoma, and discuss their limitations and future directions with regard to toxicity management, CAR designs and CAR-T-cell phenotypes, conditioning regimens, and combination therapies.

  12. Dosimetry of chimeric TNT in lung tumor patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yangchun; CHEN Shaoliang; JU Dianwen; SHI Hongcheng; YAO Zhifeng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the absorbed dose of tumor and main critical organs in 131I labeled chimeric tumor necrotic treatment (chTNT). In 9 patients, a single intravenous dose of (29.6±3.7) MBq/kg was administered. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals, and urine was collected for up to one week. Tissue distribution of 131I -chTNT was followed for up to one week by gamma camera imaging. Absorbed doses to the whole body and to normal organs were computed according to the MIRD scheme using Mirdose-3 software. S-factors for lung tumors were estimated by comparison with lungs of similar mass and position in the body. It was found that mean serum disappearance half time values for 131I-chTNT were (4.93±9.36) h and (61.7±21.2) h for α, β respectively,while that for whole body was(99±10) h. Mean urine biological clearance half time value was (90±10) h. The absorbed dose to tumor was (8.28±2.65) Gy, and the tumor-to-nontumor dose ratio was 3.95±1.55. And the mean effective dose to patients was (1.02±0.29) mSv/MBq.

  13. Chimerical pyrene-based [7]helicenes as twisted polycondensed aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Michal; Rybáček, Jiří; Jančařík, Andrej; Kudale, Amit A; Buděšínský, Miloš; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Vacek, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Císařová, Ivana; Bodwell, Graham J; Starý, Ivo; Stará, Irena G

    2015-06-01

    Chimerical pyrene-based dibenzo[7]helicene rac-1 and 2H-pyran[7]helicene (M,R,R)-(-)-2, in which two pyrene subunits are fused to the [7]helicene/[7]heterohelicene scaffold, were synthesised by means of Ni(0) - or Co(I) -mediated [2+2+2] cycloisomerisation of dipyrenyl-acetylene-derived triynes. Pyrene-based dibenzo[7]helicene 1 was obtained in enantioenriched form by enantioselective cycloisomerisation under Ni(0) /QUINAP catalysis (57 % ee) or in enantiopure form by racemate resolution by liquid chromatography on a chiral column. 1,3-Allylic-type strain-controlled diastereoselective cycloisomerisation was employed in the synthesis of enantiopure (M,R,R)-(-)-2. Physicochemical properties of 1 and 2 encompassing the helicity assignment, stability to racemisation, X-ray crystal structure, UV/Vis, experimental/calculated electronic circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra were studied. Accordingly, comparison of the X-ray crystal structure of (M,R,R)-(-)-2 with calculated structures (DFT: B3LYP/cc-pVDZ, B97D/cc-pVDZ) indicated that its helical backbone is slightly over-flattened owing to intramolecular dispersion forces between tert-butylated pyrene subunits. Both 1 and 2 are fluorescent (with quantum yields in dichloromethane of ΦF =0.10 and 0.17, respectively) and are suggested to form intramolecular excimer states upon excitation, which are remarkably stabilised and exhibit large Stokes shifts (296 and 203 nm, respectively).

  14. Competitive annealing of multiple DNA origami: formation of chimeric origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majikes, Jacob M.; Nash, Jessica A.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2016-11-01

    Scaffolded DNA origami are a robust tool for building discrete nanoscale objects at high yield. This strategy ensures, in the design process, that the desired nanostructure is the minimum free energy state for the designed set of DNA sequences. Despite aiming for the minimum free energy structure, the folding process which leads to that conformation is difficult to characterize, although it has been the subject of much research. In order to shed light on the molecular folding pathways, this study intentionally frustrates the folding process of these systems by simultaneously annealing the staple pools for multiple target or parent origami structures, forcing competition. A surprising result of these competitive, simultaneous anneals is the formation of chimeric DNA origami which inherit structural regions from both parent origami. By comparing the regions inherited from the parent origami, relative stability of substructures were compared. This allowed examination of the folding process with typical characterization techniques and materials. Anneal curves were then used as a means to rapidly generate a phase diagram of anticipated behavior as a function of staple excess and parent staple ratio. This initial study shows that competitive anneals provide an exciting way to create diverse new nanostructures and may be used to examine the relative stability of various structural motifs.

  15. Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudno, Jennifer N; Kochenderfer, James N

    2016-06-30

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can produce durable remissions in hematologic malignancies that are not responsive to standard therapies. Yet the use of CAR T cells is limited by potentially severe toxicities. Early case reports of unexpected organ damage and deaths following CAR T-cell therapy first highlighted the possible dangers of this new treatment. CAR T cells can potentially damage normal tissues by specifically targeting a tumor-associated antigen that is also expressed on those tissues. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a systemic inflammatory response caused by cytokines released by infused CAR T cells can lead to widespread reversible organ dysfunction. CRS is the most common type of toxicity caused by CAR T cells. Neurologic toxicity due to CAR T cells might in some cases have a different pathophysiology than CRS and requires different management. Aggressive supportive care is necessary for all patients experiencing CAR T-cell toxicities, with early intervention for hypotension and treatment of concurrent infections being essential. Interleukin-6 receptor blockade with tocilizumab remains the mainstay pharmacologic therapy for CRS, though indications for administration vary among centers. Corticosteroids should be reserved for neurologic toxicities and CRS not responsive to tocilizumab. Pharmacologic management is complicated by the risk of immunosuppressive therapy abrogating the antimalignancy activity of the CAR T cells. This review describes the toxicities caused by CAR T cells and reviews the published approaches used to manage toxicities. We present guidelines for treating patients experiencing CRS and other adverse events following CAR T-cell therapy.

  16. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-11-01

    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering. Hyperactivated variants of the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases function without accessory factors, and thus can be re-targeted to sequences of interest by replacing native DNA-binding domains (DBDs) with engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). However, imperfect modularity with particular domains, lack of high-affinity binding to all DNA triplets, and difficulty in construction has hindered the widespread adoption of ZFPs in unspecialized laboratories. The discovery of a novel type of DBD in transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas provides an alternative to ZFPs. Here we describe chimeric TALE recombinases (TALERs): engineered fusions between a hyperactivated catalytic domain from the DNA invertase Gin and an optimized TALE architecture. We use a library of incrementally truncated TALE variants to identify TALER fusions that modify DNA with efficiency and specificity comparable to zinc-finger recombinases in bacterial cells. We also show that TALERs recombine DNA in mammalian cells. The TALER architecture described herein provides a platform for insertion of customized TALE domains, thus significantly expanding the targeting capacity of engineered recombinases and their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  17. The impact of MM5 and WRF meteorology over complex terrain on CHIMERE model calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Meij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of meteorological input data on calculated gas and aerosol concentrations. We use two different meteorological models (MM5 and WRF together with the chemistry transport model CHIMERE. We focus on the Po valley area (Italy for January and June 2005.

    Firstly we evaluate the meteorological parameters with observations. The analysis shows that the performance of both models is similar, however some small differences are still noticeable.

    Secondly, we analyze the impact of using MM5 and WRF on calculated PM10 and O3 concentrations. In general CHIMERE/MM5 and CHIMERE/WRF underestimate the PM10 concentrations for January. The difference in PM10 concentrations for January between CHIMERE/MM5 and CHIMERE/WRF is around a factor 1.6 (PM10 higher for CHIMERE/MM5. This difference and the larger underestimation in PM10 concentrations by CHIMERE/WRF are related to the differences in heat fluxes and the resulting PBL heights calculated by WRF. In general the PBL height by WRF meteorology is a factor 2.8 higher at noon in January than calculated by MM5. This study showed that the difference in microphysics scheme has an impact on the profile of cloud liquid water (CLW calculated by the meteorological driver and therefore on the production of SO4 aerosol.

    A sensitivity analysis shows that changing the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM for the 5-layer soil temperature model, the calculated monthly mean PM10 concentrations increase by 30%, due to the change in the heat fluxes and the resulting PBL heights.

    For June, PM10 calculated concentrations by CHIMERE/MM5 and CHIMERE/WRF are similar and agree with the observations. Calculated O3 values for June are in general overestimated by a factor 1.3 by CHIMERE/MM5 and CHIMRE/WRF. The reason for this is that daytime NO2

  18. Inflammatory glycoproteins in cardiometabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Gruppen, Eke G.; Otvos, James D.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological function initially attributed to the oligosaccharide moieties or glycans on inflammatory glycoproteins was to improve protein stability. However, it is now clear that glycans play a prominent role in glycoprotein structure and function and in some cases contribute to disease

  19. Isolation and partial characterization of rat gastric mucous glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-Brand, R.; Strous, G.J.A.M.; Kramer, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mucus glycoproteins from the rat stomach were characterized after their isolation from homogenates of the superficial gastric mucosa by equilibrium centrifugation in CsCl density gradients. Water-soluble as well as water-insoluble glycoproteins were studied. The latter were solubilized by 2-mercapto

  20. T-regulatory cell treatment prevents chronic rejection of heart allografts in a murine mixed chimerism model

    OpenAIRE

    Pilat, Nina; Farkas, Andreas M.; Mahr, Benedikt; Schwarz, Christoph; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Oberhuber, Rupert; Aumayr, Klaus; Wrba, Fritz; Wekerle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The mixed chimerism approach induces donor-specific tolerance in both pre-clinical models and clinical pilot trials. However, chronic rejection of heart allografts and acute rejection of skin allografts were observed in some chimeric animals despite persistent hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance toward donor antigens in vitro. We tested whether additional cell therapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is able to induce full immunologic tolerance and prevent chronic rejection. Metho...

  1. Immune Reconstitution Kinetics following Intentionally Induced Mixed Chimerism by Nonmyeloablative Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoun Kim

    Full Text Available Establishing mixed chimerism is a promising approach for inducing donor-specific transplant tolerance. The establishment and maintenance of mixed chimerism may enable long-term engraftment of organ transplants while minimizing the use of immunosuppressants. Several protocols for inducing mixed chimerism have been reported; however, the exact mechanism underlying the development of immune tolerance remains to be elucidated. Therefore, understanding the kinetics of engraftment during early post-transplant period may provide insight into establishing long-term mixed chimerism and permanent transplant tolerance. In this study, we intentionally induced allogeneic mixed chimerism using a nonmyeloablative regimen by host natural killer (NK cell depletion and T cell-depleted bone marrow (BM grafts in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC-mismatched murine model and analyzed the kinetics of donor (C57BL/6 and recipient (BALB/c engraftment in the weeks following transplantation. Donor BM cells were well engrafted and stabilized without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD as early as one week post-bone marrow transplantation (BMT. Donor-derived thymic T cells were reconstituted four weeks after BMT; however, the emergence of newly developed T cells was more obvious at the periphery as early as two weeks after BMT. Also, the emergence and changes in ratio of recipient- and donor-derived NKT cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs including dendritic cells (DCs and B cells were noted after BMT. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis of the development of donor- and recipient-originated hematopoietic cells in various lymphatic tissues of intentionally induced mixed chimerism mouse model during early post-transplant period. Through the understanding of immune reconstitution at early time points after nonmyeloablative BMT, we suggest guidelines on intentionally inducing durable mixed chimerism.

  2. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

  3. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  4. ChimerDB 3.0: an enhanced database for fusion genes from cancer transcriptome and literature data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myunggyo; Lee, Kyubum; Yu, Namhee; Jang, Insu; Choi, Ikjung; Kim, Pora; Jang, Ye Eun; Kim, Byounggun; Kim, Sunkyu; Lee, Byungwook; Kang, Jaewoo; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2017-01-01

    Fusion gene is an important class of therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in cancer. ChimerDB is a comprehensive database of fusion genes encompassing analysis of deep sequencing data and manual curations. In this update, the database coverage was enhanced considerably by adding two new modules of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq analysis and PubMed abstract mining. ChimerDB 3.0 is composed of three modules of ChimerKB, ChimerPub and ChimerSeq. ChimerKB represents a knowledgebase including 1066 fusion genes with manual curation that were compiled from public resources of fusion genes with experimental evidences. ChimerPub includes 2767 fusion genes obtained from text mining of PubMed abstracts. ChimerSeq module is designed to archive the fusion candidates from deep sequencing data. Importantly, we have analyzed RNA-Seq data of the TCGA project covering 4569 patients in 23 cancer types using two reliable programs of FusionScan and TopHat-Fusion. The new user interface supports diverse search options and graphic representation of fusion gene structure. ChimerDB 3.0 is available at http://ercsb.ewha.ac.kr/fusiongene/. PMID:27899563

  5. Sustained reperfusion after blockade of glycoprotein-receptor-Ib in focal cerebral ischemia: an MRI study at 17.6 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pham

    -vivo an increased patency of the microcirculation. Thus, progression of infarction during early ischemia and reperfusion can be mitigated by anti-platelet treatment.

  6. Elutriated lymphocytes for manufacturing chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncek, David F; Lee, Daniel W; Ren, Jiaqiang; Sabatino, Marianna; Highfill, Steven; Khuu, Hanh; Shah, Nirali N; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Fry, Terry J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2017-03-16

    Clinical trials of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells manufactured from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) concentrates for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have been promising, but CAR T cell yields have been variable. This variability is due in part to the contamination of the PBMC concentrates with monocytes and granulocytes. Counter-flow elutriation allows for the closed system separation of lymphocytes from monocytes and granulocytes. We investigated the use of PBMC concentrates enriched for lymphocytes using elutriation for manufacturing 8 CD19- and 5 GD2-CAR T cell products. When compared to PBMC concentrates, lymphocyte-enriched elutriation fractions contained greater proportions of CD3+ and CD56+ cells and reduced proportions of CD14+ and CD15+ cells. All 13 CAR T cell products manufactured using the elutriated lymphocytes yielded sufficient quantities of transduced CAR T cells to meet clinical dose criteria. The GD2-CAR T cell products contained significantly more T cells and transduced T cells than the CD19-CAR T cell products. A comparison of the yields of CAR T cells produced from elutriated lymphocytes with the yields of CAR T cells previous produced from cells isolated from PBMC concentrates by anti-CD3/CD28 bead selection or by anti-CD3/CD28 bead selection plus plastic adherence found that greater quantities of GD2-CAR T cells were produced from elutriated lymphocytes, but not CD19-CAR T cells. Enrichment of PBMC concentrates for lymphocytes using elutriation increased the quantity of GD2-CAR T cells produced. These results provide further evidence that CAR T cell expansion is inhibited by monocytes and granulocytes.

  7. Development of a recombinant, chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E; Partidos, Charalambos D; Wallace, Derek; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2015-12-10

    Dengue is a significant threat to public health worldwide. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines available for dengue. Takeda Vaccines Inc. is developing a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV) that consists of an attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the prM and E protein genes of DENV-1, -3 and -4 expressed in the context of the attenuated TDV-2 genome backbone (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4, respectively). TDV has been shown to be immunogenic and efficacious in nonclinical animal models. In interferon-receptor deficient mice, the vaccine induces humoral neutralizing antibody responses and cellular immune responses that are sufficient to protect from lethal challenge with DENV-1, DENV-2 or DENV-4. In non-human primates, administration of TDV induces innate immune responses as well as long lasting antibody and cellular immunity. In Phase 1 clinical trials, the safety and immunogenicity of two different formulations were assessed after intradermal or subcutaneous administration to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. TDV administration was generally well-tolerated independent of dose and route. The vaccine induced neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes: after a single administration of the higher formulation, 24-67%% of the subjects seroconverted to all four DENV and >80% seroconverted to three or more viruses. In addition, TDV induced CD8(+) T cell responses to the non-structural NS1, NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV. TDV has been also shown to be generally well tolerated and immunogenic in a Phase 2 clinical trial in dengue endemic countries in adults and children as young as 18 months. Additional clinical studies are ongoing in preparation for a Phase 3 safety and efficacy study.

  8. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  9. Induction of pluripotent protective immunity following immunisation with a chimeric vaccine against human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhong

    Full Text Available Based on the life-time cost to the health care system, the Institute of Medicine has assigned the highest priority for a vaccine to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV disease in transplant patients and new born babies. In spite of numerous attempts successful licensure of a HCMV vaccine formulation remains elusive. Here we have developed a novel chimeric vaccine strategy based on a replication-deficient adenovirus which encodes the extracellular domain of gB protein and multiple HLA class I & II-restricted CTL epitopes from HCMV as a contiguous polypeptide. Immunisation with this chimeric vaccine consistently generated strong HCMV-specific CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cells which co-expressed IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, while the humoral response induced by this vaccine showed strong virus neutralizing capacity. More importantly, immunization with adenoviral chimeric vaccine also afforded protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding HCMV antigens and this protection was associated with the induction of a pluripotent antigen-specific cellular and antibody response. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation with this adenoviral chimeric vaccine rapidly expanded multiple antigen-specific human CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cells from healthy virus carriers. These studies demonstrate that the adenovirus chimeric HCMV vaccine provides an excellent platform for reconstituting protective immunity to prevent HCMV diseases in different clinical settings.

  10. Reversible Heat-Induced Inactivation of Chimeric β-Glucuronidase in Transgenic Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, Concepción; Rojas, Anabel; Jordano, Juan

    2002-01-01

    We compared the expression patterns in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) of two chimeric genes: a translational fusion to β-glucuronidase (GUS) and a transcriptional fusion, both with the same promoter and 5′-flanking sequences of Ha hsp17.7 G4, a small heat shock protein (sHSP) gene from sunflower (Helianthus annuus). We found that immediately after heat shock, the induced expression from the two fusions in seedlings was similar, considering chimeric mRNA or GUS protein accumulation. Surprisingly, we discovered that the chimeric GUS protein encoded by the translational fusion was mostly inactive in such conditions. We also found that this inactivation was fully reversible. Thus, after returning to control temperature, the GUS activity was fully recovered without substantial changes in GUS protein accumulation. In contrast, we did not find differences in the in vitro heat inactivation of the respective GUS proteins. Insolubilization of the chimeric GUS protein correlated with its inactivation, as indicated by immunoprecipitation analyses. The inclusion in another chimeric gene of the 21 amino-terminal amino acids from a different sHSP lead to a comparable reversible inactivation. That effect not only illustrates unexpected post-translational problems, but may also point to sequences involved in interactions specific to sHSPs and in vivo heat stress conditions. PMID:12011363

  11. Endothelial cell chimerism by fluorescence in situ hybridization in gender mismatched renal allograft biopsies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Hong-wei; SHI Bing-yi; QIAN Ye-yong; NA Yan-qun; ZENG Xuan; ZHONG Ding-rong; LU Min; ZOU Wan-zhong; WU Shi-fei

    2007-01-01

    Background The blood vessels of a transplanted organ are the interface between donor and recipient. The endothelium in the blood vessels is thought to be the major target for graft rejection. Endothelial cells of a transplanted organ can be of recipient origin after transplantation. In this study, we tested whether endothelial chimerism correlated with the graft rejection and cold ischemia.Methods We studied the biopsy samples from 34 renal transplants of female recipients who received the kidney from a male donor for the presence of endothelial cells of recipient origin. We examined the tissue sections of renal biopsy samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of endothelial cells containing two X chromosomes using a biotinylated Y chromosome probe and digoxigenin labelled X chromosome probe, and then analyzed the relationship between the endothelial cell chimerism and the rejection and cold ischemia.Results Endothelial chimerism was common and irrespective of rejections (P>0.05). The cold ischemic time of chimerism group was longer than no chimerism group ((14.83±4.03) hours vs (11.27±3.87) hours, P<0.05).Conclusions There is no correlation between the percentage of recipient endothelial cells in vascular endothelial cells and the type of graft rejection. The endothelium damaged by ischemic injury might be repaired by the endothelial cells from the recipient.

  12. Pumping of drugs by P-glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Skovsgaard, Torben; Stein, Wilfred D

    2003-01-01

    The apparent inhibition constant, Kapp, for the blockade of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by four drugs, verapamil, cyclosporin A, XR9576 (tariquidar), and vinblastine, was measured by studying their ability to inhibit daunorubicin and calcein-AM efflux from four strains of Ehrlich cells with different...... levels of drug resistance and P-gp content. For daunorubicin as a transport substrate, Kapp was independent of [P-gp] for verapamil but increased strictly linearly with [P-gp] for vinblastine, cyclosporin A, and XR9576. A theoretical analysis of the kinetics of drug pumping and its reversal shows...... but rather, in serial, i.e., a drug that is pumped from the cytoplasmic phase has to pass the preemptive route upon leaving the cell. Our results are consistent with the Sauna-Ambudkar two-step model for pumping by P-gp. We suggest that the vinblastine/cyclosporin A/XR9576-binding site accepts daunorubicin...

  13. Salivary agglutinin/glycoprotein-340/DMBT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V

    2007-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), lung glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) are three names for identical proteins encoded by the dmbt1 gene. DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins, a superfamily of secreted...... or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. On the one hand, DMBT1 may represent an innate defence factor acting as a pattern recognition molecule. It interacts with a broad range of pathogens, including cariogenic streptococci...... and Helicobacter pylori, influenza viruses and HIV, but also with mucosal defence proteins, such as IgA, surfactant proteins and MUC5B. Stimulation of alveolar macrophage migration, suppression of neutrophil oxidative burst and activation of the complement cascade point further to an important role...

  14. Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosogne, H; Massart-Leën, A M; Burvenich, C

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of severe cases of acute E. coli mastitis in dairy cows is highest during early lactation. This phenomenon has been associated with a decreased function and decreased numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). The cause of this impaired function and decreased number is poorly understood. Stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations around parturition and the onset of lactation may play a role in this phenomenon. Several molecules, such as cortisol and beta-hydroxybutyrate have been found to alter the oxidative burst activity of circulating PMN around parturition. Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (bPAG) could also be involved. The theory of immunosuppression by bPAG was investigated because analogous glycoproteins produced by the placenta of other species exert local immunosuppression in order to maintain the histoincompatible feto-maternal unit. The production and subsequent release into the maternal circulation of bPAG is ensured by the binucleate cells from the trophoblast and starts already at implantation. However, peak levels are only reached 1 week before parturition. Due to the long half-life time of this molecule, high levels are found in plasma until 2 weeks after calving. The co-occurrence of the impairment of PMN oxidative burst activity in the early postpartum period and a peak in plasma bPAG concentrations might support the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive effect of PAG. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of bPAG on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow progenitor cells has been found recently in our laboratory. bPAG occurs in colostrum, but its effect on milk cells has not been clarified. It is concluded that interaction between the physiology of reproduction and lactation on the one side and immune function on the other side in dairy cattle requires further research.

  15. Differences in Glycoprotein Complex Receptor Binding Site Accessibility Prompt Poor Cross-Reactivity of Neutralizing Antibodies between Closely Related Arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Rachel B; Phillips, Elisabeth K; Ayithan, Natarajan; Maury, Wendy

    2017-04-01

    The glycoprotein complex (GPC) of arenaviruses, composed of stable signal peptide, GP1, and GP2, is the only antigen correlated with antibody-mediated neutralization. However, despite strong cross-reactivity of convalescent antisera between related arenavirus species, weak or no cross-neutralization occurs. Two closely related clade B viruses, Machupo virus (MACV) and Junín virus (JUNV), have nearly identical overall GPC architecture and share a host receptor, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Given structural and functional similarities of the GP1 receptor binding site (RBS) of these viruses and the recent demonstration that the RBS is an important target for neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear how these viruses avoid cross-neutralization. To address this, MACV/JUNV chimeric GPCs were assessed for interaction with a group of α-JUNV GPC monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mouse antisera against JUNV or MACV GPC. All six MAbs targeted GP1, with those that neutralized JUNV GPC-pseudovirions competing with each other for RBS binding. However, these MAbs were unable to bind to a chimeric GPC composed of JUNV GP1 containing a small disulfide bonded loop (loop 10) unique to MACV GPC, suggesting that this loop may block MAbs interaction with the GP1 RBS. Consistent with this loop causing interference, mouse anti-JUNV GPC antisera that solely neutralized pseudovirions bearing autologous GP1 provided enhanced neutralization of MACV GPC when this loop was removed. Our studies provide evidence that loop 10, which is unique to MACV GP1, is an important impediment to binding of neutralizing antibodies and contributes to the poor cross-neutralization of α-JUNV antisera against MACV.IMPORTANCE Multiple New World arenaviruses can cause severe disease in humans, and some geographic overlap exists among these viruses. A vaccine that protects against a broad range of New World arenaviruses is desirable for purposes of simplicity, cost, and broad protection against multiple National

  16. Targeted transcriptional repression using a chimeric TALE-SRDX repressor protein

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-12-14

    Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria when they infect plants. TALEs contain a modular DNA binding domain that can be easily engineered to bind any sequence of interest, and have been used to provide user-selected DNA-binding modules to generate chimeric nucleases and transcriptional activators in mammalian cells and plants. Here we report the use of TALEs to generate chimeric sequence-specific transcriptional repressors. The dHax3 TALE was used as a scaffold to provide a DNA-binding module fused to the EAR-repression domain (SRDX) to generate a chimeric repressor that targets the RD29A promoter. The dHax3. SRDX protein efficiently repressed the transcription of the RD29A

  17. [Glycoprotein hexoses in feces of infants with lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippvskiĭ, G K; Klimov, L Ia

    1995-01-01

    A modified method for estimation of total glycoprotein hexoses in feces, based on their measurements in the blood serum, is presented. Sixty-six nursing children with lactose intolerance, breastfed or formula fed, were examined; formula fed babies were kept on mixtures with high and low lactose content. Glycoprotein hexose parameters were as follows (X +/- m): 13.51 +/- 1.93, 12.05 +/- 2.20, and 3.69 +/- 0.47 g/l feces. In control children without lactose intolerance (n = 33) this value was 3.6 +/- 0.79 g/l. Increased glycoprotein excretion is connected with glycocalix and small intestinal enterocyte alteration.

  18. Bone marrow cell migration to the heart in a chimeric mouse model of acute chagasic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Camila Iansen; Paredes, Bruno Diaz; Brasil, Guilherme Visconde; da Cunha, Sandro Torrentes; Paula, Luis Felipe; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Carvalho, Adriana Bastos; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chagas disease is a public health problem caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. There is currently no effective therapy for Chagas disease. Although there is some evidence for the beneficial effect of bone marrow-derived cells in chagasic disease, the mechanisms underlying their effects in the heart are unknown. Reports have suggested that bone marrow cells are recruited to the chagasic heart; however, studies using chimeric mouse models of chagasic cardiomyopathy are rare. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of bone marrow cells to the heart after T. cruzi infection in a model of chagasic disease in chimeric mice. METHODS To obtain chimerical mice, wild-type (WT) C57BL6 mice were exposed to full body irradiation (7 Gy), causing bone marrow ablation. Then, bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice were infused into the mice. Graft effectiveness was confirmed by flow cytometry. Experimental mice were divided into four groups: (i) infected chimeric (iChim) mice; (ii) infected WT (iWT) mice, both of which received 3 × 104 trypomastigotes of the Brazil strain; (iii) non-infected chimeric (Chim) mice; and (iv) non-infected WT mice. FINDINGS At one-month post-infection, iChim and iWT mice showed first degree atrioventricular block with decreased heart rate and treadmill exercise parameters compared to those in the non-infected groups. MAIN CONCLUSIONS iChim mice showed an increase in parasitaemia, myocarditis, and the presence of amastigote nests in the heart tissue compared to iWT mice. Flow cytometry analysis did not detect haematopoietic progenitor cells in the hearts of infected mice. Furthermore, GFP+ cardiomyocytes were not detected in the tissues of chimeric mice. PMID:28767980

  19. A Chimeric UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Produced by Protein Engineering Exhibits Sensitivity to Allosteric Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías D. Asención Diez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, glycogen or oligosaccharide accumulation involves glucose-1-phosphate partitioning into either ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc or UDP-Glc. Their respective synthesis is catalyzed by allosterically regulated ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27, ADP-Glc PPase or unregulated UDP-Glc PPase (EC 2.7.7.9. In this work, we characterized the UDP-Glc PPase from Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we constructed a chimeric protein by cutting the C-terminal domain of the ADP-Glc PPase from Escherichia coli and pasting it to the entire S. mutans UDP-Glc PPase. Both proteins were fully active as UDP-Glc PPases and their kinetic parameters were measured. The chimeric enzyme had a slightly higher affinity for substrates than the native S. mutans UDP-Glc PPase, but the maximal activity was four times lower. Interestingly, the chimeric protein was sensitive to regulation by pyruvate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphate, which are known to be effectors of ADP-Glc PPases from different sources. The three compounds activated the chimeric enzyme up to three-fold, and increased the affinity for substrates. This chimeric protein is the first reported UDP-Glc PPase with allosteric regulatory properties. In addition, this is a pioneer work dealing with a chimeric enzyme constructed as a hybrid of two pyrophosphorylases with different specificity toward nucleoside-diphospho-glucose and our results turn to be relevant for a deeper understanding of the evolution of allosterism in this family of enzymes.

  20. Generation and developmental characteristics of porcine tetraploid embryos and tetraploid/diploid chimeric embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Shi, Yongqian; Xie, Bingteng; Jiao, Mingxia; Huang, Tianqing; Guo, Shimeng; Hu, Kui; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize electrofusion conditions for generating porcine tetraploid (4n) embryos and produce tetraploid/diploid (4n/2n) chimeric embryos. Different electric field intensities were tested and 2 direct current (DC) pulses of 0.9 kV/cm for 30 μs was selected as the optimum condition for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce 4n embryos. The fusion rate of 2-cell embryos and the development rate to blastocyst of presumably 4n embryos, reached 85.4% and 28.5%, respectively. 68.18% of the fused embryos were found to be 4n as demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Although the number of blastomeres in 4n blastocysts was significantly lower than in 2n blastocysts (P0.05), suggesting that the blastocyst forming capacity in 4n embryos is similar to those in 2n embryos. Moreover, 4n/2n chimeric embryos were obtained by aggregation of 4n and 2n embryos. We found that the developmental rate and cell number of blastocysts of 4-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n) chimeric embryos were significantly higher than those of 2-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/8-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/2-cell (2n) chimeric embryos (P<0.05). Consistent with mouse chimeras, the majority of 4n cells contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), while the 2n cells are mainly present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of porcine 4n/2n chimeric embryos. Our study established a feasible and efficient approach to produce porcine 4n embryos and 4n/2n chimeric embryos.

  1. Chimeric Antibody-Binding Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin (VHb Mediates Redox-Catalysis Reaction: New Insight into the Functional Role of VHb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneenart Suwanwong, Malin Kvist, Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Natta Tansila, Leif Bulow, Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentation was initiated to explore insight into the redox-catalysis reaction derived from the heme prosthetic group of chimeric Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb. Two chimeric genes encoding chimeric VHbs harboring one and two consecutive sequences of Fc-binding motif (Z-domain were successfully constructed and expressed in E. coli strain TG1. The chimeric ZVHb and ZZVHb were purified to a high purity of more than 95% using IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography. From surface plasmon resonance, binding affinity constants of the chimeric ZVHb and ZZVHb to human IgG were 9.7 x 107 and 49.1 x 107 per molar, respectively. More importantly, the chimeric VHbs exhibited a peroxidase-like activity determined by activity staining on native PAGE and dot blotting. Effects of pH, salt, buffer system, level of peroxidase substrate and chromogen substrate were determined in order to maximize the catalytic reaction. From our findings, the chimeric VHbs displayed their maximum peroxidase-like activity at the neutral pH (~7.0 in the presence of high concentration (20-40 mM of hydrogen peroxide. Under such conditions, the detection limit derived from the calibration curve was at 250 ng for the chimeric VHbs, which was approximately 5-fold higher than that of the horseradish peroxidase. These findings reveal the novel functional role of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin indicating a high trend of feasibility for further biotechnological and medical applications.

  2. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a spider silk manufacturing process is of great interest. piggyBac vectors were used to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk prote...

  3. Design and production in Aspergillus niger of a chimeric protein associating a fungal feruloyl esterase and a clostridial dockerin domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, A.; Pagès, S.; Fierobe, H.-P.; Navarro, D.; Punt, P.; Belaïch, J.-P.; Asther, M.; Record, E.

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric enzyme associating feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) from Aspergilhis niger and dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum was produced in A. niger. A completely truncated form was produced when the dockerin domain was located downstream of the FAEA (FAEA-Doc), whereas no chimeric protein was produc

  4. Patterns of Amino Acid Evolution in the Drosophila ananassae Chimeric Gene, siren, Parallel Those of Other Adh-Derived Chimeras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Jui; Jones, Corbin D.

    2008-01-01

    siren1 and siren2 are novel alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh)-derived chimeric genes in the Drosophila bipectinata complex. D. ananassae, however, harbors a single homolog of these genes. Like other Adh-derived chimeric genes, siren evolved adaptively shortly after it was formed. These changes likely shifted the catalytic activity of siren. PMID:18780749

  5. The impact of chimerism in DNA-based forensic sex determination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Renjith; Donald, Preethy Mary; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Hj Ismail, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination is the most important step in personal identification in forensic investigations. DNA-based sex determination analysis is comparatively more reliable than the other conventional methods of sex determination analysis. Advanced technology like real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers accurate and reproducible results and is at the level of legal acceptance. But still there are situations like chimerism where an individual possess both male and female specific factors together in their body. Sex determination analysis in such cases can give erroneous results. This paper discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on sex determination analysis in forensic investigations.

  6. Interspecies chimeric complementation for the generation of functional human tissues and organs in large animal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The past decade's rapid progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research has generated hope for meeting the rising demand of organ donation, which remains the only effective cure for end-stage organ failure, a major cause of death worldwide. Despite the potential, generation of transplantable organs from hPSCs using in vitro differentiation is far-fetched. An in vivo interspecies chimeric complementation strategy relying on chimeric-competent hPSCs and zygote genome editing provides an auspicious alternative for providing unlimited organ source for transplantation.

  7. Extracellular galectin-3 programs multidrug resistance through Na+/K+-ATPase and P-glycoprotein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Yosuke; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Balan, Vitaly; Nakajima, Kosei; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2015-08-14

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3, LGALS3) is a pleotropic versatile, 29-35 kDa chimeric gene product, and involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cell growth, homeostasis, apoptosis, pre-mRNA splicing, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cellular polarity, motility, adhesion, activation, differentiation, transformation, signaling, regulation of innate/adaptive immunity, and angiogenesis. In multiple diseases, it was found that the level of circulating Gal-3 is markedly elevated, suggesting that Gal-3-dependent function is mediated by specific interaction with yet an unknown ubiquitous cell-surface protein. Recently, we showed that Gal-3 attenuated drug-induced apoptosis, which is one of the mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance (MDR). Here, we document that MDR could be mediated by Gal-3 interaction with the house-keeping gene product e.g., Na+/K+-ATPase, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Gal-3 interacts with Na+/K+-ATPase and induces the phosphorylation of P-gp. We also find that Gal-3 binds P-gp and enhances its ATPase activity. Furthermore Gal-3 antagonist suppresses this interaction and results in a decrease of the phosphorylation and the ATPase activity of P-gp, leading to an increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-mediated cell death. Taken together, these findings may explain the reported roles of Gal-3 in diverse diseases and suggest that a combined therapy of inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase and Gal-3, and a disease specific drug(s) might be superior to a single therapeutic modality.

  8. Tumor-Triggered Geometrical Shape Switch of Chimeric Peptide for Enhanced in Vivo Tumor Internalization and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Weiyun; Wang, Shibo; Xu, Luming; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xianzheng; Han, Heyou

    2017-03-28

    Geometrical shape of nanoparticles plays an important role in cellular internalization. However, the applicability in tumor selective therapeutics is still scarcely reported. In this article, we designed a tumor extracellular acidity-responsive chimeric peptide with geometrical shape switch for enhanced tumor internalization and photodynamic therapy. This chimeric peptide could self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles at physiological condition. While at tumor extracellular acidic microenvironment, chimeric peptide underwent detachment of acidity-sensitive 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride groups. The subsequent recovery of ionic complementarity between chimeric peptides resulted in formation of rod-like nanoparticles. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that this acidity-triggered geometrical shape switch endowed chimeric peptide with accelerated internalization in tumor cells, prolonged accumulation in tumor tissue, enhanced photodynamic therapy, and minimal side effects. Our results suggested that fusing tumor microenvironment with geometrical shape switch should be a promising strategy for targeted drug delivery.

  9. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, G.I.L. (Abo Akademi (Finland)); Gahmberg, C.G. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presence of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  10. Herpesvirus glycoproteins undergo multiple antigenic changes before membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Glauser

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 entry machinery--gB, gH/gL and gp150--changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion.

  11. Mapping regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB) important for fusion function with gH/gL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Aileen E; Reimer, Jessica J; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2011-04-25

    Glycoproteins gB and gH/gL are required for entry of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into cells, but the role of each glycoprotein and how they function together to mediate fusion is unclear. Analysis of the functional homology of gB from the closely related primate gammaherpesvirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV), showed that EBV gB could not complement Rh gB due to a species-specific dependence between gB and gL. To map domains of gB required for this interaction, we constructed a panel of EBV/Rh gB chimeric proteins. Analysis showed that insertion of Rh gB from residues 456 to 807 restored fusion function of EBV gB with Rh gH/gL, suggesting this region of gB is important for interaction with gH/gL. Split YFP bimolecular complementation (BiFC) provided evidence of an interaction between EBV gB and gH/gL. Together, our results suggest the importance of a gB-gH/gL interaction in EBV-mediated fusion with B cells requiring the region of EBV gB from 456 to 807.

  12. KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H; Hama, Y; Sumi, T; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    2001-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the mucus coat of fish plays a variety of important physical, chemical, and physiological functions. One of the major constituents of the mucus coat is mucus glycoprotein. We found that sialic acids in the skin mucus of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, consisted predominantly of KDN. Subsequently, we isolated KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus and characterized its chemical nature and structure. Loach mucus glycoprotein was purified from the Tris-HCl buffer extract of loach skin mucus by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Nuclease P1 treatment, and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration. The purified mucus glycoprotein was found to contain 38.5 KDN, 0.5% NeuAc, 25.0% GalNAc, 3.5% Gal, 0.5% GlcNAc and 28% amino acids. Exhaustive Actinase digestion of the glycoprotein yielded a glycopeptide with a higher sugar content and higher Thr and Ser contents. The molecular size of this glycopeptide was approximately 1/12 of the intact glycoprotein. These results suggest that approximately 11 highly glycosylated polypeptide units are linked in tandem through nonglycosylated peptides to form the glycoporotein molecule. The oligosaccharide alditols liberated from the loach mucus glycoprotein by alkaline borohydride treatment were separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and HPLC. The purified sugar chains were analyzed b --> 6GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 3(GalNAcbeta1 --> 14)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(GalNAcalpha1 --> 3)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(Gal3alpha1--> 3)GalNAc-ol, and NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Gal NAc-ol. It is estimated that one loach mucus glycoprotein molecule contains more than 500 KDN-containing sugar chains that are linked to Thr and Ser residues of the protein core through GalNAc.

  13. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  14. P-glycoprotein targeted nanoscale drug carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wengang

    2013-02-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a trend whereby tumor cells exposed to one cytotoxic agent develop cross-resistance to a range of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds. P -glycoprotein (P -gp) efflux pump is one of the mostly studied drug carrying processes that shuttle the drugs out of tumor cells. Thus, P -gp inhibitors have attracted a lot of attention as they can stop cancer drugs from being pumped out of target cells with the consumption of ATP. Using quantitive structure activity relationship (QSAR), we have successfully synthesized a series of novel P -gp inhibitors. The obtained dihydropyrroloquinoxalines series were fully characterized and then tested against bacterial and tumor assays with over-expressed P -gps. All compounds were bioactive especially compound 1c that had enhanced antibacterial activity. Furthermore, these compounds were utilized as targeting vectors to direct drug delivery vehicles such as silica nanoparticles (SNPs) to cancerous Hela cells with over expressed P -gps. Cell uptake studies showed a successful accumulation of these decorated SNPs in tumor cells compared to undecorated SNPs. The results obtained show that dihydropyrroloquinoxalines constitute a promising drug candidate for targeting cancers with MDR. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

  15. Mutational analysis of the hepatitis C virus E1 glycoprotein in retroviral pseudoparticles and cell-culture-derived H77/JFH1 chimeric infectious virus particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, R S; Kawaguchi, K; Meunier, J-C

    2009-01-01

    . Retrovirus-based HCV-pseudotyped viruses (HCVpp; genotype 1a) containing Ala or Pro substitutions at conserved amino acid positions within this putative fusion peptide were generated. Mutation of conserved residues significantly reduced efficiency of HCVpp entry into Huh-7 cells. The majority of amino acid...

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi Differentiates and Multiplies within Chimeric Parasitophorous Vacuoles in Macrophages Coinfected with Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Carina Carraro; Ferreira, Éden Ramalho; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rabinovitch, Michel; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Real, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The trypanosomatids Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are excellent models for the study of the cell biology of intracellular protozoan infections. After their uptake by mammalian cells, the parasitic protozoan flagellates L. amazonensis and T. cruzi lodge within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). However, whereas L. amazonensis develops in spacious, phagolysosome-like PVs that may enclose numerous parasites, T. cruzi is transiently hosted within smaller vacuoles from which it soon escapes to the host cell cytosol. To investigate if parasite-specific vacuoles are required for the survival and differentiation of T. cruzi, we constructed chimeric vacuoles by infection of L. amazonensis amastigote-infected macrophages with T. cruzi epimastigotes (EPIs) or metacyclic trypomastigotes (MTs). These chimeric vacuoles, easily observed by microscopy, allowed the entry and fate of T. cruzi in L. amazonensis PVs to be dynamically recorded by multidimensional imaging of coinfected cells. We found that although T. cruzi EPIs remained motile and conserved their morphology in chimeric vacuoles, T. cruzi MTs differentiated into amastigote-like forms capable of multiplying. These results demonstrate that the large adaptive vacuoles of L. amazonensis are permissive to T. cruzi survival and differentiation and that noninfective EPIs are spared from destruction within the chimeric PVs. We conclude that T. cruzi differentiation can take place in Leishmania-containing vacuoles, suggesting this occurs prior to their escape into the host cell cytosol.

  17. Evidence for transcript networks composed of chimeric RNAs in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Djebali

    Full Text Available The classic organization of a gene structure has followed the Jacob and Monod bacterial gene model proposed more than 50 years ago. Since then, empirical determinations of the complexity of the transcriptomes found in yeast to human has blurred the definition and physical boundaries of genes. Using multiple analysis approaches we have characterized individual gene boundaries mapping on human chromosomes 21 and 22. Analyses of the locations of the 5' and 3' transcriptional termini of 492 protein coding genes revealed that for 85% of these genes the boundaries extend beyond the current annotated termini, most often connecting with exons of transcripts from other well annotated genes. The biological and evolutionary importance of these chimeric transcripts is underscored by (1 the non-random interconnections of genes involved, (2 the greater phylogenetic depth of the genes involved in many chimeric interactions, (3 the coordination of the expression of connected genes and (4 the close in vivo and three dimensional proximity of the genomic regions being transcribed and contributing to parts of the chimeric RNAs. The non-random nature of the connection of the genes involved suggest that chimeric transcripts should not be studied in isolation, but together, as an RNA network.

  18. Engineered Chimeric Peptides as Antimicrobial Surface Coating Agents toward Infection-Free Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hilal; O'Neill, Mary B; Kacar, Turgay; Wilson, Brandon R; Oren, E Emre; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-03-02

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and consequent biofilm formation remains a major challenge in implantable medical devices. Implant-associated infections are not only a major cause of implant failures but also their conventional treatment with antibiotics brings further complications due to the escalation in multidrug resistance to a variety of bacterial species. Owing to their unique properties, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained significant attention as effective agents to combat colonization of microorganisms. These peptides have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities with specificity to a target cell while having a low tendency for developing bacterial resistance. Engineering biomaterial surfaces that feature AMP properties, therefore, offer a promising approach to prevent implant infections. Here, we engineered a chimeric peptide with bifunctionality that both forms a robust solid-surface coating while presenting antimicrobial property. The individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their solid-binding kinetics to titanium substrate as well as for their antimicrobial properties in solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the chimeric peptide on the implant material was evaluated in vitro against infection by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, which are commonly found in oral and orthopedic implant related surgeries. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in reducing bacterial colonization onto titanium surfaces below the detectable limit. Engineered chimeric peptides with freely displayed antimicrobial domains could be a potential solution for developing infection-free surfaces by engineering implant interfaces with highly reduced bacterial colonization property.

  19. Versatile bio-ink for covalent immobilization of chimeric avidin on sol-gel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Jarkko J; Kivimäki, Liisa; Määttä, Juha A E; Mäkelä, Inka; Hakalahti, Leena; Takkinen, Kristiina; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P; Hormi, Osmo E O

    2011-10-15

    A bio-ink for covalent deposition of thermostable, high affinity biotin-binding chimeric avidin onto sol-gel substrates was developed. The bio-ink was prepared from heterobifunctional crosslinker 6-maleimidohexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide which was first reacted either with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane to form silane linkers 6-maleimide-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)hexanamide or -(ethoxydimethylsilyl)propyl)-hexanamide. C-terminal cysteine genetically engineered to chimeric avidin was reacted with the maleimide group of silane linker in methanol/PBS solution to form a suspension, which was printed on sol-gel modified PMMA film. Different concentrations of chimeric avidin and ratios between silane linkers were tested to find the best properties for the bio-ink to enable gravure or inkjet printing. Bio-ink prepared from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was found to provide the highest amount of active immobilized chimeric avidin. The developed bio-ink was shown to be valuable for automated fabrication of avidin-functionalized polymer films.

  20. Intravitreal injection of a chimeric phage endolysin Ply187 protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The treatment of endophthalmitis is becoming very challenging due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Hence, the development of novel therapeutic alternatives for ocular use is essential. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ply187AN-KSH3b, a chimeric phage endol...

  1. 77 FR 3482 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of T Cell Receptors and Chimeric Antigen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... TCR anchor to the membrane and transmit recognition signals by interacting with other proteins. CARs... domains that signal to activate the CAR-expressing cell. Therapies utilizing these technologies involve... EGFRvIII chimeric antigen (CARs) and methods of using these engineered T cells to treat and/or prevent...

  2. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J;

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...

  3. Exploration of genetically encoded voltage indicators based on a chimeric voltage sensing domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko eMishina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering how the brain generates cognitive function from patterns of electrical signals is one of the ultimate challenges in neuroscience. To this end, it would be highly desirable to monitor the activities of very large numbers of neurons while an animal engages in complex behaviours. Optical imaging of electrical activity using genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs has the potential to meet this challenge. Currently prevalent GEVIs are based on the voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein (VSFP prototypical design or on the voltage dependent state transitions of microbial opsins.We recently introduced a new VSFP design in which the voltage-sensing domain (VSD is sandwiched between a FRET pair of fluorescent proteins (termed VSFP-Butterflies and also demonstrated a series of chimeric VSD in which portions of the VSD of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP are substituted by homologous portions of a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit. These chimeric VSD had faster sensing kinetics than that of the native Ci-VSD. Here, we describe a new set of VSFPs that combine chimeric VSD with the Butterfly structure. We show that these chimeric VSFP-Butterflies can report membrane voltage oscillations of up to 200 Hz in cultured cells and report sensory evoked cortical population responses in living mice. This class of GEVIs may be suitable for imaging of brain rhythms in behaving mammalians.

  4. Multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flap for reconstruction of complex defects in head and neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canhua Jiang

    Full Text Available The anterolateral thigh flap has been the workhouse flap for coverage of soft-tissue defects in head and neck for decades. However, the reconstruction of multiple and complex soft-tissue defects in head and neck with multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeries. Here, a clinical series of 12 cases is reported in which multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps were used for complex soft-tissue defects with several separately anatomic locations in head and neck. Of the 12 cases, 7 patients presented with trismus were diagnosed as advanced buccal cancer with oral submucous fibrosis, 2 tongue cancer cases were found accompanied with multiple oral mucosa lesions or buccal cancer, and 3 were hypopharyngeal cancer with anterior neck skin invaded. All soft-tissue defects were reconstructed by multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps, including 9 tripaddled anterolateral thigh flaps and 3 bipaddled flaps. The mean length of skin paddle was 19.2 (range: 14-23 cm and the mean width was 4.9 (range: 2.5-7 cm. All flaps survived and all donor sites were closed primarily. After a mean follow-up time of 9.1 months, there were no problems with the donor or recipient sites. This study supports that the multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flap is a reliable and good alternative for complex and multiple soft-tissue defects of the head and neck.

  5. A phase II trial of chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 for advanced renal cell carcinoma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumer, I.; Knuth, A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hofmann, R.; Varga, Z.; Lamers, C.B.H.W.; Kruit, W.; Melchior, S.; Mala, C.; Ullrich, S.; Mulder, P.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Beck, J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 (WX-G250) binds to a cell surface antigen found on >90% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A multicentre phase II study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of WX-G250 in metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In all, 36 patients with mRCC were included. WX-G250 w

  6. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone o...

  7. Alloreactive regulatory T cells allow the generation of mixed chimerism and transplant tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina eRuiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance is one of the main goals of modern immunology. Establishment of a mixed chimerism state in the transplant recipient has proven to be a suitable strategy for the induction of long-term allograft tolerance; however, current experimental recipient preconditioning protocols have many side effects, and are not feasible for use in future therapies. In order to improve the current mixed chimerism induction protocols, we developed a non-myeloablative bone-marrow transplant protocol using retinoic acid induced alloantigen-specific Tregs, clinically available immunosuppressive drugs and lower doses of irradiation. We demonstrate that retinoic acid induced alloantigen-specific Tregs in addition to a non-myeloablative bone-marrow transplant protocol generates stable mixed chimerism and induce tolerance to allogeneic secondary skin allografts in mice. Therefore, the establishment of mixed chimerism through the use of donor-specific Tregs rather than non-specific immunosuppression could have a potential use in organ transplantation.

  8. Minimal Residual Disease Diagnostics and Chimerism in the Post-Transplant Period in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the selection of poor-risk patients for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is associated with rather high post-transplant relapse rates. As immunotherapeutic intervention is considered to be more effective before the cytomorphologic manifestation of relapse, post-transplant monitoring gains increasing attention in stem cell recipients with a previous diagnosis of AML. Different methods for detection of chimerism (e.g., microsatellite analysis or quantitative real-time PCR are available to quantify the ratio of donor and recipient cells in the post-transplant period. Various studies demonstrated the potential use of mixed chimerism kinetics to predict relapse of the AML. CD34+-specific chimerism is associated with a higher specificity of chimerism analysis. Nevertheless, a decrease of donor cells can have other causes as well. Therefore, efforts continue to introduce minimal residual disease (MRD monitoring based on molecular mutations in the post-transplant period. The NPM1 (nucleophosmin mutations can be monitored by sensitive quantitative real-time PCR in subsets of stem cell recipients with AML, but for approximately 20% of patients, suitable molecular mutations for post-transplant MRD monitoring are not available so far. This emphasizes the need for an expansion of the panel of MRD markers in the transplant setting.

  9. Lymphadenectomy prior to rat hind limb allotransplantation prevents graft-versus-host disease in chimeric hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, PCR; Perez-Abadia, G; Francois, CG; Laurentin-Perez, LA; Gorantla, [No Value; Vossen, M; Tai, C; Pidwell, D; Anderson, GL; Stadelmann, WK; Hewitt, CW; Kon, M; Barker, JH; Maldonado, C

    2004-01-01

    In previous rat studies, the use of mixed allogeneic chimerism (MAC) to induce host tolerance to hind limb allografts has resulted in severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The purpose of this study was to determine if immunocompetent cells in bone marrow (BM) and/or lymph nodes (LNs) of transplan

  10. SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Chimeric Vaccine Elicits Protection in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent development of infectious cDNA clone technology for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses has provided a valuable tool for genetic and biological characterization of field and laboratory strains. Recombinant chimeric viruses, containing the capsid-coding...

  11. Low levels of allogeneic but not syngeneic hematopoietic chimerism reverse autoimmune insulitis in prediabetic NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Yaniv, Isaac; Farkas, Daniel L; Stein, Jerry; Askenasy, Nadir

    2009-09-01

    The relative efficiencies of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow transplantation and the threshold levels of donor chimerism required to control autoimmune insulitis were evaluated in prediabetic NOD mice. Male and female NOD mice were conditioned by radiation and grafted with bone marrow cells from allogeneic and syngeneic sex-mismatched donors. Establishment of full allogeneic chimerism in peripheral blood reversed insulitis and restored glucose tolerance despite persistence of residual host immune cells. By contrast, sublethal total body irradiation (with or without syngeneic transplant) reduced the incidence and delayed the onset of diabetes. The latter pattern was also seen in mice that rejected the bone marrow allografts. Low levels of stable allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism (>1%) were sufficient to prevent the evolution of diabetes following allogeneic transplantation. The data indicate that immunomodulation attained at low levels of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, hematopoietic chimerism is effective in resolution of islet inflammation at even relatively late stages in the evolution of the prediabetic state in a preclinical model. However, our data question the efficacy and rationale behind syngeneic (autologous-like) immuno-hematopoietic reconstitution in type 1 diabetes.

  12. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  13. Safety, tumor trafficking and immunogenicity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells specific for TAG-72 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Kristen M; Bergsland, Emily K; Fisher, George A; Nemunaitis, John J; Warren, Robert S; McArthur, James G; Lin, Andy A; Schlom, Jeffrey; June, Carl H; Sherwin, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined. Here we report results of the first human trials of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors performed in the 1990s. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) were treated in two phase 1 trials with first-generation retroviral transduced CAR-T cells targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 and including a CD3-zeta intracellular signaling domain (CART72 cells). In trial C-9701 and C-9702, CART72 cells were administered in escalating doses up to 10(10) total cells; in trial C-9701 CART72 cells were administered by intravenous infusion. In trial C-9702, CART72 cells were administered via direct hepatic artery infusion in patients with colorectal liver metastases. In both trials, a brief course of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) was given with each CART72 infusion to upregulate expression of TAG-72. Fourteen patients were enrolled in C-9701 and nine in C-9702. CART72 manufacturing success rate was 100% with an average transduction efficiency of 38%. Ten patients were treated in CC-9701 and 6 in CC-9702. Symptoms consistent with low-grade, cytokine release syndrome were observed in both trials without clear evidence of on target/off tumor toxicity. Detectable, but mostly short-term (≤14 weeks), persistence of CART72 cells was observed in blood; one patient had CART72 cells detectable at 48 weeks. Trafficking to tumor tissues was confirmed in a tumor biopsy from one of three patients. A subset of patients had (111)Indium-labeled CART72 cells injected, and trafficking could be detected to liver, but T cells appeared largely excluded from large metastatic deposits. Tumor biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and TAG-72 were measured in serum; there was a precipitous decline of TAG-72, but not CEA, in some patients due to induction of an interfering antibody to the TAG

  14. Production and characterization of chimeric monoclonal antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei using the DHFR expression system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Yong Kim

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP and B. mallei (BM are closely related gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria which cause life-threatening melioidosis in human and glanders in horse, respectively. Our laboratory has previously generated and characterized more than 100 mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against BP and BM, according to in vitro and in vivo assay. In this study, 3 MAbs (BP7 10B11, BP7 2C6, and BP1 7F7 were selected to develop into chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies (cMAbs against BP and/or BM. For the stable production of cMAbs, we constructed 4 major different vector systems with a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR amplification marker, and optimized transfection/selection conditions in mammalian host cells with the single-gene and/or double-gene expression system. These 3 cMAbs were stably produced by the DHFR double mutant Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO-DG44 cells. By ELISA and Western blot analysis using whole bacterial antigens treated by heat (65°C/90 min, sodium periodate, and proteinase K, the cMAb BP7 10B11 (cMAb CK1 reacted with glycoproteins (34, 38, 48 kDa in BP; 28, 38, 48 kDa in BM. The cMAb BP7 2C6 (cMAb CK2 recognized surface-capsule antigens with molecular sizes of 38 to 52 kDa, and 200 kDa in BM. The cMAb CK2 was weakly reactive to 14∼28, 200 kDa antigens in BP. The cMAb BP1 7F7 (cMAb CK3 reacted with lipopolysaccharides (38∼52 kDa in BP; 38∼60 kDa in B. thailandensis. Western blot results with the outer surface antigens of the 3 Burkholderia species were consistent with results with the whole Burkholderia cell antigens, suggesting that these immunodominant antigens reacting with the 3 cMAbs were primarily present on the outer surface of the Burkholderia species. These 3 cMAbs would be useful for analyzing the role of the major outer surface antigens in Burkholderia infection.

  15. Dissection of the role of the stable signal peptide of the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein in membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Emily L; York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H

    2012-06-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) retains a stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit in the mature complex. The 58-amino-acid residue SSP comprises two membrane-spanning hydrophobic regions separated by a short ectodomain loop that interacts with the G2 fusion subunit to promote pH-dependent membrane fusion. Small-molecule compounds that target this unique SSP-G2 interaction prevent arenavirus entry and infection. The interaction between SSP and G2 is sensitive to the phylogenetic distance between New World (Junín) and Old World (Lassa) arenaviruses. For example, heterotypic GPC complexes are unable to support virion entry. In this report, we demonstrate that the hybrid GPC complexes are properly assembled, proteolytically cleaved, and transported to the cell surface but are specifically defective in their membrane fusion activity. Chimeric SSP constructs reveal that this incompatibility is localized to the first transmembrane segment of SSP (TM1). Genetic changes in TM1 also affect sensitivity to small-molecule fusion inhibitors, generating resistance in some cases and inhibitor dependence in others. Our studies suggest that interactions of SSP TM1 with the transmembrane domain of G2 may be important for GPC-mediated membrane fusion and its inhibition.

  16. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described.

  17. Understanding Zika Virus Stability and Developing a Chimeric Vaccine through Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Xie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other flaviviruses, Zika virus (ZIKV is uniquely associated with congenital diseases in pregnant women. One recent study reported that (i ZIKV has higher thermostability than dengue virus (DENV [a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV], which might contribute to the disease outcome; (ii the higher thermostability of ZIKV could arise from an extended loop structure in domain III of the viral envelope (E protein and an extra hydrogen-bond interaction between E molecules (V. A. Kostyuchenko, E. X. Y. Lim, S. Zhang, G. Fibriansah, T.-S. Ng, J. S. G. Ooi, J. Shi, and S.-M. Lok, Nature 533:425–428, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17994. Here we report the functional analysis of the structural information in the context of complete ZIKV and DENV-2 virions. Swapping the prM-E genes between ZIKV and DENV-2 switched the thermostability of the chimeric viruses, identifying the prM-E proteins as the major determinants for virion thermostability. Shortening the extended loop of the E protein by 1 amino acid was lethal for ZIKV assembly/release. Mutations (Q350I and T351V that abolished the extra hydrogen-bond interaction between the E proteins did not reduce ZIKV thermostability, indicating that the extra interaction does not increase the thermostability. Interestingly, mutant T351V was attenuated in A129 mice defective in type I interferon receptors, even though the virus retained the wild-type thermostability. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric ZIKV with the DENV-2 prM-E and a chimeric DENV-2 with the ZIKV prM-E were highly attenuated in A129 mice; these chimeric viruses were highly immunogenic and protective against DENV-2 and ZIKV challenge, respectively. These results indicate the potential of these chimeric viruses for vaccine development.

  18. Understanding Zika Virus Stability and Developing a Chimeric Vaccine through Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujiao; Muruato, Antonio E.; Zou, Jing; Shan, Chao; Nunes, Bruno T. D.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compared with other flaviviruses, Zika virus (ZIKV) is uniquely associated with congenital diseases in pregnant women. One recent study reported that (i) ZIKV has higher thermostability than dengue virus (DENV [a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV]), which might contribute to the disease outcome; (ii) the higher thermostability of ZIKV could arise from an extended loop structure in domain III of the viral envelope (E) protein and an extra hydrogen-bond interaction between E molecules (V. A. Kostyuchenko, E. X. Y. Lim, S. Zhang, G. Fibriansah, T.-S. Ng, J. S. G. Ooi, J. Shi, and S.-M. Lok, Nature 533:425–428, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17994). Here we report the functional analysis of the structural information in the context of complete ZIKV and DENV-2 virions. Swapping the prM-E genes between ZIKV and DENV-2 switched the thermostability of the chimeric viruses, identifying the prM-E proteins as the major determinants for virion thermostability. Shortening the extended loop of the E protein by 1 amino acid was lethal for ZIKV assembly/release. Mutations (Q350I and T351V) that abolished the extra hydrogen-bond interaction between the E proteins did not reduce ZIKV thermostability, indicating that the extra interaction does not increase the thermostability. Interestingly, mutant T351V was attenuated in A129 mice defective in type I interferon receptors, even though the virus retained the wild-type thermostability. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric ZIKV with the DENV-2 prM-E and a chimeric DENV-2 with the ZIKV prM-E were highly attenuated in A129 mice; these chimeric viruses were highly immunogenic and protective against DENV-2 and ZIKV challenge, respectively. These results indicate the potential of these chimeric viruses for vaccine development. PMID:28174309

  19. A Novel Chimeric Endolysin with Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Haddad Kashani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP and amidase are known as catalytic domains of the bacteriophage-derived endolysin LysK and were previously reported to show lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In the current study, the in silico design and analysis of chimeric CHAP-amidase model was applied to enhance the stability and solubility of protein, which was achieved through improving the properties of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. The coding gene sequence of the chimeric CHAP-amidase was synthesized and subcloned into the pET-22(+ expression vector, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 strain. Subsequent affinity-based purification yielded ~12 mg soluble protein per liter of E. coli culture. Statistical analysis indicated that concentrations of ≥1 μg/mL of the purified protein have significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus MRSA252 cells. The engineered chimeric CHAP-amidase exhibited 3.2 log reduction of MRSA252 cell counts at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. A synergistic interaction between CHAP-amidase and vancomycin was detected by using checkerboard assay and calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index. This synergistic effect was shown by 8-fold reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin. The chimeric CHAP-amidase displayed strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and enterococcus. However, it did not indicate any significant antibacterial activity against E. coli and Lactococcus lactis. Taken together, these findings suggest that our chimeric CHAP-amidase might represent potential to be used for the development of efficient antibacterial therapies targeting MRSA and certain Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Development of a mouse-feline chimeric antibody against feline tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOKI, Tomoyoshi; TAKANO, Tomomi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2–4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2–4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2–4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2–4 to the constant region of feline antibody. The chimeric mAb 2–4 was confirmed to have fTNF-alpha neutralization activity. Purified mouse mAb 2–4 and chimeric mAb 2–4 were repeatedly administered to cats, and the changes in the ability to induce feline anti-mouse antibody response were investigated. In the serum of cats treated with mouse mAb 2–4, feline anti-mouse antibody production was induced, and the fTNF-alpha neutralization effect of mouse mAb 2–4 was reduced. In contrast, in cats treated with chimeric mAb 2–4, the feline anti-mouse antibody response was decreased compared to that of mouse mAb 2–4-treated cats. PMID:27264736

  1. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. Copyright

  2. Chimeric Peptides as Implant Functionalization Agents for Titanium Alloy Implants with Antimicrobial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Deniz T.; Hnilova, Marketa; Boone, Kyle; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2015-04-01

    Implant-associated infections can have severe effects on the longevity of implant devices and they also represent a major cause of implant failures. Treating these infections associated with implants by antibiotics is not always an effective strategy due to poor penetration rates of antibiotics into biofilms. Additionally, emerging antibiotic resistance poses serious concerns. There is an urge to develop effective antibacterial surfaces that prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. A novel class of bacterial therapeutic agents, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are receiving increasing attention as an unconventional option to treat septic infection, partly due to their capacity to stimulate innate immune responses and for the difficulty of microorganisms to develop resistance towards them. While host and bacterial cells compete in determining the ultimate fate of the implant, functionalization of implant surfaces with AMPs can shift the balance and prevent implant infections. In the present study, we developed a novel chimeric peptide to functionalize the implant material surface. The chimeric peptide simultaneously presents two functionalities, with one domain binding to a titanium alloy implant surface through a titanium-binding domain while the other domain displays an antimicrobial property. This approach gains strength through control over the bio-material interfaces, a property built upon molecular recognition and self-assembly through a titanium alloy binding domain in the chimeric peptide. The efficiency of chimeric peptide both in-solution and absorbed onto titanium alloy surface was evaluated in vitro against three common human host infectious bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. In biological interactions such as occur on implants, it is the surface and the interface that dictate the ultimate outcome. Controlling the implant surface by creating an interface composed chimeric peptides may therefore

  3. Role of zona pellucida glycoproteins during fertilization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, scientific investigations pertaining to the role of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins during fertilization in humans have led to new insights. This has been achieved using purified native/recombinant human zona proteins and transgenic mice expressing human ZP glycoproteins. The proposed model in mice of ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) acting as primary sperm receptor and ZP glycoprotein-2 (ZP2) as secondary sperm receptor has been modified for sperm-egg binding in humans. ZP glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), ZP3, and ZP glycoprotein-4 (ZP4) have been shown to bind to the capacitated human sperm. ZP2 binds to the acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa. Further, the eggs obtained from transgenic mice expressing human ZP2 alone or in conjunction with other human instead of mouse zona proteins showed binding of human sperm, suggesting that ZP2 might also play a role in sperm-egg binding. This function has been mapped to a domain corresponding to amino acid residues 51-144 of ZP2. In contrast to mice, where ZP3 is the primary agonist for inducing the acrosome reaction, in humans, the acrosome reaction can be mediated by ZP1, ZP3, and ZP4. The effect of mutations in the genes encoding zona proteins on the ZP morphology and infertility has not been established. Further, the role of autoantibodies against ZP in women with 'unexplained infertility' leading to poor outcome of in vitro fertilization is currently controversial and needs further investigations. Understanding the role of ZP glycoproteins during human fertilization facilitates the development of new contraceptives and strategies to overcome the problem of infertility.

  4. Acrosome reaction: relevance of zona pellucida glycoproteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satish K Gupta; Beena Bhandari

    2011-01-01

    During mammalian fertilisation,the zona pellucida(ZP)matrix surrounding the oocyte is responsible for the binding of the spermatozoa to the oocyte and induction of the acrosome reaction(AR)in the ZP-bound spermatozoon.The AR is crucial for the penetration of the ZP matrix by spermatozoa.The ZP matrix in mice is composed of three glycoproteins designated ZP1,ZP2 and ZP3,whereas in humans,it is composed of four(ZP1,ZP2,ZP3 and ZP4).ZP3 acts as the putative primary sperm receptor and is responsible for AR induction in mice,whereas in humans(in addition to ZP3),ZP1 and ZP4 also induce the AR.The ability of ZP3 to induce the AR resides in its C-terminal fragment.O-linked glycans are critical for the murine ZP3-mediated AR.However,N-linked glycans of human ZP1,ZP3 and ZP4 have important roles in the induction of the AR.Studies with pharmacological inhibitors showed that the ZP3-induced AR involves the activation of the G1-coupled receptor pathway,whereas ZP1-and ZP4-mediated ARs are independent of this pathway.The ZP3-induced AR involves the activation of T-type voltage-operated calcium channels(VOCCs),whereas ZP1-and ZP4-induced ARs involve both T-and L-type VOCCs.To conclude,in mice,ZP3 is primarily responsible for the binding of capacitated spermatozoa to the ZP matrix and induction of the AR,whereas in humans(in addition to ZP3),ZP1 and ZP4 also participate in these stages of fertilisation.

  5. Expression and Characterization of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein in Pichia Pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-hui; YU Xiang-hui; JIANG Chun-lai; WU Yong-ge; SHEN Jia-cong; KONG Wei

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a sufficient amount of glycoprotein for further studying the structure and function of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, amplified and modified HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gene which recombined subtypes(850amino acids) from Guangxi in China was inserted into Pichiapastoris expression vector pPICZaB; then the recombinant plasmid was transported into the yeast cells to induce the expression of Env protein with methanol. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot indicate that the envelope glycoprotein could be expressed in Pichia pastoris with productions of a 120000 glycoprotein and a 41000 glycoprotein, which showed satisfactory immunogenicity by indirect ELISA.

  6. Proteolysis of specific porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins by boar acrosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, B S; Dudkiewicz, A B; Bundman, D S

    1985-04-01

    The morphologic and biochemical effects on the structure and constituent glycoproteins of the zona pellucida (ZP) by a specific sperm enzyme, acrosin, and a nonsperm enzyme, trypsin, have been evaluated. Intact porcine ZP matricies, exposed to either acrosin or trypsin, were analyzed microscopically. Changes in specific glycoproteins were monitored by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and the silver-based color stain, GELCODE. Although these enzymes did not alter the macroscopic properties of the ZP matrix, the 2D-PAGE ZP protein patterns were markedly altered. The high molecular weight glycoprotein families (II and III) were sensitive to proteolytic digestion, whereas the major glycoprotein family (I) of the porcine zona was only partially proteolyzed by acrosin and trypsin. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that acrosin had unique substrate specificity compared to that of trypsin, since the ZP peptide patterns were found to be different. These studies are the first to demonstrate which integral glycoproteins of the native porcine ZP matrix are specifically proteolyzed by acrosin from the homologous species and that this proteolysis occurs without the dissolution of the native porcine matrix.

  7. Glycoprotein labeling with click chemistry (GLCC) and carbohydrate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengliang L; Huang, Xinyi; Burton, Andrew J; Swift, Karl A D

    2015-08-14

    Molecular labeling and detection techniques are essential to research in life science. Here, a method for glycoprotein labeling/carbohydrate detection through glycan replacement, termed glycoprotein labeling with click chemistry (GLCC), is described. In this method, a glycoprotein is first treated with specific glycosidases to remove certain sugar residues, a procedure that creates acceptor sites for a specific glycosyltransferase. A 'clickable' monosaccharide is then installed onto these sites by the glycosyltransferase. This modified glycoprotein is then conjugated to a reporter molecule using a click chemistry reaction. For glycoproteins that already contain vacant glycosylation sites, deglycosylation is not needed before the labeling step. As a demonstration, labeling on fetal bovine fetuin, mouse immunoglobulin IgG and bacterial expressed human TNFα and TNFβ are shown. Compared to traditional ways of protein labeling, labeling at glycosylation sites with GLCC is considerably more specific and less likely to have adverse effects, and, when utilized as a method for carbohydrate detection, this method is also highly specific and sensitive.

  8. Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fun-In Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses, which include economically important animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, possess three envelope glycoproteins, namely Erns, E1, and E2. This article discusses the structures and functions of these glycoproteins and their effects on viral pathogenicity in cells in culture and in animal hosts. E2 is the most important structural protein as it interacts with cell surface receptors that determine cell tropism and induces neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. All three glycoproteins are involved in virus attachment and entry into target cells. E1-E2 heterodimers are essential for viral entry and infectivity. Erns is unique because it possesses intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase activity that can inhibit the production of type I interferons and assist in the development of persistent infections. These glycoproteins are localized to the virion surface; however, variations in amino acids and antigenic structures, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and RNase activity can ultimately affect the virulence of pestiviruses in animals. Along with mutations that are driven by selection pressure, antigenic differences in glycoproteins influence the efficacy of vaccines and determine the appropriateness of the vaccines that are currently being used in the field.

  9. Retroviral Env Glycoprotein Trafficking and Incorporation into Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Murakami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Gag protein, the Env glycoprotein is a major retroviral structural protein and is essential for forming infectious virus particles. Env is synthesized, processed, and transported to certain microdomains at the plasma membrane and takes advantage of the same host machinery for its trafficking as that used by cellular glycoproteins. Incorporation of Env into progeny virions is probably mediated by the interaction between Env and Gag, in some cases with the additional involvement of certain host factors. Although several general models have been proposed to explain the incorporation of retroviral Env glycoproteins into virions, the actual mechanism for this process is still unclear, partly because structural data on the Env protein cytoplasmic tail is lacking. This paper presents the current understanding of the synthesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of retroviral Env proteins.

  10. Processing of virus-specific glycoproteins of varicella zoster virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazue, J.; Campo-Vera, H.; Kitamura, K.; Okuno, T.; Yamanishi, K.

    1985-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) glycoproteins were used to study the processing of three glycoproteins with molecular weights of 83K-94K (gp 2), 64K (gp 3), and 55K (gp 5). Immunoprecipitation experiments performed with VZV-infected cells, pulse labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine in the presence of tunicamycin, suggest that O-linked oligosaccharide is present on the glycoprotein of gp 2. Use of the enzyme endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H revealed that the fully processed form of gp 3 had high-mannose type and that of gp 5 had only complex type of N-linked oligosaccharides. Experiments with monensin suggest that the precursor form (116K) of gp 3 is cleaved during the processing from Golgi apparatus to cell surface membrane. The extension of O-linked oligosaccharide chain and the complex type of N-linked oligosaccharide chains also occurs during this processing.

  11. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  12. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  13. Square-wave voltammetry assays for glycoproteins on nanoporous gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Binod; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Fujikawa, Kohki; Catania, Rosa; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays (ELLA) were developed using nanoporous gold (NPG) as a solid support for protein immobilization and as an electrode for the electrochemical determination of the product of the reaction between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP), which is p-aminophenol (p-AP). Glycoproteins or concanavalin A (Con A) and ALP conjugates were covalently immobilized onto lipoic acid self-assembled monolayers on NPG. The binding of Con A – ALP (or soybean agglutinin – ALP) conjugate to glycoproteins covalently immobilized on NPG and subsequent incubation with p-APP substrate was found to result in square-wave voltammograms whose peak difference current varied with the identity of the glycoprotein. NPG presenting covalently bound glycoproteins was used as the basis for a competitive electrochemical assay for glycoproteins in solution (transferrin and IgG). A kinetic ELLA based on steric hindrance of the enzyme-substrate reaction and hence reduced enzymatic reaction rate after glycoprotein binding is demonstrated using immobilized Con A–ALP conjugates. Using the immobilized Con A-ALP conjugate, the binding affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be 105 nM, and that for transferrin was found to be 650 nM. Minimal interference was observed in the presence of 5 mg mL−1 BSA as a model serum protein in both the kinetic and competitive ELLA. Inhibition studies were performed with methyl D-mannoside for the binding of TSF and IgG to Con A-ALP; IC50 values were found to be 90 μM and 286 μM, respectively. Surface coverages of proteins were estimated using solution depletion and the BCA protein concentration assay. PMID:24611035

  14. Induction of Chimerism Permits Low-Dose Islet Grafts in the Liver or Pancreas to Reverse Refractory Autoimmune Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Miao; Racine, Jeremy J.; Liu, Hongjun; Lin, Chia-Lei; Nair, Indu; Lau, Joyce; Cao, Yu-An; Todorov, Ivan; Atkinson, Mark; Zeng, Defu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether induction of chimerism lowers the amount of donor islets required for reversal of diabetes and renders the pancreas a suitable site for islet grafts in autoimmune diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The required donor islet dose for reversal of diabetes in late-stage diabetic NOD mice after transplantation into the liver or pancreas was compared under immunosuppression or after induction of chimerism. Recipient mice were monitored for blood glucose levels and ...

  15. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  16. Multiple genes encode the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, J A; Powell, F; Edman, J C;

    1993-01-01

    this antigen is a good candidate for development as a vaccine to prevent or control P. carinii infection. We have cloned and sequenced seven related but unique genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein of rat P. carinii. Partial amino acid sequencing confirmed the identity of these genes. Based on Southern...... hydrophobic region at the carboxyl terminus. The presence of multiple related msg genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein of P. carinii suggests that antigenic variation is a possible mechanism for evading host defenses. Further characterization of this family of genes should allow the development...

  17. Antigenic and Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure Analysis of a Chimeric Sapovirus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Taylor, David W; Hansman, Grant S; Murata, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-23

    The capsid protein (VP1) of all caliciviruses forms an icosahedral particle with two principal domains, shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, which are connected via a flexible hinge region. The S domain forms a scaffold surrounding the nucleic acid, while the P domains form a homodimer that interacts with receptors. The P domain is further subdivided into two subdomains, termed P1 and P2. The P2 subdomain is likely an insertion in the P1 subdomain; consequently, the P domain is divided into the P1-1, P2, and P1-2 subdomains. In order to investigate capsid antigenicity, N-terminal (N-term)/S/P1-1 and P2/P1-2 were switched between two sapovirus genotypes GI.1 and GI.5. The chimeric VP1 constructs were expressed in insect cells and were shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) morphologically similar to the parental VLPs. Interestingly, the chimeric VLPs had higher levels of cross-reactivities to heterogeneous antisera than the parental VLPs. In order to better understand the antigenicity from a structural perspective, we determined an intermediate-resolution (8.5-Å) cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a chimeric VLP and developed a VP1 homology model. The cryo-EM structure revealed that the P domain dimers were raised slightly (∼5 Å) above the S domain. The VP1 homology model allowed us predict the S domain (67-229) and P1-1 (229-280), P2 (281-447), and P1-2 (448-567) subdomains. Our results suggested that the raised P dimers might expose immunoreactive S/P1-1 subdomain epitopes. Consequently, the higher levels of cross-reactivities with the chimeric VLPs resulted from a combination of GI.1 and GI.5 epitopes. We developed sapovirus chimeric VP1 constructs and produced the chimeric VLPs in insect cells. We found that both chimeric VLPs had a higher level of cross-reactivity against heterogeneous VLP antisera than the parental VLPs. The cryo-EM structure of one chimeric VLP (Yokote/Mc114) was solved to 8.5-Å resolution. A homology model

  18. Suicide Gene Therapy to Increase the Safety of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Casucci, Attilio Bondanza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding motif of a monoclonal antibody (mAb with the signal transduction machinery of the T-cell receptor (TCR. The genetic modification of T lymphocytes with chimeric receptors specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs allows for the redirection towards tumor cells. Clinical experience with CAR-redirected T cells suggests that antitumor efficacy associates with some degree of toxicity, especially when TAA expression is shared with healthy tissues. This situation closely resembles the case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, wherein allorecognition causes both the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL effect and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Suicide gene therapy, i.e. the genetic induction of a conditional suicide phenotype into donor T cells, enables dissociating the GVL effect from GVHD. Applying suicide gene modification to CAR-redirected T cells may therefore greatly increase their safety profile and facilitate their clinical development.

  19. DIVA vaccine properties of the live chimeric pestivirus strain CP7_E2gif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Live modified vaccines to protect against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does...... not include any CSFV components. In the present study, the DIVA vaccine properties of CP7_E2gif were evaluated in comparison to the conventional live attenuated Riemser C-strain vaccine. Sera and tonsil samples obtained from pigs immunised with these two vaccines were analysed. No viral RNA was found in serum...... after vaccination with CP7_E2gif, whereas some serum samples from C-strain vaccinated animals were positive. In both vaccinated groups, individual viral RNA-positive tonsil samples were detected in animals euthanised between 7 and 21 days post vaccination. Furthermore, serum samples from these animals...

  20. Spotlight on chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cell research and clinical trials in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Can; Wei, Jianshu; Han, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    T cell mediated adoptive immune response has been characterized as the key to anti-tumor immunity. Scientists around the world including in China, have been trying to harness the power of T cells against tumors for decades. Recently, the biosynthetic chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cell (CAR-T) strategy was developed and exhibited encouraging clinical efficacy, especially in hematological malignancies. Chimeric antigen receptor research reports began in 2009 in China according to our PubMed search results. Clinical trials have been ongoing in China since 2013 according to the trial registrations on clinicaltrials. gov.. After years of assiduous efforts, research and clinical scientists in China have made their own achievements in the CAR-T therapy field. In this review, we aim to highlight CAR-T research and clinical trials in China, to provide an informative reference for colleagues in the field.

  1. Replication-competent chimeric lenti-oncovirus with expanded host cell tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiprich, S; Gundlach, B R; Fleckenstein, B; Uberla, K

    1997-04-01

    Baboon bone marrow was grafted into human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients in the course of recent trials for AIDS treatment. Since the baboon genome harbors multiple copies of an endogenous oncovirus, chimeric lenti-oncoviruses could emerge in the xenotransplant recipient. To analyze the potential replication competence of hybrid viruses between different genera of retroviruses, we replaced most of the env gene of simian immunodeficiency virus with the env gene of an amphotropic murine leukemia virus. The hybrid virus could be propagated in human T-cell lines, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques, and in CD4- B-cell lines. Because of the expanded cell tropism, the hybrid virus might have a selective advantage in comparison to parental viruses. Therefore, emerging chimeric viruses may be considered a serious risk of xenotransplantation. A note of caution is also suggested for the use of pseudotyped lentiviral vectors for human gene therapy.

  2. [Harvesting technique of chimeric multiple paddles fibular flap for wide oromandibular defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, J-P; Qassemyar, Q; Assouly, N; Temam, S; Kolb, F

    2016-08-01

    Carcinological head and neck reconstruction still remains a challenge due to the volume and varied tissues needed. Large and wide oromandibular defects require, not just the bone but also soft tissues for the pelvilingual reconstruction and therefore, a second free flap may become necessary in addition to a fibular flap. The option of an unique chimeric flap based on the fibular artery and its branches is less known whereas it offers the advantage of a unique flap with bone, muscle and multiple skin paddles, independent of each other. The aim of this technical note is to present step by step the surgical procedure of this chimeric flap and share this method that avoids a second free flap.

  3. Chimerism of allogeneic mesenchymal cells in bone marrow, liver, and spleen after mesenchymal stem cells infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshko, Alexander; Prakharenia, Irina; Kletski, Semen; Isaikina, Yanina

    2013-12-01

    Although an infusion of culture-expanded MSCs is applied in clinic to improve results of HSCs transplantation and for a treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, homing, and engraftment potential of culture-expanded MSC in humans is still obscure. We report two female patients who received allogeneic BM transplantation as a treatment of hematological diseases and a transplantation of MSCs from third-party male donors. Both patients died within one yr of infectious complications. Specimens of paraffin-embedded blocks of tissues from transplanted patients were taken. The aim of the study was to estimate possible homing and engraftment of allogeneic BM-derived MSCs in some tissues/organs of recipient. Sensitive real-time quantitative PCR analysis was applied with SRY gene as a target. MSC chimerism was found in BM, liver, and spleen of both patients. We conclude that sensitive RQ-PCR analysis is acceptable for low-level chimerism evaluation even in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

  4. Human glial chimeric mice reveal astrocytic dependence of JC virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondo, Yoichi; Windrem, Martha S; Zou, Lisa;

    2014-01-01

    with humanized white matter by engrafting human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient and myelin-deficient mice. Intracerebral delivery of JCV resulted in infection and subsequent demyelination of these chimeric mice. Human GPCs and astrocytes were infected more readily than...... oligodendrocytes, and viral replication was noted primarily in human astrocytes and GPCs rather than oligodendrocytes, which instead expressed early viral T antigens and exhibited apoptotic death. Engraftment of human GPCs in normally myelinated and immunodeficient mice resulted in humanized white matter...... that was chimeric for human astrocytes and GPCs. JCV effectively propagated in these mice, which indicates that astroglial infection is sufficient for JCV spread. Sequencing revealed progressive mutation of the JCV capsid protein VP1 after infection, suggesting that PML may evolve with active infection...

  5. [Chimerism analysis after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Interest of cell sorting: general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, I; Giannoli, C; Rigal, D; Dubois, V

    2012-04-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells transplantation, widely used these last decades, represent the ultimate treatment resource for patients with haematological malignancies. Long range success of this treatment is particularly affected by relapse of the initial disease, graft rejection or graft versus host disease. Chimerism analysis after transplantation had been used since several years to document engraftment, to determine the risk of relapse and to adapt therapy promptly when necessary. Usefulness of this analysis for the outcome of transplanted patients, as well as the impact of using high sensitive techniques coupled with specific cell populations sorted have been demonstrated by retrospective studies. Follow-up of chimerism would allow to operate efficiently before the onset of clinical signs in leukaemic patients with high risk of relapse and to control the expression of minimal residual disease when specific molecular markers could not be monitored. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.

  7. Mouse x pig chimeric antibodies expressed in Baculovirus retain the same properties of their parent antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jar, Ana M; Osorio, Fernando A; López, Osvaldo J

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technologies has made it possible to use antibodies against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases in humans. These advances in therapy, as well as immunoprophylaxis, could also make it possible to use these technologies in agricultural species of economic importance such as pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus causing very important economic losses to the industry. Passive transfer of antibodies obtained by biotechnology could be used in the future to complement or replace vaccination against this and other pig pathogens. To this end, we constructed and studied the properties of chimeric mouse x pig anti-PRRSV antibodies. We cloned the constant regions of gamma-1 and gamma-2 heavy chains and the lambda light chain of pig antibodies in frame with the variable regions of heavy and light chains of mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1, which has neutralizing activity against PRRSV. The coding regions for chimeric IgG1 and IgG2 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Both chimeric antibodies recognized PRRSV in ELISA as well as in a Western-blot format and, more importantly, were able to neutralize PRRSV in the same fashion as the parent mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1. In addition, we show that both pig IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies could bind complement component C1q, with IgG2 being more efficient than IgG1 in binding C1q. Expressing chimeric pig antibodies with protective capabilities offers a new alternative strategy for infectious disease control in domestic pigs.

  8. Production and characterisation of a neutralising chimeric antibody against botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Prigent

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, are the causative agent of botulism. This disease only affects a few hundred people each year, thus ranking it among the orphan diseases. However, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A is the most potent toxin known to man. Due to their potency and ease of production, these toxins were classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as Category A biothreat agents. For several biothreat agents, like BoNT/A, passive immunotherapy remains the only possible effective treatment allowing in vivo neutralization, despite possible major side effects. Recently, several mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against a recombinant fragment of BoNT/A were produced in our laboratory and most efficiently neutralised the neurotoxin. In the present work, the most powerful one, TA12, was selected for chimerisation. The variable regions of this antibody were thus cloned and fused with the constant counterparts of human IgG1 (kappa light and gamma 1 heavy chains. Chimeric antibody production was evaluated in mammalian myeloma cells (SP2/0-Ag14 and insect cells (Sf9. After purifying the recombinant antibody by affinity chromatography, the biochemical properties of chimeric and mouse antibody were compared. Both have the same very low affinity constant (close to 10 pM and the chimeric antibody exhibited a similar capacity to its parent counterpart in neutralising the toxin in vivo. Its strong affinity and high neutralising potency make this chimeric antibody interesting for immunotherapy treatment in humans in cases of poisoning, particularly as there is a probable limitation of the immunological side effects observed with classical polyclonal antisera from heterologous species.

  9. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a dual role for CD36 in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febbraio Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBC to different host cells, ranging from endothelial to red blood cells, is associated to malaria pathology. In vitro studies have shown the relevance of CD36 for adhesion phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum iRBC such as sequestration, platelet mediated clumping and non-opsonic uptake of iRBC. Different adhesion phenotypes involve different host cells and are associated with different pathological outcomes of disease. Studies with different human populations with CD36 polymorphisms failed to attribute a clear role to CD36 expression in human malaria. Up to the present, no in vivo model has been available to study the relevance of different CD36 adhesion phenotypes to the pathological course of Plasmodium infection. Methods Using CD36-deficient mice and their control littermates, CD36 bone marrow chimeric mice, expressing CD36 exclusively in haematopoietic cells or in non-haematopoietic cells, were generated. Irradiated CD36-/- and wild type mice were also reconstituted with syngeneic cells to control for the effects of irradiation. The reconstituted mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and analysed for the development of blood parasitaemia and neurological symptoms. Results All mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells as well as chimeric mice expressing CD36 exclusively in non-haematopoietic cells died from experimental cerebral malaria between day 6 and 12 after infection. A significant proportion of chimeric mice expressing CD36 only in haematopoietic cells did not die from cerebral malaria. Conclusion The analysis of bone marrow chimeric mice reveals a dual role of CD36 in P. berghei ANKA infection. Expression of CD36 in haematopoietic cells, most likely macrophages and dendritic cells, has a beneficial effect that is masked in normal mice by adverse effects of CD36 expression in non-haematopoietic cells, most likely endothelial cells.

  10. Targeted induction of interferon-λ in humanized chimeric mouse liver abrogates hepatotropic virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: The interferon (IFN system plays a critical role in innate antiviral response. We presume that targeted induction of IFN in human liver shows robust antiviral effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. METHODS: This study used chimeric mice harboring humanized livers and infected with HCV or HBV. This mouse model permitted simultaneous analysis of immune responses by human and mouse hepatocytes in the same liver and exploration of the mechanism of antiviral effect against these viruses. Targeted expression of IFN was induced by treating the animals with a complex comprising a hepatotropic cationic liposome and a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, pIC (LIC-pIC. Viral replication, IFN gene expression, IFN protein production, and IFN antiviral activity were analyzed (for type I, II and III IFNs in the livers and sera of these humanized chimeric mice. RESULTS: Following treatment with LIC-pIC, the humanized livers of chimeric mice exhibited increased expression (at the mRNA and protein level of human IFN-λs, resulting in strong antiviral effect on HBV and HCV. Similar increases were not seen for human IFN-α or IFN-β in these animals. Strong induction of IFN-λs by LIC-pIC occurred only in human hepatocytes, and not in mouse hepatocytes nor in human cell lines derived from other (non-hepatic tissues. LIC-pIC-induced IFN-λ production was mediated by the immune sensor adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1, suggesting dual recognition of LIC-pIC by both sensor adaptor pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the expression and function of various IFNs differ depending on the animal species and tissues under investigation. Chimeric mice harboring humanized livers demonstrate that IFN-λs play an important role in the defense against human hepatic virus infection.

  11. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed adoptive immunotherapy: a new era in targeted cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yamei; Liu, Delong

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the recent advances in molecular immunology, virology, genetics, and cell processing, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed cancer therapy has finally arrived for clinical application. CAR-directed adoptive immunotherapy represents a novel form of gene therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy, a combination of three in one. Early phase clinical trial was reported in patients with refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia with 17p deletion. Accompanying the cyto...

  12. High male chimerism in the female breast shows quantitative links with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Denes, Viktoria; Lakk, Monika; Al-Bazzaz, Sana; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Pilichowska, Monika; Geck, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Clinical observations suggest that pregnancy provides protection against cancer. The mechanisms involved, however, remain unclear. Fetal cells are known to enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy and establish microchimerism. We investigated if pregnancy-related embryonic/fetal stem cell integration plays a role in breast cancer. A high-sensitivity Y-chromosome assay was developed to trace male allogeneic cells (from male fetus) in females. Fixed-embedded samples (n = 206) from both normal and breast cancer patients were screened for microchimerism. The results were combined with matching clinicopathological and histological parameters and processed statistically. The results show that in our samples (182 informative) more than half of healthy women (56%) carried male cells in their breast tissue for decades (n = 68), while only one out of five in the cancer sample pool (21%) (n = 114) (odds ratio = 4.75, CI at 95% 2.34-9.69; p = 0.0001). The data support the notion that a biological link may exist between chimerism and tissue-integrity. The correlation, however, is non-linear, since male microchimerism in excess ("hyperchimerism") is also involved in cancer. The data suggest a link between hyperchimerism and HER2-type cancers, while decreased chimerism ("hypochimerism") associates with ER/PR-positive (luminal-type) breast cancers. Chimerism levels that correlate with protection appear to be non-random and share densities with the mammary progenitor components of the stem cell lineage in the breast. The results suggest that protection may involve stem/progenitor level interactions and implicate novel quantitative mechanisms in chimerism biology. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  13. The impact of chimerism in DNA-based forensic sex determination analysis

    OpenAIRE

    George, Renjith; Donald, Preethy Mary; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Hj Ismail, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination is the most important step in personal identification in forensic investigations. DNA-based sex determination analysis is comparatively more reliable than the other conventional methods of sex determination analysis. Advanced technology like real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers accurate and reproducible results and is at the level of legal acceptance. But still there are situations like chimerism where an individual possess both male and female specific factors t...

  14. Generation of cloned and chimeric embryos/offspring using the new methods of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzyszowska, Maria; Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Bednarczyk, Marek; Samiec, Marcin; Smorag, Zdzisław; Waś, Bogusław; Guszkiewicz, Andrzej; Korwin-Kossakowski, Maciej; Górniewska, Maria; Szablisty, Ewa; Modliński, Jacek A; Łakota, Paweł; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Sechman, Andrzej; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Mika, Maria; Lisowski, Mirosław; Czekalski, Przemysław; Rzasa, Janusz; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes results of studies concerning: 1/ qualitative evaluation of pig nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning, 2/ developmental potency of sheep somatic cells to create chimera, 3/ efficient production of chicken chimera. The quality of nuclear donor cells is one of the most important factors to determine the efficiency of somatic cell cloning. Morphological criteria commonly used for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Therefore, different types of somatic cells being the source of genomic DNA in the cloning procedure were analyzed on apoptosis with the use of live-DNA or plasma membrane fluorescent markers. It has been found that morphological criteria are a sufficient selection factor for qualitative evaluation of nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning. Developmental potencies of sheep somatic cells in embryos and chimeric animals were studied using blastocyst complementation test. Fetal fibroblasts stained with vital fluorescent dye and microsurgically placed in morulae or blastocysts were later identified in embryos cultured in vitro. Transfer of Polish merino blastocysts harbouring Heatherhead fibroblasts to recipient ewes brought about normal births at term. Newly-born animals were of merino appearance with dark patches on their noses, near the mouth and on their clovens. This overt chimerism shows that fetal fibroblasts introduced to sheep morulae/blastocysts revealed full developmental plasticity. To achieve the efficient production of chicken chimeras, the blastodermal cells from embryos of the donor breeds, (Green-legged Partridgelike breed or GPxAraucana) were transferred into the embryos of the recipient breed (White Leghorn), and the effect of chimerism on the selected reproductive and physiological traits of recipients was examined. Using the model which allowed identification of the chimerism at many loci, it has been found that 93.9% of the examined birds

  15. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  16. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  17. Chimeric mice with a humanized liver as an animal model of troglitazone-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuni, Masakazu; Morita, Mayu; Matsuo, Kentaro; Katoh, Yumiko; Nakajima, Miki; Tateno, Chise; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-10-02

    Troglitazone (Tro) is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug that was withdrawn from the market due to its association with idiosyncratic severe liver injury. Tro has never induced liver injury in experimental animals in vivo. It was assumed that the species differences between human and experimental animals in the pharmaco- or toxicokinetics of Tro might be associated with these observations. In this study, we investigated whether a chimeric mouse with a humanized liver that we previously established, whose replacement index with human hepatocytes is up to 92% can reproduce Tro-induced liver injury. When the chimeric mice were orally administered Tro for 14 or 23 days (1000mg/kg/day), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased by 2.1- and 3.6-fold, respectively. Co-administration of l-buthionine sulfoximine (10mM in drinking water), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, unexpectedly prevented the Tro-dependent increase of ALT, which suggests that the GSH scavenging pathway will not be involved in Tro-induced liver injury. To elucidate the mechanism of the onset of liver injury, hepatic GSH content, the level of oxidative stress markers and phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes were determined. However, these factors were not associated with Tro-induced liver injury. An immune-mediated reaction may be associated with Tro-induced liver toxicity in vivo, because the chimeric mouse is derived from an immunodeficient SCID mouse. In conclusion, we successfully reproduced Tro-induced liver injury using chimeric mice with a humanized liver, which provides a new animal model for studying idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein–Barr virus glycoprotein B

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the str...

  19. Skin Recurrence of Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Postumbilical Cord Blood Transplant despite Complete Donor Chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the treatment of choice for systemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL which provides graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Herein we discuss a case of recurrence of CTCL skin lesions after cord blood transplant in a patient who continued to have 100% donor chimerism in bone marrow. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old female with history of mycosis fungoides (MF presented with biopsy proven large cell transformation of MF. PET scan revealed multiple adenopathy in abdomen and chest suspicious for lymphoma and skin biopsy showed large cell transformation. She was treated with multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Posttherapy PET scan showed resolution of lymphadenopathy. Later she underwent ablative preparative regimen followed by single cord blood transplant. Bone marrow chimerism studies at day +60 after transplant showed 100% donor cells without presence of lymphoma. However 5 months after transplant she had recurrence of MF with the same genotype as prior skin lesion. Bone marrow chimerism study continued to show 100% donor cells. Conclusion. A differential graft-versus-lymphoma effect in our case prevented lymphoma recurrence systemically but failed to do so in skin. We hypothesize that this response may be due to presence of other factors in the bone marrow and lymph node microenvironments preventing recurrence in these sites.

  20. Functional rescue of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice by a chimeric peptide-PMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifang; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Merritt, Thomas; Seow, Yiqi; Ashraf, Shirin; Wang, Qingsong; Boutilier, Jordan; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2010-10-01

    Splice modulation using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) has been shown to yield targeted exon exclusion to restore the open reading frame and generate truncated but partially functional dystrophin protein. This has been successfully demonstrated in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. However, DMD is a systemic disease; successful therapeutic exploitation of this approach will therefore depend on effective systemic delivery of AOs to all affected tissues. We have previously shown the potential of a muscle-specific/arginine-rich chimeric peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) conjugate, but its long-term activity, optimized dosing regimen, capacity for functional correction and safety profile remain to be established. Here, we report the results of this chimeric peptide-PMO conjugate in the mdx mouse using low doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) administered via a 6 biweekly systemic intravenous injection protocol. We show 100% dystrophin-positive fibers and near complete correction of the dystrophin transcript defect in all peripheral muscle groups, with restoration of 50% dystrophin protein over 12 weeks, leading to correction of the DMD pathological phenotype and restoration of muscle function in the absence of detectable toxicity or immune response. Chimeric muscle-specific/cell-penetrating peptides therefore represent highly promising agents for systemic delivery of splice-correcting PMO oligomers for DMD therapy.

  1. Construction of a photo-responsive chimeric histidine kinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Mayuko; Oka, Shyunsuke; Sugie, Yoshimi; Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2017-01-31

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), that are also referred to as His to Asp phosphorelay systems, are involved in widespread cellular responses to diverse signals from bacteria to plants. Previously, we succeeded in reconstructing a cyanobacterial photo-perception system in Escherichia coli by employing a CcaS-CcaR two-component system from Nostoc punctiforme. In this study, we have added a photo-responsive ability to ArcB-ArcA (anoxic redox control) TCS of E. coli by fusing a cyanobacterial photoreceptor domain of CcaS with an intracellular histidine kinase (HK) domain of ArcB. For this, we constructed several chimeric HKs between CcaS and ArcB and found that one chimeric HK, named ArcaS9, has a photo-responsive ability. When ArcaS9 was expressed with an ArcA response regulator in E. coli expressing phycocyanobilin (PCB)-producing enzymes, the expression of sdh, a target gene of ArcB-ArcA TCS was regulated in a light-color-dependent manner. Thus we succeeded in endowing E. coli HK with a photo-responsive ability. This provides an insight into how the sensing ability of HK can be manipulated by a chimeric construct.

  2. Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine candidates generated by chimerization with dengue virus type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromowski, Gregory D; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Hanson, Christopher T; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2014-05-23

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide and vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease. A suitable live-attenuated JEV vaccine could be formulated with a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine for the control of these viruses in endemic areas. Toward this goal, we generated chimeric virus vaccine candidates by replacing the precursor membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein structural genes of recombinant dengue virus type 4 (rDEN4) or attenuated vaccine candidate rDEN4Δ30 with those of wild-type JEV strain India/78. Mutations were engineered in E, NS3 and NS4B protein genes to improve replication in Vero cells. The chimeric viruses were attenuated in mice and some elicited modest but protective levels of immunity after a single dose. One particular chimeric virus, bearing E protein mutation Q264H, replicated to higher titer in tissue culture and was significantly more immunogenic in mice. The results are compared with live-attenuated JEV vaccine strain SA14-14-2. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Confined blood chimerism in a monochorionic dizygotic sex discordant twin pregnancy conceived after induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeur Le Bras, Anne; Petit, François; Benachi, Alexandra; Bedel, Bettina; Oucherif, Salima; Martinovic, Jelena; Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Gautier, Valérie; Parisot, Frédéric; Labrune, Philippe; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Monochorionic twins are generally considered as a monozygotic twin pregnancy. However, several cases of monochorial dizygotic twin pregnancies have been reported. We report on a rare case of monochorionic dizygotic twin pregnancy conceived after induced ovulation in a 32-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on morphological ultrasound examination at 18+4 weeks of gestation, showing two fetuses with discordant sex. The amniocentesis was declined by the patient. The monochorionic status was confirmed after a histopathalogical study of the placenta. At delivery, both a phenotypically normal boy and a phenotypically normal girl without sexual abnormality were observed. This analysis also revealed the presence of vascular anastomoses between both fetal circulations. Postnatal cytogenetic analyses indicated the presence of a chimerism in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This chimerism was not observed in cells obtained from a buccal swab. Molecular determination of zygosity confirmed the existence of the confined peripheral blood chimerism with the presence of four parental alleles. We report on a case of monochorionic dizygotic twin pregnancy. This observation underlies the need to carefully assess twin pregnancies, especially when obtained after assisted reproductive technology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-06-29

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  5. Development of a high-throughput microfluidic integrated microarray for the detection of chimeric bioweapons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppod, Timothy; Satterfield, Brent; Hukari, Kyle W.; West, Jason A. A.; Hux, Gary A.

    2006-10-01

    The advancement of DNA cloning has significantly augmented the potential threat of a focused bioweapon assault, such as a terrorist attack. With current DNA cloning techniques, toxin genes from the most dangerous (but environmentally labile) bacterial or viral organism can now be selected and inserted into robust organism to produce an infinite number of deadly chimeric bioweapons. In order to neutralize such a threat, accurate detection of the expressed toxin genes, rather than classification on strain or genealogical decent of these organisms, is critical. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknowns chimeric bioweapons. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknown bioweapons. We have developed a unique microfluidic approach to capture and concentrate these threat genes (mRNA's) upto a 30 fold concentration. These captured oligonucleotides can then be used to synthesize in situ oligonucleotide copies (cDNA probes) of the captured genes. An integrated microfluidic architecture will enable us to control flows of reagents, perform clean-up steps and finally elute nanoliter volumes of synthesized oligonucleotides probes. The integrated approach has enabled a process where chimeric or conventional bioweapons can rapidly be identified based on their toxic function, rather than being restricted to information that may not identify the critical nature of the threat.

  6. Structural and quantitative comparison of cerebrospinal fluid glycoproteins in Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sihlbom, C.; Davidsson, P.; Sjogren, M.; Wahlund, L.O.; Nilsson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Glycoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are altered in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients compared to control individuals. We have utilized albumin depletion prior to 2D gel electrophoresis to enhance glycoprotein concentration for image analysis as well as structural glycoprotein determination wi

  7. Human-Mouse Chimeras with Normal Expression and Function Reveal That Major Domain Swapping Is Tolerated by P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Hall, Matthew D; Moen, Janna K; Chufan, Eduardo E; Fetsch, Patricia A; Shukla, Suneet; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-23

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a vital role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes and has been shown to interact with a panoply of functionally and structurally unrelated compounds. How human P-gp interacts with this large number of drugs has not been well understood, although structural flexibility has been implicated. To gain insight into this transporter's broad substrate specificity and to assess its ability to accommodate a variety of molecular and structural changes, we generated human-mouse P-gp chimeras by the exchange of homologous transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. High-level expression of these chimeras by BacMam- and baculovirus-mediated transduction in mammalian (HeLa) and insect cells, respectively, was achieved. There were no detectable differences between wild-type and chimeric P-gp in terms of cell surface expression, ability to efflux the P-gp substrates rhodamine 123, calcein-AM, and JC-1, or to be inhibited by the substrate cyclosporine A and the inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. Additionally, expression of chimeric P-gp was able to confer a paclitaxel-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells characteristic of P-gp-mediated drug resistance. P-gp ATPase assays and photo-cross-linking with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin confirmed that transport and biochemical properties of P-gp chimeras were similar to those of wild-type P-gp, although differences in drug binding were detected when human and mouse transmembrane domains were combined. Overall, chimeras with one or two mouse P-gp domains were deemed functionally equivalent to human wild-type P-gp, demonstrating the ability of human P-gp to tolerate major structural changes.

  8. Folding of viral envelope glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Anken, E. van

    2000-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins fold and oligomerize in the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell. They employ the cellular machinery and receive assistance from cellular folding factors. During the folding process, they are retained in the compartment and their structural quality is checked by the quality con

  9. Spinosad is a potent inhibitor of canine P-glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrickx, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the oral flea preventative spinosad has been suggested as the underlying cause of the drug-drug interaction with ivermectin. In this study, an in vitro model consisting of canine cells was validated to describe the inhibitory effect of drug

  10. beta(2)-Glycoprotein I : evolution, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. G.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    beta(2)-Glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) is a protein that circulates in blood at high concentrations. The function of beta(2)-GPI has long been an enigma. More than 20 years ago, it was discovered that beta(2)-GPI is the major antigen for the circulating antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome. How

  11. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  12. Glycoprotein Ibalpha signalling in platelet apoptosis and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, E.

    2010-01-01

    Storage of platelets at low temperature reduces bacterial growth and might better preserve the haemostatic function of platelets than current procedures. Incubation at 0C is known to expose ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-residues on glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha inducing receptor-clustering and platelet destru

  13. Engineered CHO cells for production of diverse, homogeneous glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Wang, Shengjun; Halim, Adnan;

    2015-01-01

    genes controlling N-glycosylation in CHO cells and constructed a design matrix that facilitates the generation of desired glycosylation, such as human-like alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid capping. This engineering approach will aid the production of glycoproteins with improved properties and therapeutic...

  14. Glycoprotein Ibα clustering in platelet storage and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated, discoid-shaped cells that play an essential role in the formation of a hemostatic plug to prevent blood loss from injured vessels. Initial platelet arrest at the damaged arterial vessel wall is mediated through the interaction between the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)

  15. Magnetic enzyme reactors for isolation and study of heterogeneous glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korecka, Lucie [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Namesti Cs. Legii 565, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: lucie.korecka@upce.cz; Jezova, Jana [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Namesti Cs. Legii 565, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bilkova, Zuzana [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Namesti Cs. Legii 565, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Benes, Milan [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho Namesti 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic); Horak, Daniel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho Namesti 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic); Hradcova, Olga [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Namesti Cs. Legii 565, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Slovakova, Marcela [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Namesti Cs. Legii 565, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Laboratoire Physicochimie Curie, UMR 168 CNRS/Institute Curie, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Viovy, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire Physicochimie Curie, UMR 168 CNRS/Institute Curie, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2005-05-15

    The newly developed magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with defined hydrophobicity and porosity were used for the preparation of magnetic enzyme reactors. Magnetic particles with immobilized proteolytic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain and with enzyme neuraminidase were used to study the structure of heterogeneous glycoproteins. Factors such as the type of carrier, immobilization procedure, operational and storage stability, and experimental conditions were optimized.

  16. Glycoprotein Ibα clustering in platelet storage and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated, discoid-shaped cells that play an essential role in the formation of a hemostatic plug to prevent blood loss from injured vessels. Initial platelet arrest at the damaged arterial vessel wall is mediated through the interaction between the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)

  17. [Obtaining monoclonal antibodies against outer membrane glycoproteins of Entamoeba histolytica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agundis, C; Isibasi, A; Ortíz, V; Reyes, J L; Paniagua, J; Ramírez, A; Kumate, J

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper was the production of monoclonal antibodies capable of detecting relevant antigens from the surface of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites, with the purpose of using them as a diagnostic test. The cellular fusion for obtaining the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was done with spleen cells from BALB/c mice, previously immunized with glycoproteins from the membrane, as well as Sp2/0 cells. The hybridoma supernatants were tested with ELISA, using glycoproteins and lipopeptide phosphoglycans (LPPG) as antigens. Seven hybridomas producing mAb against the glycoproteins were found. Among these, three recognize LPPG. The ability of reacting with the mAb against two molecules disappeared for all the LPPG positive ones when were treated with meta-periodate, and only three reacted against the glycoproteins. All of the mAb were of the Ig M isotypes. They were characterized by Dot blot and Western blot assays. From the results, one may deduce that some mAb recognize as epitopes the polysaccharide portion, and thus infer that they are directed of against the surface and therefore, in the future, could be used with a diagnostic purpose.

  18. The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: folding, function and vaccin design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Rogier W.

    2003-01-01

    The need for a vaccine against HIV is obvious, but the development of an effective vaccine has met with frustrations. The HIV envelope glycoproteins, residing in the viral membrane, are the sole viral proteins exposed on the outside of virus particles and are therefore major targets for vaccine

  19. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state.

  20. In silico and experimental characterization of chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase with the complete conserved pentapeptide of Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Shamsara, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Morshedi, Dena; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Esmat; Safari, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Lipases are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have broad applications in detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and dairy industries. To provide chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (BTL2), the completely conserved pentapeptide (¹¹²Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly¹¹⁶) was replaced with similar sequences (²⁰⁷Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly²¹¹) of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR) at the nucleophilic elbow region. For this purpose, three mutations including A112G, H113E, and Q115A were inserted in the conserved pentapeptide sequence of btl2 gene. Based on the crystal structures of 2W22, the best structure of opened form of the chimeric lipases were garnered using the MODELLER v9.10 software. The native and chimeric lipases were docked to a set of ligands, and a trial version of Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software was used to obtain the energy values. Docking results confirmed chimeric lipase to be better than the native lipase. Following the in silico study, cloning experiments were conducted and expression of native and chimeric btl2 gene in Pichia pastoris was performed. The native and chimeric lipases were purified, and the effect of these mutations on characteristics of chimeric lipase studied and then compared with those of native lipase. Chimeric lipase exhibited 1.6-fold higher activity than the native lipase at 55 °C. The highest percentage of both lipases activity was observed at 60 °C and pH of 8.0. The ion Ca²⁺ slightly inhibited the activity of both lipases, whereas the organic solvent enhanced the lipase stability of chimeric lipase as compared with the native lipase. According to the results, the presence of two glycine residues at the conserved pentapeptide region of this chimeric lipase (¹¹²Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly¹¹⁶) may increase the flexibility of the nucleophilic elbow region and affect the enzyme activity level.

  1. Role of CTCF in Regulating SLC45A3-ELK4 Chimeric RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Qin

    Full Text Available The chimeric RNA, SLC45A3-ELK4, was found to be a product of cis-splicing between the two adjacent genes (cis-SAGe. Despite the biological and clinical significance of SLC45A3-ELK4, its generating mechanism has not been elucidated. It was shown in one cell line that the binding of transcription factor CTCF to the insulators located at or near the gene boundaries, inversely correlates with the level of the chimera. To investigate the mechanism of such cis-SAGe events, we sequenced potential regions that may play a role in such transcriptional read-through. We could not detect mutations at the transcription termination site, insulator sites, splicing sites, or within CTCF itself in LNCaP cells, thus suggesting a "soft-wired" mechanism in regulating the cis-SAGe event. To investigate the role CTCF plays in regulating the chimeric RNA expression, we compared the levels of CTCF binding to the insulators in different cell lines, as well as clinical samples. Surprisingly, we did not find an inverse correlation between CTCF level, or its bindings to the insulators and SLC45A3-ELK4 expression among different samples. However, in three prostate cancer cell lines, different environmental factors can cause the expression levels of the chimeric RNA to change, and these changes do inversely correlate with CTCF level, and/or its bindings to the insulators. We thus conclude that CTCF and its bindings to the insulators are not the primary reasons for differential SLC45A3-ELK4 expression in different cell lines, or clinical cases. However, they are the likely mechanism for the same cells to respond to different environmental cues, in order to regulate the expression of SLC45A3-ELK4 chimeric RNA. This response to different environmental cues is not general to other cis-SAGe events, as we only found one out of 16 newly identified chimeric RNAs showing a pattern similar to SLC45A3-ELK4.

  2. Platelet receptor expression and shedding: glycoprotein Ib-IX-V and glycoprotein VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Quantity, quality, and lifespan are 3 important factors in the physiology, pathology, and transfusion of human blood platelets. The aim of this review is to discuss the proteolytic regulation of key platelet-specific receptors, glycoprotein(GP)Ib and GPVI, involved in the function of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, and nonimmune or immune thrombocytopenia. The scope of the review encompasses the basic science of platelet receptor shedding, practical aspects related to laboratory analysis of platelet receptor expression/shedding, and clinical implications of using the proteolytic fragments as platelet-specific biomarkers in vivo in terms of platelet function and clearance. These topics can be relevant to platelet transfusion regarding both changes in platelet receptor expression occurring ex vivo during platelet storage and/or clinical use of platelets for transfusion. In this regard, quantitative analysis of platelet receptor profiles on blood samples from individuals could ultimately enable stratification of bleeding risk, discrimination between causes of thrombocytopenia due to impaired production vs enhanced clearance, and monitoring of response to treatment prior to change in platelet count.

  3. Construction of a Chimeric Secretory IgA and Its Neutralization Activity against Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA acts as the first line of defense against respiratory pathogens. In this assay, the variable regions of heavy chain (VH and Light chain (VL genes from a mouse monoclonal antibody against H5N1 were cloned and fused with human IgA constant regions. The full-length chimeric light and heavy chains were inserted into a eukaryotic expressing vector and then transfected into CHO/dhfr-cells. The chimeric monomeric IgA antibody expression was confirmed by using ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot. In order to obtain a dimeric secretory IgA, another two expressing plasmids, namely, pcDNA4/His A-IgJ and pcDNA4/His A-SC, were cotransfected into the CHO/dhfr-cells. The expression of dimeric SIgA was confirmed by using ELISA assay and native gel electrophoresis. In microneutralization assay on 96-well immunoplate, the chimeric SIgA showed neutralization activity against H5N1 virus on MDCK cells and the titer was determined to be 1 : 64. On preadministrating intranasally, the chimeric SIgA could prevent mice from lethal attack by using A/Vietnam/1194/04 H5N1 with a survival rate of 80%. So we concluded that the constructed recombinant chimeric SIgA has a neutralization capability targeting avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Construction and evaluation of a chimeric protein made from Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase and cathepsin L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, K; Sahagún-Ruiz, A; Vallecillo, A J; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2016-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and cathepsin L1 (CL1) are important enzymes for the pathogenesis and physiology of Fasciola hepatica. These enzymes were analysed in silico to design a chimeric protein containing the most antigenic sequences of LAP (GenBank; AAV59016.1; amino acids 192-281) and CL1 (GenBank CAC12806.1; amino acids 173-309). The cloned 681-bp chimeric fragment (rFhLAP-CL1) contains 270 bp from LAP and 411 bp from CL1, comprising three epitopes, DGRVVHLKY (amino acids 54-62) from LAP, VTGYYTVHSGSEVELKNLV (amino acids 119-137) and YQSQTCLPF (amino acids 161-169) from CL1. The ~25 kDa rFhLAP-CL1 chimeric protein was expressed from the pET15b plasmid in the Rosetta (DE3) Escherichia coli strain. The chimeric protein rFhLAP-CL1, which showed antigenic and immunogenic properties, was recognized in Western blot assays using F. hepatica-positive bovine sera, and induced strong, specific antibody responses following immunization in rabbits. The newly generated chimeric protein may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of antibodies against F. hepatica in bovine sera and as an immunogen to induce protection against bovine fasciolosis.

  5. Intra-serotype SAT2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against FMDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F; Nsamba, Peninah; Mutowembwa, Paidamwoyo; Rotherham, Lia S; Esterhuysen, Jan; Scott, Katherine

    2015-06-09

    The genetic diversity of the three Southern African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each SAT-specific topotype may be needed. This has serious implications for control of FMD using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. Here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vSAT2(ZIM14)-SAT2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed capsid-coding region (1B-1D/2A) of a SAT2 genome-length clone, pSAT2, with that of the field isolate, SAT2/ZIM/14/90. The chimeric FMDV produced by this technique was viable, grew to high titres and stably maintained the 1B-1D/2A sequence upon passage. Chemically inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccines of both the chimeric and parental immunogens were used to vaccinate cattle. The serological response to vaccination showed the production of strong neutralizing antibody titres that correlated with protection against homologous FMDV challenge. We also predicted a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with an intra-serotype chimeric vaccine would be protected against challenge with viruses that caused recent outbreaks in southern Africa. These results provide support that chimeric vaccines containing the external capsid of field isolates induce protective immune responses in FMD host species similar to the parental vaccine.

  6. Use of CTLA4Ig for induction of mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y; Ochiai, T; Boskovic, S; Nadazdin, O; Oura, T; Schoenfeld, D; Cappetta, K; Smith, R-N; Colvin, R B; Madsen, J C; Sachs, D H; Benichou, G; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T

    2014-12-01

    We have previously reported successful induction of renal allograft tolerance via a mixed chimerism approach in nonhuman primates. In those studies, we found that costimulatory blockade with anti-CD154 mAb was an effective adjunctive therapy for induction of renal allograft tolerance. However, since anti-CD154 mAb is not clinically available, we have evaluated CTLA4Ig as an alternative agent for effecting costimulation blockade in this treatment protocol. Two CTLA4Igs, abatacept and belatacept, were substituted for anti-CD154 mAb in the conditioning regimen (low dose total body irradiation, thymic irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin and a 1-month posttransplant course of cyclosporine [CyA]). Three recipients treated with the abatacept regimen failed to develop comparable lymphoid chimerism to that achieved with anti-CD154 mAb treatment and these recipients rejected their kidney allografts early. With the belatacept regimen, four of five recipients developed chimerism and three of these achieved long-term renal allograft survival (>861, >796 and >378 days) without maintenance immunosuppression. Neither chimerism nor long-term allograft survival were achieved in two recipients treated with the belatacept regimen but with a lower, subtherapeutic dose of CyA. This study indicates that CD28/B7 blockade with belatacept can provide a clinically applicable alternative to anti-CD154 mAb for promoting chimerism and renal allograft tolerance.

  7. Prokaryotic expression and renaturation of engineering chimeric Fab antibody against human hepatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Liang Xing; Xiang-Min Yang; Xi-Ying Yao; Fei Song; Zhi-Nan Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To express chimeric Fd (cFd) and chimeric light chain (cL) in E.coli respectively and refold them into chimeric Fab (cFab) antibody.METHODS: cFd and cL genes were respectively inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a to construct recombinant vectors pET32a/cFd and pET32a/cL. Then,the competent E. colicells were transformed by the recombinant vectors and induced by IPTG. Moreover, a large quantity of cFd and cL expression products were prepared and mixed with equal molar to refold into cFab by gradient dialysis. The refolded products were identified and analyzed by sodium SDS-PAGE, Western blotting,ELISA and HPLC.RESULTS: High efficient prokaryotic expressions of both cFd and cL in the form of non-fusion protein were obtained with the expression levels of 28.3% and 32.3% of total bacteria proteins, respectively. Their relative molecular masses were all 24 ku or so, and both of them mainly existed in the form of inclusion bodies. In addition, cFd and cL were successfully refolded into cFab by gradient dialysis, with about 59.45% of recovery when the starting total protein concentration was 100 μg/mL. The renatured cFab could specifically bind to related antigen with high affinity.CONCLUSION: The cFab antibody against human hepatoma was highly and efficiently expressed and refolded, which laid a solid foundation for studying its application in the treatment of hepatoma.

  8. Mice with chimeric livers are an improved model for human lipoprotein metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa C S Ellis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rodents are poor model for human hyperlipidemias because total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels are very low on a normal diet. Lipoprotein metabolism is primarily regulated by hepatocytes and we therefore assessed whether chimeric mice extensively repopulated with human cells can model human lipid and bile acid metabolism. DESIGN: FRG [ F ah(-/- R ag2(-/-Il2r g (-/-] mice were repopulated with primary human hepatocytes. Serum lipoprotein lipid composition and distribution (VLDL, LDL, and HDL was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. Bile was analyzed by LC-MS or by GC-MS. RNA expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Chimeric mice displayed increased LDL and VLDL fractions and a lower HDL fraction compared to wild type, thus significantly shifting the ratio of LDL/HDL towards a human profile. Bile acid analysis revealed a human-like pattern with high amounts of cholic acid and deoxycholic acid (DCA. Control mice had only taurine-conjugated bile acids as expcted, but highly repopulated mice had glycine-conjugated cholic acid as found in human bile. RNA levels of human genes involved in bile acid synthesis including CYP7A1, and CYP27A1 were significantly upregulated as compared to human control liver. However, administration of recombinant hFGF19 restored human CYP7A1 levels to normal. CONCLUSION: Humanized-liver mice showed a typical human lipoprotein profile with LDL as the predominant lipoprotein fraction even on a normal diet. The bile acid profile confirmed presence of an intact enterohepatic circulation. Although bile acid synthesis was deregulated in this model, this could be fully normalized by FGF19 administration. Taken together these data indicate that chimeric FRG-mice are a useful new model for human lipoprotein and bile-acid metabolism.

  9. [Protein trans-spliced chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII with augmented secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-xiang; Yang, Shu-de; Liu, Ze-long; Miao, Jing; Qu, Hui-ge; Chi, Xiao-yan

    2010-10-01

    This study is to construct a chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII (BDD-hpFVIII) containing the substituted porcine A1 and A3 domains which proved to have a pro-secretory function. By exploring Ssp DnaB intein's protein trans-splicing a dual-vector was adopted to co-transfer the chimeric BDD-hpFVIII gene into cultured COS-7 cell to observe the intracellular BDD-hpFVIII splicing by Western blotting and secretion of spliced chimeric BDD-hp FVIII protein and bio-activity using ELISA and Coatest assay, respectively. The dada showed that an obvious protein band of spliced BDD-hpFVIII can be seen, and the amount of spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and bio-activity in the supernatant were up to (340 +/- 64) ng x mL(-1) and (2.52 +/- 0.32) u x mL(-1) secreted by co-transfected cells which were significantly higher than that of dual-vector-mediated human BDD-FVIII gene co-transfection cells [(93 +/- 22) ng x mL(-1), (0.72 +/- 0.13) u x mL(-1)]. Furthermore, a spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and activity can be detected in supernatant from combined cells separately transfected with intein-fused BDD-hpFVIII heavy and light chain genes indicating that intein-mediated BDD-hpFVIII splicing occurs independently of cellular mechanism. It provided evidence for enhancing FVIII secretion in the research of animal models using intein-based dual vector for the delivery of the BDD-hpFVIII gene.

  10. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  11. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  12. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ujike

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S and membrane (M, and envelope (E, a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC. For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions.

  13. Comparison of glycoprotein expression between ovarian and colon adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Arenas-Elliott, C P; Warhol, M J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated antigens may be expressed as surface glycoproteins. These molecules undergo qualitative and quantitative modifications during cell differentiation and malignant transformation. During malignant transformation, incomplete glycosylation is common, and certain glycosylation...... pathways are preferred. These antigens might help distinguish between ovarian and colonic adenocarcinomas in the primary and metastatic lesions. Different cytokeratins have been proposed as relatively organ-specific antigens. DESIGN: We used monoclonal antibodies against T1, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, B72.3, CA125......, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 to detect tumor-associated glycoproteins and keratin proteins in ovarian and colonic carcinomas. RESULTS: CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 can distinguish between colonic and serous or endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary in both...

  14. Rheologic studies on middle ear effusions and their mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J E; Green, G G; Birchall, J P; Pearson, J P

    1989-04-01

    The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity.

  15. Construction of chimeric enzymes out of maize endosperm branching enzymes I and II: activity and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, T; Stewart, D C; Preiss, J

    1997-11-14

    Branching enzyme I and II isoforms from maize endosperm (mBE I and mBE II, respectively) have quite different properties, and to elucidate the domain(s) that determines the differences, chimeric genes consisting of part mBE I and part mBE II were constructed. When expressed under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli, several of the chimeric enzymes were inactive. The only fully active chimeric enzyme was mBE II-I BspHI, in which the carboxyl-terminal part of mBE II was exchanged for that of mBE I at a BspHI restriction site and was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Another chimeric enzyme, mBE I-II HindIII, in which the amino-terminal end of mBE II was replaced with that of mBE I, had very little activity and was only partially characterized. The purified mBE II-I BspHI exhibited higher activity than wild-type mBE I and mBE II when assayed by the phosphorylase a stimulation assay. mBE II-I BspHI had substrate specificity (preference for amylose rather than amylopectin) and catalytic capacity similar to mBE I, despite the fact that only the carboxyl terminus was from mBE I, suggesting that the carboxyl terminus may be involved in determining substrate specificity and catalytic capacity. In chain transfer experiments, mBE II-I BspHI transferred more short chains (with a degree of polymerization of around 6) in a fashion similar to mBE II. In contrast, mBE I-II HindIII transferred more long chains (with a degree of polymerization of around 11-12), similar to mBE I, suggesting that the amino terminus of mBEs may play a role in the size of oligosaccharide chain transferred. This study challenges the notion that the catalytic centers for branching enzymes are exclusively located in the central portion of the enzyme; it suggests instead that the amino and carboxyl termini may also be involved in determining substrate preference, catalytic capacity, and chain length transfer.

  16. Chimerism in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Anna; Piancatelli, Daniela; Monaco, Palmina I; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Canossi, Angelica; Piazza, Antonina; Isacchi, Giancarlo; Caniglia, Maurizio; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-09-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents a group of rare, sometimes fatal, congenital disorders in which there is a combined absence of T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte function. Children with SCID die within two years of age, if untreated. The effective treatment for SCID is a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It has been repeatedly described that in peripheral blood of infants with SCID maternal T cells can be found. Here we report a case of blood chimerism in a one-year-old boy with SCID.

  17. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn; Jerry Eichler

    2006-01-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, t...

  18. Method for analysing glycoprotein isoforms by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos, Mercedes de; Díez-Masa, José Carlos; Morales-Cid, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a new method for the purification, concentration, separation and determination of the isoforms of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in human blood serum samples using capillary electrophoresis. The new method is based on the immunocapture and preconcentration of the sample within the separation capillary by using an immunoadsorbent phase magnetically immobilized within the electrophoresis capillary and the subsequent desorption and separation of the glycopr...

  19. Pneumocystis carinii glycoprotein A binds macrophage mannose receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riordan, D.M.; Standing, J E; Limper, A H

    1995-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii causes life-threatening pneumonia in patients with impaired immunity. Recent studies suggest that alveolar macrophages interact with P. carinii through macrophage mannose receptors. However, the ligand(s) on P. carinii that is recognized by these receptors has not been fully defined. P. carinii contains a major mannose-rich surface antigen complex termed glycoprotein A (gpA). It was therefore hypothesized that gpA binds directly to macrophage mannose receptors and mediate...

  20. Reelin glycoprotein: structure, biology and roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S H

    2005-03-01

    Reelin glycoprotein is a secretory serine protease with dual roles in mammalian brain: embryologically, it guides neurons and radial glial cells to their corrected positions in the developing brain; in adult brain, Reelin is involved in a signaling pathway which underlies neurotransmission, memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Disruption of Reelin signaling pathway by mutations and selective hypermethylation of the Reln gene promoter or following various pre- or postnatal insults may lead to cognitive deficits present in neuropsychiatric disorders like autism or schizophrenia.

  1. Isolation of a surface glycoprotein from Myxococcus xanthus.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeba, P Y

    1986-01-01

    The isolation of a glycoprotein from vegetative cells of Myxococcus xanthus is reported. The protein, abbreviated VGP, was first identified during a survey of surface proteins as a major protein that could be radioiodinated in vegetative, but not developing, cells (P.Y. Maeba, J. Bacteriol. 155:1033-1041, 1983). The protein was extracted from membranes with Triton X-100 and subsequently purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration. The protein has an Mr of a...

  2. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Mario Rodríguez-Martínez; Alan Roberto Marquez-Ipiña; Felipe López-Pacheco; Roberto Pérez-Chavarría; Juan Carlos González-Vázquez; Everardo González-González; Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago; César Alejandro Ponce-Ponce de León; Yu Shrike Zhang; Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci; Ali Khademhosseini; Mario Moisés Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current Ebola virus (EBOV) detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragment...

  3. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein.

  4. Characterization of an estrogen-induced oviduct membrane glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poola, I.; Lucas, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    During estrogen-induced chick oviduct differentiation a number of N-linked membrane glycoproteins are induced as judged by GDP-(/sup 14/C)Man labeling of endogenous acceptors, /sup 125/I-con A labeling as well as coomassie blue and PAS staining of SDS polyacrylamide gels. The authors have begun to characterize one of these glycoproteins having an M/sub r/ of 91 KDa. The protein has been purified via preparative SDS-PAGE and electroelution. The purified protein migrates as a single band on analytical SDS-PAGE and comigrates with an endogenous membrane glycoprotein labeled with GDP-(/sup 14/C)Man. Amino acid analysis indicates a high proportion of GLU and ASP residues (110 and 66 moles respectively). N-terminal sequence analysis by gas phase instrumentation yielded the following: X-X-VAL-ASP-VAL-ASP-ALA-THR-VAL-GLU-GLU-ASP-GLU. The protein contains about 2% neutral sugar including 6 mol Man, 2 mol Gal, 1 mol Fuc, 4 mol GlcNAc, 1 mol GalNAc and 1 mol sialic acid per mole of protein. The presence of the GalNAc residue suggests the protein contains an O-linked oligosaccharide moiety in addition to the N-linked chain(s). The detailed structure of the carbohydrate moieties is currently under investigation.

  5. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  6. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olejnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitroby fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL. Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, α1 -acid glycoprotein, α1 -antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade.

  7. Platelet membrane glycoproteins and their function: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, T J

    1989-07-01

    The membrane glycoproteins (GP) of human platelets act as receptors that mediate two important functions, adhesion to the subendothelial matrix and platelet-platelet cohesion, or aggregation. Many of these glycoprotein receptors exist as noncovalently linked heterodimers, including those that belong to the supergene family of adhesion receptors called the integrins. Human platelets contain at least five members of this integrin family, including a collagen receptor (GP Ia-IIa; alpha 2, beta 1), a fibronectin receptor (GP Ic-IIa; alpha 5, beta 1), a laminin receptor (GP Ic'-IIa; alpha 6, beta 1), a vitronectin receptor (VnR; alpha v, beta 3), and a promiscuous, activation-dependent receptor that is thought to be the receptor most responsible for fibrinogen-dependent, platelet-platelet cohesion (GP IIb-IIIa; alpha IIb, beta 3). Some, but not all, of the integrins bind to a tripeptide sequence, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), on the adhesive proteins. In addition to the integrins, platelets contain other membrane glyco-proteins: GP Ib-IX, a receptor for von Willebrand factor, which is thought to be the receptor most responsible for platelet adhesion to the subendothelial matrix in a flowing system; GP V, which may be associated with GP Ib-IX and whose function remains unknown; and GP IV (GP IIIb), which functions as a receptor for thrombospondin and collagen.

  8. Role of sialidase in glycoprotein utilization by Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumita; Honma, Kiyonobu; Douglas, C W Ian; Sharma, Ashu; Stafford, Graham P

    2011-11-01

    The major bacterial pathogens associated with periodontitis include Tannerella forsythia. We previously discovered that sialic acid stimulates biofilm growth of T. forsythia, and that sialidase activity is key to utilization of sialoconjugate sugars and is involved in host-pathogen interactions in vitro. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of the NanH sialidase on initial biofilm adhesion and growth in experiments where the only source of sialic acid was sialoglycoproteins or human oral secretions. After showing that T. forsythia can utilize sialoglycoproteins for biofilm growth, we showed that growth and initial adhesion with sialylated mucin and fetuin were inhibited two- to threefold by the sialidase inhibitor oseltamivir. A similar reduction (three- to fourfold) was observed with a nanH mutant compared with the wild-type. Importantly, these data were replicated using clinically relevant serum and saliva samples as substrates. In addition, the ability of the nanH mutant to form biofilms on glycoprotein-coated surfaces could be restored by the addition of purified NanH, which we show is able to cleave sialic acid from the model glycoprotein fetuin and, much less efficiently, 9-O-acetylated bovine submaxillary mucin. These data show for the first time that glycoprotein-associated sialic acid is likely to be a key in vivo nutrient source for T. forsythia when growing in a biofilm, and suggest that sialidase inhibitors might be useful adjuncts in periodontal therapy.

  9. Construction of a chimeric hepatitis C virus replicon based on a strain isolated from a chronic hepatitis C patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huang; Zhu, Wandi; Han, Qingxia; Pei, Rongjuan; Chen, Xinwen

    2014-02-01

    Subgenomic replicons of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been widely used for studying HCV replication. Here, we report a new subgenomic replicon based on a strain isolated from a chronically infected patient. The coding sequence of HCV was recovered from a Chinese chronic hepatitis C patient displaying high serum HCV copy numbers. A consensus sequence designated as CCH strain was constructed based on the sequences of five clones and this was classified by sequence alignment as belonging to genotype 2a. The subgenomic replicon of CCH was replication-deficient in cell culture, due to dysfunctions in NS3 and NS5B. Various JFH1/CCH chimeric replicons were constructed, and specific mutations were introduced. The introduction of mutations could partially restore the replication of chimeric replicons. A replication-competent chimeric construct was finally obtained by the introduction of NS3 from JFH1 into the backbone of the CCH strain.

  10. Pre-clinical evaluation of CD38 chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drent, Esther; Groen, Richard W. J.; Noort, Willy A. Noort

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The CD38 molecule, with its high expression on multiple myeloma cells, appears a suitable target for antibody therapy. Prompted by this, we used three different CD38 antibody...... sequences to generate second-generation retroviral CD38- chimeric antigen receptor constructs with which we transduced T cells from healthy donors and multiple myeloma patients. We then evaluated the preclinical efficacy and safety of the transduced T cells. Irrespective of the donor and antibody sequence......, CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells proliferated, produced inflammatory cytokines and effectively lysed malignant cell lines and primary malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and multi-drug resistant multiple myeloma in a cell-dose, and CD38-dependent manner, despite...

  11. Production of Hybrid Chimeric PVX Particles Using a Combination of TMV and PVX-Based Expression Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmeis, Christina; Honickel, Mareike Michaela Antonia; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We have generated hybrid chimeric potato virus X (PVX) particles by coexpression of different PVX coat protein fusions utilizing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and PVX-based expression vectors. Coinfection was achieved with a modified PVX overcoat vector displaying a fluorescent protein and a TMV vector expressing another PVX fluorescent overcoat fusion protein. Coexpression of the PVX-CP fusions in the same cells was confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy. Labeling with specific antibodies and transmission electron microscopy revealed chimeric particles displaying green fluorescent protein and mCherry on the surface. These data were corroborated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We used split-mCherry fragments as PVX coat fusions and confirmed an interaction between the split-mCherry fragments in coinfected cells. The presence of assembled split-mCherry on the surface confirmed the hybrid character of the chimeric particles.

  12. Chimerism in wild adult populations of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneour Puill-Stephan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chimeras are organisms containing tissues or cells of two or more genetically distinct individuals, and are known to exist in at least nine phyla of protists, plants, and animals. Although widespread and common in marine invertebrates, the extent of chimerism in wild populations of reef corals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The extent of chimerism was explored within two populations of a common coral, Acropora millepora, on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, by using up to 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. At least 2% and 5% of Magnetic Island and Pelorus Island populations of A. millepora, respectively, were found to be chimeras (3% overall, based on conservative estimates. A slightly less conservative estimate indicated that 5% of colonies in each population were chimeras. These values are likely to be vast underestimates of the true extent of chimerism, as our sampling protocol was restricted to a maximum of eight branches per colony, while most colonies consist of hundreds of branches. Genotypes within chimeric corals showed high relatedness, indicating that genetic similarity is a prerequisite for long-term acceptance of non-self genotypes within coral colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While some brooding corals have been shown to form genetic chimeras in their early life history stages under experimental conditions, this study provides the first genetic evidence of the occurrence of coral chimeras in the wild and of chimerism in a broadcast spawning species. We hypothesize that chimerism is more widespread in corals than previously thought, and suggest that this has important implications for their resilience, potentially enhancing their capacity to compete for space and respond to stressors such as pathogen infection.

  13. T-cell chimerism is valuable in predicting early mortality in steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease after myeloablative allogeneic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Madsen, Hans O.; Sengeløv, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early T-cell chimerism status on the incidence and clinical course of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in allogeneic transplant recipients after myeloablative conditioning. Of 62 patients, 38 (61%) had complete T-cell donor chimerism...

  14. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  15. Optimizing chimerism level through bone marrow transplantation and irradiation to induce long-term tolerance to composite tissue allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Yee; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Huang, Wei-Chao; Wei, Fu-Chan; Liao, Shuen-Kuei

    2012-11-01

    Mixed chimerism with long-term composite tissue allotransplant (CTA) acceptance can be achieved through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The present study investigated the optimal chimerism level by giving different irradiation dosages to recipients to induce tolerance to CTA. Chimera were prepared using Brown-Norway and Lewis rats with strong major histocompatibility complex incompatibility. The Lewis rats received 5 mg antilymphocyte globulin (day -1 and 10) and 16 mg/kg cyclosporine (day 0-10) and were separated into groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 according to the day -1 irradiation dosage: 0, 200, 400, 600, and 950 cGy, respectively. The Lewis rats were then reconstituted with 100 × 10(6) T-cell-depleted Brown-Norway bone marrow cells (day 0) and received vascularized Brown-Norway-CTA on day 28. Chimerism was assessed monthly by flow cytometry starting on day 28 after BMT. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was assessed clinically and histologically. Chimerism, 4 weeks after BMT, averaged 0.2%, 9.2%, 30.7%, 58%, and 99.3% in groups 1 to 5, respectively. GVHD occurred as follows: groups 1 and 2, none; group 3, 1 case of GVHD; group 4, 7 cases of GVHD (of which 3 died); and group 5, 10 cases of GVHD (of which 6 died). The percentage of long-term CTA acceptance was 0%, 0%, 90%, 70%, and 40% in groups 1 to 5, respectively. The percentage of regulatory T cells was significantly lower in high-chimerism (≥ 20%, n = 15) than in low-chimerism (<20%, n = 5) rats that accepted CTA long-term . The chimerism level correlated positively with GVHD occurrence and long-term CTA acceptance but correlated negatively with regulatory T-cell levels. Optimal chimerism for CTA acceptance through pre-CTA BMT and irradiation occurs at 20-50% at day 28 after BMT in the rat model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Khaled; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vàzquez, Ana; de Arellano, Eva Ramírez; Després, Philippe; Pardigon, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-502 E glycoprotein was replaced by that of IS98 is neuropathogenic, demonstrating that this protein is a major virulence determinant. Presence of the N-glycosylation site had limited impact on virus virulence and the 5'UTR does not seem to influence pathogenesis. Finally, mice inoculated with KJMP-502 virus were protected against lethal IS98 infection.

  17. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: jmelero@isciii.es [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  18. The V1-V3 region of a brain-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein determines macrophage tropism, low CD4 dependence, increased fusogenicity and altered sensitivity to entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-García Julio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 infects macrophages and microglia in the brain and can cause neurological disorders in infected patients. We and others have shown that brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env have lower CD4 dependence and higher avidity for CD4 than those from peripheral isolates, and we have also observed increased fusogenicity and reduced sensitivity to the fusion inhibitor T-1249. Due to the genetic differences between brain and spleen env from one individual throughout gp120 and in gp41's heptad repeat 2 (HR2, we investigated the viral determinants for the phenotypic differences by performing functional studies with chimeric and mutant Env. Results Chimeric Env showed that the V1/V2-C2-V3 region in brain's gp120 determines the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4, as well as macrophage tropism and reduced sensitivity to the small molecule BMS-378806. Changes in brain gp41's HR2 region did not contribute to the increased fusogenicity or to the reduced sensitivity to T-1249, since a T-1249-based peptide containing residues found in brain's but not in spleen's HR2 had similar potency than T-1249 and interacted similarly with an immobilized heptad repeat 1-derived peptide in surface plasmon resonance analysis. However, the increased fusogenicity and reduced T-1249 sensitivity of brain and certain chimeric Env mostly correlated with the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4 determined by brain's V1-V3 region. Remarkably, most but not all of these low CD4-dependent, macrophage tropic envelopes glycoproteins also had increased sensitivity to the novel allosteric entry inhibitor HNG-105. The gp120's C2 region asparagine 283 (N283 has been previously associated with macrophage tropism, brain infection, lower CD4 dependence and higher CD4 affinity. Therefore, we introduced the N283T mutation into an env clone from a brain-derived isolate and into a brain tissue-derived env clone, and the T283N change into a spleen-derived env

  19. Formation of chimeric genes by copy-number variation as a mutational mechanism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippey, Caitlin; Walsh, Tom; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Brodsky, Matt; Nord, Alex S; Gasperini, Molly; Pierce, Sarah; Spurrell, Cailyn; Coe, Bradley P; Krumm, Niklas; Lee, Ming K; Sebat, Jonathan; McClellan, Jon M; King, Mary-Claire

    2013-10-03

    Chimeric genes can be caused by structural genomic rearrangements that fuse together portions of two different genes to create a novel gene. We hypothesize that brain-expressed chimeras may contribute to schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia and control individuals were screened genome wide for copy-number variants (CNVs) that disrupted two genes on the same DNA strand. Candidate events were filtered for predicted brain expression and for frequency genes in localization, regulation, or function. Subcellular localizations of DNAJA2-NETO2 and MAP3K3-DDX42 differed from their parent genes. On the basis of the expression profile of the MATK promoter, MATK-ZFR2 is likely to be far more highly expressed in the brain during development than the ZFR2 parent gene. MATK-ZFR2 includes a ZFR2-derived isoform that we demonstrate localizes preferentially to neuronal dendritic branch sites. These results suggest that the formation of chimeric genes is a mechanism by which CNVs contribute to schizophrenia and that, by interfering with parent gene function, chimeras may disrupt critical brain processes, including neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic arborization.

  20. Chimerism representing both paternal alleles detected by HLA typing before kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Møller, Bjarne Kuno

    2014-01-01

    We select donors and recipients for solid organ transplantations by employing HLA serology and PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). Routinely, patients and donors are typed for HLA-A and B using serological techniques, while HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 are typed with PCR-SSP. In a 38-y......-year-old female kidney transplantation recipient, the PCR-SSP technique yielded very unusual results, whereas her parents were assigned routinely. The mother had the following HLA types: A3,33(19); B7,39(16); C*07; DQB1*06; DRB1*13; the father A2,11; B27,35; C*01,*04; DQB1*03,*05; DRB1...... trisomy 6p or by chimerism. Flow cytometric analysis, employing antibodies specific for the two paternal HLA-A alleles, clearly showed two distinct populations of cells: 83% expressing HLA-A11 and 12% expressing HLA-A2, suggesting a paternal chimerism. We are studying these cell populations to possibly...

  1. A novel chimeric Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Paldurai, Anandan; Samal, Siba K

    2017-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2. The chimeric NDV vector stably expressed the HA protein in vivo, did not cross-react with NDV, was attenuated to be used as a safe vaccine, and provided a partial protection of 1-day-old immunized chickens against HPAIV subtype H5N1challenge, indicating its potential use for early protection of chickens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overcoming the Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment of Hodgkin Lymphoma Using Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruella, Marco; Klichinsky, Michael; Kenderian, Saad S; Shestova, Olga; Ziober, Amy; Kraft, Daniel O; Feldman, Michael; Wasik, Mariusz A; June, Carl H; Gill, Saar

    2017-10-01

    Patients with otherwise treatment-resistant Hodgkin lymphoma could benefit from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy. However, Hodgkin lymphoma lacks CD19 and contains a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). We hypothesized that in Hodgkin lymphoma, CART should target both malignant cells and the TME. We demonstrated CD123 on both Hodgkin lymphoma cells and TME, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In vitro, Hodgkin lymphoma cells convert macrophages toward immunosuppressive TAMs that inhibit T-cell proliferation. In contrast, anti-CD123 CART recognized and killed TAMs, thus overcoming immunosuppression. Finally, we showed in immunodeficient mouse models that CART123 eradicated Hodgkin lymphoma and established long-term immune memory. A novel platform that targets malignant cells and the microenvironment may be needed to successfully treat malignancies with an immunosuppressive milieu.Significance: Anti-CD123 chimeric antigen receptor T cells target both the malignant cells and TAMs in Hodgkin lymphoma, thereby eliminating an important immunosuppressive component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1154-67. ©2017 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  4. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Montipora white syndrome (MWS results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR, while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata. Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  5. Immunoreactivity evaluation of a new recombinant chimeric protein against Brucella in the murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is an important health problem in developing countries and no vaccine is available for the prevention of infection in humans. Because of clinically infectious diseases and their economic consequences in human and animals, designing a proper vaccine against Brucella is desirable. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses induced by a designed recombinant chimera protein in murine model.Materials and Methods: Three immunodominant antigens of Brucella have been characterized as potential immunogenic and protective antigens including: trigger factor (TF, Omp31 and Bp26 were fused together by EAAAK linkers to produce a chimera (structure were designed in silico, which was synthesized, cloned, and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3. The purification of recombinant protein was performed using Ni-NTA agarose. SDS-PAGE and anti-His antibody was used for confirmation purified protein (Western blot. BALB/c immunization was performed by purified protein and adjuvant, and sera antibody levels were measured by ELISA. otted.Results: SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results indicated the similarity of in silico designing and in vitro experiments. ELISA result proved that the immunized sera of mice contain high levels of antibodies (IgG against recombinant chimeric protein.Conclusion: The recombinant chimeric protein could be a potential antigen candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against Brucella. Keywords: Brucella, Vaccine, Immunity, Recombinant

  6. Tetravalent neutralizing antibody response against four dengue serotypes by a single chimeric dengue envelope antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt, Doris; Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Brinkman, Alice; Semyonov, Andrey; Yang, Shumin; Skinner, Craig; Diehl, Lori; Lyons, Richard; Porter, Kevin; Punnonen, Juha

    2006-01-16

    We employed DNA shuffling and screening technologies to develop a single recombinant dengue envelope (E) antigen capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against all four antigenically distinct dengue serotypes. By DNA shuffling of codon-optimized dengue 1-4 E genes, we created a panel of novel chimeric clones expressing C-terminal truncated E antigens that combined epitopes from all four dengue serotypes. DNA vaccines encoding these novel chimeras induced multivalent T cell and neutralizing antibody responses against all four dengue serotypes in mice. By contrast, a mixture of four unshuffled, parental DNA vaccines failed to produce tetravalent neutralizing antibodies in mice. The neutralizing antibody titers for some of these antigens could be further improved by extending the sequences to express full-length pre-membrane and envelope proteins. The chimeric antigens also protected mice against a lethal dengue-2 virus challenge. These data demonstrate that DNA shuffling and associated screening can lead to the selection of multi-epitope antigens against closely related dengue virus serotypes and suggest a broad utility for these technologies in optimizing vaccine antigens.

  7. EspA-Intimin chimeric protein, a candidate vaccine against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sedighian Rad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is an important enteric pathogen in human causing bloody or nonbloody diarrhea, which may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Cattle are an important reservoir of EHEC. This research aims at vaccination with a divalent chimer protein composed of EspA120 and Intimin 282 and its preventive effect of EHEC O157 colonization in mice rectal epithelium.A divalent recombinant EspA-Intimin (EI protein containing EspA120 and Intimin280 attached with a linker was amplified from a trivalent construct and cloned in pET-28a (+ vector. The immunization was conducted in mice after expression and purification of the recombinant EI (rEI.Mice subcutaneously immunized with rEI, elicited significant rEI specific serum IgG antibodies and showed significantly decreased E.coli O157:H7 shedding compared to the control group.The chimeric recombinant protein induced strong humoral response as well as protection against oral challenges with live E.coli O157:H7.

  8. Report of a chimeric origin of transposable elements in a bovine-coding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Amaral, M E J; Silva, I T; Silva, W A; Riggs, P K; Carareto, C M

    2008-02-01

    Despite the wide distribution of transposable elements (TEs) in mammalian genomes, part of their evolutionary significance remains to be discovered. Today there is a substantial amount of evidence showing that TEs are involved in the generation of new exons in different species. In the present study, we searched 22,805 genes and reported the occurrence of TE-cassettes in coding sequences of 542 cow genes using the RepeatMasker program. Despite the significant number (542) of genes with TE insertions in exons only 14 (2.6%) of them were translated into protein, which we characterized as chimeric genes. From these chimeric genes, only the FAST kinase domains 3 (FASTKD3) gene, present on chromosome BTA 20, is a functional gene and showed evidence of the exaptation event. The genome sequence analysis showed that the last exon coding sequence of bovine FASTKD3 is approximately 85% similar to the ART2A retrotransposon sequence. In addition, comparison among FASTKD3 proteins shows that the last exon is very divergent from those of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes and Canis familiares. We suggest that the gene structure of bovine FASTKD3 gene could have originated by several ectopic recombinations between TE copies. Additionally, the absence of TE sequences in all other species analyzed suggests that the TE insertion is clade-specific, mainly in the ruminant lineage.

  9. Protection of Mice from Lethal Endotoxemia by Chimeric Human BPI-Fcγ1 Gene Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li; Jing Li; Zhe Lv; Xinghua Guo; Qinghua Chen; Qingli Kong; Yunqing An

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of applying gene therapy to endotoxemia in high-risk patients, we investigated the effects of transferring an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2)-mediated BPI-Fcγ1 gene on protecting mice from challenge of lethal endotoxin. The chimeric BPI-Fcγ1 gene consists of two parts, one encods functional N-terminus (1 to 199 amino acidic residues) of human BPI, which is a bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein,and the other encodes Fc segment of human immunoglobulin G1 (Fcγ1). Our results indicated that the target protein could be expressed and secreted into the serum of the gene-transferred mice. After lethal endotoxin challenge, the levels of endotoxin and TNF-α in the gene-transferred mice were decreased. The survival rate of the BPI-Fcγ1 gene-transferred mice was markedly increased. Our data suggest that AAV2-mediated chimeric BPI-Fcγ1 gene delivery can potentially be used clinically for the protection and treatment of endotoxemia and endotoxic shock in high-risk individuals.

  10. HLA Chimerism in allogenic haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya Sonal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available HLA antigens were used as markers to establish the presence of chimerism (i.e. simultaneous presence of two lymphocyte populations from recipient as well as donor in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease treated with one haplotype matched stem cell transplant. Neutrophil engraftment occurred on Day 6 post peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT. Platelet counts were maintained above 20x10[9]/L. Six months after the allogenic PBSCT, lymphocyte population was chimeric and cells of both donor (father and host HLA type were present. The patient revealed a shift in his HLA antigen profile and there was evidence of donor cell engraftment. The HLA phenotype A26,CwXX,B8,DRB1FNx0103//A32,Cw4,B35,DRB1FNx0116// represented his true phenotype whereas A11,Cw7,B62,DRB1FNx0114 represented donor (father origin.. HLA system as a genetic marker is a useful additional approach to determine engraftment following an allogenic haplo-identical stem cell transplantation.

  11. Mixed chimerism and permanent specific transplantation tolerance induced by a nonlethal preparative regimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabi, Y.; Sachs, D.H.

    1989-02-01

    The use of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a means of inducing donor-specific tolerance across MHC barriers could provide an immunologically specific conditioning regimen for organ transplantation. However, a major limitation to this approach is the toxicity of whole body irradiation as currently used to abrogate host resistance and permit marrow engraftment. The present study describes methodology for abrogating host resistance and permitting marrow engraftment without lethal irradiation. Our preparative protocol involves administration of anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAbs in vivo, 300-rad WBI, 700-rad thymic irradiation, and unmanipulated fully MHC-disparate bone marrow. B10 mice prepared by this regimen developed stable mixed lymphohematopoetic chimerism without any clinical evidence of graft-vs.-host disease. Engraftment was accompanied by induction of specific tolerance to donor skin grafts (B10.D2), while third-party skin grafts (B10.BR) were promptly rejected. Mice treated with the complete regimen without bone marrow transplantation appeared healthy and enjoyed long-term survival. This study therefore demonstrates that stable mixed chimerism with donor-specific tolerance can be induced across an MHC barrier after a nonlethal preparative regimen, without clinical GVHD and without the risk of aplasia.

  12. Potato virus X movement in Nicotiana benthamiana: new details revealed by chimeric coat protein variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Camilla; Lico, Chiara; Maffi, Dario; D'Angeli, Simone; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Faoro, Franco; Baschieri, Selene

    2012-02-01

    Potato virus X coat protein is necessary for both cell-to-cell and phloem transfer, but it has not been clarified definitively whether it is needed in both movement phases solely as a component of the assembled particles or also of differently structured ribonucleoprotein complexes. To clarify this issue, we studied the infection progression of a mutant carrying an N-terminal deletion of the coat protein, which was used to construct chimeric virus particles displaying peptides selectively affecting phloem transfer or cell-to-cell movement. Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with expression vectors encoding the wild-type, mutant and chimeric viral genomes were examined by microscopy techniques. These experiments showed that coat protein-peptide fusions promoting cell-to-cell transfer only were not competent for virion assembly, whereas long-distance movement was possible only for coat proteins compatible with virus particle formation. Moreover, the ability of the assembled PVX to enter and persist into developing xylem elements was revealed here for the first time.

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship and Signaling of New Chimeric CXCR4 Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Christine E; Besserer-Offroy, Élie; Cabana, Jérôme; Lefrançois, Marilou; Boulais, Philip E; Lefebvre, Marie-Reine; Leduc, Richard; Lavigne, Pierre; Heveker, Nikolaus; Marsault, Éric; Escher, Emanuel

    2016-08-25

    The CXCR4 receptor binds with meaningful affinities only CXCL12 and synthetic antagonists/inverse agonists. We recently described high affinity synthetic agonists for this chemokine receptor, obtained by grafting the CXCL12 N-terminus onto the inverse agonist T140. While those chimeric molecules behave as agonists for CXCR4, their binding and activation mode are unknown. The present SAR of those CXCL12-oligopeptide grafts reveals the key determinants involved in CXCR4 activation. Position 3 (Val) controls affinity, whereas position 7 (Tyr) acts as an efficacy switch. Chimeric molecules bearing aromatic residues in position 3 possess high binding affinities for CXCR4 and are Gαi full agonists with robust chemotactic properties. Fine-tuning of electron-poor aromatic rings in position 7 enhances receptor activation. To rationalize these results, a homology model of a receptor-ligand complex was built using the published crystal structures of CXCR4. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal further details accounting for the observed SAR for this series.

  14. Going viral: chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saar; June, Carl H

    2015-01-01

    On July 1, 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to CTL019, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy developed at the University of Pennsylvania. This is the first personalized cellular therapy for cancer to be so designated and occurred 25 years after the first publication describing genetic redirection of T cells to a surface antigen of choice. The peer-reviewed literature currently contains the outcomes of more than 100 patients treated on clinical trials of anti-CD19 redirected T cells, and preliminary results on many more patients have been presented. At last count almost 30 clinical trials targeting CD19 were actively recruiting patients in North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients with high-risk B-cell malignancies therefore represent the first beneficiaries of an exciting and potent new treatment modality that harnesses the power of the immune system as never before. A handful of trials are targeting non-CD19 hematological and solid malignancies and represent the vanguard of enormous preclinical efforts to develop CAR T-cell therapy beyond B-cell malignancies. In this review, we explain the concept of chimeric antigen receptor gene-modified T cells, describe the extant results in hematologic malignancies, and share our outlook on where this modality is likely to head in the near future.

  15. Development of GR/MR Chimeric Receptors and Their Response to Steroid Hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiman; Yang Qunying; Elisabeth Martinez; Guo Sandui

    2000-01-01

    We have established an effective and reliable technique of developing GR/MR chimeric receptors by DNA homologous recombination. To develop the method we transformed several different E. coli strains with a linearized plasmid containing full length of mGR(mouse GR) and hormone binding domain(HBD) of rMR(rat MR), the linear DNA undergoes recombination due to the homology of the mGR and the rMR and recircularize , and propagation in E. coli. PCR was performed to screen correct construction in which fusion between GR and MR took place. The constructs were digested with appropriate restriction endonucleases to test probable fusion sites of GR and HBD of MR. Precise fusion sites of GR and MR for constructs AB1157 # 2 , AB1157 # 18, AB 1157 # 22, AB1157 # 32, CMK603 # 6 were verified by DNA sequencing. Trans fection of COS- 7 cells with the constructs and subsequent treatment of transfected COS-7 cells with steroid hormones were carried out, the results showed that the constructs gave response to tested hormones. The study suggested that the GR/MR chimeric receptors can give rise to fusion proteins and their interactive function between hormone and receptor.

  16. The imaging and the fractal metrology of chimeric liposomal Drug Delivery nano Systems: the role of macromolecular architecture of polymeric guest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2014-09-01

    The major advance of mixed liposomes (the so-called chimeric systems) is to control the size, structure, and morphology of these nanoassemblies, and therefore, system colloidal properties, with the aid of a large variety of parameters, such as chemical architecture and composition. The goal of this study is to investigate the alterations of the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of chimeric dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, caused by the incorporation of block and gradient copolymers (different macromolecular architecture) with different chemical compositions (different amounts of hydrophobic component). Light scattering techniques were utilized in order to characterize physicochemically and to delineate the fractal morphology of chimeric liposomes. In this study, we also investigated the structural differences between the prepared chimeric liposomes as are visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It could be concluded that all the chimeric liposomes have regular structure, as SEM images revealed, while their fractal dimensionality was found to be dependent on the macromolecular architecture of the polymeric guest.

  17. Sensitivity of P-glycoprotein tryptophan residues to benzodiazepines and ATP interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sofia A C; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; de Castro, Baltazar; Gameiro, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Plasma membrane P-glycoprotein is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of membrane transporters. In the present study tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence was used to understand the P-glycoprotein response to three benzodiazepines (bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide and flurazepam) in the presence and absence of ATP. Fluorescence emission spectra showed a red shift on the maximal emission wavelength upon interaction of P-glycoprotein with all benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepine association with nucleotide-bound P-glycoprotein also showed this trend and the quenching profile was attributed to a sphere-of-action model, for static fluorescence. Furthermore, quenching data of benzodiazepine-bound P-glycoprotein with ATP were concentration dependent and saturable, indicating that nucleotide binds to P-glycoprotein whether drug is present or not. These results seems in agreement with the proposal of the ATP-switch model by Higgins and Linton, where substrate binding to the transporters initiates the transport cycle by increasing the ATP binding affinity.

  18. Expression of the glycoprotein gene from a fish rhabdovirus by using baculovirus vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koener, J.F.; Leong, J.A.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA fragment containing the gene encoding the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was inserted into Autographa californica baculovirus vectors under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A 66-kilodalton protein, identical in size to the glycosylated glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was expressed at high levels in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the recombinant viruses. The expressed protein reacted with antiserum to the glycoprotein on Western blots.

  19. Monensin and FCCP inhibit the intracellular transport of alphavirus membrane glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kaariainen, L; Hashimoto, K.; Saraste, J; Virtanen, I; Penttinen, K

    1980-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants of semliki forest virus (SFV) and sindbis virus (SIN) were used to study the intracellular transport of virus membrane glycoproteins in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. When antisera against purified glycoproteins and (125)I- labeled protein A from staphylococcus aureus were used only small amounts of virus glycoproteins were detected at the surface of SFV ts-1 and SIN Ts-10 infected cells incubated at the restrictive temperature (39 degrees C). When the muta...

  20. Identification and antigenicity of the major envelope glycoprotein of lymphadenopathy-associated virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnier, L.; Clavel, F.; Krust, B.; Chamaret, S.; Rey, F.; Barre-Sinoussi, F.; Chermann, J.C.

    1985-07-15

    The major envelope glycoprotein of the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) has been identified and characterized. The glycoprotein has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000-120,000 under denaturing conditions in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon deglycosylation by a specific endoglycosydase, its size is reduced to 80,000. Cellular precursors of this glycoprotein have been detected with apparent molecular weight of 150,000 and 135,000. Nearly all AIDS and pre-AIDS patients have detectable antibodies against this viral glycoprotein.

  1. Analysis of lectin-bound glycoproteins in snake venom from the Elapidae and Viperidae families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawarak, Jiraporn; Phutrakul, Suree; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method of studying the glycoproteins found in snake venom. The glycosylation profiles of the Elapidae and Viperidae snake families were analyzed using FITC-labeled lectin glycoconjugates. The Con A-agarose affinity enrichment technique was used to fractionate glycoproteins from the N. naja kaouthia venom. The results revealed a large number of Con A binding glycoproteins, most of which have moderate to high molecular weights. To identify the proteins, the isolated glycoprotein fractions were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. Protein sequences were compared with published protein databases to determine for their biological functions.

  2. [An analysis of chimeric mice obtained by the injection of the inner cell mass into the blastocyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Sh M; Fedorov, L M; Strel'chenko, N S

    1993-01-01

    Mouse chimeras were produced using injections of ICM cells into blastocysts. Chimerism of resulting animals was determined by their coat color and spectrum of glucosephosphate isomerase isoenzymes. The use of modifications of the injection method for solving different genetic and embryological problems is discussed.

  3. Production of unnaturally linked chimeric proteins using a combination of sortase-catalyzed transpeptidation and click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Theile, Christopher S.; Wu, Tongfei; Guimaraes, Carla P.; Blom, Annet E. M.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    Chimeric proteins, including bispecific antibodies, are biological tools with therapeutic applications. Genetic fusion and ligation methods allow the creation of N-to-C and C-to-N fused recombinant proteins, but not unnaturally linked N-to-N and C-to-C fusion proteins. This protocol describes a

  4. Fiber-chimeric adenoviruses expressing fibers from serotype 16 and 50 improve gene transfer to human pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, K.F.D.; Geer, M.A. van; Bakker, C.T.; Dekker, J.E.M.; Havenga, M.J.E.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Gouma, D.J.; Bosma, P.J.; Wesseling, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. Adenoviral (Ad) gene therapy employing the commonly used serotype 5 reveals limited transduction efficiency due to the low amount of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on pancreatic cancer cells. To identify fiber-chimeric adenoviruses with improved ge

  5. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-06-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement.

  6. Chimerism 47,XY,+21/46,XX in a female infant with anencephaly and other congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Lucon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimerism is rare in humans and is usually discovered accidentally when a 46,XX and 46,XY karyotype is found in a same individual. We describe a malformed female infant with neural tube defect (NTD and a 47,XY,+21[5]/46,XX[30] karyotype.

  7. Chimeric virus-like particles for the delivery of an inserted conserved influenza A-specific CTL epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wan-Shoo; Reiseger, Jessica; Turner, Stephen John; Boyd, Richard; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    The small hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg-S) have the ability to self-assemble with host-derived lipids into empty non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs). HBsAg-S VLPs are the sole component of the licensed hepatitis B vaccine, and they are a useful delivery platform for foreign epitopes. To develop VLPs capable of transporting foreign cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, HBsAg-S specific CTL epitopes at various sites were substituted with a conserved CTL epitope derived from the influenza matrix protein. Depending on the insertion site, the introduction of the MHC class I A2.1-restricted influenza epitope was compatible with the secretion competence of HBsAg-S indicating that chimeric VLPs were assembled. Immunizations of transgenic HHDII mice with chimeric VLPs induced anti-influenza CTL responses proving that the inserted foreign epitope can be correctly processed and cross-presented. Chimeric VLPs in the absence of adjuvant were able to induce memory T cell responses, which could be recalled by influenza virus infections in the mouse model system. The ability of chimeric HBsAg-S VLPs to induce anti-foreign CTL responses and also with the proven ability to induce humoral immune responses constitute a highly versatile platform for the delivery of selected multiple epitopes to target disease associated infectious agents.

  8. Genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed receptors harboring TAG-72-specific camelid single domain antibodies as targeting agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the preclinical success of adoptive therapy with T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed antigen receptors (CARs), certain limitations of this therapeutic approach such as the immunogenicity of the antigen binding domain, the emergence of tumor cell escape variants and the blocking capac...... to reverse multiple tumor immune evasion mechanisms, avoid CAR immunogenicity, and overcome problems in cancer gene therapy with engineered nanoconstructs....

  9. Immune response and protective profile elicited by a multi-epitope chimeric protein derived from Leptospira interrogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G.V. Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although a complete characterization of the immune response elicited by rChi/adjuvant in hamsters is required, it is believed that the construction of chimeric genes is an important attempt towards the generation of an effective vaccine against leptospirosis.

  10. Induction of partial protection against infection with Toxoplasma gondii genotype II by DNA vaccination with recombinant chimeric tachyzoite antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Carina Agerbo; De Craeye, S.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    complications. Although several strategies have been suggested for making a vaccine, none is currently available. Here, we investigate the protection conferred by DNA vaccination with two constructs, pcEC2 (MIC2-MIC3-SAG1) and pcEC3 (GRA3-GRA7-M2AP), encoding chimeric proteins containing multiple antigenic...

  11. Hypothesis: Artifacts, Including Spurious Chimeric RNAs with a Short Homologous Sequence, Caused by Consecutive Reverse Transcriptions and Endogenous Random Primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiyu; Yuan, Chengfu; Zellmer, Lucas; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Recent RNA-sequencing technology and associated bioinformatics have led to identification of tens of thousands of putative human chimeric RNAs, i.e. RNAs containing sequences from two different genes, most of which are derived from neighboring genes on the same chromosome. In this essay, we redefine "two neighboring genes" as those producing individual transcripts, and point out two known mechanisms for chimeric RNA formation, i.e. transcription from a fusion gene or trans-splicing of two RNAs. By our definition, most putative RNA chimeras derived from canonically-defined neighboring genes may either be technical artifacts or be cis-splicing products of 5'- or 3'-extended RNA of either partner that is redefined herein as an unannotated gene, whereas trans-splicing events are rare in human cells. Therefore, most authentic chimeric RNAs result from fusion genes, about 1,000 of which have been identified hitherto. We propose a hypothesis of "consecutive reverse transcriptions (RTs)", i.e. another RT reaction following the previous one, for how most spurious chimeric RNAs, especially those containing a short homologous sequence, may be generated during RT, especially in RNA-sequencing wherein RNAs are fragmented. We also point out that RNA samples contain numerous RNA and DNA shreds that can serve as endogenous random primers for RT and ensuing polymerase chain reactions (PCR), creating artifacts in RT-PCR.

  12. The Construction of Chimeric T-Cell Receptor with Spacer Base of Modeling Study of VHH and MUC1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Pirooznia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive cell immunotherapy with the use of chimeric receptors leads to the best and most specific response against tumors. Chimeric receptors consist of a signaling fragment, extracellular spacer, costimulating domain, and an antibody. Antibodies cause immunogenicity; therefore, VHH is a good replacement for ScFv in chimeric receptors. Since peptide sequences have an influence on chimeric receptors, the effect of peptide domains on each other's conformation were investigated. CD3Zeta, CD28, VHH and CD8α, and FcgIIα are used as signaling moieties, costimulating domain, antibody, and spacers, respectively. To investigate the influence of the ligation of spacers on the conformational structure of VHH, models of VHH were constructed. Molecular dynamics simulation was run to study the influence of the presence of spacers on the conformational changes in the binding sites of VHH. Root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of critical segments in the binding site showed no noticeable differences with those in the native VHH. Results from molecular docking revealed that the presence of spacer FcgIIα causes an increasing effect on VHH with MUC1 interaction. Each of the constructs was transformed into the Jurkat E6.1. Expression analysis and evaluation of their functions were examined. The results showed good expression and function.

  13. A CssA, CssB and LTB chimeric protein induces protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Bagheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a major cause of diarrhea in children under 5, is an important agent for traveler's diarrhea. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT and colonization factors (CFs are two main virulence mechanisms in ETEC. CS6 is one of the most prevalent CFs consisting of two structural subunits viz., CssA, CssB, necessary for attachment to the intestinal cells. METHODS: In the present research, a chimeric trivalent protein composed of CssB, CssA and LTB was constructed. The chimeric gene was synthesized with codon bias of E. coli for enhanced expression of the protein. Recombinant proteins were expressed and purified. Mice were immunized with the recombinant protein. The antibody titer and specificity of the immune sera were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Efficiency of the immune sera against ETEC was evaluated. RESULTS: Antibody induction was followed by immunization of mice with the chimeric protein. Pretreatment of the ETEC cells with immunized animal antisera remarkably decreased their adhesion to Caco-2 cells. DISCUSSION: The results indicate efficacy of the recombinant chimeric protein as an effective immunogen, which induces strong humoral response as well as protection against ETEC adherence and toxicity.

  14. Biochemical and functional analysis of Drosophila-sciara chimeric sex-lethal proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Drosophila SXL protein controls sex determination and dosage compensation. It is a sex-specific factor controlling splicing of its own Sxl pre-mRNA (auto-regulation, tra pre-mRNA (sex determination and msl-2 pre-mRNA plus translation of msl-2 mRNA (dosage compensation. Outside the drosophilids, the same SXL protein has been found in both sexes so that, in the non-drosophilids, SXL does not appear to play the key discriminating role in sex determination and dosage compensation that it plays in Drosophila. Comparison of SXL proteins revealed that its spatial organisation is conserved, with the RNA-binding domains being highly conserved, whereas the N- and C-terminal domains showing significant variation. This manuscript focuses on the evolution of the SXL protein itself and not on regulation of its expression. METHODOLOGY: Drosophila-Sciara chimeric SXL proteins were produced. Sciara SXL represents the non-sex-specific function of ancient SXL in the non-drosophilids from which presumably Drosophila SXL evolved. Two questions were addressed. Did the Drosophila SXL protein have affected their functions when their N- and C-terminal domains were replaced by the corresponding ones of Sciara? Did the Sciara SXL protein acquire Drosophila sex-specific functions when the Drosophila N- and C-terminal domains replaced those of Sciara? The chimeric SXL proteins were analysed in vitro to study their binding affinity and cooperative properties, and in vivo to analyse their effect on sex determination and dosage compensation by producing Drosophila flies that were transgenic for the chimeric SXL proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The sex-specific properties of extant Drosophila SXL protein depend on its global structure rather than on a specific domain. This implies that the modifications, mainly in the N- and C-terminal domains, that occurred in the SXL protein during its evolution within the drosophilid lineage represent co-evolutionary changes that

  15. Adoptive immunotherapy to increase the level of donor hematopoietic chimerism after nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation for severe canine hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatu, Alessandra; Nash, Richard A; Zaucha, Jan M; Little, Marie-Terese; Georges, George E; Sale, George E; Zellmer, Eustacia; Kuhr, Christian S; Lothrop, Clinton D; Storb, Rainer

    2003-11-01

    Severe hemolytic anemia in Basenji dogs secondary to pyruvate kinase deficiency can be corrected by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from littermates with normal hematopoiesis after conventional myeloablative or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens. If the levels of donor chimerism were low (after nonmyeloablative HCT, there was only partial correction of the hemolytic anemia. We next addressed whether allogeneic cell therapy after nonmyeloablative HCT would convert mixed to full hematopoietic chimerism, achieve sustained remission from hemolysis, and prevent progression of marrow fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. Three pyruvate kinase-deficient dogs were given HCT from their respective dog leukocyte antigen-identical littermates after nonmyeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy of total body irradiation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine. All 3 dogs engrafted and had mixed hematopoietic chimerism with donor levels ranging from 12% to 55% in bone marrow. In 2 of the 3 dogs, there were decreases in the levels of donor chimerism so that at 25 weeks after nonmyeloablative HCT, hemolysis recurred that was associated with increased reticulocyte counts. All 3 dogs then had 2 serial infusions of donor lymphocytes (DLI) from their respective donors at least 20 weeks apart to convert from mixed to full donor chimerism. Both dogs with recurrence of hemolytic anemia after nonmyeloablative HCT achieved higher levels of donor chimerism, with donor contributions ranging from 47% to 62% in the bone marrow and 50% to 69% and 16% to 25% in the granulocyte and mononuclear cell fractions of the peripheral blood, respectively, and with remission of the hemolytic anemia. One dog responded after the first DLI, and 5 weeks after the second DLI, the other dog converted to full donor chimerism. At last follow-up, all these dogs showed clinical improvement, as determined by increasing hematocrits and normal reticulocyte counts

  16. Monensin and FCCP inhibit the intracellular transport of alphavirus membrane glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääriäinen, L; Hashimoto, K; Saraste, J; Virtanen, I; Penttinen, K

    1980-12-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants of semliki forest virus (SFV) and sindbis virus (SIN) were used to study the intracellular transport of virus membrane glycoproteins in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. When antisera against purified glycoproteins and (125)I- labeled protein A from staphylococcus aureus were used only small amounts of virus glycoproteins were detected at the surface of SFV ts-1 and SIN Ts-10 infected cells incubated at the restrictive temperature (39 degrees C). When the mutant-infected cells were shifted to the permissive temperature (28 degrees C), in the presence of cycloheximide, increasing amounts of virus glycoproteins appeared at the cell surface from 20 to 80 min after the shift. Both monensin (10muM) and carbonylcyanide-p- trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP; 10-20 muM) inhibited the appearance of virus membrane glycoproteins at the cell surface. Vinblastine sulfate (10 mug/ml) inhibited the transport by approximately 50 percent, whereas cytochalasin B (1 mug/ml) had only a marginal effect. Intracellular distribution of virus glycoproteins in the mutant-infected cells was visualized in double-fluorescence studies using lectins as markers for endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. At 39 degrees C, the virus membrane glycoproteins were located at the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas after shift to 28 degrees C, a bright juxtanuclear reticular fluorescence was seen in the location of the Golgi apparatus. In the presence of monensin, the virus glycoproteins could migrate to the Golgi apparatus, although transport to the cell surface did not take place. When the shift was carried out in the presence of FCCP, negligible fluorescence was seen in the Golgi apparatus and the glycoproteins apparently remained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A rapid inhibition in the accumulation of virus glycoproteins at the cell surface was obtained when FCCP was added during the active transport period, whereas with monensin there was a delay of

  17. Immunogenicity and therapeutic effects of Ag85A/B chimeric DNA vaccine in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xueqiong; Zhang, Junxian; Xiao, Li; Yang, Yourong; Bai, Xuejuan; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhongming; Bi, Lan; Li, Ning; Wu, Xiaoli

    2012-12-01

    The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is very severe in China. New therapeutic agents or regimens to treat TB are urgently needed. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were given immunotherapy intramuscularly with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA or saline, plasmid vector pVAX1, or Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine. The mice treated with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA showed significantly higher numbers of T cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), more IFN-γ in splenocyte culture supernatant, more Th1 and Tc1 cells, and higher ratios of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in whole blood, indicating a predominant Th1 immune response to treatment. Infected mice treated with doses of 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA had an extended time until death of 50% of the animals that was markedly longer than the saline and vector control groups, and the death rate at 1 month after the last dose was lower than that in the other groups. Compared with the saline group, 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA and 100 μg Ag85A DNA reduced the pulmonary bacterial loads by 0.79 and 0.45 logs, and the liver bacterial loads by 0.52 and 0.50 logs, respectively. Pathological changes in the lungs were less, and the lesions were more limited. These results show that Ag85A/B chimeric DNA was effective for the treatment of TB, significantly increasing the cellular immune response and inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis.

  18. Chimeric proteins combining phosphatase and cellulose-binding activities: proof-of-concept and application in the hydrolysis of paraoxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Larissa M; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Marana, Sandro R

    2014-05-01

    Phosphatases for organophosphate degradation and carbohydrate-binding domains (CBMs) have potential biotechnological applications. As a proof-of-concept, a soluble chimeric protein that combines acid phosphatase (AppA) from Escherichia coli and a CBM from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (AppA-CBM) was produced in E.coli. AppACBM adsorbed in microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH101 catalyzed the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP). The binding to microcrystalline cellulose displayed saturation behavior with an apparent binding constant (Kb) of 22 ± 5 mg and a maximum binding (Bmax) of 1.500 ± 0.001 enzyme units. Binding was highest at pH 2.5 and decreased above pH 6.5, as previously observed for family 2 CBMs. The Km values for PNPP of AppA-CBM and native AppA were identical (2.7 mM). To demonstrate that this strategy for protein engineering has practical applications and is largely functional, even for phosphatases exhibiting diverse folds, a chimeric protein combining human paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) and the CBM was produced. Both PON1-CBM and hPON1 had identical Km values for paraoxon (1.3 mM). Additionally, hPON1 bound to microcrystalline cellulose with a Kb of 27 ± 3 mg, the same as that observed for AppA-CBM. These data show that the phosphatase domains are as functional in both of the chimeric proteins as they are in the native enzymes and that the CBM domain maintains the same cellulose affinity. Therefore, the engineering of chimeric proteins combining domains of phosphatases and CBMs is fully feasible, resulting in chimeric enzymes that exhibit potential for OP detoxification.

  19. Application of functional genomics to the chimeric mouse model of HCV infection: optimization of microarray protocols and genomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Maria W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many model systems of human viral disease involve human-mouse chimeric tissue. One such system is the recently developed SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection which involves a human-mouse chimeric liver. The use of functional genomics to study HCV infection in these chimeric tissues is complicated by the potential cross-hybridization of mouse mRNA on human oligonucleotide microarrays. To identify genes affected by mouse liver mRNA hybridization, mRNA from identical human liver samples labeled with either Cy3 or Cy5 was compared in the presence and absence of known amounts of mouse liver mRNA labeled in only one dye. Results The results indicate that hybridization of mouse mRNA to the corresponding human gene probe on Agilent Human 22 K oligonucleotide microarray does occur. The number of genes affected by such cross-hybridization was subsequently reduced to approximately 300 genes both by increasing the hybridization temperature and using liver samples which contain at least 80% human tissue. In addition, Real Time quantitative RT-PCR using human specific probes was shown to be a valid method to verify the expression level in human cells of known cross-hybridizing genes. Conclusion The identification of genes affected by cross-hybridization of mouse liver RNA on human oligonucleotide microarrays makes it feasible to use functional genomics approaches to study the chimeric SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model of HCV infection. This approach used to study cross-species hybridization on oligonucleotide microarrays can be adapted to other chimeric systems of viral disease to facilitate selective analysis of human gene expression.

  20. Stem cell potency and the ability to contribute to chimeric organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-03-01

    Mouse embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for studying cell lineage commitment and pluripotency. Experimental chimeras were successfully produced by combining two or more preimplantation embryos or by introducing into host embryo cultured pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Chimera production using genetically modified ESCs became the method of choice for the generation of knockout or knockin mice. Although the derivation of ESCs or ESC-like cells has been reported for other species, only mouse and rat pluripotent stem cells have been shown to contribute to germline-competent chimeras, which is the defining feature of ESCs. Herein, we describe different approaches employed for the generation of embryonic chimeras, define chimera-competent cell types, and describe cases of spontaneous chimerism in humans. We also review the current state of derivation of pluripotent stem cells in several species and discuss outcomes of various chimera studies when such cells are used.

  1. Self-assembling chimeric polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugate nanoparticles that abolish tumours after a single injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Mackay, J.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Liu, Wenge; Simnick, Andrew J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2009-12-01

    New strategies to self-assemble biocompatible materials into nanoscale, drug-loaded packages with improved therapeutic efficacy are needed for nanomedicine. To address this need, we developed artificial recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs) that spontaneously self-assemble into sub-100-nm-sized, near-monodisperse nanoparticles on conjugation of diverse hydrophobic molecules, including chemotherapeutics. These CPs consist of a biodegradable polypeptide that is attached to a short Cys-rich segment. Covalent modification of the Cys residues with a structurally diverse set of hydrophobic small molecules, including chemotherapeutics, leads to spontaneous formation of nanoparticles over a range of CP compositions and molecular weights. When used to deliver chemotherapeutics to a murine cancer model, CP nanoparticles have a fourfold higher maximum tolerated dose than free drug, and induce nearly complete tumour regression after a single dose. This simple strategy can promote co-assembly of drugs, imaging agents and targeting moieties into multifunctional nanomedicines.

  2. Reducing ulcerogenic potential of biphenyl acetic acid: Design and development of chimeric derivatives with amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Dhaneshwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to minimize the ulcerogenic potential and associated gastro-intestinal toxicity of bioprecursor fenbufen and its active metabolite biphenyl acetic acid, carrier-linked chimeric derivatives of the latter were designed and synthesized using amino acids as the promoities. DCC coupling method was used for the synthesis of these amides. The chimeras were characterized by IR and 1H NMR. Pharmacological investigations were carried out in animal models for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and ulcerogenic activities. The chimeras exhibited high gastro-sparing effect; quick onset and longer duration of analgesia; enhanced/prolonged anti-inflammatory activity and better anti-arthritic effect than fenbufen or biphenyl acetic acid. These derivatives could be useful as a chronotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis due to their prolonged analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells for Immunotherapy of Cancer

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    Marc Cartellieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are powerful components of adaptive immunity, which essentially contribute to the elimination of tumors. Due to their cytotoxic capacity, T cells emerged as attractive candidates for specific immunotherapy of cancer. A promising approach is the genetic modification of T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs. First generation CARs consist of a binding moiety specifically recognizing a tumor cell surface antigen and a lymphocyte activating signaling chain. The CAR-mediated recognition induces cytokine production and tumor-directed cytotoxicity of T cells. Second and third generation CARs include signal sequences from various costimulatory molecules resulting in enhanced T-cell persistence and sustained antitumor reaction. Clinical trials revealed that the adoptive transfer of T cells engineered with first generation CARs represents a feasible concept for the induction of clinical responses in some tumor patients. However, further improvement is required, which may be achieved by second or third generation CAR-engrafted T cells.

  4. Authentic display of a cholera toxin epitope by chimeric type 1 fimbriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg-Olesen, Bodil; Pallesen, Lars; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    1997-01-01

    The potential of the major structural protein of type 1 fimbriae as a display system for heterologous sequences was tested. As a reporter-epitope, a heterologous sequence mimicking a neutralizing epitope of the cholera toxin B chain was inserted, in one or two copies, into four different positions...... in the fimA gene. This was carried out by introduction of new restriction sites by PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis of fimA in positions predicted to correspond to optimally surface-located regions of the subunit protein. Subsequently, the synthetic cholera-toxin-encoding DNA segment was inserted...... with respect to host background in three different Escherichia coli strains, i.e. an isogenic set of K-12 strains, differing in the presence of an indigenous fim gene cluster, as well as a wild-type isolate. Immunization of rabbits with purified chimeric fimbriae resulted in serum which specifically recognized...

  5. Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Roybal, Kole T; Puchner, Elias M; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-10-16

    There is growing interest in using engineered cells as therapeutic agents. For example, synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells to recognize and eliminate tumor cells expressing specific antigens. Despite promising clinical results, these engineered T cells can exhibit excessive activity that is difficult to control and can cause severe toxicity. We designed "ON-switch" CARs that enable small-molecule control over T cell therapeutic functions while still retaining antigen specificity. In these split receptors, antigen-binding and intracellular signaling components assemble only in the presence of a heterodimerizing small molecule. This titratable pharmacologic regulation could allow physicians to precisely control the timing, location, and dosage of T cell activity, thereby mitigating toxicity. This work illustrates the potential of combining cellular engineering with orthogonal chemical tools to yield safer therapeutic cells that tightly integrate cell-autonomous recognition and user control.

  6. Insight into Substrate Preference of Two Chimeric Esterases by Combining Experiment and Molecular Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-li; HAN Wei-wei; ZHENG Bai-song; FENG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Better understanding of the relationship between the substrate preference and structural module of esterases is helpful to novel enzyme development.For this purpose,two chimeric esterases AAM7 and PAR,constructed via domain swapping between two ancient thermophilic esterases,were investigated on their molecular simulation(including homology modeling,substrates docking and substrate binding affinity validation) and enzymatic assay(specific activities and activation energies calculating).Our results indicate that the factors contributing to the substrate preference of many enzymes especially the broad-specificity enzymes like esterases are multiple and complicated,the substrate binding domains or binding pockets are important but not the only factor for substrate preference.

  7. Discovery of mitochondrial chimeric-gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility of HL-rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome libraries of HL-type sterile line(A) and maintainer line(B) have been constructed.Mitochondrial gene, atp6, was used to screen libraries, due to the different Southern and Northern blot results between sterile and maintainer line. Sequencing analysis of positive clones proved that there were two copies of atp6 gene in sterile line and only one in maintainer line. One copy of atpt6 in sterile line was same to that in maintainer line; the other showed different flanking sequence from the 49th nucleotide downstream of the termination codon of atp6 gene. A new chimeric gene, orfH79, was found in the region. OrfH79 had homology to mitochondrial gene coxⅡ and orfl07, and was special to HL-sterile cytoplasm.``

  8. Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Roybal, Kole T.; Puchner, Elias M.; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing promise in using engineered cells as therapeutic agents. For example, synthetic Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells to recognize and eliminate tumor cells expressing specific antigens. Despite promising clinical results, excessive activity and poor control over such engineered T cells can cause severe toxicities. We present the design of “ON-switch” CARs that enable small molecule-control over T cell therapeutic functions, while still retaining antigen specificity. In these split receptors, antigen binding and intracellular signaling components only assemble in the presence of a heterodimerizing small molecule. This titratable pharmacologic regulation could allow physicians to precisely control the timing, location, and dosage of T cell activity, thereby mitigating toxicity. This work illustrates the potential of combining cellular engineering with orthogonal chemical tools to yield safer therapeutic cells that tightly integrate both cell autonomous recognition and user control. PMID:26405231

  9. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampatsa, Astero; Haas, Andrew R; Moon, Edmund K; Albelda, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has now become a recognized approach to treating cancers. In addition to checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown impressive clinical outcomes in leukemias and is now being explored in solid tumors. CARs are engineered receptors, stably or transiently transduced into T cells, that aim to enhance T cell effector function by recognizing and binding to a specific tumor-associated antigen. In this review, we provide a summary of CAR T cell preclinical studies and clinical trials for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare, locally invasive pleural cancer with poor prognosis. We list other attractive potential targets for CAR T cell therapy for MPM, and discuss augmentation strategies of CAR T cell therapy with other forms of immunotherapy in this disease.

  10. A recombinant, chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate based on a dengue virus serotype 2 backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E; Wallace, Derek; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by infection with one of four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1-4), necessitating tetravalent dengue vaccines that can induce protection against all four DENV. Takeda's live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV) comprises an attenuated DENV-2 strain plus chimeric viruses containing the prM and E genes of DENV-1, -3 and -4 cloned into the attenuated DENV-2 'backbone'. In Phase 1 and 2 studies, TDV was well tolerated by children and adults aged 1.5-45 years, irrespective of prior dengue exposure; mild injection-site symptoms were the most common adverse events. TDV induced neutralizing antibody responses and seroconversion to all four DENV as well as cross-reactive T cell-mediated responses that may be necessary for broad protection against dengue fever.

  11. Augmenting the efficacy of anti-cocaine catalytic antibodies through chimeric hapten design and combinatorial vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J; Cai, Xiaoqing; Ellis, Beverly A; Janda, Kim D

    2017-08-15

    Given the need for further improvements in anti-cocaine vaccination strategies, a chimeric hapten (GNET) was developed that combines chemically-stable structural features from steady-state haptens with the hydrolytic functionality present in transition-state mimetic haptens. Additionally, as a further investigation into the generation of an improved bifunctional antibody pool, sequential vaccination with steady-state and transition-state mimetic haptens was undertaken. While GNET induced the formation of catalytically-active antibodies, it did not improve overall behavioral efficacy. In contrast, the resulting pool of antibodies from GNE/GNT co-administration demonstrated intermediate efficacy as compared to antibodies developed from either hapten alone. Overall, improved antibody catalytic efficiency appears necessary to achieve the synergistic benefits of combining cocaine hydrolysis with peripheral sequestration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Giant trochanteric pressure sore: Use of a pedicled chimeric perforator flap for cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Pressure sores are increasing in frequency commensurate with an ageing population with multi-system disorders and trauma. Numerous classic options are described for providing stable wound cover. With the burgeoning knowledge on perforator anatomy, recent approaches focus on the use of perforator-based flaps in bedsore surgery. A giant neglected trochanteric pressure sore in a paraplegic is presented. Since conventional options of reconstruction appeared remote, the massive ulcer was successfully managed by a chimeric perforator-based flap. The combined muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised as separate paddles based on the anterolateral thigh perforator branches and provided stable cover without complications. Perforators allow versatility in managing complex wounds without compromising on established principles. PMID:19881035

  13. Giant trochanteric pressure sore: Use of a pedicled chimeric perforator flap for cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sores are increasing in frequency commensurate with an ageing population with multi-system disorders and trauma. Numerous classic options are described for providing stable wound cover. With the burgeoning knowledge on perforator anatomy, recent approaches focus on the use of perforator-based flaps in bedsore surgery. A giant neglected trochanteric pressure sore in a paraplegic is presented. Since conventional options of reconstruction appeared remote, the massive ulcer was successfully managed by a chimeric perforator-based flap. The combined muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised as separate paddles based on the anterolateral thigh perforator branches and provided stable cover without complications. Perforators allow versatility in managing complex wounds without compromising on established principles.

  14. Design of Fab-based chimeric antibodies against Bothrops asper toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Haack, Aleksander; B. Hallgren, Malte; U. W. Friis, Rasmus

    Snakebite is one of the world’s most neglected tropical diseases, with an estimated 5 million bites per year, resulting in about 125.000 deaths. The only current treatment for snakebite envenoming is antiserum derived from the blood of immunized mammals(typically horses). These antisera are expen......Snakebite is one of the world’s most neglected tropical diseases, with an estimated 5 million bites per year, resulting in about 125.000 deaths. The only current treatment for snakebite envenoming is antiserum derived from the blood of immunized mammals(typically horses). These antisera...... are expensive to produce and carry a high risk of causing hyper-allergic reactions in human recipients due to their heterologous origin. Here we report the discovery of chimeric scFvs against Bothrops asper toxins....

  15. Repeated evolution of chimeric fusion genes in the β-globin gene family of laurasiatherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Michael J; Storz, Jay F; Butts, Gary Tyler; Campbell, Kevin L; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2014-05-09

    The evolutionary fate of chimeric fusion genes may be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin and the nature of functional divergence between the parental genes. In the β-globin gene family of placental mammals, the two postnatally expressed δ- and β-globin genes (HBD and HBB, respectively) have a propensity for recombinational exchange via gene conversion and unequal crossing-over. In the latter case, there are good reasons to expect differences in retention rates for the reciprocal HBB/HBD and HBD/HBB fusion genes due to thalassemia pathologies associated with the HBD/HBB "Lepore" deletion mutant in humans. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the mammalian β-globin gene cluster, which revealed that chimeric HBB/HBD fusion genes originated independently in four separate lineages of laurasiatherian mammals: Eulipotyphlans (shrews, moles, and hedgehogs), carnivores, microchiropteran bats, and cetaceans. In cases where an independently derived "anti-Lepore" duplication mutant has become fixed, the parental HBD and/or HBB genes have typically been inactivated or deleted, so that the newly created HBB/HBD fusion gene is primarily responsible for synthesizing the β-type subunits of adult and fetal hemoglobin (Hb). Contrary to conventional wisdom that the HBD gene is a vestigial relict that is typically inactivated or expressed at negligible levels, we show that HBD-like genes often encode a substantial fraction (20-100%) of β-chain Hbs in laurasiatherian taxa. Our results indicate that the ascendancy or resuscitation of genes with HBD-like coding sequence requires the secondary acquisition of HBB-like promoter sequence via unequal crossing-over or interparalog gene conversion.

  16. Chimeric External Control to Quantify Cell Free DNA in Plasma Samples by Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Maryam; Behzad-Behbahani, Abbas; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Ramezani, Amin; Rafiei Dehbidi, Gholam Reza; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Farhadi, Ali; Alavi, Parniyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: DNA isolation procedure can significantly influence the quantification of DNA by real time PCR specially when cell free DNA (cfDNA) is the subject. To assess the extraction efficiency, linearity of the extraction yield, presence of co-purified inhibitors and to avoid problems with fragment size relevant to cfDNA, development of appropriate External DNA Control (EDC) is challenging. Using non-human chimeric nucleotide sequences, an EDC was developed for standardization of qPCR for monitoring stability of cfDNA concentration in blood samples over time. Methods: A0 DNA fragment of 167 bp chimeric sequence of parvovirus B19 and pBHA designated as EDC fragment was designed. To determine the impact of different factors during DNA extraction processing on quantification of cfDNA, blood samples were collected from normal subjects and divided into aliquots with and without specific treatment. In time intervals, the plasma samples were isolated. The amplicon of 167 bp EDC fragment in final concentration of 1.1 pg/500 μl was added to each plasma sample and total DNA was extracted by an in house method. Relative and absolute quantification real time PCR was performed to quantify both EDC fragment and cfDNA in extracted samples. Results: Comparison of real time PCR threshold cycle (Ct) for cfDNA fragment in tubes with and without specific treatment indicated a decrease in untreated tubes. In contrast, the threshold cycle was constant for EDC fragment in treated and untreated tubes, indicating the difference in Ct values of the cfDNA is because of specific treatments that were made on them. Conclusions: Spiking of DNA fragment size relevant to cfDNA into the plasma sample can be useful to minimize the bias due to sample preparation and extraction processing. Therefore, it is highly recommended that standard external DNA control be employed for the extraction and quantification of cfDNA for accurate data analysis. PMID:27141267

  17. Emotion processing in chimeric faces: hemispheric asymmetries in expression and recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indersmitten, Tim; Gur, Ruben C

    2003-05-01

    Since the discovery of facial asymmetries in emotional expressions of humans and other primates, hypotheses have related the greater left-hemiface intensity to right-hemispheric dominance in emotion processing. However, the difficulty of creating true frontal views of facial expressions in two-dimensional photographs has confounded efforts to better understand the phenomenon. We have recently described a method for obtaining three-dimensional photographs of posed and evoked emotional expressions and used these stimuli to investigate both intensity of expression and accuracy of recognizing emotion in chimeric faces constructed from only left- or right-side composites. The participant population included 38 (19 male, 19 female) African-American, Caucasian, and Asian adults. They were presented with chimeric composites generated from faces of eight actors and eight actresses showing four emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear, each in posed and evoked conditions. We replicated the finding that emotions are expressed more intensely in the left hemiface for all emotions and conditions, with the exception of evoked anger, which was expressed more intensely in the right hemiface. In contrast, the results indicated that emotional expressions are recognized more efficiently in the right hemiface, indicating that the right hemiface expresses emotions more accurately. The double dissociation between the laterality of expression intensity and that of recognition efficiency supports the notion that the two kinds of processes may have distinct neural substrates. Evoked anger is uniquely expressed more intensely and accurately on the side of the face that projects to the viewer's right hemisphere, dominant in emotion recognition.

  18. Comparing regional modeling (CHIMERE) and satellite observations of aerosols (PARASOL): Methodology and case study over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromatas, Stavros

    2010-05-01

    S. Stromatas (1), S. Turquety (1), H. Chepfer (1), L. Menut (1), B. Bessagnet (2), JC Pere (2), D. Tanré (3) . (1) Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS/IPSL, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, (2) INERIS, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, FRANCE, (3) Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique/CNRS Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille, 59650 - Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Atmospheric suspended particles (aerosols) have significant radiative and environmental impacts, affecting human health, visibility and climate. Therefore, they are regulated by air quality standards worldwide, and monitored by regional observation networks. Satellite observations vastly improve the horizontal and temporal coverage, providing daily distributions. Aerosols are currently estimated using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, a quantitative measure of the extinction of solar radiation by aerosol scattering and absorption between the point of observation and the top of the atmosphere. Even though remarkable progresses in aerosol modeling by chemistry-transport models (CTM) and measurement experiments have been made in recent years, there is still a significant divergence between the modeled and observed results. However, AOD retrievals from satellites remains a highly challenging task mostly because it depends on a variety of different parameters such as cloud contamination, surface reflectance contributions and a priori assumptions on aerosol types, each one of them incorporating its own difficulties. Therefore, comparisons between CTM and observations are often difficult to interpret. In this presentation, we will discuss comparisons between regional modeling (CHIMERE CTM) over Mexico and satellite observations obtained by the POLDER instrument embarked on PARASOL micro-satellite. After a comparison of the model AOD with the retrieved L2 AOD, we will present an alternative

  19. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  20. Construction of chimeric dual-chain avidin by tandem fusion of the related avidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Tiina A; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Varjonen, Suvi; Hörhä, Jarno; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2011-01-01

    Avidin is a chicken egg-white protein with high affinity to vitamin H, also known as D-biotin. Many applications in life science research are based on this strong interaction. Avidin is a homotetrameric protein, which promotes its modification to symmetrical entities. Dual-chain avidin, a genetically engineered avidin form, has two circularly permuted chicken avidin monomers that are tandem-fused into one polypeptide chain. This form of avidin enables independent modification of the two domains, including the two biotin-binding pockets; however, decreased yields in protein production, compared to wt avidin, and complicated genetic manipulation of two highly similar DNA sequences in the tandem gene have limited the use of dual-chain avidin in biotechnological applications. To overcome challenges associated with the original dual-chain avidin, we developed chimeric dual-chain avidin, which is a tandem fusion of avidin and avidin-related protein 4 (AVR4), another member of the chicken avidin gene family. We observed an increase in protein production and better thermal stability, compared with the original dual-chain avidin. Additionally, PCR amplification of the hybrid gene was more efficient, thus enabling more convenient and straightforward modification of the dual-chain avidin. When studied closer, the generated chimeric dual-chain avidin showed biphasic biotin dissociation. The improved dual-chain avidin introduced here increases its potential for future applications. This molecule offers a valuable base for developing bi-functional avidin tools for bioseparation, carrier proteins, and nanoscale adapters. Additionally, this strategy could be helpful when generating hetero-oligomers from other oligomeric proteins with high structural similarity.

  1. Construction of chimeric dual-chain avidin by tandem fusion of the related avidins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina A Riihimäki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avidin is a chicken egg-white protein with high affinity to vitamin H, also known as D-biotin. Many applications in life science research are based on this strong interaction. Avidin is a homotetrameric protein, which promotes its modification to symmetrical entities. Dual-chain avidin, a genetically engineered avidin form, has two circularly permuted chicken avidin monomers that are tandem-fused into one polypeptide chain. This form of avidin enables independent modification of the two domains, including the two biotin-binding pockets; however, decreased yields in protein production, compared to wt avidin, and complicated genetic manipulation of two highly similar DNA sequences in the tandem gene have limited the use of dual-chain avidin in biotechnological applications. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To overcome challenges associated with the original dual-chain avidin, we developed chimeric dual-chain avidin, which is a tandem fusion of avidin and avidin-related protein 4 (AVR4, another member of the chicken avidin gene family. We observed an increase in protein production and better thermal stability, compared with the original dual-chain avidin. Additionally, PCR amplification of the hybrid gene was more efficient, thus enabling more convenient and straightforward modification of the dual-chain avidin. When studied closer, the generated chimeric dual-chain avidin showed biphasic biotin dissociation. SIGNIFICANCE: The improved dual-chain avidin introduced here increases its potential for future applications. This molecule offers a valuable base for developing bi-functional avidin tools for bioseparation, carrier proteins, and nanoscale adapters. Additionally, this strategy could be helpful when generating hetero-oligomers from other oligomeric proteins with high structural similarity.

  2. Fibrinogen interaction of CHO cells expressing chimeric αIIb/αvβ3 integrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan-juan CHEN; Xiao-yu SU; Xiao-dong XI; Li-ping LIN; Jian DING; He LU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The molecular mechanisms of the affinity regulation of αvβ3 integrin are important in tumor development, wound repairing, and angiogenesis. It has been established that the cytoplasmic domains of αvβ3 integrin play an important role in integrin-ligand affinity regulation. However, the relationship of structure-func-tion within these domains remains unclear. Methods: The extracellular and trans-membrane domain of αⅡb was fused to the αv integrin cytoplasmic domain, and the chimeric α subunit was coexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with the wild-type β3 subunit or with 3 mutant 133 sequences bearing truncations at the positions of T741, Y747, and F754, respectively. The CHO cells expressing these recombinant integrins were tested for soluble fibrinogen binding and the cell adhesion and spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Results: All 4 types of integrins bound soluble fibrinogen in the absence of agonist stimulation, and only the cells expressing the chimeric α subunit with the wild-type β3 subunit, but not those with truncated β3, could adhere to and spread on immobilized fibrinogen. Conclusion: The substitution αⅡb at the cytoplasmic domain with the ctv cyto-plasmic sequence rendered the extracellular αⅡbβ3 a constitutively activated con-formation for ligands without the need of "inside-out" signals. Our results also indicated that the COOH-terminal sequence of β3 might play a key role in integrin αⅡb/αvβ3-mediated cell adhesion and spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. The cells expressing αⅡb/αvβ3 have enormous potential for facilitating drug screen-ing for antagonists either to αvβ3 intracellular interactions or to αⅡbβ3 receptor functions.

  3. [Research of Human-mouse Chimeric Antibodies Against Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongping; Sun, Lina; Liu, Yang; Wu, Wei; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mifang; Qiu, Peihong

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus is highly infectious and can result in death in ≤ 90% of infected subjects. Detection of the Ebola virus and diagnosis of infection are extremely important for epidemic control. Presently, Chinese laboratories detect the nucleic acids of the Ebola virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, such detection takes a relatively long time and necessitates skilled personnel and expensive equipment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of serum is simple, easy to operate, and can be used to ascertain if a patient is infected with the Ebola virus as well as the degree of infection. Hence, ELISA can be used in epidemiological investigations and is a strong complement to detection of nucleic acids. Cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have not been documented in China, so quality-control material for positive serology is needed. Construction and expression of human-mouse chimeric antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the Ebola virus was carried out. Genes encoding variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains were extracted and amplified from murine hybridoma cells. Genes encoding the VH and VL chains of monoclonal antibodies were amplified by RT-PCR. According to sequence analyses, a primer was designed to amplify functional sequences relative to VH and VL chain. The eukaryotic expression vector HL51-14 carrying some human antibody heavy chain- and light chain-constant regions was used. IgG antibodies were obtained by transient transfection of 293T cells. Subsequently, immunological detection and immunological identification were identified by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. These results showed that we constructed and purified two human- mouse chimeric antibodies.

  4. Performance Assessment of a Trypanosoma cruzi Chimeric Antigen in Multiplex Liquid Microarray Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Celedon, Paola Alejandra Fiorani; Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; Leitolis, Amanda; Crestani, Sandra; Foti, Leonardo; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosing chronic Chagas disease (CD) requires antibody-antigen detection methods, which are traditionally based on enzymatic assay techniques whose performance depend on the type and quality of antigen used. Previously, 4 recombinant chimeric proteins from the Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Paraná (IBMP-8.1 to 8.4) comprising immuno-dominant regions of diverse Trypanosoma cruzi antigens showed excellent diagnostic performance in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Considering that next-generation platforms offer improved CD diagnostic accuracy with different T. cruzi-specific recombinant antigens, we assessed the performance of these chimeras in liquid microarrays (LMAs). The chimeric proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. Sera from 653 chagasic and 680 healthy individuals were used to assess the performance of these chimeras in detecting specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Accuracies ranged from 98.1 to 99.3%, and diagnostic odds ratio values were 3,548 for IBMP-8.3, 4,826 for IBMP-8.1, 7,882 for IBMP-8.2, and 25,000 for IBMP-8.4. A separate sera bank (851 samples) was employed to assess cross-reactivity with other tropical diseases. Leishmania, a pathogen with high similarity to T. cruzi, showed cross-reactivity rates ranging from 0 to 2.17%. Inconclusive results were negligible (0 to 0.71%). Bland-Altman and Deming regression analysis based on 200 randomly selected CD-positive and negative samples demonstrated interchangeability with respect to CD diagnostic performance in both singleplex and multiplex assays. Our results suggested that these chimeras can potentially replace antigens currently used in commercially available assay kits. Moreover, the use of multiplex platforms, such as LMA assays employing 2 or more IBMP antigens, would abrogate the need for 2 different testing techniques when diagnosing CD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Updated SO2 Emission Estimates over China using OMI/Aura Observations and the CHIMERE CTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, R. J.; Balis, D.; Koukouli, M.; Theys, N.; Ding, J.; Zyrichidou, I.; Mijling, B.

    2016-12-01

    As part of EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project, http://www.marcopolo.eu/, updated sulphur dioxide, SO2, emissions for the time period 2005 to 2015 inclusive are presented here. Monthly mean OMI/Aura anthropogenic SO2, observations over Eastern China for the domain 102°E to 132°E and from 15°N to 55°N form the basis of the new emission inventory, which is provided on a spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25°. The 2010 Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), http://www.meicmodel.org/. SO2 emissions, in Mg/month, form the baseline apriori inventory, coupled with the multi-scale model for air quality forecasting and simulation, CHIMERE, http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/, v2013b, which is providing the SO2 field. The pre-2010 trend in resulting emissions show that these appear to be stable in time, with a slight negative, possibly not significant, trend nonetheless; from the monthly mean aposteriori emissions, for the entire domain, pre-2010, the change appears to be of the order of -0.51±0.38Tg, whereas post-2010, -1.64±0.37Tg. From the seasonal emissions, those estimates remain similar at -0.34±0.49Tg and -1.26±0.33Tg respectively. The largest differences between apriori and aposteriori become vastly significant from year 2014 onwards, confirming similar studies that monitor the decrease in SO2 emissions over China from space.

  6. Expression of a new chimeric protein with a highly repeated sequence in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumonneau, Amélie; Rottier, Karine; Conrad, Udo; Popineau, Yves; Guéguen, Jacques; Francin-Allami, Mathilde

    2011-07-01

    In wheat, the high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are known to contribute to gluten viscoelasticity, and show some similarities to elastomeric animal proteins as elastin. When combining the sequence of a glutenin with that of elastin is a way to create new chimeric functional proteins, which could be expressed in plants. The sequence of a glutenin subunit was modified by the insertion of several hydrophobic and elastic motifs derived from elastin (elastin-like peptide, ELP) into the hydrophilic repetitive domain of the glutenin subunit to create a triblock protein, the objective being to improve the mechanical (elastomeric) properties of this wheat storage protein. In this study, we investigated an expression model system to analyze the expression and trafficking of the wild-type HMW glutenin subunit (GS(W)) and an HMW glutenin subunit mutated by the insertion of elastin motifs (GS(M)-ELP). For this purpose, a series of constructs was made to express wild-type subunits and subunits mutated by insertion of elastin motifs in fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in tobacco BY-2 cells. Our results showed for the first time the expression of HMW glutenin fused with GFP in tobacco protoplasts. We also expressed and localized the chimeric protein composed of plant glutenin and animal elastin-like peptides (ELP) in BY-2 protoplasts, and demonstrated its presence in protein body-like structures in the endoplasmic reticulum. This work, therefore, provides a basis for heterologous production of the glutenin-ELP triblock protein to characterize its mechanical properties.

  7. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiaoting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. Results A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. Conclusions In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as “synthetic metabolic engineering”. Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be

  8. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Omasa, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-09-06

    The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as "synthetic metabolic engineering". Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be potentially applicable to the biocatalytic manufacture of any chemicals

  9. Synthesis and translocation of gangliosides and glycoproteins during urethane anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domowicz, M.S.; Kivatinitz, S.C.; Caputto, B.L.; Caputto, R.

    1988-05-01

    In this work, we have studied (a) the contents of gangliosides, glycoproteins, and phospholipids of the vesicle and plasma membrane fractions from brains of anesthetized and control rats and chickens and (b) the labeling of gangliosides and glycoproteins in the retina ganglion cell layer and optic tectum of urethane-anesthetized and control chickens after intraocular injection of a labeled N-acetylneuraminic acid precursor and the distribution of the label after subcellular fractionation. We found an increase in the content of gangliosides relative to protein in the vesicle fraction of both anesthetized rats and chickens relative to their controls. Other values were not affected by anesthesia. These results do not reflect a faster synthesis of gangliosides stimulated by urethane, because their rate of labeling was diminished in anesthetized animals. During the 4-h period after the animals were injected intraocularly with the radioactive precursor, the highest values of ganglioside-specific radioactivity were found in the vesicle fraction of control and anesthetized animals; at longer intervals, the specific radioactivity of the vesicle and plasma membrane fractions became rather similar. These data are in accordance with previous studies from this laboratory suggesting that the synthesis of the carbohydrate chain of gangliosides is regulated by the physiological demands made by the neurotransmitting system.

  10. Interaction of native and asialo rat sublingual glycoproteins with lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Chang, K S

    1995-01-01

    The binding properties of the rat sublingual glycoprotein (RSL) and its asialo product with lectins were characterized by quantitative precipitin(QPA) and precipitin inhibition(QPIA) assays. Among twenty lectins tested for QPA, native RSL reacted well only with Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin), but weakly or not at all with the other lectins. However, its asialo product (asialo-RSL) reacted strongly with many Gal and GalNAc specific lectins-it bound best to three of the GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr (Tn) and/or Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II) active lectins [jacalin, Wistaria floribunda and Ricinus communis agglutinins] and completely precipitated each of these three lectins. Asialo-RSL also reacted well with Abrus precatorius, Glycine max, Bauhinia purpurea alba, and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and abrin-a, but not with Arachis hypogeae and Dolichos biflorus agglutinins. The interaction between asialo-RSL and lectins were inhibited by either Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, p-NO2-phenyl alpha-GalNAc or both. The mapping of the precipitation and inhibition profiles leads to the conclusion that the asialo rat sublingual glycoprotein provides important ligands for II (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->) and Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) active lectins.

  11. Characterization of monomeric intermediates during VSV glycoprotein structural transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie A Albertini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes, driven by conformational changes of viral glycoproteins. Crystal structures provide static pictures of pre- and post-fusion conformations of these proteins but the transition pathway remains elusive. Here, using several biophysical techniques, including analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroïsm, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, we have characterized the low-pH-induced fusogenic structural transition of a soluble form of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV glycoprotein G ectodomain (G(th, aa residues 1-422, the fragment that was previously crystallized. While the post-fusion trimer is the major species detected at low pH, the pre-fusion trimer is not detected in solution. Rather, at high pH, G(th is a flexible monomer that explores a large conformational space. The monomeric population exhibits a marked pH-dependence and adopts more elongated conformations when pH decreases. Furthermore, large relative movements of domains are detected in absence of significant secondary structure modification. Solution studies are complemented by electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles in which monomeric ectodomains of G are observed at the viral surface at both pH 7.5 and pH 6.7. We propose that the monomers are intermediates during the conformational change and thus that VSV G trimers dissociate at the viral surface during the structural transition.

  12. Identification of a mouse synaptic glycoprotein gene in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Sun, Chun Xiao; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hua Dong; Wang, Chen Ran; Zhao, Guo Ping; Jin, Meilei; Lau, Lok Ting; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Liu, Shuang

    2005-10-01

    Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will require more investigation.

  13. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate ({sup 14}C)glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with ({sup 14}C)glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline.

  14. Characterization of Lassa virus glycoprotein oligomerization and influence of cholesterol on virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlie, Katrin; Maisa, Anna; Lennartz, Frank; Ströher, Ute; Garten, Wolfgang; Strecker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mature glycoprotein spikes are inserted in the Lassa virus envelope and consist of the distal subunit GP-1, the transmembrane-spanning subunit GP-2, and the signal peptide, which originate from the precursor glycoprotein pre-GP-C by proteolytic processing. In this study, we analyzed the oligomeric structure of the viral surface glycoprotein. Chemical cross-linking studies of mature glycoprotein spikes from purified virus revealed the formation of trimers. Interestingly, sucrose density gradient analysis of cellularly expressed glycoprotein showed that in contrast to trimeric mature glycoprotein complexes, the noncleaved glycoprotein forms monomers and oligomers spanning a wide size range, indicating that maturation cleavage of GP by the cellular subtilase SKI-1/S1P is critical for formation of the correct oligomeric state. To shed light on a potential relation between cholesterol and GP trimer stability, we performed cholesterol depletion experiments. Although depletion of cholesterol had no effect on trimerization of the glycoprotein spike complex, our studies revealed that the cholesterol content of the viral envelope is important for the infectivity of Lassa virus. Analyses of the distribution of viral proteins in cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant membrane areas showed that Lassa virus buds from membrane areas other than those responsible for impaired infectivity due to cholesterol depletion of lipid rafts. Thus, derivation of the viral envelope from cholesterol-rich membrane areas is not a prerequisite for the impact of cholesterol on virus infectivity.

  15. Structural analysis of N- and O-glycans released from glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Karlsson, Niclas G; Kolarich, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    This protocol shows how to obtain a detailed glycan compositional and structural profile from purified glycoproteins or protein mixtures, and it can be used to distinguish different isobaric glycan isomers. Glycoproteins are immobilized on PVDF membranes before the N-glycans are enzymatically...

  16. Filamentous fungi as production organisms for glycoproteins of bio-medical interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maras, M.; Die, I. van; Contreras, R.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are commonly used in the fermentation industry for large scale production of glycoproteins. Several of these proteins can be produced in concentrations up to 20-40 g per litre. The production of heterologous glycoproteins is at least one or two orders of magnitude lower but researc

  17. Investigating the biomarker potential of glycoproteins using comparative glycoprofiling - application to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Ida; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær;

    2008-01-01

    Cancer-induced alterations of protein glycosylations are well-known phenomena. Hence, the glycoprofile of certain glycoproteins can potentially be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis. However, there are a substantial number of candidates and the techniques for measuring their biomarker potential...... tool for biomarker investigation of low-abundant glycoproteins....

  18. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5425 Section 866.5425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5425 Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological...

  20. Filamentous fungi as production organisms for glycoproteins of bio-medical interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maras, M.; Die, I. van; Contreras, R.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are commonly used in the fermentation industry for large scale production of glycoproteins. Several of these proteins can be produced in concentrations up to 20-40 g per litre. The production of heterologous glycoproteins is at least one or two orders of magnitude lower but

  1. Surface Glycoproteins of Exosomes Shed by Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Contribute to Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sitara; Danielson, Steven; Clements, Virginia; Edwards, Nathan; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Fenselau, Catherine

    2017-01-06

    In this report, we use a proteomic strategy to identify glycoproteins on the surface of exosomes derived from myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and then test if selected glycoproteins contribute to exosome-mediated chemotaxis and migration of MDSCs. We report successful modification of a surface chemistry method for use with exosomes and identify 21 surface N-glycoproteins on exosomes released by mouse mammary carcinoma-induced MDSCs. These glycoprotein identities and functionalities are compared with 93 N-linked glycoproteins identified on the surface of the parental cells. As with the lysate proteomes examined previously, the exosome surface N-glycoproteins are primarily a subset of the glycoproteins on the surface of the suppressor cells that released them, with related functions and related potential as therapeutic targets. The "don't eat me" molecule CD47 and its binding partners thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) were among the surface N-glycoproteins detected. Functional bioassays using antibodies to these three molecules demonstrated that CD47, TSP1, and to a lesser extent SIRPα facilitate exosome-mediated MDSC chemotaxis and migration.

  2. Glycoproteins from sugarcane plants regulate cell polarity of Ustilago scitaminea teliospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millanes, Ana-María; Fontaniella, Blanca; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    Saccharum officinarum, cv. Mayarí, is a variety of sugarcane resistant to smut disease caused by Ustilago scitaminea. Sugarcane naturally produces glycoproteins that accumulate in the parenchymatous cells of stalks. These glycoproteins contain a heterofructan as polysaccharide moiety. The concentration of these glycoproteins clearly increases after inoculation of sugarcane plants with smut teliospores, although major symptoms of disease are not observed. These glycoproteins induce homotypic adhesion and inhibit teliospore germination. When glycoproteins from healthy, non-inoculated plants are fractionated, they inhibit actin capping, which occurs before teliospore germination. However, inoculation of smut teliospores induce glycoprotein fractions that promote teliospore polarity and are different from those obtained from healthy plants. These fractions exhibit arginase activity, which is strongly enhanced in inoculated plants. Arginase from healthy plants binds to cell wall teliospores and it is completely desorpted by sucrose, but only 50% of arginase activity from inoculated plants is desorpted by the disaccharide. The data presented herein are consistent with a model of excess arginase entry into teliospores. Arginase synthesized by sugarcane plants as a response to the experimental infection would increase the synthesis of putrescine, which impedes polarization at concentration values higher than 0.05 mM. However, smut teliospores seem to be able to change the pattern of glycoprotein production by sugarcane, thereby promoting the synthesis of different glycoproteins that activate polarization after binding to their cell wall ligand.

  3. Protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract on glycoprotein components on STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnadurai Veeramani; Khalid S Al-Numair; Mohammed A Alsaif; Govindasamy Chandramohan; Nouf S Al-Numair; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) leaf extract on glycoprotein metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. TheC. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) was administered orally to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 45 days. The effects of C. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) on plasma and tissue glycoproteins (hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) were determined. Results: The levels of plasma and tissues glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the level of sialic acid significantly increased in plasma and liver while decreased in kidney of STZ-induced diabetic rats. After administration of CHE to diabetic rats, the metabolic alteration of glycoprotein reverted towards normal levels.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the CHE possesses a protective effect on abnormal glycoprotein metabolism in addition to its antihyperglycemic activity.

  4. Novel thermo-responsive fucose binding ligands for glycoprotein purification by affinity precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lindsay; Chen, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Novel thermo-responsive affinity sugar binders were developed by fusing a bacterial fucose lectin with a thermo-responsive polypeptide. These designer affinity ligand fusions were produced using an Escherichia coli system capable of extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins and were isolated with a high recovery yield (95%) directly from growth medium by Inverse Temperature Cycling (ITC). With horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as a model protein, we demonstrate here that the designer thermo-responsive ligands are capable of interacting with glycans on a glycoprotein, a property that was used to develop a novel affinity precipitation method for glycoprotein purification. The method, requiring only simple process steps, affords full recovery of a target glycoprotein, and is effective at a target glycoprotein concentration as low as 1.4 pM in the presence of large amounts of contaminants. By developing other sugar binders in the similar fashion, the method should be highly useful for glycoprotein purification and detection.

  5. Loop-acting diuretics do not bind to Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunisholz, M C; Lynn, K L; Hunt, J S

    1987-09-01

    1. Binding between the radiolabelled loop-acting diuretics ([14C]frusemide, [14C]ethacrynic acid and [3H]bumetanide) and human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein or human serum albumin in vitro was evaluated by equilibrium dialysis. 2. The diuretic action and binding to urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein of the radiolabelled diuretics in vivo, after intravenous administration, were examined in rabbits. 3. In vitro, all three radiolabelled diuretics bound strongly to human serum albumin, but not to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein. 4. Radiolabelled frusemide and bumetanide, but not ethacrynic acid, caused a diuresis in rabbits, but no binding between the drugs and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein was seen in vivo. 5. Binding to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein does not appear to be an important mechanism in the action of loop diuretics.

  6. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I

    1993-01-01

    We used lectin overlay blotting and SDS-PAGE to analyze the estrous cycle-specific expression of mouse vaginal epithelial glycoproteins. Seven lectins chosen for their differential carbohydrate-binding specificity revealed 15 glycoproteins that showed cycle-related expression. Each lectin had...... a unique binding pattern different from the patterns revealed by other lectins. However, several estrous cycle phase-specific glycoproteins reacted with more than one lectin. The most prominent of these glycoproteins (M(r) 92-95 KD) was weakly expressed in late diestrus and fully expressed only...... in proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...

  7. Demethoxycurcumin modulates human P-glycoprotein function via uncompetitive inhibition of ATPase hydrolysis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Hung, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Yi

    2015-01-28

    Curcuminoids are major components of Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice in food. This study aimed at identifying whether curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin could modulate efflux function of human P-glycoprotein and be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatments. Without altering P-glycoprotein expression levels and conformation, the purified curcuminoids significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux function. In rhodamine 123 efflux and calcein-AM accumulation assays, demethoxycurcumin demonstrated the highest inhibition potency (inhibitory IC50 = 1.56 ± 0.13 μM) among the purified curcuminoids, as well as in the fold of reversal assays. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated ATP hydrolysis under concentrations of P-glycoprotein. These results suggested that demethoxycurcumin may be a potential additive natural product in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in drug-resistant cancers.

  8. Developmental and mutational changes of glycoproteins in the mouse neuronal retina: studies with bovine galactosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenfels, B

    1979-07-01

    Bovine galactosyltransferase (lactose synthase; EC 2.4.1.22) which catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to glycoproteins with N-acetylglucosamine as the terminal residue of their oligosaccharide side chains was used to label glycoproteins of mouse retina with [14C]galactose. The glycoproteins were separated by isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. Their position on the gel was determined by autofluorography. With this method, quantitative as well as qualitative changes in the glycoprotein composition of the neuronal mouse retina during postnatal development were observed. Furthermore, it was found that the photoreceptor loss in mice with retinal degeneration was paralleled by the disappearance of certain glycoprotein bands.

  9. Production of Highly Sialylated Recombinant Glycoproteins Using Ricinus communis Agglutinin-I-Resistant CHO Glycosylation Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, John S Y; Chan, Kah Fai; Song, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The degree of sialylation of therapeutic glycoproteins affects its circulatory half-life and efficacy because incompletely sialylated glycoproteins are cleared from circulation by asialoglycoprotein receptors present in the liver cells. Mammalian expression systems, often employed in the production of these glycoprotein drugs, produce heterogeneously sialylated products. Here, we describe how to produce highly sialylated glycoproteins using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell glycosylation mutant called CHO-gmt4 with human erythropoietin (EPO) as a model glycoprotein. The protocol describes how to isolate and characterize the CHO glycosylation mutants and how to assess the sialylation of the recombinant protein using isoelectric focusing (IEF). It further describes how to inactivate the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in these cells using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to enable gene amplification and the generation of stable cell lines producing highly sialylated EPO.

  10. Binding of soluble glycoproteins from sugarcane juice to cells of Acetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M E; de Armas, R; Barriguete, E; Vicente, C

    2000-09-01

    Sugarcane produces two different pools of glycoproteins containing a heterofructan as glycidic moiety, tentatively defined as high-molecular mass (HMMG) and mid-molecular mass (MMMG) glycoproteins. Both kinds of glycoproteins can be recovered in sugarcane juice. Fluorescein-labelled glycoproteins are able to bind to Acetobacter diazotrophicus cells, a natural endophyte of sugarcane. This property implies the aggregation of bacterial cells in liquid culture after addition of HMMG or MMMG. Anionic glycoproteins seem to be responsible for the binding activity whereas cationic fraction is not retained on the surface ofA. diazotrophicus. Bound HMMG is competitively desorbed by sucrose whereas MMMG is desorbed by glucosamine or fructose. On this basis, a hypothesis about the discriminatory ability of sugarcane to choose the compatible endophyte from several possible ones is proposed.

  11. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  12. P-glycoprotein levels predict poor outcome in patients with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornicek, F J; Gebhardt, M C; Wolfe, M W; Kharrazi, F D; Takeshita, H; Parekh, S G; Zurakowski, D; Mankin, H J

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the expression of P-glycoprotein by osteosarcomas and the rate of metastasis and death, a retrospective review of 172 patients who were diagnosed with osteosarcoma between 1987 and 1992 was performed. Forty patients had P-glycoprotein levels available. The majority of the osteosarcomas were Stage II-B (33 patients), with the remaining seven being Stage III. Tumor sites included 25 femurs, seven humeri, five tibias, and one each of pelvis, radius, and fibula. The patients with Stage III disease at presentation were treated differently from the time of diagnosis and therefore, these seven patients with Stage III osteosarcoma were excluded from additional analyses. The expression of P-glycoprotein by cultured tumor cells from biopsy specimens was determined using immunofluorescent microscopy. In the 33 patients with Stage IIB osteosarcoma with detectable P-glycoprotein, 67% (10 of 15) had metastases develop as compared with 28% (five of 18) of patients with undetectable P-glycoprotein. Similarly, 53% (eight of 15) of patients with tumors expressing P-glycoprotein died of disease compared with 11% (two of 18) with no detectable P-glycoprotein. Expression of P-glycoprotein by tumor cells seems to be associated with an estimated ninefold increase in the odds of death and a fivefold increase in the odds of metastases in patients with Stage IIB osteosarcoma. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis revealed that patients with detectable P-glycoprotein fared worse in terms of survival time and metastasis-free survival. Adjusting for covariates in the Cox proportional hazards model, expression of P-glycoprotein and its level were significantly predictive of time to death in patients with Stage IIB osteosarcoma.

  13. The Mechanism of Henipavirus Fusion: Examining the Relationships between the Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew C. Hickey; Christopher C. Broder

    2009-01-01

    The henipaviruses, represented by Nipah virus and Hendra virus, are emerging zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These viruses enter host cells via a class I viral fusion mechanism mediated by their attachment and fusion envelope glycoproteins; efficient membrane fusion requires both these glycoproteins in conjunction with specific virus receptors present on susceptible host cells. The henipavirus attachment glycoprotein interacts with a cellular B class ephrin protein receptor triggering conformational alterations leading to the activation of the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein. The analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) reactivity with G has revealed measurable alterations in the antigenic structure of the glycoprotein following its binding interaction with receptor. These observations only appear to occur with full-length native G glycoprotein, which is a tetrameric oligomer, and not with soluble forms of G (sG), which are disulfide-linked dimers. Single amino acid mutations in a heptad repeat-like structure within the stalk domain of G can disrupt its association with F and subsequent membrane fusion promotion activity. Notably, these mutants of G also appear to confer a postreceptor bound conformation implicating the stalk domain as an important element in the G glycoprotein's structure and functional relationship with F. Together, these observations suggest fusion is dependent on a specific interaction between the F and G glycoproteins of the henipaviruses. Further, receptor binding induces measurable changes in the G glycoprotein that appear to be greatest in respect to the interactions between the pairs of dimers comprising its native tetrameric structure. These receptor-induced conformational changes may be associated with the G glycoprotein's promotion of the fusion activity of F.

  14. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    glycoprotein glycoforms to their receptors is inhibited by steroids. Testosterone, oestradiol and progesterone inhibited the binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform A to its receptor. Cortisone, aldosterone, oestradiol and progesterone inhibited the binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms B...

  15. Mixed chimerism renders residual host dendritic cells incapable of alloimmunization of the marrow donor in the canine model of allogeneic marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Steven L; Graves, Scott S; Higginbotham, Deborah A; Storb, Rainer

    2015-10-02

    This study tested whether an alloimmune response can occur in the marrow donor when infused or injected with leukocytes from their mixed chimeric transplant recipient. Two mixed chimeras were produced after conditioning with three Gray total body irradiation, donor marrow infusion, and post-grafting immunosuppression. The marrow donors were then repeatedly infused and injected with leukocytes from their respective chimeric recipient. A donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) into their mixed chimeras had no effect, even after the experiments were repeated. The presence of blood dendritic cells (DCs) of recipient origin was confirmed in chimeric recipients, as well as the presence of microchimerism in the marrow donors. Donor sensitization did occur following placement of a recipient skin graft that was confirmed following DLI into recipients that changed the mixed chimeras into full donor chimeras. These observations suggest that mixed chimerism renders recipient peripheral blood DCs incapable of inducing a donor T cell response.

  16. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  17. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  18. Myelin-associated glycoprotein and its axonal receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaar, Ronald L; Lopez, Pablo H H

    2009-11-15

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is expressed on the innermost myelin membrane wrap, directly apposed to the axon surface. Although it is not required for myelination, MAG enhances long-term axon-myelin stability, helps to structure nodes of Ranvier, and regulates the axon cytoskeleton. In addition to its role in axon-myelin stabilization, MAG inhibits axon regeneration after injury; MAG and a discrete set of other molecules on residual myelin membranes at injury sites actively signal axons to halt elongation. Both the stabilizing and the axon outgrowth inhibitory effects of MAG are mediated by complementary MAG receptors on the axon surface. Two MAG receptor families have been described, sialoglycans (specifically gangliosides GD1a and GT1b) and Nogo receptors (NgRs). Controversies remain about which receptor(s) mediates which of MAG's biological effects. Here we review the findings and challenges in associating MAG's biological effects with specific receptors.

  19. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  20. INTERFERON SELECTIVELY INHIBITS THE SYNTHESIS OF MAYARO VIRUS GLYCOPROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis F. Ferreira

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available We have previously observed that interferon (recIFNa2b blocks the process of morphogenesis of Mayaro virus in TC7 cells (monkey kidney. In this work we show that IFNa inhibits preferentially virus glycoproteins and their precursors, and this effect is probably correlated to the alterations in the morphogenesis process previously observed.Observamos anteriormente que o Interferon (IFN recombinante a2b bloqueia o processo de morfogênese do vírus Mayaro em células TC7 (rim de macaco. Neste trabalho demonstramos que o IFNa inibe preferencialmente as glicoproteínas virais e seus precursores e que este efeito está, provavelmente, correlacionado com as alterações no processo de morfogênese previamente observadas.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  2. Stereoselective Modulation of P-Glycoprotein by Chiral Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Catalano, Alessia; Turi, Francesco; Lovece, Angelo; Cavalluzzi, Maria M; Bruno, Claudio; Colabufo, Nicola A; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria G; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of drug efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an approach toward combating multidrug resistance, which is a significant hurdle in current cancer treatments. To address this, N-substituted aryloxymethyl pyrrolidines were designed and synthesized in their homochiral forms in order to investigate the stereochemical requirements for the binding site of P-gp. Our study provides evidence that the chiral property of molecules could be a strategy for improving the capacity for interacting with P-gp, as the most active compounds of the series stereoselectively modulated this efflux pump. The naphthalene-1-yl analogue (R)-2-[(2,3-dichlorophenoxy)methyl]-1-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)pyrrolidine) [(R)-7 a] emerged foremost for its potency and stereoselectivity toward P-gp, with the S enantiomer being nearly inactive. The modulation of P-gp by (R)-7 a involved consumption of ATP, thus demonstrating that the compound behaves as a P-gp substrate.

  3. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. E.; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  4. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus major envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gerda; Klein, Michael G; Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Ma, Runlin Z; Asokan, Rengasamy; Holers, V Michael; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2006-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B cells is associated with lymphoma and other human cancers. EBV infection is initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp350) to the cell surface receptor CR2. We determined the X-ray structure of the highly glycosylated gp350 and defined the CR2 binding site on gp350. Polyglycans shield all but one surface of the gp350 polypeptide, and we demonstrate that this glycan-free surface is the receptor-binding site. Deglycosylated gp350 bound CR2 similarly to the glycosylated form, suggesting that glycosylation is not important for receptor binding. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the glycan-free surface disrupted receptor binding as well as binding by a gp350 monoclonal antibody, a known inhibitor of virus-receptor interactions. These results provide structural information for developing drugs and vaccines to prevent infection by EBV and related viruses.

  5. Variation in the Major Surface Glycoprotein Genes in Pneumocystis jirovecii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Geetha; Maldarelli, Frank; Achaz, Guillaume; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Pneumocystis, which causes life-threatening pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients, contains a multi-copy gene family that encodes the major surface glycoprotein (Msg). Pneumocystis can vary the expressed Msg, presumably as a mechanism to avoid host immune responses. Analysis of 24 msg gene sequences obtained from a single human Pneumocystis isolate demonstrated that the sequences segregate into two branches. Based on a number of analyses, recombination among msg genes appears to be an important mechanism for generating msg diversity. Intra-branch recombination occurred more frequently than inter-branch recombination. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated substantial variation in the repertoire of the msg gene family among isolates of human Pneumocystis, which was not observed in laboratory isolates of rat or mouse Pneumocystis; this may be the result of examining outbred vs. captive populations. Increased diversity in the Msg repertoire, generated in part by recombination, increases the potential for antigenic variation in this abundant surface protein. PMID:18627244

  6. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina;

    2011-01-01

    and biological significance of IgE antibodies to N-glycans from wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers. A structured questionnaire, skin prick tests, serum IgE levels, IgE-immunoblotting to wine extracts, and basophil activation tests were used to characterize 20 heavy drinkers and 10 control subjects. Eleven...... heavy drinkers (55%) showed IgE binding to proteins in wine extracts. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as grape-derived vacuolar invertase and thaumatin-like protein. Immunoblot reactivity was closely associated with the presence of IgE to CCDs and was inhibited by preincubation...... with a glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine...

  7. Bioskin as an affinity matrix for the separation of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, C; Sebastián, B; Fontaniella, B; Márquez, A; Xavier Filho, L; Legaz, M E

    2001-05-11

    Bioskin is a natural product produced by a mixed culture of Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pombe cultured on media containing sucrose. It is of fibrillar nature able to retain some proteins, such as cytochrome c, by adsorption, and mainly composed of glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This makes it possible that, at an adequate pH value, proteins charged as polyanionic molecules, such as catalase, can be retained by ionic adsorption using the positively charged amino groups of the matrix. In addition, bioskin can also be used as an affinity matrix to retain glycoproteins able to perform specific affinity reactions with the amino sugars of the matrix, such as invertase, fetuin or ovalbumin. Its possible use as a chromatographic support is discussed.

  8. In silico-based vaccine design against Ebola virus glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Raju Dash,1 Rasel Das,2 Md Junaid,3 Md Forhad Chowdhury Akash,4 Ashekul Islam,5 SM Zahid Hosen1 1Molecular Modeling and Drug Design Laboratory (MMDDL, Pharmacology Research Division, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Center, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV is one of the lethal viruses, causing more than 24 epidemic outbreaks to date. Despite having available molecular knowledge of this virus, no definite vaccine or other remedial agents have been developed yet for the management and avoidance of EBOV infections in humans. Disclosing this, the present study described an epitope-based peptide vaccine against EBOV, using a combination of B-cell and T-cell epitope predictions, followed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approach. Here, protein sequences of all glycoproteins of EBOV were collected and examined via in silico methods to determine the most immunogenic protein. From the identified antigenic protein, the peptide region ranging from 186 to 220 and the sequence HKEGAFFLY from the positions of 154–162 were considered the most potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes, correspondingly. Moreover, this peptide (HKEGAFFLY interacted with HLA-A*32:15 with the highest binding energy and stability, and also a good conservancy of 83.85% with maximum population coverage. The results imply that the designed epitopes could manifest vigorous enduring defensive immunity against EBOV. Keywords: Ebola virus, epitope, glycoprotein, vaccine design

  9. Crystal Structure of the Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G Burke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, a dsDNA, enveloped virus, is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infections and caused disease in persons with compromised immune systems, e.g., organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients. HCMV is also a leading cause of congenital viral infections in newborns. Entry of HCMV into cells requires the conserved glycoprotein B (gB, thought to function as a fusogen and reported to bind signaling receptors. gB also elicits a strong immune response in humans and induces the production of neutralizing antibodies although most anti-gB Abs are non-neutralizing. Here, we report the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain determined to 3.6-Å resolution, which is the first atomic-level structure of any betaherpesvirus glycoprotein. The structure of HCMV gB resembles the postfusion structures of HSV-1 and EBV homologs, establishing it as a new member of the class III viral fusogens. Despite structural similarities, each gB has a unique domain arrangement, demonstrating structural plasticity of gB that may accommodate virus-specific functional requirements. The structure illustrates how extensive glycosylation of the gB ectodomain influences antibody recognition. Antigenic sites that elicit neutralizing antibodies are more heavily glycosylated than those that elicit non-neutralizing antibodies, which suggest that HCMV gB uses glycans to shield neutralizing epitopes while exposing non-neutralizing epitopes. This glycosylation pattern may have evolved to direct the immune response towards generation of non-neutralizing antibodies thus helping HCMV to avoid clearance. HCMV gB structure provides a starting point for elucidation of its antigenic and immunogenic properties and aid in the design of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies.

  10. Detection of Salmonella invA by isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Makungu, Chitwambi; Yabe, John; Sinkala, Patson; Nambota, Andrew; Isogai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Silungwe, Manda; Mubita, Charles; Syakalima, Michelo; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Kozaki, Shunji; Yasuda, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) is a new isothermal DNA amplification method composed of exo Bca DNA polymerase, RNaseH and DNA-RNA chimeric primers. We detected invA of Salmonella from chicken carcasses, egg yolk and cattle fecal samples. Fifty-three of 59 isolates were invA-positive in ICAN-chromatostrip detection. The result was consistent with those obtained by standard PCR. Salmonella invA was detected in 12 of 14 carcass rinses by ICAN, while in 7 of 14 rinses by standard PCR. These results indicate that ICAN is an efficient, sensitive and simple system to detect invA of Salmonella species in developing countries such as Zambia.

  11. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures on a chimeric respiratory syncytial virus protein expressed in insect cell line Sf9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathen, M.W.; Aeed, P.A.; Elhammer, A.P. (Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI (United States))

    1991-03-19

    The oligosaccharide structures added to a chimeric protein (FG) composed of the extracellular domains of respiratory syncytial virus F and G proteins, expressed in the insect cell line Sf9, were investigated. Cells were labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine and infected wit a recombinant baculovirus containing the FG gene. The secreted chimeric protein was isolated by immunoprecipitation and subjected to oligosaccharide analysis. The FG protein contains two types of O-linked oligosaccharides: GalNAc and Gal{beta}1-3GalNAc constituting 17 and 66% of the total number of structures respectively. Only one type of N-linked oligosaccharide, constituting the remaining 17% of the structures on FG, was detected: a trimannosyl core structure with a fucose residue linked {alpha}1-6 to the asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

  12. Chimeric FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae: a bacterial surface display system for heterologous sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, L; Poulsen, LK; Christiansen, Gunna;

    1995-01-01

    The FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae has been tested as a display system for heterologous protein segments on the surface of Escherichia coli. This was carried out by introduction of restriction site handles (BglII sites) in two different positions in the fimH gene, followed by in-frame insertion...... of heterologous DNA segments encoding two reporter sequences. In the selected positions such insertions did not significantly alter the function of the FimH protein with regard to surface location and adhesive ability. The system seemed to be quite flexible, since chimeric versions of the FimH adhesin containing...... as many as 56 foreign amino acids were transported to the bacterial surface as components of the fimbrial organelles. Furthermore, the foreign protein segments were recognized by insert-specific antibodies when expressed within chimeric proteins on the surface of the bacteria. The results from...

  13. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy reveals that a chimeric flavivirus is released as individual particles in secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Sellin, Caroline; Georgeault, Sonia; Uzbekov, Rustem; Lebos, Claude; Guillaume, Jean-Marc; Roingeard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular morphogenesis of flaviviruses has been well described, but flavivirus release from the host cell remains poorly documented. We took advantage of the optimized production of an attenuated chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus for vaccine purposes to study this phenomenon by microscopic approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the release of numerous viral particles at the cell surface through a short-lived process. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the intracellular ultrastructure of the small number of cells releasing viral particles at a given time, we developed a new correlative microscopy method: CSEMTEM (for correlative scanning electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy). CSEMTEM analysis suggested that chimeric flavivirus particles were released as individual particles, in small exocytosis vesicles, via a regulated secretory pathway. Our morphological findings provide new insight into interactions between flaviviruses and cells and demonstrate that CSEMTEM is a useful new method, complementary to SEM observations of biological events by intracellular TEM investigations.

  14. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V; Jarvis, Donald L

    2012-01-17

    The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers.

  15. Authentic display of a cholera toxin epitope by chimeric type 1 fimbriae: effects of insert position and host background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg-Olesen, B; Pallesen, L; Jensen, LB

    1997-01-01

    . Several of the chosen positions seemed amenable even for large foreign inserts; the chimeric proteins were exposed on the bacterial surface and the cholera toxin epitope was authentically displayed, i.e. it was recognized on bacteria by specific antiserum. Display of chimeric fimbriae was tested......The potential of the major structural protein of type 1 fimbriae as a display system for heterologous sequences was tested. As a reporter-epitope, a heterologous sequence mimicking a neutralizing epitope of the cholera toxin B chain was inserted, in one or two copies, into four different positions...... in the fimA gene. This was carried out by introduction of new restriction sites by PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis of fimA in positions predicted to correspond to optimally surface-located regions of the subunit protein. Subsequently, the synthetic cholera-toxin-encoding DNA segment was inserted...

  16. Recruitment of SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and signalling by a chimeric T-cell receptor-killer inhibitory receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M D; Geisler, C

    2000-01-01

    Receptors expressing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail play an important role in the negative regulation of natural killer and B-cell activation. A subpopulation of T cells expresses the ITIM containing killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR), which...... recognize MHC class I molecules. Following coligation of KIR with an activating receptor, the tyrosine in the ITIM is phosphorylated and the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is recruited to the ITIM via its SH2 domains. It is still not clear how SHP-1 affects T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling....... In this study, we constructed a chimeric TCR-KIR receptor. We demonstrated that SHP-1 is recruited to the chimeric TCR-KIR receptor following T-cell stimulation with either anti-TCR monoclonal antibody (MoAb) or superantigen. However, in spite of this we could not detect any effect of SHP-1 on TCR signalling...

  17. An Unusual Chimeric Diterpene Synthase from Emericella variecolor and Its Functional Conversion into a Sesterterpene Synthase by Domain Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bin; Matsuda, Yudai; Mori, Takahiro; Okada, Masahiro; Quan, Zhiyang; Mitsuhashi, Takaaki; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-01-26

    Di- and sesterterpene synthases produce C20 and C25 isoprenoid scaffolds from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate (GFPP), respectively. By genome mining of the fungus Emericella variecolor, we identified a multitasking chimeric terpene synthase, EvVS, which has terpene cyclase (TC) and prenyltransferase (PT) domains. Heterologous gene expression in Aspergillus oryzae led to the isolation of variediene (1), a novel tricyclic diterpene hydrocarbon. Intriguingly, in vitro reaction with the enzyme afforded the new macrocyclic sesterterpene 2 as a minor product from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). The TC domain thus produces the diterpene 1 and the sesterterpene 2 from GGPP and GFPP, respectively. Notably, a domain swap of the PT domain of EvVS with that of another chimeric sesterterpene synthase, EvSS, successfully resulted in the production of 2 in vivo as well. Cyclization mechanisms for the production of these two compounds are proposed.

  18. Transplantation of GFP-expressing blastomeres for live imaging of retinal and brain development in chimeric zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Wei, Xiangyun

    2010-07-19

    Cells change extensively in their locations and property during embryogenesis. These changes are regulated by the interactions between the cells and their environment. Chimeric embryos, which are composed of cells of different genetic background, are great tools to study the cell-cell interactions mediated by genes of interest. The embryonic transparency of zebrafish at early developmental stages permits direct visualization of the morphogenesis of tissues and organs at the cellular level. Here, we demonstrate a protocol to generate chimeric retinas and brains in zebrafish embryos and to perform live imaging of the donor cells. The protocol covers the preparation of transplantation needles, the transplantation of GFP-expressing donor blastomeres to GFP-negative hosts, and the examination of donor cell behavior under live confocal microscopy. With slight modifications, this protocol can also be used to study the embryonic development of other tissues and organs in zebrafish. The advantages of using GFP to label donor cells are also discussed.

  19. Enrichment and identification of glycoproteins in human saliva using lectin magnetic bead arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragata, Michael; Shah, Alok K; Schulz, Benjamin L; Hill, Michelle M; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2016-03-15

    Aberrant glycosylation of proteins is a hallmark of tumorigenesis and could provide diagnostic value in cancer detection. Human saliva is an ideal source of glycoproteins due to the relatively high proportion of glycosylated proteins in the salivary proteome. Moreover, saliva collection is noninvasive and technically straightforward, and the sample collection and storage is relatively easy. Although differential glycosylation of proteins can be indicative of disease states, identification of differential glycosylation from clinical samples is not trivial. To facilitate salivary glycoprotein biomarker discovery, we optimized a method for differential glycoprotein enrichment from human saliva based on lectin magnetic bead arrays (saLeMBA). Selected lectins from distinct reactivity groups were used in the saLeMBA platform to enrich salivary glycoproteins from healthy volunteer saliva. The technical reproducibility of saLeMBA was analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the glycosylated proteins enriched by each lectin. Our saLeMBA platform enabled robust glycoprotein enrichment in a glycoprotein- and lectin-specific manner consistent with known protein-specific glycan profiles. We demonstrated that saLeMBA is a reliable method to enrich and detect glycoproteins present in human saliva.

  20. Preparation of Concanavalin A-Chelating Magnetic Nanoparticles for Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liping; Feng, Shun; Li, Shanshan; Song, Peipei; Wang, Jide

    2015-07-07

    In this work, a soft and nondestructive approach was developed to prepare concanavalin A-chelating magnetic nanoparticles (Con A-MNPs) for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-modified-MNPs (EDTA-MNPs) were prepared by a one-pot chemical coprecipitation method first, and then, Cu(II) cations were used as bridge groups to immobilize Con A on EDTA-MNPs. The as-prepared absorbents with a mean diameter of 15 nm showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field. The results of thermogravimetric analysis showed the content of immobilized Con A was up to 28 wt %. For glycoprotein ovalbumin, the maximum capacity and equilibrium constant were 72.41 mg/g and 0.6035 L/mg, respectively. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable selectivity for glycoproteins and can enrich glycoproteins specifically from a mixture of glycoprotein and nonglycoprotein even at a molar ratio of 1:600. It was also successfully applied for the enrichment of glycoproteins from real egg white samples. We expect that our finding will serve as a helpful template for others to design new adsorbents for enriching glycoproteins.

  1. Protective Role of α2HS-Glycoprotein in HBV-Associated Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Gong Fan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available n this study, levels of plasma α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, serum tumor necrosis factor-α, serum liver function parameters and short-term mortality were measured in 100 hepatitis B patients. Release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence/absence of spermine and α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the significance and potential mechanism of α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein in hepatitis B virus-associated liver damage. Results showed that serum α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein levels in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients were significantly lower than that in chronic hepatitis B patients or healthy controls (p < 0.05. A negative dependence between serum human α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α levels was observed. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the lipopolysaccharide-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernates were significantly reduced by spermine and/or α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein. The latter two proteins jointly inhibited cytokine release. These observations suggest that plasma α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein is an independent marker of liver damage and a prognostic indicator of hepatitis B virus chronicity. It may reduce liver inflammation by partially inhibiting release of inflammatory factors from activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  2. Generation and preclinical evaluation of a DENV-1/2 prM+E chimeric live attenuated vaccine candidate with enhanced prM cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelapang, Poonsook; Nitatpattana, Narong; Suphatrakul, Amporn; Punyahathaikul, Surat; Sriburi, Rungtawan; Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Malasit, Prida; Yoksan, Sutee; Sittisombut, Nopporn

    2013-10-17

    In the absence of a vaccine or sustainable vector control measures, illnesses caused by dengue virus infection remain an important public health problem in many tropical countries. During the export of dengue virus particles, furin-mediated cleavage of the prM envelope protein is usually incomplete, thus generating a mixture of immature, partially mature and mature extracellular particles. Variations in the arrangement and conformation of the envelope proteins among these particles may be associated with their different roles in shaping the antibody response. In an attempt to improve upon live, attenuated dengue vaccine approaches, a mutant chimeric virus, with enhanced prM cleavage, was generated by introducing a cleavage-enhancing substitution into a chimeric DENV-1/2 virus genome, encoding the prM+E sequence of a recent DENV-1 isolate under an attenuated DENV-2 genetic background. A modest increase in virus specific infectivity observed in the mutant chimeric virus affected neither the attenuation phenotype, when assessed in the suckling mouse neurovirulence model, nor multiplication in mosquitoes. The two chimeric viruses induced similar levels of anti-DENV-1 neutralizing antibody response in mice and rhesus macaques, but more efficient control of viremia during viral challenge was observed in macaques immunized with the mutant chimeric virus. These results indicate that the DENV-1/2 chimeric virus, with enhanced prM cleavage, could be useful as an alternative live, attenuated vaccine candidate for further tests in humans.

  3. ChiTaRS-3.1—the enhanced chimeric transcripts and RNA-seq database matched with protein–protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorohovski, Alessandro; Tagore, Somnath; Palande, Vikrant; Malka, Assaf; Raviv-Shay, Dorith; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of chimeric RNAs, which are produced by chromosomal translocations as well as the joining of exons from different genes by trans-splicing, has added a new level of complexity to our study and understanding of the transcriptome. The enhanced ChiTaRS-3.1 database (http://chitars.md.biu.ac.il) is designed to make widely accessible a wealth of mined data on chimeric RNAs, with easy-to-use analytical tools built-in. The database comprises 34 922 chimeric transcripts along with 11 714 cancer breakpoints. In this latest version, we have included multiple cross-references to GeneCards, iHop, PubMed, NCBI, Ensembl, OMIM, RefSeq and the Mitelman collection for every entry in the ‘Full Collection’. In addition, for every chimera, we have added a predicted chimeric protein–protein interaction (ChiPPI) network, which allows for easy visualization of protein partners of both parental and fusion proteins for all human chimeras. The database contains a comprehensive annotation for 34 922 chimeric transcripts from eight organisms, and includes the manual annotation of 200 sense-antiSense (SaS) chimeras. The current improvements in the content and functionality to the ChiTaRS database make it a central resource for the study of chimeric transcripts and fusion proteins. PMID:27899596

  4. Monitoring of hematopoietic chimerism after transplantation for pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome: real-time or conventional short tandem repeat PCR in peripheral blood or bone marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willasch, Andre M; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Shayegi, Nona; Rettinger, Eva; Meyer, Vida; Zabel, Marion; Lang, Peter; Kremens, Bernhard; Meisel, Roland; Strahm, Brigitte; Rossig, Claudia; Gruhn, Bernd; Klingebiel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Bader, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a highly sensitive method for monitoring hematopoietic chimerism and may serve as a surrogate marker for the detection of minimal residual disease minimal residual disease in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), until specific methods of detection become available. Because a systematic comparison of the clinical utility of qPCR with the gold standard short tandem repeat (STR)-PCR has not been reported, we retrospectively measured chimerism by qPCR in 54 children transplanted for MDS in a previous study. Results obtained by STR-PCR in the initial study served as comparison. Because the detection limit of qPCR was sufficiently low to detect an autologous background, we defined the sample as mixed chimera if the proportion of recipient-derived cells exceeded .5%. The true positive rates were 100% versus 80% (qPCR versus STR-PCR, not significant), and mixed chimerism in most cases was detected earlier by qPCR than by STR-PCR (median, 31 days) when chimerism was quantified concurrently in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Both methods revealed a substantial rate of false positives (22.7% versus 13.6%, not significant), indicating the importance of serial testing of chimerism to monitor its progression. Finally, we propose criteria for monitoring chimerism in pediatric MDS with regard to the subtypes, specimens, PCR method, and timing of sampling.

  5. Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

    2014-10-13

    For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine.

  6. Regulation of expression of two LY-6 family genes by intron retention and transcription induced chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallya Meera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of the expression of particular genes can rely on mechanisms that are different from classical transcriptional and translational control. The LY6G5B and LY6G6D genes encode LY-6 domain proteins, whose expression seems to be regulated in an original fashion, consisting of an intron retention event which generates, through an early premature stop codon, a non-coding transcript, preventing expression in most cell lines and tissues. Results The MHC LY-6 non-coding transcripts have shown to be stable and very abundant in the cell, and not subject to Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. This retention event appears not to be solely dependent on intron features, because in the case of LY6G5B, when the intron is inserted in the artificial context of a luciferase expression plasmid, it is fully spliced but strongly stabilises the resulting luciferase transcript. In addition, by quantitative PCR we found that the retained and spliced forms are differentially expressed in tissues indicating an active regulation of the non-coding transcript. EST database analysis revealed that these genes have an alternative expression pathway with the formation of Transcription Induced Chimeras (TIC. This data was confirmed by RT-PCR, revealing the presence of different transcripts that would encode the chimeric proteins CSNKβ-LY6G5B and G6F-LY6G6D, in which the LY-6 domain would join to a kinase domain and an Ig-like domain, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, the LY6G5B and LY6G6D intron-retained transcripts are not subjected to NMD and are more abundant than the properly spliced forms. In addition, these genes form chimeric transcripts with their neighbouring same orientation 5' genes. Of interest is the fact that the 5' genes (CSNKβ or G6F undergo differential splicing only in the context of the chimera (CSNKβ-LY6G5B or G6F-LY6G6C and not on their own.

  7. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17-36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous HPV

  8. Alemtuzumab levels impact acute GVHD, mixed chimerism, and lymphocyte recovery following alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan RIC HCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Lane, Adam; Mehta, Parinda A; Neumeier, Lisa; Jodele, Sonata; Davies, Stella M; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2016-01-28

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan is an effective approach for patients with nonmalignant disorders. Mixed chimerism and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) remain limitations on success. We hypothesized that higher levels of alemtuzumab at day 0 would result in a low risk of acute GVHD, a higher risk of mixed chimerism, and delayed early lymphocyte recovery and that alemtuzumab level thresholds for increased risks of these outcomes would be definable. We collected data from 105 patients to examine the influence of peritransplant alemtuzumab levels on acute GVHD, mixed chimerism, and lymphocyte recovery. The cumulative incidences of initial grades I-IV, II-IV, and III-IV acute GVHD in patients with alemtuzumab levels ≤0.15 vs ≥0.16 μg/mL were 68% vs 18% (P alemtuzumab level ≤0.15 μg/mL was 21%, vs 42% with levels of 0.16 to 4.35 μg/mL, and 100% with levels >4.35 μg/mL (P = .003). Patients with alemtuzumab levels ≤0.15 or 0.16 to 0.56 μg/mL had higher lymphocyte counts at day +30 and higher T-cell counts at day +100 compared with patients with levels ≥0.57 μg/mL (all P alemtuzumab levels impact acute GVHD, mixed chimerism, and lymphocyte recovery following RIC HCT with alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Precision dosing trials are warranted. We recommend a day 0 therapeutic range of 0.2 to 0.4 μg/mL.

  9. CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, C L; thor Straten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for cancer represents a promising new treatment modality. ACT based on the administration of cytotoxic T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing CD19 expressed by B cell malignancies has been shown to induce complete lasting......-associated toxicities, which needs attention. Herein we review current data and discuss key aspects of this powerful approach to treat and potentially cure B cell malignancies....

  10. Origin and ascendancy of a chimeric fusion gene: the beta/delta-globin gene of paenungulate mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Juan C; Sloan, Angela M; Campbell, Kevin L; Storz, Jay F

    2009-07-01

    The delta-globin gene (HBD) of eutherian mammals exhibits a propensity for recombinational exchange with the closely linked beta-globin gene (HBB) and has been independently converted by the HBB gene in multiple lineages. Here we report the presence of a chimeric beta/delta fusion gene in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) that was created by unequal crossing-over between misaligned HBD and HBB paralogs. The recombinant chromosome that harbors the beta/delta fusion gene in elephants is structurally similar to the "anti-Lepore" duplication mutant of humans (the reciprocal exchange product of the hemoglobin Lepore deletion mutant). However, the situation in the African elephant is unique in that the chimeric beta/delta fusion gene supplanted the parental HBB gene and is therefore solely responsible for synthesizing the beta-chain subunits of adult hemoglobin. A phylogenetic survey of beta-like globin genes in afrotherian and xenarthran mammals revealed that the origin of the chimeric beta/delta fusion gene and the concomitant inactivation of the HBB gene predated the radiation of "Paenungulata," a clade of afrotherian mammals that includes three orders: Proboscidea (elephants), Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). The reduced fitness of the human Hb Lepore deletion mutant helps to explain why independently derived beta/delta fusion genes (which occur on an anti-Lepore chromosome) have been fixed in a number of mammalian lineages, whereas the reciprocal delta/beta fusion gene (which occurs on a Lepore chromosome) has yet to be documented in any nonhuman mammal. This illustrates how the evolutionary fates of chimeric fusion genes can be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin.

  11. A tailor-made chimeric thiamine diphosphate dependent enzyme for the direct asymmetric synthesis of (S)-benzoins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Robert; Vogel, Constantin; Schmitz, Carlo; Pleiss, Jürgen; Müller, Michael; Pohl, Martina; Rother, Dörte

    2014-08-25

    Thiamine diphosphate dependent enzymes are well known for catalyzing the asymmetric synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy ketones from simple prochiral substrates. The steric and chemical properties of the enzyme active site define the product spectrum. Enzymes catalyzing the carboligation of aromatic aldehydes to (S)-benzoins have not so far been identified. We were able to close this gap by constructing a chimeric enzyme, which catalyzes the synthesis of various (S)-benzoins with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99%) and very good conversion.

  12. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials t...

  13. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Rachel E; Zheng, Zhili; Lagisetty, Kiran H.; Burns, William R.; Tran, Eric; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Rosati, Shannon F.; Fine, Howard A.; Ferrone, Soldano; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid ...

  14. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials t...

  15. Origin of the nucleus and Ran-dependent transport to safeguard ribosome biogenesis in a chimeric cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár

    2008-07-24

    The origin of the nucleus is a central problem about the origin of eukaryotes. The common ancestry of nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and vesicle coating complexes indicates that the nucleus evolved via the modification of a pre-existing endomembrane system. Such an autogenous scenario is cell biologically feasible, but it is not clear what were the selective or neutral mechanisms that had led to the origin of the nuclear compartment. A key selective force during the autogenous origin of the nucleus could have been the need to segregate ribosome factories from the cytoplasm where ribosomal proteins (RPs) of the protomitochondrium were synthesized. After its uptake by an anuclear cell the protomitochondrium transferred several of its RP genes to the host genome. Alphaproteobacterial RPs and archaebacterial-type host ribosomes were consequently synthesized in the same cytoplasm. This could have led to the formation of chimeric ribosomes. I propose that the nucleus evolved when the host cell compartmentalised its ribosome factories and the tightly linked genome to reduce ribosome chimerism. This was achieved in successive stages by first evolving karyopherin and RanGTP dependent chaperoning of RPs, followed by the evolution of a membrane network to serve as a diffusion barrier, and finally a hydrogel sieve to ensure selective permeability at nuclear pores. Computer simulations show that a gradual segregation of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm via these steps can progressively reduce ribosome chimerism. Ribosome chimerism can provide a direct link between the selective forces for and the mechanisms of evolving nuclear transport and compartmentalisation. The detailed molecular scenario presented here provides a solution to the gradual evolution of nuclear compartmentalization from an anuclear stage. This article was reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre.

  16. Origin of the nucleus and Ran-dependent transport to safeguard ribosome biogenesis in a chimeric cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jékely Gáspár

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of the nucleus is a central problem about the origin of eukaryotes. The common ancestry of nuclear pore complexes (NPC and vesicle coating complexes indicates that the nucleus evolved via the modification of a pre-existing endomembrane system. Such an autogenous scenario is cell biologically feasible, but it is not clear what were the selective or neutral mechanisms that had led to the origin of the nuclear compartment. Results A key selective force during the autogenous origin of the nucleus could have been the need to segregate ribosome factories from the cytoplasm where ribosomal proteins (RPs of the protomitochondrium were synthesized. After its uptake by an anuclear cell the protomitochondrium transferred several of its RP genes to the host genome. Alphaproteobacterial RPs and archaebacterial-type host ribosomes were consequently synthesized in the same cytoplasm. This could have led to the formation of chimeric ribosomes. I propose that the nucleus evolved when the host cell compartmentalised its ribosome factories and the tightly linked genome to reduce ribosome chimerism. This was achieved in successive stages by first evolving karyopherin and RanGTP dependent chaperoning of RPs, followed by the evolution of a membrane network to serve as a diffusion barrier, and finally a hydrogel sieve to ensure selective permeability at nuclear pores. Computer simulations show that a gradual segregation of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm via these steps can progressively reduce ribosome chimerism. Conclusion Ribosome chimerism can provide a direct link between the selective forces for and the mechanisms of evolving nuclear transport and compartmentalisation. The detailed molecular scenario presented here provides a solution to the gradual evolution of nuclear compartmentalization from an anuclear stage. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre.

  17. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingemann, Matthias; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Liang, Bo; Herbert, Richard; Hackenberg, Ashley D; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-05-15

    The recent 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak prompted increased efforts to develop vaccines against EBOV disease. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of an attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) expressing the membrane-anchored form of EBOV glycoprotein GP, as an intranasal (i.n.) EBOV vaccine. GP was codon optimized and expressed either as a full-length protein or as an engineered chimeric form in which its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains were replaced with those of the HPIV1 F protein in an effort to enhance packaging into the vector particle and immunogenicity. GP was inserted either preceding the N gene (pre-N) or between the N and P genes (N-P) of rHPIV1 bearing a stabilized attenuating mutation in the P/C gene (C(Δ170)). The constructs grew to high titers and efficiently and stably expressed GP. Viruses were attenuated, replicating at low titers over several days, in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys (AGMs). Two doses of candidates expressing GP from the pre-N position elicited higher GP neutralizing serum antibody titers than the N-P viruses, and unmodified GP induced higher levels than its TMCT counterpart. Unmodified EBOV GP was packaged into the HPIV1 particle, and the TMCT modification did not increase packaging or immunogenicity but rather reduced the stability of GP expression during in vivo replication. In conclusion, we identified an attenuated and immunogenic i.n. vaccine candidate expressing GP from the pre-N position. It is expected to be well tolerated in humans and is available for clinical evaluation.IMPORTANCE EBOV hemorrhagic fever is one of the most lethal viral infections and lacks a licensed vaccine. Contact of fluids from infected individuals, including droplets or aerosols, with mucosal surfaces is an important route of EBOV spread during a natural outbreak, and aerosols also might be exploited for intentional virus spread. Therefore, vaccines that protect

  18. Effects of pronase and neuraminidase treatment on a myelin-associated glycoprotein in developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, R H

    1976-04-15

    Rats (14 days old) were injected with [14c]fucose and young adult rats with [3H]fucose in order to label the myelin-associated glycoproteins. As previously reported, the major [14C]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in the immature myelin had a higher apparent molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels that the [3H]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in mature myelin. This predominant doubly labelled glycoprotein component was partially purified by preparative gel electrophoresis and converted to glycopeptides by extensive Pronase digestion. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 separated the glycopeptides into several clases, which were designted A,B, C AND D, from high to low molecular weight. The 14C-labelled glycopeptides from immature myeline were enriched in the highest-molecular-weight class A relative to the 3H-labelled glycopeptides from mature myelin. Neuraminidase treatment of the glycoprotein before Pronase digestion greatly decreased the proportion of glycopeptides fractionating in the higher-molecular-weight classes and largely eliminated the developmental differences that were apparent by gel filtration. However, neuraminidase treatment did not decrease the magnitude of the developmental difference revealed by electrophoresing the intact glycoprotein on sodium dodecyl sulphate gels, although it did decrease the apparent molecular weight of the glycoprotein from both the 15-day-old and adult rats by an amount comparable in magnitude to that developmental difference. The results from gel filtration of glycopeptides indicate that there is a higher content of large molecular weight, sialic acid-rich oligosaccharide units in the glycoprotein of immature myelin. However, the higher apparent molecular weight for the glycoprotein from 15-day-old rats on sodium dodcyl sulphate gels is not due primarily to its higher sialic acid content.

  19. Bioactivity of proteins isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 treated with Zanthoxylum piperitum DC glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S; Oh, S; Lim, K-T

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract have beneficial effects on the health of their host. To enhance these effects, the bioactivity of lactobacilli can be fortified through exogenous dietary or pharmacological agents, such as glycoproteins. To elucidate the inductive effect of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC (ZPDC) glycoprotein on Lactobacillus plantarum L67, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity, anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT), growth rate, ATPase activity and β-galactosidase activity of this strain. When Lact. plantarum L67 was treated with ZPDC glycoprotein at different concentrations, the intensities of a few SDS-PAGE bands were slightly changed. The amount of a 23 kDa protein was increased upon treatment with increasing concentrations of ZPDC glycoprotein. The results of this study indicate that the radical-scavenging activity for O2(-) and OH¯, but not for the DPPH radical, increased in a concentration-dependent manner after treatment with ZPDC glycoprotein. The activation of anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT), growth rate and β-galactosidase activity also increased in a concentration-dependent manner in response to ZPDC glycoprotein treatment, whereas ATPase activity was decreased. In summary, ZPDC glycoprotein stimulated an increase in the bioactivity of Lact. plantarum L67. Significance and impact of the study: This study demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum L67 possesses anti-oxidative activity. This strain of lactic bacteria has been known to have various probiotic uses, such as yogurt starters and dietary additional supplements. We found, through this experiment, that the protein has a strong anti-oxidative character, and the activity can be enhanced by treatment with Zanthoxylum piperitum DC (ZPDC) glycoprotein. This study may be application of Lact. plantarum L67 treated by ZPDC glycoprotein in yogurt fermentation. It could be one of the avenues of minimizing yogurt postacidification during storage. In addition

  20. DPPC/poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) chimeric nanostructures as potential drug nanocarriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippa, Natassa [Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Greece); Kaditi, Eleni; Pispas, Stergios [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation (Greece); Demetzos, Costas, E-mail: demetzos@pharm.uoa.gr [Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, we report on the self assembly behavior and on stability studies of mixed (chimeric) nanosystems consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (MPOx) gradient copolymer in aqueous media and in fetal bovine serum (FBS). A gamut of light scattering techniques and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in order to extract information on the size and morphological characteristics of the nanoassemblies formed, as a function of gradient block copolymer content, as well as temperature. The hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}) of nanoassemblies decreased in the process of heating up to 50 Degree-Sign C, while the fractal dimension (d{sub f}) values, also increased. Indomethacin was successfully incorporated into these chimeric nanocarriers. Drug release was depended on the components ratio. The present studies show that there are a number of parameters that can be used in order to alter the properties of chimeric nanosystems, and this is advantageous to the development of 'smart' nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  1. DPPC/poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) chimeric nanostructures as potential drug nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Kaditi, Eleni; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report on the self assembly behavior and on stability studies of mixed (chimeric) nanosystems consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (MPOx) gradient copolymer in aqueous media and in fetal bovine serum (FBS). A gamut of light scattering techniques and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in order to extract information on the size and morphological characteristics of the nanoassemblies formed, as a function of gradient block copolymer content, as well as temperature. The hydrodynamic radii ( R h) of nanoassemblies decreased in the process of heating up to 50 °C, while the fractal dimension ( d f) values, also increased. Indomethacin was successfully incorporated into these chimeric nanocarriers. Drug release was depended on the components ratio. The present studies show that there are a number of parameters that can be used in order to alter the properties of chimeric nanosystems, and this is advantageous to the development of "smart" nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  2. Useful oriented immobilization of antibodies on chimeric magnetic particles: direct correlation of biomacromolecule orientation with biological activity by AFM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciello, Marzia; Filice, Marco; Olea, David; Velez, Marisela; Guisan, José M; Mateo, Cesar

    2014-12-16

    The preparation and performance of a suitable chimeric biosensor based on antibodies (Abs) immobilized on lipase-coated magnetic particles by means of a standing orienting strategy are presented. This novel system is based on hydrophobic magnetic particles coated with modified lipase molecules able to orient and further immobilize different Abs in a covalent way without any previous site-selective chemical modification of biomacromolecules. Different key parameters attending the process were studied and optimized. The optimal preparation was performed using a controlled loading (1 nmol Ab g(-1) chimeric support) at pH 9 and a short reaction time to recover a biological activity of about 80%. AFM microscopy was used to study and confirm the Abs-oriented immobilization on lipase-coated magnetic particles and the final achievement of a highly active and recyclable chimeric immune sensor. This direct technique was demonstrated to be a powerful alternative to the indirect immunoactivity assay methods for the study of biomacromolecule-oriented immobilizations.

  3. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones

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    Sandra Arenhart

    Full Text Available Abstract The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3. The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome.

  4. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenhart, Sandra; Silva, José Valter Joaquim; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Weiblen, Rudi; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales

    The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3). The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanobody-based chimeric receptor gene integration in Jurkat cells mediated by PhiC31 integrase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iri-Sofla, Farnoush Jafari [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: rahbarif@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, Davoud [Center of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Rasaee, Mohammad J. [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    The crucial role of T lymphocytes in anti-tumor immunity has led to the development of novel strategies that can target and activate T cells against tumor cells. Recombinant DNA technology has been used to generate non-MHC-restricted chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we constructed a panel of recombinant CAR that harbors the anti-MUC1 nanobody and the signaling and co-signaling moieties (CD3{zeta}/CD28) with different spacer regions derived from human IgG3 with one or two repeats of the hinge sequence or the hinge region of Fc{gamma}RII. The PhiC31 integrase system was employed to investigate if the recombination efficiency could be recruited for high and stable expression of T cell chimeric receptor genes. The effect of nuclear localization signal (NLS) and two different promoters (CMV and CAG) on efficacy of PhiC31 integrase in human T cell lines was evaluated. The presence of integrase in combination with NLS, mediated up to 7.6 and 8.5 fold increases in CAR expression in ZCHN-attB and ZCHHN-attB cassette integrated T cells, respectively. Our results showed that highly efficient and stable transduction of the Jurkat cell line by PhiC31 integrase is a feasible modality for generating anti-cancer chimeric T cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Construction of an allogenic chimeric mouse model for the study of the behaviors of donor stem cells in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mo-lin; YAN Jing-bin; XIAO Yan-ping; HUANG Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Background It is essential to establish an animal model for the elucidation of the biological behaviors of stem cells in vivo. We constructed a chimeric animal model by in utero transplantation for investigation of stem cell transplantation.Methods This chimerism was achieved by injecting the stem cells derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mice into fetal mice at 13.5 days of gestation. Several methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for the observation of donor cells.Results Under a fluorescence microscope, we observed the GFP cells of donor-origin in a recipient. PCR, FACS analysis and FISH indicated chimerism at various intervals. Real-time PCR indicated that some donor cells existed in chimera for more than 6 months.Conclusions Allogenic stem cells may exist in recipients for a long time and this allogenic animal model provides a useful tool for studying the behavior of hematopoietic stem cells and also offers an effective model system for the study of stem cells.

  7. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  8. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein I is essential for growth of virus in Vero cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, J I; Nguyen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes at least six glycoproteins. Glycoprotein I (gI), the product of open reading frame 67, is a 58- to 62-kDa glycoprotein found in VZV-infected cells. We constructed two VZV gI deletion mutants. Immunoprecipitation of VZV gE from infected cells indicated that cells infected with VZV deleted for gI expressed a gE that was larger (100 kDa) than that expressed in cells infected with the parental virus (98 kDa). Cell-associated or cell-free VZV deleted for gI gre...

  9. THE ROLE OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN CARDIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shulkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of published data the role of P-glycoprotein, carrier protein, in rational pharmacotherapy in cardiology was shown on the example of its substrates – digoxin, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Determination of C3435T polymorphism of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1, encoding P-glycoprotein, in pharmacotherapy with digoxin, antiplatelet drugs (clopidogrel tikagrelol, prasugrel and anticoagulants (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, edoxaban is not feasible in routine practice. Drug in- teractions have clinical implications for the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in coadministration of these drugs with P-glycoprotein substrates, inducers and inhibitors.

  10. THE ROLE OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN CARDIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shulkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of published data the role of P-glycoprotein, carrier protein, in rational pharmacotherapy in cardiology was shown on the example of its substrates – digoxin, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Determination of C3435T polymorphism of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1, encoding P-glycoprotein, in pharmacotherapy with digoxin, antiplatelet drugs (clopidogrel tikagrelol, prasugrel and anticoagulants (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, edoxaban is not feasible in routine practice. Drug in- teractions have clinical implications for the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in coadministration of these drugs with P-glycoprotein substrates, inducers and inhibitors.

  11. Identification of the milk fat globule membrane proteins. I. Isolation and partial characterization of glycoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, J J; Farrell, H M; Greenberg, R

    1976-11-02

    The salt soluble proteins from the fat globule membrane of cow's milk were resolved into three fractions by Sephadex column chromatography in sodium dodecyl sulfate. One of the fractions, termed glycoprotein B, was purified by rechromatography to essentially one band on sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It was found to contain 14% carbohydrate including sialic acid, mannose, galactose, glucose, glucosamine and galactosamine. The amino acid composition of glycoprotein B was determined; it has amino terminal serine and carboxyl terminal leucine. The molecular weight of this glycoprotein as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis is 49 500.

  12. Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Glycoproteins B, H, and L Are Sufficient for, and Viral Glycoprotein Ov8 Can Enhance, Cell-Cell Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHajri, Salim M; Cunha, Cristina W; Nicola, Anthony V; Aguilar, Hector C; Li, Hong; Taus, Naomi S

    2017-03-15

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus that is carried asymptomatically by sheep. Infection of poorly adapted animals with OvHV-2 results in sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever, a fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation and vasculitis. There is no treatment or vaccine for the disease and no cell culture system to propagate the virus. The lack of cell culture has hindered studies of OvHV-2 biology, including its entry mechanism. As an alternative method to study OvHV-2 glycoproteins responsible for membrane fusion as a part of the entry mechanism, we developed a virus-free cell-to-cell membrane fusion assay to identify the minimum required OvHV-2 glycoproteins to induce membrane fusion. OvHV-2 glycoproteins B, H, and L (gB, gH, and gL) were able to induce membrane fusion together but not when expressed individually. Additionally, open reading frame Ov8, unique to OvHV-2, was found to encode a transmembrane glycoprotein that can significantly enhance membrane fusion. Thus, OvHV-2 gB, gH, and gL are sufficient to induce membrane fusion, while glycoprotein Ov8 plays an enhancing role by an unknown mechanism.IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses enter cells via attachment of the virion to the cellular surface and fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes. Virus-cell membrane fusion is an important step for a successful viral infection. Elucidating the roles of viral glycoproteins responsible for membrane fusion is critical toward understanding viral entry. Entry of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever, which is one of the leading causes of death in bison and other ungulates, has not been well studied due to the lack of a cell culture system to propagate the virus. The identification of OvHV-2 glycoproteins that mediate membrane fusion may help identify viral and/or cellular factors involved in OvHV-2 cell tropism and will advance investigation of cellular

  13. Crystal structure of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hisae; Kirschner, Austin N; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2010-12-28

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus that infects B cells and epithelial cells and that has been linked to malignancies in both cell types in vivo. EBV, like other herpesviruses, has three glycoproteins, glycoprotein B (gB), gH, and gL, that form the core membrane fusion machinery mediating viral penetration into the cell. The gH and gL proteins associate to form a heterodimeric complex, which is necessary for efficient membrane fusion and also implicated in direct binding to epithelial cell receptors required for viral entry. To gain insight into the mechanistic role of gH/gL, we determined the crystal structure of the EBV gH/gL complex. The structure is comprised of four domains organized along the longest axis of the molecule. Comparisons with homologous HSV-2 gH/gL and partial pseudorabies virus gH structures support the domain boundaries determined for the EBV gH/gL structure and illustrate significant differences in interdomain packing angles. The gL subunit and N-terminal residues of gH form a globular domain at one end of the structure, implicated in interactions with gB and activation of membrane fusion. The C-terminal domain of gH, proximal to the viral membrane, is also implicated in membrane fusion. The gH/gL structure locates an integrin binding motif, implicated in epithelial cell entry, on a prominent loop in the central region of the structure. Multiple regions of gH/gL, including its two extreme ends, are functionally important, consistent with the multiple roles of gH/gL in EBV entry.

  14. Unique chimeric composition of the trehalase gene from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shin; Nambu, Fumiko; Nambu, Ziro

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the exon/intron structure of the Artemia trehalase gene, four overlapping clones were isolated from a genome library derived from an inbred strain of crustacean Artemia franciscana, and a 49 kb genetic area was re-constructed. The re-constructed area contained eight exons corresponding to the trehalase cDNA sequence that we had previously reported [1]. Comparative analysis of the Artemia trehalase gene with other animal trehalase genes revealed the existence of conserved exon/intron boundaries among different phyla. Comparison of the 5' UTR region of trehalase mRNA obtained by the 5' RACE method with the trehalase genes indicated the existence of a novel exon/intron boundary in the region designated "Exon I". Surprisingly, a part of a mitochondrial ribosomal protein gene (MRP-S33) was found to be inserted in the 5' UTR region of the trehalase gene. This sequence had the same polyadenylation signal that the Artemia MRP-S33 cDNAs did. Using the 3' RACE method, it was demonstrated that the poly (A) additional signal is still functional and that the chimeric mRNAs composed of the 5' UTR of the trehalase mRNA and of the 3' end derived from the MRP-S33 gene are transcribed.

  15. Homogeneized modeling of mineral dust emissions over Europe and Africa using the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Briant

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the region including Africa and Europe, the main part of mineral dust emissions is observed in Africa. The particles are thus transported towards Europe and constitute a non-negligible part of the surface aerosols measured and controlled in the framework of the European air quality legislation. The modelling of these African dust emissions fluxes and transport is widely studied and complex parameterizations are already used in regional to global model for this Sahara-Sahel region. In a lesser extent, mineral dust emissions occur locally in Europe, mainly over agricultural areas. Their modelling is generally poorly done or just ignored. But in some cases, this contribution may be important and may impact the European air quality budget. In this study, we propose an homogeneized calculations of mineral dust fluxes for Europe and Africa. For that, we extended the CHIMERE dust production model (DPM by using new soil and surface datasets, and the global aeolian roughness length dataset provided by GARLAP from microwave and visible satellite observations. This DPM is detailed along with academic tests case results and simulation on a real case results.

  16. Enhanced cytotoxicity of natural killer cells following the acquisition of chimeric antigen receptors through trogocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Nan Cho

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells have the capacity to target tumors and are ideal candidates for immunotherapy. Viral vectors have been used to genetically modify in vitro expanded NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, which confer cytotoxicity against tumors. However, use of viral transduction methods raises the safety concern of viral integration into the NK cell genome. In this study, we used trogocytosis as a non-viral method to modify NK cells for immunotherapy. A K562 cell line expressing high levels of anti-CD19 CARs was generated as a donor cell to transfer the anti-CD19 CARs onto NK cells via trogocytosis. Anti-CD19 CAR expression was observed in expanded NK cells after these cells were co-cultured for one hour with freeze/thaw-treated donor cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of the anti-CD19 CARs on the NK cell surface. Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the increased cytotoxicity of NK cells following the acquisition of CARs via trogocytosis. This novel strategy could be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell tumors.

  17. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  18. Chimeric Mice with Competent Hematopoietic Immunity Reproduce Key Features of Severe Lassa Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Oestereich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LASF is a highly severe viral syndrome endemic to West African countries. Despite the annual high morbidity and mortality caused by LASF, very little is known about the pathophysiology of the disease. Basic research on LASF has been precluded due to the lack of relevant small animal models that reproduce the human disease. Immunocompetent laboratory mice are resistant to infection with Lassa virus (LASV and, to date, only immunodeficient mice, or mice expressing human HLA, have shown some degree of susceptibility to experimental infection. Here, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells into irradiated type I interferon receptor knockout mice (IFNAR-/- was used to generate chimeric mice that reproduced important features of severe LASF in humans. This included high lethality, liver damage, vascular leakage and systemic virus dissemination. In addition, this model indicated that T cell-mediated immunopathology was an important component of LASF pathogenesis that was directly correlated with vascular leakage. Our strategy allows easy generation of a suitable small animal model to test new vaccines and antivirals and to dissect the basic components of LASF pathophysiology.

  19. Chimeric Mice with Competent Hematopoietic Immunity Reproduce Key Features of Severe Lassa Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Pallasch, Elisa; Kerber, Romy; Rieger, Toni; Wurr, Stephanie; Bockholt, Sabrina; Pérez-Girón, José V; Krasemann, Susanne; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Lassa fever (LASF) is a highly severe viral syndrome endemic to West African countries. Despite the annual high morbidity and mortality caused by LASF, very little is known about the pathophysiology of the disease. Basic research on LASF has been precluded due to the lack of relevant small animal models that reproduce the human disease. Immunocompetent laboratory mice are resistant to infection with Lassa virus (LASV) and, to date, only immunodeficient mice, or mice expressing human HLA, have shown some degree of susceptibility to experimental infection. Here, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells into irradiated type I interferon receptor knockout mice (IFNAR-/-) was used to generate chimeric mice that reproduced important features of severe LASF in humans. This included high lethality, liver damage, vascular leakage and systemic virus dissemination. In addition, this model indicated that T cell-mediated immunopathology was an important component of LASF pathogenesis that was directly correlated with vascular leakage. Our strategy allows easy generation of a suitable small animal model to test new vaccines and antivirals and to dissect the basic components of LASF pathophysiology.

  20. Assessment of fetal cell chimerism in transgenic pig lines generated by Sleeping beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2014-01-01

    Human cells migrate between mother and fetus during pregnancy and persist in the respective host for long-term after birth. Fetal microchimerism occurs also in twins sharing a common placenta or chorion. Whether microchimerism occurs in multiparous mammals such as the domestic pig, where fetuses have separate placentas and chorions, is not well understood. Here, we assessed cell chimerism in litters of wild-type sows inseminated with semen of transposon transgenic boars. Segregation of three independent monomeric transposons ensured an excess of transgenic over non-transgenic offspring in every litter. Transgenic siblings (n = 35) showed robust ubiquitous expression of the reporter transposon encoding a fluorescent protein, and provided an unique resource to assess a potential cell trafficking to non-transgenic littermates (n = 7) or mothers (n = 4). Sensitive flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR provided no evidence for microchimerism in porcine littermates, or piglets and their mothers in both blood and solid organs. These data indicate that the epitheliochorial structure of the porcine placenta effectively prevents cellular exchange during gestation.